Article

The manipulative skill: Cognitive devices and their neural correlates underlying Machiavellian’s decision making

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Until now, Machiavellianism has mainly been studied in personality and social psychological framework, and little attention has been paid to the underlying cognitive and neural equipment. In light of recent findings, Machiavellian social skills are not limited to emotion regulation and "cold-mindedness" as many authors have recently stated, but linked to specific cognitive abilities. Although Machiavellians appear to have a relatively poor mindreading ability and emotional intelligence, they can efficiently exploit others which is likely to come from their flexible problem solving processes in changing environmental circumstances. The author proposed that Machiavellians have specialized cognitive domains of decision making, such as monitoring others' behavior, task orientation, reward seeking, inhibition of cooperative feelings, and choosing victims. He related the relevant aspects of cognitive functions to their neurological substrates, and argued why they make Machiavellians so successful in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Összefoglalásában világos, tömör, jól érthető mérőeszközként mutatja be a GPOP-ot, amely tanácsadási, coachingfolyamatokban képes az egyéni fejlődést támogatni. Eck, Jöri és Vogt (2007, 2015 a GPOP modellt, mint az MBTI továbbfejlesztett verzióját mutatja be, amely a típustanok, illetve globális és oldalskálák útján megvalósuló differenciált mérés előnyeit egyesíti. (Erős és Jobbágy, 2001). ...
... Golden (2010) (Furnham, Richards és Paulhus, 2013;Jones és Figueredo, 2013;Jones és Paulhus, 2011), számos egyedi, sajátos korrelátummal bírnak. A machiavellizmus központi eleme a manipulációs képesség és törekvés, a praktikus, racionális, érzelemmentes problémamegoldás és a nagyfokú viselkedéses rugalmasság (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2016. A szubklinikai nárcizmushoz leginkább a felsőbbrendűség érzése, és a mások figyelme és csodálata iránti igény kapcsolódik (Paulhus és Williams, 2002). ...
... A másik GPOP-dimenzió, amely összekapcsolódik mindhárom sötét vonással, az a J-P-tengely: az Észlelő típusú, rugalmas, környezethez alkalmazkodó, újdonságokat kereső életstílus mindhárom vonással pozitív összefüggést mutat. Több vizsgálat is ehhez illeszkedően hangsúlyozza a sötét triád (és különösen a machiavellizmus) és a rugalmasság, környezethez való adaptív alkalmazkodás (Bereczkei, 2015;Czibor és Bereczkei, 2012;Jones és Paulhus, 2010), illetve az új élmények keresése (Emmons, 1987;McHoskey és mtsai, 1998;Zuckerman és mtsai, 1972) közötti összefüggéseket. Ez az összefüggés a machiavellizmusra vonatkozó korábbi kutatásokban (Elson, 1989;Boozer és mtsai, 2005) nem mutatkozott. ...
Article
Full-text available
Háttér és célkitűzések: A jungi alapú személyiségmodell számos alkalmazott pszichológiai területen népszerű koncepció. Bár erőteljes az igény a jungi típusok mérhetővé tételére, magyarra adaptált, honosított, megfelelően bemért mérőeszköz tekintetében hiány mutatkozott mind a kutatás, mind a gyakorlati felhasználás területén. Vizsgálatunk célja a Golden Profiler of Personality (GPOP), a jungi modellt és a Big Five-koncepciót ötvöző személyiségmérő-eszköz magyar mintán mutatkozó érvényességének és megbízhatóságának ellenőrzése volt. Módszer: Két vizsgálatot végeztünk el. Elsőként elemeztük az eddig magyar munkavállalói mintán összegyűlt GPOP eredményeket a skálák megbízhatósága (n = 5376) és a teszt–reteszt reliabilitás (n = 98) szempontjai szerint. Ezt követően további személyiség-kérdőívek (HEXACO, Rövid Sötét Triád Kérdőív) kíséretében vettük fel a GPOP-ot, ugyancsak munkavállalói mintán (n = 213), a kérdőív érvényességének vizsgálata céljából. Eredmények: Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy a GPOP skáláinak megbízhatósága magas, a teszt–reteszt reliabilitás is megfelelő mértékű. Az egyéb személyiség-kérdőívekkel való összevetés az elméletileg is várható, illetve korábbi vizsgálati eredményekkel összhangban lévő összefüggéseket igazolta. Következtetések: A Golden Profiler of Personality magyar változata megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköznek bizonyult. Kulcsszavak: Golden Profiler of Personality, GPOP, jungi alapú személyiségmodell, HEXACO modell, sötét triád
... The common features of the three dark traits include limited empathy, low agreeableness, exploitation of others, and limited honesty and humility (Paulhus & Williams, 2002;Lee et al., 2013). At the same time, each dark trait is associated with distinctive features in terms of self-control, risk taking, temporal orientation, identity needs, aggression, and flexibility (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Jones & Paulhus, 2010;Jonason et al., 2012). Machiavellianism is characterized by a pragmatic approach to life, low impulsivity, strategic long-term planning and manipulative behavior focused on self-beneficial goals (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Paulhus & Williams, 2002). ...
... At the same time, each dark trait is associated with distinctive features in terms of self-control, risk taking, temporal orientation, identity needs, aggression, and flexibility (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Jones & Paulhus, 2010;Jonason et al., 2012). Machiavellianism is characterized by a pragmatic approach to life, low impulsivity, strategic long-term planning and manipulative behavior focused on self-beneficial goals (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Paulhus & Williams, 2002). It has been proposed that the core of Machiavellians' long-term strategies is behavioral flexibility (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018. ...
... Machiavellianism is characterized by a pragmatic approach to life, low impulsivity, strategic long-term planning and manipulative behavior focused on self-beneficial goals (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Paulhus & Williams, 2002). It has been proposed that the core of Machiavellians' long-term strategies is behavioral flexibility (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018. Supporting this view, compared to individuals low on Machiavellianism (non-Machs), individuals high on Machiavellianism (high Machs) show high cognitive and neural skills in social activities such as reward-seeking, taskorientation, monitoring others, and inhibition of cooperative impulses. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present studies were aimed at developing the Hungarian version of the Short Dark Triad questionnaire (SD3-HU). The internal structure of the translated questionnaire was examined with confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Then the construct and concurrent validity of the Hungarian version was tested. The obtained results were based on a total of seven independent samples (N TOTAL = 2161). While the internal structure of the SD3-HU showed inconsistencies with that of the original SD3, it proved consistent with adaptations developed in other languages. The SD3-HU showed adequate construct and concurrent validity. In line with the conceptual framework of, and previous empirical findings on the Dark Triad, each dark trait showed the expected associations with broad personality dimensions, sensation seeking, character strengths, work motivation, and counterproductive work behaviors. Furthermore, self-ratings on the SD3-HU were consistent with peer ratings. In sum, the SD3-HU is a reliable and valid measure of the dark traits.
... However, simply accepting that Machiavellian employees will engage in consistent levels of antisocial behavior, such as undermining, reflects an oversimplification. High Machs are likely to adopt a flexible mode of procedure, whereby they vary their conduct from "good" to "bad" and back again depending on situational forces (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Bereczkei et al., 2013;Czibor & Bereczkei, 2012). To this point, recent research suggests that high (vs. ...
... Indeed, Machiavelli emphasized that while staving off unfortunate events is not in one's complete control despite the most carefully laid countermeasures, being prepared for the inevitability of change and adopting a morally flexible mode of conduct as circumstances dictate is essential to one's self-preservation (i.e., to protecting one's status and control) (Adams & Dyson, 2007;Chong, 2005). Consistent with this notion, recent theoretical and empirical work by Bereczkei and his colleagues (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Bereczkei & Czibor, 2014;Bereczkei et al., 2013) suggests high Machs are flexible, long-term decision-makers who attempt and are able to exploit others in changing environments. In particular, high Machs possess specialized cognitive domains of planning and decision-making, which cause them to closely monitor their social environments, remain focused on their goals, and flexibly adapt their behavior to protect and advance their interests in changing situations (Bereczkei, 2015). ...
... Consistent with this notion, recent theoretical and empirical work by Bereczkei and his colleagues (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2018Bereczkei & Czibor, 2014;Bereczkei et al., 2013) suggests high Machs are flexible, long-term decision-makers who attempt and are able to exploit others in changing environments. In particular, high Machs possess specialized cognitive domains of planning and decision-making, which cause them to closely monitor their social environments, remain focused on their goals, and flexibly adapt their behavior to protect and advance their interests in changing situations (Bereczkei, 2015). Accordingly, given high Machs' strong desires for status and control and their morally flexible approach to social interaction, we argue that they will be more reactive to the situational "press" imposed by expected changes relative to their low Mach peers. ...
