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Natural and Cultured Buttermilk

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... Buttermilk (BM), which is the serum phase generated during the production of butter, is produced in approximately equal parts as butter [1]. The Canadian dairy industry produced 118,235 metric tons of butter in 2020 [2], leading to an estimated equal volume of BM, while global BM production has been estimated at about 3.2 million tons per annum [3]. Despite the large quantities produced every year, BM is still undervalued. ...
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Despite its nutritional properties, buttermilk (BM) is still poorly valorized due to its high phospholipid (PL) concentration, impairing its techno-functional performance in dairy products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on the techno-functional properties of BM in set and stirred yogurts. BM and skimmed milk (SM) were pretreated by conventional homogenization (15 MPa), high-pressure homogenization (HPH) (150 MPa), and UHPH (300 MPa) prior to yogurt production. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis showed that UHPH promoted the formation of large covalently linked aggregates in BM. A more particulate gel microstructure was observed for set SM, while BM gels were finer and more homogeneous. These differences affected the water holding capacity (WHC), which was higher for BM, while a decrease in WHC was observed for SM yogurts with an increase in homogenization pressure. In stirred yogurts, the apparent viscosity was significantly higher for SM, and the pretreatment of BM with UHPH further reduced its viscosity. Overall, our results showed that UHPH could be used for modulating BM and SM yogurt texture properties. The use of UHPH on BM has great potential for lower-viscosity dairy applications (e.g., ready-to-drink yogurts) to deliver its health-promoting properties.
... Metabolic pathways of a homofermentative and b heterofermentative LAB in glucose[53] Biomass Conv. Bioref. ...
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... Exact quantity of production of buttermilk is not assessed; however, the quantity of production of buttermilk can be predicted on the basis of production of butter. Approximately 6.5-7.0% of total milk produced worldwide is used for the preparation of butter that yields high bulks of buttermilk as a by-product (around 3.2 million tons/annum) [4]. ...
... In addition, buttermilk is also considered as an excellent source of nutritional elements such as minerals (potassium, phosphorus, and calcium), vitamin B12, riboflavin, enzymes, and protein [13]. Moreover, buttermilk has a fresh and piquant taste and has applications in a wide variety of foods such as refreshing drinks, low fat yogurt, cheese, ice cream, nutritious bakery products, 2 International Journal of Food Science and confectionaries [14]. Furthermore, buttermilk has several therapeutic potentials such as cholesterol reduction, blood pressure reduction, antiviral effects, and anticancer effects [15][16][17]. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of buttermilk on the physicochemical and sensory attributes of pan and pita breads. Different amounts of buttermilk (30, 60, and 100% of added water) were mixed with other ingredients of pan and pita bread formulations. The doughs and bread were analyzed for rheological, physicochemical, and sensory qualities. The results demonstrated that incorporation of different concentrations of buttermilk in bread formulations progressively enhanced water absorption capacity, dough development time, gelatinization temperature, and peak viscosity, whereas it reduced the dough stability and temperature at peak viscosity. Supplementation of wheat flour with 30% buttermilk significantly ( P ≤ 0.05) enhanced the physical properties of pan bread compared to nonsupplemented control. Incorporation of different percentages of buttermilk in bread formulation concomitantly ( P ≤ 0.05) increased protein, oil, and ash contents and it reduced the carbohydrate contents of both types of bread. Incorporation of 60 and 100% of buttermilk in bread formula showed low scores of all sensory attributes compared to control and 30% buttermilk containing pan and pita bread. In conclusion, supplementation of bread formulas with 30% buttermilk is recommended for improving the nutritional and sensorial qualities of pan and pita bread.
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This investigation was carried out to study the effect of utilizing concentrate butter milk (CBM) which prepared by exposure of butter milk to heat treatment (100 °C) for different time 15, 30 and 60 min, treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively in preparing of processed cheese (PC), in addition to control treatment (C) which PC prepared without CBM. The CBM was added to base blend during cooking stage. The prepared samples were analyzed for chemical and sensory properties, at zero time and during storage period of 4 weeks at 6±1°C. The results reveled that there were significant differences in the chemical composition for fat%, protein%, ash% and moisture% and no significant differences in sensory evaluation which conducted at zero time for color, taste and flavor, texture and bitterness between control and treated PC, while PC treatments stay more acceptable than control PC at all storage periods, especially cheese treatments T2 and T3. The obtained results showed that T2 and T3 treatments were quit low development of both peroxide value (POV) and acid degree value (ADV) of fat during some stages of storage, which have retained their validity according to the scale of accepted level of POV and ADV as even after 4 weeks of storage period. The microbiology study reveled that there was no growth of yeast, Mold and Coliform bacteria in treatments and control PC at all period of storage while the total count of viable bacteria was less in PC of treatments than control PC and all of were in the limited scale of acceptance. Finally using CBM in processed cheese makes this dairy product useful as a functional food.
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Lactobacillus reuteri was used to prepare a probiotic buttermilk containing > 106 cfu/ml. The probiotic strain was added together with the starter culture at rates of 0.5% or 1%, or after the fermentation was finished at 1%. Starter and probiotic viability were monitored and compositional and sensory analyses were performed. When 1% probiotic strain was added prior to buttermilk fermentation, its viability remained greater than 106 cfu/ml for 10 days storage. There were no statistical differences in composition and proteolysis development as well as sensory quality between probiotic and control buttermilks.
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This paper describes a process of hydrolysis in combination with membrane filtration for the production of novel buttermilk ingredients. Buttermilk, after extensive concentration by microfiltration (0.1 μm pore size membranes) was treated with trypsin alone or in combination with chymotrypsin. The concentrated buttermilk was then filtered to separate the hydrolyzed peptides from a phospholipid-rich fraction derived from the milk fat globule membrane. The fractions were characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. In addition, amino acid analysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography on the lipid phase were also carried out. Results from this work showed the potential for production of various value-added ingredients from buttermilk, the by-product of butter making.
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The effect of incorporating different ratios of both non-heated and heated (95 °C) buttermilk (BM) to corn starch (CS) films was analysed in terms of its structural, mechanical, barrier, optical and bioactive properties. The properties of the film forming dispersions (particle size distribution, ζ-potential and rheological behaviour) were also analysed. As the BM increased in the blend, both the average particle size and the apparent viscosity of the film forming dispersions were reduced. The low degree of compatibility between both materials resulted in heterogeneous structures, where an interpenetrated protein phase in the starch matrix was observed as a result of the protein gelation when BM was heated. This affected the mechanical and barrier properties giving rise to more resistant and extensible, and less permeable films than in non-heated BM. Only films formulated with heated BM exhibited antioxidant activity, probably due to the release of the antioxidant peptides during thermal treatment of proteins. BM did not have any effect on the growth of Listeria innocua.