Article
Full-text available
A considerable body of research supports the link between Machiavellianism and antisocial forms of behavior at work. Yet, meta-analytic findings and existing theory allude to a more complex story, whereby Machiavellian employees’ engagement in antisocial acts is likely to be simultaneously influenced by countervailing situational forces. To promote more nuanced, contextualized knowledge of high Machs’ antisocial tendencies at work, we developed and tested a social context model that describes how multiple situational factors may, at once, provoke and constrain the tendency of such individuals to engage in one notable form of antisocial behavior at work: social undermining. Specifically, we argue that Machiavellian employees likely experience competing motivations to undermine their colleagues as a result of two countervailing situational factors that are relevant to their self-interests: anticipated organizational change and perceptions of coworkers’ exchange quality. To develop our predictions, we draw on trait activation theory’s core assertion that employees’ behavior is multiply determined, such that trait–behavior relations stem from a complex interplay among diverse and potentially competing trait-relevant situational cues. The results of a three-wave, time-lagged survey supported our predictions that anticipated change would strengthen the positive relation between Machiavellianism and undermining, while perceptions of coworkers’ exchange quality would attenuate it. Additionally, the results supported our three-way interaction hypothesis that perceived coworker exchange quality would weaken the two-way interaction effect of Machiavellianism and anticipated organizational change on social undermining. We discuss the implications of our findings, as well as avenues for future research.
... A problémát tovább mélyítette, hogy a fent említett kognitív hiányosságok ellenére a machiavellisták kifejezetten sikeresnek bizonyultak a legtöbb vizsgálatban (Bereczkei, 2015). Így például a különböző szociális dilemma helyzetekben olyan döntéseket hoztak, amelyekkel a legtöbb pénzt tudtak megszerezni és hazavinni. ...
... Éppen ezért a kutatások -kibővülve olyan technikákkal, mint a kísérleti számítógépes játékok, real-life vizsgálatok, vagy fMRI képalkotó eljárások -most már arra irányultak, hogy melyek azok a stratégiai döntések és a mögöttük álló kognitív képességek, amelyek eredményessé teszik a machiavellisták akcióit. Számos ilyen taktikai lépést, döntési mechanizmust, intellektuális képességet sikerült kimutatni az elmúlt évtizedben, amelyekben a machiavellisták átlag fölött teljesítettek: impulzuskontroll, mások kitartó monitorozása, jutalomkeresés és anticipáció, feladatorientáció, a potenciális áldozatok kiválasztása, általánosítás és nomotetikus gondolkodás (Bereczkei, 2015). ...
... Többen úgy gondoljuk, hogy mindezeken túl -és tulajdonképpen mindezek alapját képezve -van egy machiavellista sajátosság, amely kifejezetten sikeressé teszi őket a másokkal szembeni manipuláció során. Ez pedig a taktikai rugalmasság (Bereczkei, 2015;Jones, 2016). Az utóbbi néhány év kutatási eredményei világosan megmutatták, hogy a machiavellisták olyan stratégák, akik jól alkalmazkodnak a változó körülményekhez, és képesek hosszú távra tervezni (ellentétben például a Sötét Triád másik képviselőjével, a pszichopatával). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tanulmányunkban a tehetség két aspektusát elemezzük. Az egyik szinten arra a kérdésre keresünk választ, hogy milyen örökletes tényezők tehetők felelőssé a lángész kialakulásáért. Megállapítjuk, hogy a jelenlegi kutatások szerint a tehetség mögött nem fedezhetők fel specifikus gének, de lehetségesek olyan genetikai hatások, amelyek egyfajta emergens szerveződése teremti meg az alapját a lángész kialakulásának – természetesen a különböző környezeti hatásokkal kölcsönhatásban. A másik szintű elemzésben a tehetség evolúciós eredetére kérdezünk rá, és négy olyan humánspecifikus kognitív képesség kialakulását elemezzük, amelyek fontos szerepet játszhatnak a szellemi kiválóság megjelenésében. Nevezetesen arra teszünk kísérletet, hogy megértsük az elmeolvasás, rugalmas gondolkodás, nyelv és kreativitás evolúciós létrejöttét. Ehhez olyan magyarázó model-leket veszünk igénybe, mint a Szociális Intelligencia, Machiavelli Intelligencia, Szexuális Szelekció és Fluid Intelligencia hipotézisek. E magyarázatok megerősítése további kutatásokat igényel. In this paper, two aspects of talent are analyzed. On the one level, I am looking for an answer to what hereditary factors would be responsible for the development of talent. In the light of the current studies, no specific genes have been found to prescribe talent. However, possible genetic effects with an emergent property of their mutual relationships may create the basis of formation of genius – obviously interacting with the environmental effects. On the other level of analysis I am focusing on the evolutionary background of talent. Four human specific cognitive abilities are analyzed that play important roles in the formation of intellectual excellence: mind reading, flexible thought, language, and creativity. The explanations to the evolution of these abilities include Social Intelligence Hypothesis, Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis, Sexual Selection Theory, and Fluid Intelligence Hypothesis. The confirmation of these explanations requires further studies.
... Machiavellian features such as caution (Jones and Paulhus 2017), and flexibility (Bereczkei 2015) signal the ability to control impulses and attend to one's environment. We argue that one must have requisite impulse control (at least to some degree), in order to adapt to different social situations (Bereczkei et al. 2013). ...
... Further, psychopathy is associated with deficits in impulse control (Newman 1987), which makes behavior shifts across environments difficult. In contrast, individuals high in Machiavellianism have comparatively more impulse control (e.g., Szabó and Jones 2019), and show the ability to adapt their behavior to an environmental context (Bereczkei 2015;Bereczkei et al. 2013;Czibor and Bereczkei 2012;Bereczkei and Czibor 2014;Jones and Paulhus 2017). Individuals high in Machiavellianism also manage impressions better across different situations (Hart et al. 2020). ...
... However, individuals high in Machiavellianism are just more strategic about their unethical behavior, such as by monitoring others (Czibor and Bereczkei 2012), and searching for ways to best approach a given situation ). Further, unlike previous perspectives on Machiavellianism (see Jones and Paulhus 2009), it is not associated with superior impulse control when compared to the general population (Bereczkei 2015). However, individuals high in Machiavellianism are flexible, and think strategically about their environment, viewing it as a larger chess match Spitzer et al. 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Machiavellianism is a popular construct in research on ethics and organizational behavior. This research has demonstrated that Machiavellianism predicts a host of counterproductive, deviant, and unethical behaviors. However, individuals high in Machiavellianism also adapt to their organizational surroundings, engaging in unethical behavior only in certain situations. Nevertheless, the utility of Machiavellianism has been questioned. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that psychopathy out-predicts Machiavellianism for most antisocial outcomes. Thus, many researchers assume Machiavellianism is a derivative and redundant construct. However, researchers examining the utility of Machiavellianism may be asking the wrong question about how Machiavellianism is unique. In our review, we find it less informative to ask about what antisocial behaviors Machiavellianism predicts. Instead, we find it more informative to ask when Machiavellianism predicts antisocial behaviors. Drawing on Field Theory and Trait Activation Theory, we argue that Machiavellianism is a trait that is associated with person × environment interactions. Their adaptive nature is made possible through the presence of impulse control and environmental sensitivity to punishment, two characteristics that individuals high in psychopathy lack. Consequently, individuals high in Machiavellianism constrain their antisocial behavior to environments when the benefits outweigh the costs. Thus, environmental context, especially the risk of external punishment, moderates Machiavellian misbehavior more than it does for those high in psychopathy. These behavioral constraints align with Lewin’s argument that behavior is a function of the person, environment, and interaction between the two. From this discussion, we arrive at recommendations pertaining to the future of Machiavellianism research in organizational and other applied settings.
... Whereas Machiavellian individuals engage in flexible and situation-based manipulation that serves long-term goals (Bereczkei, 2015), psychopathic individuals use short-term manipulation in the service of immediate gratification (Hare, 1996). In contrast to both Machiavellianism and psychopathy, narcissistic individuals manipulate others through self-deceptive enhancement (Paulhus, Harms, Bruce, & Lysy, 2003) and charismatic charm (Back, Schmukle & Egloff, 2010) stemming from grandiose entitlement (Emmons, 1987). ...
... Thus, empirically speaking, Machiavellianism is a trait that is associated with flexibility in social decision making contexts (Bereczkei et al., 2013). As a result, those high in Machiavellianism might be flexible (e.g., Bereczkei, 2015) in the fundamental meaning or gist that they extract from a given situation as well. In this way they may rationalize selfish behaviors deemed necessary for survival through their cynical worldview (Christie & Geis, 1970). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fuzzy Trace Theory (FTT) is a promising new framework for evaluating decision making processes related to risk. In brief, FTT argues that individuals use either a mature and meaningful process (i.e., “gist”) or a cold and numbers-based process (i.e., “verbatim”) when making a decision based on information. However, the fundamental meaning that one may extract from a set of information may depend entirely on the motivations, values, and personality of the individual. We argue that in the case of Machiavellianism, individuals may be using gist-based processes, much like others, but arrive at vastly different conclusions with respect to the best course of action. This assertion is based on the fact that Machiavellian individuals lack the fundamental morality and empathy necessary to have concern for others when making decisions. Thus, we outline a theoretical argument as to when gist based extraction may be altered by individual differences. We further discuss the practical implications that individual differences have for decision making through the lens of FTT.
... In contrast, psychopathy had no significant correlation with long-term deception. These findings fit the trait description of Machiavellianism, which describes their manipulative tendencies as more strategic (Jones, 2016), flexible (Bereczkei, 2015), and situationally based (Jones & Mueller, in press). These findings deviate from those of Blickle and colleagues (2020), who found that those high in Machiavellianism would not refrain from engaging in short-term antisocial behaviors. ...
... The MDS has several advantages over traditional personality scales when studying temporal orientation in deception. First, Machiavellianism is a flexible (Bereczkei, 2015) and opportunistic (Christie & Geis, 1970) trait. Individuals high in Machiavellianism are not always going to behave in a long-term or conscientious way. ...
Article
Mimicry Deception Theory (MDT) argues that deception varies along a long- to short-term continuum. Long-term deception involves complex deception, community integration, slow resource extraction, and low detectability, whereas short-term deception is the opposite. To date, no self-report scale exists that assesses a dispositional orientation toward long-term deception. Across four studies, we developed and validated a Mimicry Deception Scale (MDS) to assess individuals’ dispositional orientation toward long-term deception. Using theoretically driven items, we found a reliable four-factor structure through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Further, MDS components were strongly correlated and had acceptable internal consistency. For convergent validity, long-term MDS positively correlated with Machiavellianism, conscientiousness, and planning. Finally, the test-retest reliability of the MDS was acceptable, and the complexity facet of the MDS predicted successful lying over time. The findings have implications for how to profile, identify, and recognize patterns of deception, especially with respect to long-term patterns using self-report.
... Machiavellians use long-term strategies related to flexibility and planning (Bereczkei, 2015). They are constantly evaluating the social situation and their partners, and they adjust their behavior according to changing circumstances. ...
... Another study revealed that Machiavellians were particularly good at mentalization tasks related to social manipulation, suggesting that Machiavellians are good mind-readers in social contexts that offer an opportunity to gain by manipulating others (Szabo, Jones, & Bereczkei 2016). This mental ability may equip Machiavellians with the cognitive and behavioral flexibility needed to adjust their decisions to take account of the actions of others in a particular environment (Bereczkei, 2015). ...
Article
Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this “affective blunting” is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability. Participants performed a reappraisal task in which emotionally evocative pictures (from the International Affective Picture System) were presented in different contexts (negative, positive, and neutral). They were asked to interpret a scenario according to its title and to reinterpret it according to another context created by a new title (e.g., negatively labeled pictures shifted to positively labeled ones). During task performance, Machiavellians showed increased activation of brain regions associated with emotion generation—for example, the amygdala and insula. This indicates that Machiavellian individuals are able to be involved emotionally in social situations. Increased activation in the temporal and parahippocampal regions during reappraisal suggests that Machiavellians use semantic–perceptual processes to construct alternative interpretations of the same situation and have enhanced memory for emotional stimuli. Furthermore, they seem to possess an intense awareness that leads them to shift attention from external to internal information to detect environmental changes. These cognitive processes may enable them to adjust their behavior quickly. This study supports the flexibility hypothesis of Machiavellianism and suggests that Machiavellians’ approach to emotion regulation is linked to their rational mode of thinking.
... Machiavellianism refers to individuals' tendency to use other people as tools to maximize their personal benefits and to achieve their goals (Bereczkei, 2015;Christie & Geis, 1970;Fehr, Samsom, & Paulhus, 1992;Wastell & Booth, 2003). According to Christie and Geis (1970), Machiavellian worldview is a measurable individual-difference variable including three core domains: (1) intention and ability to use manipulative tactics, (2) cynical view of human nature and (3) disregard for conventional morality. ...
... In general, an important part of Machiavellian strategy may be a cost/benefit analysis of the possible behavioral outputs (Bereczkei, Szabo, & Czibor, 2015). Machiavellian individuals are flexible (Bereczkei, 2015), and focus on expedient routes to their long-term goals (Jones, 2016). Although Machiavellian individuals manipulate and engage in "cheater" strategies (i.e., Wilson et al., 1996) much like other Dark Triad traits, they do so in a cautious (Jones & Paulhus, 2017) and strategic way (Bereczkei, Deak, Papp, Perlaki, & Orsi, 2013). ...
Article
The relationship between Machiavellianism and emotion management features is highly debated. In our study we try to clarify the controversial findings by highlighting the role of gender differences. Three studies with different (undergraduate and employed) participants were conducted to investigate gender differences in Machiavellianism-related personality characteristics. We used different measures of Machiavellianism and explored their connection with temperament and character traits (Study 1), with scales of six-factor (HEXACO) model of personality (Study 2), and with different types of psychopathy and narcissism (Study 3). Our results show that there are gender differences in the connection of Machiavellianism and other personality traits, and that most of the differences were found in the field of emotion management. We found that women's Machiavellianism scores were correlated with harm avoidant, anxious, vulnerable, hypersensitive features, while Machiavellianism among men was associated with risk taking, self-confidence, and an opportunistic worldview.
... Korábbi kutatásainkban szubklinikai mintán, machiavellista személyeknél kimutattuk a szabályozás sikerességéhez hozzájáruló rugalmasságot. Ők azok a személyek, akiket sajátos érzésvilág jellemez, hiszen saját céljaik érdekében másokat kihasználnak, világlátásukra a cinikusság jellemző, és érzelmi távolságtartással képesek kezelni a társas helyzeteket (Christie és Geis, 1970;Bereczkei, 2015). Átkeretezési feladatban erős agyi aktivációt mutattak kognitív (figyelmi, emlékezeti és végrehajtó) funkciókat ellátó és érzelmeket kiváltó területeken (inzulában és a hátulsó cinguláris kéregben), mely lehetővé teszi számukra az érzelmi helyzetek rugalmas alakítását (Deák, Bodrogi , Perlaki, Orsi és Bereczkei, 2015;Deák, Bodrogi, Biró, Perlaki, Orsi és Bereczkei , 2017). ...
... A machiavellizmus és érzelmi intelligencia kapcsolatát vizsgáló tanulmányok negatív korrelációról számolnak be (Al-Ain, Carré, Fantini-Hauwel, Baudoui és Besche-Richard, 2013). Feltehetően nem képesek pontosan értelmezni és kifinomultan kifejezni érzelmeiket, hovatovább ez a deficit hozzájárul az érzelmeik palástolásához, következésképpen mások manipulációjához (Szijjártó és Bereczkei, 2015). ...
Article
Az affektív pszichológiában jelen lévő számos irányvonal rámutat az érzelmi jelenségek összetettségére, sokszínűségére. Az érzelemszabályozás és az érzelmi intelligencia szakirodalma az affektív folyamatok más-más aspektusára koncentrál. Az érzelemszabályozás leírja, milyen érzelmet élünk át, mikor és mennyire tartósan, valamint az átélt érzelmekből mit és hogyan fejezünk ki. Az érzelmi intelligencia (EQ) szakértői pedig az érzelmek azonosításában, megértésében, kifejezésében és szabályozásában megmutatkozó egyéni különbségeket kutatják. Jelen tanulmányban e két kutatási területet közelítettük egymáshoz. Az érzelmi intelligencia érzelemszabályozásra gyakorolt hatását vizsgáltuk önkitöltős kérdőívekkel és egy általunk kidolgozott, kognitív átkeretezést igénylő feladattal. A feladat során ugyanazt a képi ingert különböző hívószavakkal láttuk el, és arra kértük a személyeket, hogy ezek mentén képzeljék el a helyzetet, engedjék át magukat az érzéseiknek. Kognitív átkeretezési feladat előtt és után rögzítettük az érzelmi ingerekre adott válaszaikat, és megkérdeztük, mennyire volt nehéz az átkeretezés végrehajtása. Eredményeink szerint kevesebb érzelemszabályozási nehézséget mutattak, és könnyebbnek találták az átkeretezési feladatot azok, akik magasabb pontot értek el az érzelmi intelligencia kérdőíven (szemben az alacsonyabb pontszámmal rendelkezőkkel). Az átkeretezés előtt kevésbé kellemes, intenzív érzésekről számoltak be, melyeket az átkeretezés eredményeképpen képesek voltak módosítani, mind a kellemesség tekintetében a pozitív érzelmek felé, mind az intenzitás tekintetében a csillapítás felé. Mindezek alapján arra következtetünk, hogy az érzelmi intelligencia mértéke pozitívan befolyásolja az érzelemszabályozás folyamatát. A magasabb érzelmi intelligencia jelenléte valószínűsíti a hatékony és rugalmas regulációt. Továbbá kutatásunk alátámasztja azokat a korábbi kutatási eredményeket, melyek szerint a magas érzelmi intelligenciával rendelkezők elmélyülnek az érzelmekben, és elkerülés helyett „szembenéznek” a negatív affektív állapotokkal.
... Bereczkei and colleagues (e.g., Bereczkei, 2015;Bereczkei, Birkas, & Kerekes, 2010;Bereczkei, Deak, Papp, Perlaki, & Orsi, 2013;Czibor, & Bereczkei, 2012;Czibor, Vincze, & Bereczkei, 2014) also argued that there might be specific neural correlates and cognitive devices associated with Machiavellianism. Building upon the strong evidence for Machiavellianism relating to lower EI, their research suggests Machiavellianism is, instead, associated with a flexible focus on long-term strategy, adjusting behaviour based on the situation, the likelihood of future engagement, and the likelihood of punishment (Bereczkei, 2015). Interestingly, this flexibility might also set Machiavellianism apart from psychopathy, given the latter appears to be inflexibly associated with dysfunctional impulsivity, heightened sensitivity to short-term rewards, and emotionally driven aggression. ...
... Given the importance of Machiavellian flexibility to meet the demands of the current situation, Machiavellianism associates with increased activity in brain regions such as: the anterior cingulate cortex (involved in monitoring social connection and conflict), left anterior orbitofrontal cortex (implicated in goal-direction and punishment sensitivity), right insula cortex (increased experiences of unpleasant affect), middle occipital gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (involved in inhibition and attentional control), and inferior frontal gyrus (stimulated during reward expectancy and social monitoring). Although this research is still in its infancy, exposure to adverse and competitive social environments might result in neurological changes attuned to flexible and calculated social monitoring and manipulation (Bereczkei, 2015). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Individuals learn to influence and manipulate others to function as part of society. Machiavellianism captures one’s willingness to orchestrate the behaviour of others against their interests, rights, and well-being. Research focuses primarily on a single Machiavellianism dimension. This thesis, however, contends that Machiavellianism comprises two correlated dimensions: a views dimension that captures one's cynical and distrusting view of humanity and the world, and a tactics dimension that captures one’s willingness to endorse exploitative and amoral behaviours when deemed advantageous. This thesis aimed to develop a stronger understanding of each dimension, and this required developing stronger psychometric instruments. The secondary aim was to test the presupposition of no psychopathological cost to Machiavellianism. After an initial foray into Machiavelli and Machiavellianism in the first two chapters, Chapter 3 identifies a robust Machiavellianism factor-structure and how each dimension relates to psychopathological domains in 1478 US and 218 Australian participants. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Machiavellianism comprises two robust dimensions which could be reliably captured through a 10-item subset of the Mach-IV scale, named Two-Dimensional Mach-IV (TDM-IV). Further, Machiavellian views associated with all major psychological domains, while Machiavellian tactics related only to the externalising and thought dysfunction domains. Machiavellianism is two-dimensional, with each dimension having distinctive psychopathological implications. The study in Chapter 4 investigates whether these two dimensions are universal, or merely measurement artefacts within Study 1. If universal, this research further aimed to develop a nomological network to better understand the nature of each dimension. International collaborators shared 15 datasets, which comprisedover 17,000 participants. The two-factor structure was reproducible and structurally equivalent across cultures, languages, types of respondent, response category length, age, and gender. Further, each dimension was situated within a different constellation of broad personality traits, developmental pathways, emotionality, and behaviour. Therefore, the two dimensions appear to be core aspects of Machiavellianism and need to be independently captured in future research. The TDM-IV derives from the Mach-IV, inheriting many of its psychometric concerns that reduce the accuracy of its inferences, such as confusing item wording and not accounting for acquiesces appropriately. To overcome these weaknesses, Chapter 5 presents the development and validation of the Two-Dimensional Machiavellianism Scale (TDMS). The TDMS had excellent psychometric properties in six independent samples involving over 3800 participants, based on confirmatory factor analysis, longitudinal structural equation modelling, and item response theory. The scale provided invariant measurement across all samples and a test-retest sample, was internally consistent, and provided most information in the low to high average range. This study demonstrates confirmatory and discriminatory validity with existing measures of Machiavellianism, broader personality taxonomies, socio-political attitudes, psychopathy, narcissism, and morality vignettes. Finally, Chapter 6 explicates this two-dimensional Machiavellianism construct and discusses key areas for future investigation, including latent profiles, longitudinal modelling of each dimension’s development, and cross-cultural equivalence. Together, this research demonstrates that: a) Machiavellianism comprises two distinct dimensions, b) the TDMS, as a psychometrically robust measure of Machiavellianism, should replace current measures of Machiavellianism, and c) the presupposition of psychopathological immunity among Machiavellians is false.
... We expected the most pronounced differences for Machiavellianism, particularly its reduced effects on MR behaviors when controlling for the overlap with the other two Dark Triad traits. Namely, individuals high in Machiavellianism are described as cautious in their nature (Jones & de Roos, 2017b), showing strategic cognitive capabilities (Bereczkei, 2015), and impulse control (Jones & Figueredo, 2013), characteristics that correspond to C-I B in long-term relationships to a lesser degree. Additionally, its unique negative relations with short-term mating behaviors may imply that their long-term partners could use MR behaviors less frequently. ...
... These results are in accord with the evidence that core Machiavellianism is to a lesser degree a part of fast life history strategy than psychopathy and narcissism (Jones & de Roos, 2017a). It seems that the higher degree of behavioral flexibility differentiates Machiavellianism from other fast life history traits (Bereczkei, 2015), evidenced, for example, by the findings that individuals high in Machiavellianism use negative MR behaviors more frequently in those situations in which these behaviors were more beneficial to them (Jones & de Roos, 2017b). Therefore, in some conditions, they seek benefit from short-term strategies, whereas in other they tend to inhibit momentary motivations and seek long-term benefits (Bereczkei, 2018). ...
Article
By using actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM), we examined the effects of the Dark Triad traits, psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism on two mate retention (MR) domains, cost-inflicting (C-I B) and benefit-provisioning behaviors (B-P B) as well as overall mate retention (OMR) on the sample of 100 heterosexual romantic couples. These effects were examined first without and then with the control of the overlap between the traits. The results show that actor effects of the Dark Triad traits on MR were stronger in men, and regarding partner effects, the Dark Triad traits in men exerted more frequent MR in women than women's Dark Triad traits in men. In line with our prediction, psychopathy had the strongest actor and partner effects on MR behaviors, both in men and women. Considering MR domains, we found actor effects on C-I B only in men, whereas actor effects on B-P B in both men and women. The Dark Triad traits, especially in men, exerted stronger partner effects on C-I B than on B-P B domain. Almost all actor and partner effects of psychopathy and narcissism remained significant after the control for the overlap between the traits, whereas all actor effects of Machiavellianism became nonsignificant. In both sets of analyses, without and with the control for the overlap between these traits, the most frequent plausible dyadic patterns were actor-only and couple pattern.
... érzelmi hidegség, énközpontúság, rosszindulat, barátságosság alacsony szintje) is mutatnak (Furnham, Richards és Paulhus, 2013;Jones és Figueredo, 2013;Jones és Paulhus, 2011), számos egyedi, sajátos korrelátummal bírnak. A machiavellizmus központi eleme a manipulációs képesség és törekvés, a praktikus, racionális, érzelemmentes problémamegoldás és a nagyfokú viselkedéses rugalmasság (Bereczkei, 2015(Bereczkei, , 2016. A szubklinikai nárcizmushoz leginkább a felsőbbrendűség érzése, és a mások figyelme és csodálata iránti igény kapcsolódik (Paulhus és Williams, 2002). ...
... A másik GPOP-dimenzió, amely összekapcsolódik mindhárom sötét vonással, az a J-P-tengely: az Észlelő típusú, rugalmas, környezethez alkalmazkodó, újdonságokat kereső életstílus mindhárom vonással pozitív összefüggést mutat. Több vizsgálat is ehhez illeszkedően hangsúlyozza a sötét triád (és különösen a machiavellizmus) és a rugalmasság, környezethez való adaptív alkalmazkodás (Bereczkei, 2015;Czibor és Bereczkei, 2012;Jones és Paulhus, 2010), illetve az új élmények keresése (Emmons, 1987;McHoskey és mtsai, 1998;Zuckerman és mtsai, 1972) közötti összefüggéseket. Ez az összefüggés a machiavellizmusra vonatkozó korábbi kutatásokban (Elson, 1989;Boozer és mtsai, 2005) nem mutatkozott. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims:There is a cultural stereotype that considers women living with disabilities unfit for reproduction. The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of visually impaired women regarding motherhood and their perception of the dominant social group’s attitude. Methods: In the current study we conducted semi-structured interviews with five visually impaired mothers, which we analyzed with interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) due to the sensitivity of the topic. Results: In our analysis of the interviews, we identified the attitude of the broader environment’s as the master theme. Several new themes appeared within the other themes we examined. Within the master theme of gender role expectations and stereotypes, the themes of maternal identity and the experience of motherhood, the coordination of roles and the contribution of the husband/father surfaced. Additionally, within the master theme of microenvironment, the themes of small communities and family’s attitude emerged, while within the master theme of health and social care, the themes of prenatal care and giving birth, health visitors and paediatric and social care appeared. Discussion: The typical experience of visually impaired mothers is primarily that they are treated as a person with disability by members of the dominant social group. Emphasizing their competence plays a major role in their lives as, based on their experiences, members of the social majority question its existence, while their families’ attitude towards them is characteristically paternalistic. It is not only the family members but also health care employees who express doubts regarding their suitability as parents. And similarly to family members, occasionally, they go so far as to suggest the possibility of abortion. Keywords: visually impaired persons, motherhood, attitudes of dominant social group, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)
... Machiavellianism is associated with flexibility and strategy in the service of optimal response (Czibor & Bereczkei, 2012). Individuals high in Machiavellianism adapt their strategies to the situation (Bereczkei, 2015). In sum, narcissism (i.e., overconfidence), psychopathy (i.e., aggressiveness), and Machiavellianism (i.e., strategy) have different approaches to resource control. ...
... This finding reinforces the theoretical position that Machiavellianism is associated with strategic decision making (Jones & Paulhus, 2017). This finding also replicates and extends research on Machiavellianism finding that they cheat, deceive, and manipulate with caution (Jones & Paulhus, 2017), and flexibility (Bereczkei, 2015). This strategic decision-making stands in contrast to the self-enhancing (i.e., narcissism) and aggressive/impulsive (i.e., psychopathy) approaches of the other Dark Triad traits . ...
Article
Strategic resource control poses a trade-off to attackers and defenders. Actions that reclaim control of a resource pose costs, but control of a resource by an adversary also poses costs. Thus, strategy is required to maximize outcomes. Research on the Dark Triad of personality has suggested that Machiavellianism is associated with a strategic orientation, whereas psychopathy and narcissism are associated with direct aggression and overconfidence (respectively). Thus, individuals high in Machiavellianism should outperform those high in psychopathy and narcissism in a strategic resource control game. We tested this hypothesis using a modified version of the “Flipit” game. Using this type of behavioral extension of an Extensive Form Game (EFG) we found that Machiavellian individuals were more successful in their performance than were those high in narcissism and psychopathy. Further, poor performance in psychopathy was partially driven by non-attention to costs. Findings have implications for defending against Dark Triad attackers in cybersecurity settings.
... On the other hand, appealing evidence from extant studies suggests that Machiavellian's decision-making process is supported by flexible higher order cognitive capacities. Machiavellians flexibly adapt their behavior to changes in societal situations (Jones & Paulhus, 2009) which indicates that higher cognitive processes along with lower cognitive abilities are involved in Machiavellian tactics and manipulation (e.g., Bereczkei, 2015). Moreover, Bereczkei (2018) describes and supports the 'Machiavellian Intelligence' by providing evidence in light of neuroimaging studies that these individuals have higher cognitive capacities that facilitate them to effectively exploit others for their survival and goal achievement. ...
... The finding from bivariate correlations and regression analyses showed positive correlations of two EF components, inhibition and cognitive flexibility, with Machiavellianism. The correlational findings supported the Machiavellian-Intelligence link (e.g., Bereczkei, 2015;Bereczkei, 2018;Jones & Paulhus, 2009;Kowalski et al., 2018). Stated in a bidirectional way, it could either be said that Machiavellian individuals performed better on EF measures or be said that individuals with well developed EF abilities tend to endorse Machiavellianism. ...
Article
The main focus of the current study was to assess direct and indirect associations between specific executive functions, emotion regulation strategies, and Machiavellianism. A secondary objective was to test whether gender moderates these indirect associations. The study used a correlational research design to achieve these objectives. There were 195 young adults (51% men) in age range between 19 and 25 years (M = 21.28, SD = 1.40), who were selected as the test sample. The participants were assessed on performance tests taken from Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System for three executive function components namely inhibition, visuo-spatial construction ability, and cognitive flexibility, and on self-report measures of emotion regulation questionnaire and Mach IV for emotion regulation strategies and Machiavellian techniques. Results indicated that two of the three executive function components including inhibition and cognitive flexibility were associated with Machiavellianism. Moreover, only cognitive reappraisal but not expressive suppression strategy mediated these associations. Finally, conditional indirect associations between cognitive flexibility, cognitive reappraisal, and Machiavellianism were significant only for women but not for men.
... Further, individuals high in Machiavellianism have extrinsic and agentic motivations (McHoskey, 1999). Machiavellianism is also a behaviorally flexible trait (Bereczkei, 2015) that is associated with goal focus (Jones, 2016;Jones & Paulhus, 2009). Thus, such individuals are likely to engage in impression motivation for the sake of maximizing reward and minimizing cost (Leary & Kowalski, 1990). ...
... We expand the current literature by exploring communal impression management in the service of maximizing reward and minimizing cost. Among the personality traits known for interpersonal manipulation, Machiavellianism is associated with accurate self-perceptions (Jones & Paulhus, 2017;Paulhus & Williams, 2002), and flexible social behaviors (Bereczkei, 2015;Szabó et al., 2018). Thus, given their true nature (callous and manipulative), individuals high in Machiavellianism are likely motivated to present themselves as more communal in anticipation of the negative reaction that their true deceptive nature might elicit in organizational settings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Job applicants and employees will often engage in impression management tactics to enhance or positively influence perceptions their abilities or workplace contributions. However, the primary emphasis of impression management research has been on tactics such as ingratiation and self-promotion. Less research has focused on managing communal impressions or looking more cooperative than one actually is. Among three popularly studied traits associated with non-communal orientations (i.e., the Dark Triad; Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism), Machiavellianism is the most theoretically aligned trait to engage in impression management. In Study 1, participants were asked to fill out a Dark Triad assessment as they would for an ideal job, non-ideal job, or honestly. In Study 2, participants filled out similar assessments as they would for an ideal cooperative or an ideal competitive job. Across both studies, Machiavellianism was the only trait to show sensitivity to context and report increased communal values when a job was perceived as valuable or cooperative. Implications of this research support the occupational screening of Dark Triad traits in the workforce and which type of individual would be most likely to manage impressions on such screenings.
... I selected these dimensions because there was a solid tradition of measuring dominance and leadership versus submission/conformity in personality research (De Neve et al., 2013;Van Vugt et al., 2008), as well as the continuum of Machiavellianism versus gullibility/honesty (Bereczkei, 2015;Mercier, 2018). Such space was just a conjecture and other traits such as aggressiveness (proactive and reactive), callousness (vs. ...
... Research on the biological underpinnings of parochialism, status-seeking, impulsivity, dominance, narcissism, machiavellianism, dogmatism, altruism, spirituality, unfairness/dishonesty and other traits has accrued an impressive amount of connections at different levels of neural analysis, from gene markers and neurohormones to brain systems. These interdependences have already been used to narrow the provisional but increasingly detailed explanatory depictions (Bereczkei, 2015;Cikara and Van Babel, 2014;Decety et al., 2018;De Dreu et al., 2010De Dreu & Gross, 2019;Grebe et al., 2018;Ligneul et al., 2016;Shortland, 2021;Tobeña, 2012). ...
... As noted, Machs are sensitive to signals of the social context (e.g., T. Bereczkei, 2015;Christie & Geis, 1970), and we propose that T A B L E 1 Means, standard deviations, and correlations: Study 1 Wilson et al., 1996). Mach leaders will less easily engage in or openly show exploitative and deceiving behavior as this runs counter the norm and could be punished, and we thus expect the relationship between leader trait Machiavellianism and follower perceptions of abusive supervision to be weaker. ...
Article
Full-text available
Machiavellian (Mach) leaders’ tendency to engage in hostile, abusive behavior is destructive for followers and organizations. Yet, previous studies suggest that Machs do not always show negative leader behaviors such as abusive supervision. Drawing on trait activation theory, we propose that the manifestation of Mach trait-relevant behavior depends upon contextual cues from the psychological work climate. Specifically, we argue that a low rules climate or a high instrumental climate offer relevant cues for Mach trait expression. We find support for our hypotheses in two studies of 219 and 183 leader-follower dyads. Both for a low rules climate and a high instrumental climate, leader Machiavellianism is positively related to leader abusive supervision, which, in turn, is negatively related to subordinate OCB and positively related to subordinate emotional exhaustion. However, when rules climate is high or instrumental climate is low, Mach behavior is not expressed, and thus there is no indirect effect of leader Machiavellianism on follower OCB and emotional exhaustion through leader abusive supervision. Thus, our study shows that the psychological work climate is critical for the expression of leader Machiavellianism in abusive behavior and the related negative consequences to occur.
... Machiavellianism refers to the tendency to maximize personal benefits and achieve individual goals by using other people as tools (Christie and Geis 1970;Bereczkei 2015). This personality trait can be characterized by a strong intention and ability to use manipulative tactics in interpersonal relations to gain and maintain power (Christie and Geis 1970;Bereczkei 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
People with high dark triad tendencies are often found in leadership positions. Yet research is lacking on whether dark triad personality traits positively correlate with the height of leadership levels (no leadership position, low-level leaders, high-level leaders, head and founder of the company). To explore this relationship between the dark triad and these leadership levels, three studies ( N Germany = 137; N Hungary = 333; N BothCountries = 355) were conducted, to measure dark triad scores for each leadership level. The results reveal that people in higher leadership levels display both higher self-rated and subordinate-rated dark triad scores. Further research is needed to investigate whether this finding is replicable for more objective measures and longitudinal studies as well as cultural norms, which may discourage or support dark triad traits. As the organizations are an important factor in promoting ethic-oriented behavior in individuals, one practical implication could be increased focus on developing ethical behavior during the assessment and training of leadership positions.
... Machiavellianism is associated with manipulative behavior that targets personal gain through strategic deception and flexible moral tactics (Bereczkei, 2015). ...
Article
Phishing attacks have become more sophisticated over time, more than any other forms of social engineering attacks, exploiting the end users’ vulnerabilities and weaknesses. This article reviews the literature regarding the connection between three personality models – Five Factor Model, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Dark Triad – and how they can be linked with the susceptibility of individuals to become targets of social engineering attacks. Thus, the focus on evaluating human vulnerabilities in the context of cyber security by identifying both the factors that influence the susceptibility to cyber-attacks, and the human characteristics/traits that can be exploited as a vulnerability in the context of cyber security attacks.
... By potentially weakening the link between anthropomorphization and trust (Waytz et al., 2014), the generalized suspiciousness of individuals high in Machiavellianism might also have consequences for processes of anthropomorphization: Their negation of the assumption that others are "basically good and kind" (Christie & Geis, 1970) might generalize by theory of mind deficits (Ali & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2010;Vonk et al., 2015) and via the self-projection pathway of simulating other minds (Waytz & Mitchell, 2011) to nonhuman intelligent systems. Given that the long-term strategy of individuals high in Machiavellianism is flexibility maximization (Bereczkei, 2015), the control problem -specifically that intelligent agents are attracted toward the maximization of futural optionality (Wissner-Gross & Freer, 2013), that is, hard to contain -might seem more probable to such individuals. Given the potential existential risks associated with AI, the manipulation hypervigilance and threat overestimation associated with Machiavellianism (e.g., Monaghan et al., 2016) might function as a cognitive countermeasure against the underestimation of AI risk. ...
Article
This cross-sectional study (N = 325) investigated the relationship between the Dark Triad personality traits and the perception of artificial intelligence (AI) risk. Narrow AI risk perception was measured based on recently identified perceived risks in the public. Artificial general intelligence (AGI) risk perception was operationalized in terms of plausibility ratings and subjective probability estimates on deceptive AI scenarios developed by Bostrom (2014), in which AI-sided deception is described as a function of intelligence. Machiavellianism and psychopathy predicted narrow AI risk perception above the shared variance of the Dark Triad and above the Big Five. In individuals with self-reported knowledge of machine learning, the Dark Triad traits were associated with AGI risk perception. This study provides evidence for the existence of substantial individual differences in the risk perception of AI.
... Machiavellianism appearing in childhood can also be interpreted as a reaction to authoritarianism [73]. On the other hand, in adults it seems to be correlated with hostile attitudes [74] and with aggressiveness [37] [75] [76]. It is argued that moral elements were in negative relation with Machiavellianism [77]. ...
... Siendo la Actitud Simbólica (AS) la predisposición organizada a través de la experiencia que incita al individuo reaccionar frente a las personas, las cosas, las actividades y las ideas; respondiendo en las dimensiones cognitiva (conocimiento, creencia, valor y pensamiento), conductual y afectiva (Addis & Holbrook, 2006;Marcos & Carrillo, 2014;Petty, 2006) y cuyo elemento común es el simbolismo social asociado (SSA). Mientras que la Actitud Manipulativa (AM) o coacción psicológica oculta, es la influencia psicológica consciente no psicopática que aparece en todo los niveles de la interacción social e interpersonal, como puede ser el seno familiar; apareciendo cuando los hijos/as influyen en la reacción de sus padres (en adelante genérico de padres y madres) para obtener un objeto o recompensa deseada (Bereczkei, 2015;Decety, Jackson, Sammerville, Chaminade, & Meltzoff, 2004); es inherente a diferentes culturas y condiciones históricas, que tiene concordancia con la presencia de habilidades de supervisión vinculantes con la toma de decisiones y el seguimiento de conductas orientadas a la búsqueda de recompensas, cuyas funciones neurológicas corresponden a la corteza órbito frontal anterior izquierda del cerebro (Berne, 2011;Dotsenko, 2003;Monich & Matveeva, 2012;Zhumagaliyeva & Barabanova, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Associated social symbolism (ASS) and the manipulative attitude (MA) are present in most nine-year-old children from the Peruvian Amazon with adequate intellectual development (71.2%). The study was conducted in 52 children and their parents through interviews in small groups, applying the TMP test and two interview guides (child-parents). The results indicated significant correspondence between the preference (children) and the decision to purchase the product symbolized (parents), and 78.5% chose the same brand as their peers. Difficulties in understanding the content of advertising material (CAM) involve 78.9% (higher in urban area). There is significant interdependence between MA (children) and buying reactions (parents) and high discordance between responses (children-parents). Educate in the understanding of the CAM from nine years, could reduce the consequences of ASS through psychosocial programs for school mental health.
... For example, recent data indicated that although individuals with high Machiavellianism have a similar ego-control compared to average person (Jones and Paulhus 2011), their cautious behavior can be undermined by short-lived or chronic ego depletion (e.g. taxing inhibition task, emotionally stressful situations), thereby resulting in risky prejudicial behavior (Jones and Paulhus 2017;Bereczkei 2015) similarly to, those with high psychopathy. In short, these findings suggest that emotional / behavioral problems may be a function of the interaction between Machiavellianism and negative life events. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines Machiavellianism and negative life events in relation to emotional / behavioral problems. Using a sample of adolescents (n = 454), we investigated the degree to which Machiavellianism, negative life events, and the interaction of Machiavellianism and negative life events accounts for variance in emotional / behavioral problems, and also tested for the moderating effect of gender in this respect. The results indicated that (a) Machiavellianism was positively related to negative life events, suggesting that the more adolescents endorsed Machiavellianism, the greater their scores on negative life events; (b) the correlation between Machiavellianism and conduct problems was stronger in boys than girls, thereby suggesting a more substantial relation between Machiavellianism and conduct problems in boys than girls; (c) increasing levels of Machiavellianism could increase the contributions of negative life events to the levels of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer relationship problems. The implication of these findings are interpreted and discussed.
... A sötét vonások mindhárom eleméhez meghatározott jellemzőket, tulajdonságokat társít a szakirodalom. A machiavellizmus központi eleme a manipulációs képesség és hajlandóság, a praktikus, racionális, érzelemmentes problémamegoldás és a nagyfokú viselkedési rugalmasság (Bereczkei 2015(Bereczkei , 2016. A szubklinikai narcizmushoz a felsőbbrendűség érzése, a mások figyelme és csodálata iránti igény, illetve a felhatalmazottság érzete kapcsolódik (Paulhus és Williams 2002). ...
... A sötét vonások mindhárom eleméhez meghatározott jellemzőket, tulajdonságokat tár-sít a szakirodalom. A machiavellizmus központi eleme a manipulációs képesség és hajlandóság, a praktikus, racionális, érzelemmentes problémamegoldás és a nagyfokú viselkedési rugalmasság (Bereczkei 2015(Bereczkei , 2016 ...
... Kimutatták, hogy a machiavellisták -ellentétben például a pszichopatákkal -rugalmas stratégák, akik a mindenkori körülményeknek megfelelően változtatják célratörő taktikáikat (Czibor és Bereczkei, 2012;Birkás, Pátkai és Csathó, 2018). Olyan képességekben mutatnak átlagon felüli teljesítményt, mint a csoporttársak monitorozása, feladatorientáció, jutalomanticipáció, generalizáció, utilitárius gátlás, miközben az is kiderült, hogy -az előzetes várakozással ellentétben -nem teljesítenek jól az elmeteória és az érzelmi intelligencia feladatokban (Bereczkei, 2015). Agyi képalkotó (fMRI) vizsgálatokat végezve a kutatócsoport tagjai olyan agyi területeket találtak (interior frontális tekervény, dorzolaterális prefrontális kéreg, jobb oldali thalamusz stb.), amelyek a szociális dilemma feladatok megoldása során erőteljes aktivitásnövekedést mutattak a machiavellista személyeknél (Bereczkei, Papp, Kincses, Bodrogi, Perlaki, Orsi és Deák, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Tanulmányunkban arra teszünk kísérletet, hogy áttekintsük a hazai pszichológiai életben megjelenő és egyre markánsabb szerepet játszó evolúciós megközelítéseket. Bemutatjuk a 30 évvel ezelőtti állapotokat és azokat a neves kutatókat, akik az evolúciós pszichológia magyarországi létrejötte mellett bábáskodtak. Ezt követően részletesen is beszámolunk azokról a kutatásokról, amelyek a két nagy hazai evolúciós kutatóműhelyben jöttek létre, nevezetesen a Pécsi Evolúciós Pszichológia Kutatócsoportban és az MTA–ELTE Összehasonlító Etológiai Kutatócsoportból kinőtt teamekben. Végül röviden bemutatjuk azokat az eredményeket, amelyek e két nagy műhelyen kívül születtek egy-egy pszichológiai jelenség evolúciós értelmezése kapcsán. In our paper, we make an attempt to overview those evolutionary approaches that have developed and become increasingly influencing in the Hungarian psychological life. We show the conditions 30 years ago, and those gifted scholars who contributed to the development of evolutionary psychology in Hungary. Then, we give a detailed review on the studies that have been fulfilled in the two basic research centers in Hungary: the Evolutionary Psychology Research Group of Pécs, and the MTA-ELTE Comparative Ethological Team. Finally, we describe the scientific results that have been achieved in the interpretation of specific psychological phenomena outside these main research centers.
... While the present study assesses these interpersonal orientations independently, past research has, unsurprisingly, found links between them. For example, Machiavellian individuals have been found to have deficits in dispositional empathy (i.e., difficulty in perspective taking and reduced concern about suffering), signaled by reduced responsiveness in a network of brain regions involved in processing other people's mental states, a cognitive capacity known as theory of mind (ToM), including the temporo-parietal junction and medial prefrontal cortex (reviewed in Bereczkei, 2015). On the flip side, Machiavellian individuals are hyper-concerned about violating social norms and highly responsive to punishment cues (Czibor & Bereczkei, 2012;Spitzer, Fischbacher, Herrnberger, Grön, & Fehr, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
When scarce resources are allocated, different criteria may be considered: impersonal allocation (impartiality), the needs of specific individuals (charity), or the relational ties between individuals (reciprocity). In the present research, we investigated how people’s perspectives on fairness relate to individual differences in interpersonal orientations. Participants evaluated the fairness of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) charity, and (c) reciprocity. To assess interpersonal orientations, we administered measures of dispositional empathy (i.e., empathic concern and perspective taking) and Machiavellianism. Across two studies, Machiavellianism correlated with higher ratings of reciprocity as fair, whereas empathic concern and perspective taking correlated with higher ratings of charity as fair. We discuss these findings in relation to recent neuroscientific research on empathy, fairness, and moral evaluations of resource allocations.
... At the same time, Mota's wife refines her epistemic vigilance, every second distrusting Mota a little more. In this dialogue, we also observe that Mota begins to reveal his Machiavellian profile (Bereczkei, 2015). In turn 3, Mota says a partial truth trying to indicate something literal that is not, in fact, his intention: he is helping the attractive new neighbour to get something else. ...
Article
Full-text available
According to a growing literature in many fields of the social sciences and humanities defending the mind-modularity thesis, the brain is composed of mutually inconsistent modules that contain contradictory beliefs. What consequences could this view have on persuasive behaviour? In order to sketch an answer, first the family of concepts of what is called generalized deception is discussed; then, this discussion is applied to the problem of the social influence bias to observe both how the mind works strategically wrong and what kind of argumentative moves are used within this mental design in a controversial social context.
... Narcissism is characterized by increased grandiosity, a sense of entitlement, and a sensitivity to ego threat [22]. Machiavellianism is characterized by a cynical worldview, a long-term focus, and strategic flexibility [23]. Psychopathy is characterized by high dysfunctional impulsivity, behavioral disinhibition, and aggression [10,[24][25][26]. ...
Article
Dark Triad traits and self-control are considered viable causal precursors to antisocial and criminal outcomes in youth. The purpose of the present study is to concurrently compare how Dark Triad traits and self-control differ in terms of predicting self-reported juvenile delinquency, CD symptoms, proactive overt aggression, and crime seriousness. The sample consisted of 567 (M = 15.91 years, SD = 0.99 years, age range = 14–18 years) Southern European youth from Portugal. Structural-equation-modelling procedures revealed that the psychopathy factor of Dark Triad traits presented the strongest significant hypothetical causal associations with the antisocial/criminal outcomes, followed by self-control. Machiavellianism and narcissism presented the lowest causal associations. Our findings indicate that psychopathy, as operationalized in the Dark Triad, concurrently surpasses self-control and the remaining factors of the Dark Triad in terms of predicting antisocial/criminal outcomes in youth. This suggests that behavioral disinhibition, or a core incapacity to regulate one’s conduct, is central for understanding delinquency and externalizing psychopathology. Comparatively, the interpersonal component of dark personality features, such as Machiavellianism and narcissism, are secondary for understanding crime.
... At the same time, Mota's wife refines her epistemic vigilance, every second distrusting Mota a little more. In this dialogue, we also observe that Mota begins to reveal his Machiavellian profile (Bereczkei, 2015). In turn 3, Mota says a partial truth trying to indicate something literal that is not, in fact, his intention: he is helping the attractive new neighbour to get something else. ...
Article
According to a growing literature in many fields of the social sciences and humanities defending the mind-modularity thesis, the brain is composed of mutually inconsistent modules that contain contradictory beliefs. What consequences could this view have on persuasive behaviour? In order to sketch an answer, first the family of concepts of what is called generalized deception is discussed; then, this discussion is applied to the problem of the social influence bias to observe both how the mind works strategically wrong and what kind of argumentative moves are used within this mental design in a controversial social context.
... These traits are connected by a common core of callousness and manipulation (Jones & Figueredo, 2013), but each construct has unique features that makes it distinct from the others (Furnham et al., 2013;Jones & Paulhus, 2017). Machiavellianism is associated with flexibility (Bereczkei, 2015), caution (Jones, 2014), goal-orientation (Bereczkei, Deak, Papp, Perlaki, & Orsi, 2013;Czibor & Bereczkei, 2012), and cynicism (Christie & Geis, 1970;Jones & Paulhus, 2009). In contrast, psychopathy is associated with impulsiveness, erratic behavior, and a tendency to break rules (Hare, 1996). ...
Article
The current research investigated the association between different relationship orientations (e.g., insecure attachment, sociosexuality, emophilia) and attraction to individuals high in different Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism). Although research has focused on general attraction to antisocial partners, less attention has been paid to traits that affect that attraction. One understudied construct in predicting relationship-relevant attraction is emophilia, which is the tendency to fall in love fast and often. Across two studies (N = 452), we found that emophilia had a strong and unique relationship with attraction to individuals high in dark personality traits. In Study 1, participants completed an assessment of the Dark Triad as they would want their “ideal romantic partner” to complete it. Participants in Study 2 rated the attractiveness of different dating profiles generated by people who varied in the Dark Triad. Participants in both studies filled out self-assessments of emophilia, sociosexuality, and attachment styles. Across both studies, people high in emophilia were the most attracted to any target, including targets high in the Dark Triad traits, even when controlling for other relationship-relevant traits. The findings have implications for relationship research, personality research, and potential risk factors for becoming involved with antisocial partners.
... Psychopathy refers to the lack of empathy, while people scoring high on this trait appear to be excellent manipulators, as they acquire the ability to imitate socially accepted behaviors [15,20,125]. People scoring high on machiavellianism exhibit lower levels of morality when coming down to increasing personal gain, which may also lead to a tendency for manipulation [18], [30]. An increased level of narcissism indicates a person with an idealized image of self, an egoistic behavior, and an excessive need for attention, which as a result makes these individuals less empathetic towards others [94], [45]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
These days, cyber-criminals target humans rather than machines since they try to accomplish their malicious intentions by exploiting the weaknesses of end users. Thus, human vulnerabilities pose a serious threat to the security and integrity of computer systems and data. The human tendency to trust and help others, as well as personal, social, and cultural characteristics, are indicative of the level of susceptibility that one may exhibit towards certain attack types and deception strategies. This work aims to investigate the factors that affect human susceptibility by studying the existing literature related to this subject. The objective is also to explore and describe state of the art human vulnerability assessment models, current prevention, and mitigation approaches regarding user susceptibility, as well as educational and awareness raising training strategies. Following the review of the literature, several conclusions are reached. Among them, Human Vulnerability Assessment has been included in various frameworks aiming to assess the cyber security capacity of organizations, but it concerns a one time assessment rather than a continuous practice. Moreover, human maliciousness is still neglected from current Human Vulnerability Assessment frameworks; thus, insider threat actors evade identification, which may lead to an increased cyber security risk. Finally, this work proposes a user susceptibility profile according to the factors stemming from our research.
... In particular, the investigation of processes underlying moral fair or unfair decision-making in the company context is crucial, because it can produce positive or negative social consequences, in terms of consumers, employees, and community's health, safety, and welfare, and it has a significant effect on the organizational quality of the culture (Minas et al. 2014;Woolley et al. 2007). In this regard, the perception of fairness can be considered as an adaptive mechanism that individuals use within a psychosocial framework of cooperation and justice (Bereczkei 2015). On the contrary, the perception of unfairness appears to be associated with negative emotions that lead individuals to reject unfair offers (Gaertig et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The neuroscience interest for moral decision-making has recently increased. To investigate the processes underlying moral behavior, this research aimed to investigate neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of decision-making in moral contexts. Specifically, functional Near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allowed to record oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during different moral conditions (professional fit, company fit, social fit) and offers types (fair, unfair, neutral). Moreover, individuals' responses to offers types and reaction time (RTs) were considered. Specifically, from hemodynamic results emerged a difference in O2Hb and HHb activity according to moral conditions and offers types in different brain regions. In particular, O2Hb increase and a HHb decrease were observed in ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (VMPFC, DLPFC) for fair offers in professional fit condition and in superior temporal sulcus (STS) for unfair offers in social fit condition. Moreover, an increase of left O2Hb activity in professional fit condition and in right VMPFC for unfair offers in company fit condition was observed. In addition, from behavioral results, an RTs increase in company and social fit condition for fair and unfair offers emerged. This study, therefore, shows the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of moral decision-making that guide moral behavior in different context, such as company one.
... In this study, there was no significant difference in the IGT net score between the SI group and the NSI group, but there was a significant difference compared with the healthy control, indicating that there was a decision deficit in the pre-natal depression groups with or without suicidal ideation. By comparing the net scores and their trends in different blocks, we analyzed the DM characteristics and strategy adjustment of the subjects in the income-loss situation (71). There was no significant difference in the net scores of blocks 1-2 between the three groups in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although many risk factors for suicidal ideation have been identified, few studies have focused on suicidal ideation and pre-natal depression. The purpose was to investigate the relationship between decision-making (DM) dysfunction and sleep disturbance on suicidal ideation in pre-natal depression. Participants included 100 women in the third trimester of pregnancy, including pregnant women with pre-natal depression who had recent suicidal ideation ( n = 30), pre-natal depression without SI ( n = 35) and healthy controls ( n = 35). The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to evaluate the DM function and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the sleep index. The Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess suicidal ideation and the seriousness of depression. Overall, the two groups with pre-natal depression showed worse sleep quality and decreased DM function compared with healthy controls. The pre-natal depression with suicidal ideation group showed a significantly higher score in subjective sleep quality and a lower score in block 5 of IGT than the pre-natal depression without suicidal ideation group. Further correlation analysis showed that suicidal ideation positively correlated with subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, and daytime function, and negatively correlated with IGT scores. Sleep disturbance and impaired DM function may be risk factors for suicidal ideation in pre-natal depression.
... This seems to be supported in case of corporal punishment (Waller, Gardner, Hyde, Shaw, Dishion, & Wilson, 2012). Machiavellianism in childhood can also be a reaction to authoritarianism (Talwar & Lee, 2011) while in adults it may be correlated with hostile attitudes and emotions (Locke & Christiensen, 2007) as well as with verbal aggressiveness (Andreou, 2004;Bereczkei, 2015;Corzine & Hozier, 2005). On the contrary, Cranmer & Martin (2015) argue that morality is negatively correlated with Machiavellianism. ...
Article
Among the Dark Triad traits (psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism), Machiavellianism is uniquely associated with flexibility. This flexibility should result in the use of aggressive short-term tactics only when they do not interfere with long-term goals. Study 1 found that individuals high in Machiavellianism differed from those high in psychopathy with respect to retrospective accounts of negative mate retention tactics. Study 2 found an interaction between Machiavellianism and relationship type such that individuals high in Machiavellianism tempered the use of negative tactics for long-term (but not short-term) relationships. The findings highlight the flexibility of the Machiavellianism construct and its relevance to mating strategies among the Dark Triad.
Article
Full-text available
This comprehensive review summarizes and evaluates the present state of the Dark Triad research literature (or more broadly, the dark personality trait literature), and as such serves both a pedagogical purpose, by providing an introduction or primer on the dark personality literature and a scientific purpose by directing future research on key issues that still have not been sufficiently addressed. In this review, we discuss and critique current operational conceptualizations of what it means for a personality trait to be classified as ‘dark’. Also discussed is the Dark Core, as well as quantitative issues such as limitations of commonly used statistical treatments, such as multivariate analyses, bifactor modeling, and composite measures, and proposed solutions to some of these issues. Based on a comprehensive and critical appraisal of the literature, future directions are suggested to drive the dark trait field towards a more organized, parsimonious, and productive future.
Article
Full-text available
Emotional deficits, such as limited empathy, are considered a fundamental aspect of the Dark Triad traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy). However, the nature and extent of such deficiencies seem to vary among dark personalities. By applying multidimensional measures of empathy, emotional intelligence, and the Dark Triad, we aimed to investigate in more detail how individuals high in various dark traits understand and evaluate emotions. Results indicated that each trait, and, moreover, each facet thereof entailed unique emotional deficiencies. Narcissism was positively associated with trait emotional intelligence, whereas the secondary factor of psychopathy was associated negatively. With respect to empathy, only primary psychopathy was linked to an overall deficit, while a positive relationship was found between Machiavellianism and the perspective-taking facet of cognitive empathy. We argue that the specific emotional limitations of the Dark Triad traits might contribute to the successful deployment of different socially aversive strategies.
Article
Phishing attacks are more common and more sophisticated than other forms of social engineering attacks. This study presents an investigation of the relationships between three personality traits—Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy (i.e., the Dark Triad)—and phishing effort, attack success, and end-user susceptibility to phishing emails. Participants were recruited in two stages. The first set of participants acted as attackers, creating phishing emails. The second set of participants acted as end-users, reading both benevolent and phishing emails and indicating their likely behavioral response to each email. Our findings suggest that attackers’ Dark Triad scores relate to the effort that they put in writing a phishing email, but do not predict phishing success. Instead, it is the end-users’ Dark Triad scores that predict the success of phishing emails. We found that higher levels of attacker Machiavellianism were linked to increased phishing effort, while end-user narcissism was associated to greater vulnerability when receiving phishing emails. Furthermore, our findings suggest that narcissistic end-users were marginally more susceptible to phishing emails that originated from narcissistic attackers. These results have important practical implications for training, anti-phishing tool development, and policy in organizations.
Article
Fraud poses a serious problem. Research has demonstrated that both situational and individual factors contribute to this problem. Although those high in manipulation are likely to commit fraud, a strategic orientation may increase one's perceptions of fraud opportunities. We examined whether individuals high in Machiavellianism perceived more opportunities to commit fraud above and beyond the other Dark Triad traits. We provided participants (n = 734) with a procurement scenario and asked them to list how many legal and illegal opportunities they saw for additional profit. At the correlational level, individuals high in Machiavellianism listed more illegal opportunities for profit. Further, when controlling for the overlap among Dark Triad traits, Machiavellianism was associated with listing more legal and illegal opportunities for profit. These findings have implications for differentiating the Dark Triad, with an emphasis on the strategic thinking associated with Machiavellianism. These findings also have implications for the dispositional tendencies towards committing fraud and the patterns that may emerge.
Article
The present study examines the association between the General Factor of Personality (GFP) and working memory and its etiology with a behavioral genetic approach. The GFP, which explains the common variance among lower-order personality traits, is considered to reflect social effectiveness. Meanwhile, working memory also plays a significant role in social competence. Hence, we expected a substantial association between the GFP and working memory. A total of 253 Japanese twin pairs (124 monozygotic female; 52 monozygotic male; 28 dizygotic female; 17 dizygotic male; and 32 opposite sex twins) were included in the analyses. Phenotypic analyses confirmed a significant positive correlation between the GFP and working memory. Biometric analysis with a bivariate Cholesky decomposition model showed that the phenotypic correlation derived from additive genetic and non-shared environmental correlations. The present findings are in line with social effectiveness account of the GFP.
Article
Full-text available
Güç ve statü elde etmek için örgütün tüm kademelerindeki çalışanların kullandıkları çeşitli yöntemler vardır. Bu yöntemlerden biri de tercih edilen politik taktiklerdir. Politik taktikler ise tercih edilme nedenlerine ve tercih eden kişinin amacına göre değişiklik gösterebilmektedir. Bireyin amacına ulaşmak için kendini önceliğe alması ve diğerlerini kendi amacı için kullanması ve çıkarcı davranışlar sergilemesi olan makyavelizm ise bu çalışmada politik taktiklerin tercih edilmesinde ve kullanılmasında etkileyici unsur olarak ön görülmüştür ve makyavelist yaklaşım ile politik taktikler arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Düzce ilinde bulunan Organize Sanayi Bölgesinde faaliyet yürüten ve imalat sektöründe faaliyet gösteren işletmelerin beyaz yakalı çalışanlarının örneklem olarak alındığı çalışma nicel araştırma yöntemi ile yapılmıştır. Anket tekniği ile toplanan verilerin SPSS programı ile analiz edilmesi neticesinde makyavelizm ile politik taktikler arasında bir ilişki olduğu ve politik taktikleri kullanma ve seçme konusunda makyavelizmin belirleyici olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca politik taktiklerin ve makyavelci davranışların demografik özelliklere göre farklılaştığı da görülmüştür
Article
Este trabajo procura aportar distinciones conceptuales de la familia de comportamientos lingüísticos y psicológicos compuesta por el autoengaño, el engaño, la mentira y la manipulación, que se han agrupado aquí bajo la rúbrica de engaño generalizado. Estas distinciones permitirán luego analizar pragmática y argumentativamente los intentos por justificar y convencer a una audiencia de un agente que utiliza tales conductas. Para lograr tanto las distinciones conceptuales como el análisis de los casos escogidos, se discuten acercamientos provenientes de la literatura en cognición, teoría evolutiva, pragmática y teoría argumentativa. Específicamente, estas herramientas teóricas y analíticas se aplican a dos casos en los que el sesgo de influencia social moviliza una conducta argumentativa en la que se observa uno o varios de los miembros de la familia del engaño generalizado. Los resultados muestran que dentro de tal contexto, el agente da justificaciones que muestran auto-engaño y engaños, y trata de convencer a través de argumentos irrelevantes e insuficientes que van configurando un escenario manipulativo.
Article
Háttér és célkitűzések A csoporton belüli, illetve csoportközi együttműködés témáját már régóta intenzív érdeklődés övezi mind az evolúciós, mind a szociálpszichológia képviselői körében. Napjainkra hasonlóan kiterjedt szakirodalommal rendelkezik a Sötét Triád személyiségjegyekkel rendelkező emberek társas dilemma helyzetben jellemző viselkedésének elemzése. Kutatásunkban egy újfajta kísérleti játék kétféle változatával kívánjuk górcső alá venni a csoporthoz tartozás élményének, valamint a sötét személyiségjegyeknek a csoportközi együttműködésre gyakorolt hatását. Módszer A kutatás résztvevői egy saját fejlesztésű, innovatív csoportközi társas dilemmát szimuláló kísérleti játékban vettek részt, melyben két eltérő (1. vizsgálat, n = 236), illetve két azonos színű (2. vizsgálat, n = 147) falu lakói készülődtek az árvízi védekezésre. A résztvevőknek a játék mindkét fordulójában el kellett dönteniük, hogy milyen (önző, saját csoportot preferáló, vagy közös együttműködést támogató) stratégia szerint osztják szét homokzsákjaikat. A vizsgálat végén a résztvevőket az SD3 kérdőív kitöltésére is megkértük. Eredmények Kutatásunk fő eredménye, hogy az azonos színű házakat bemutató kondíció második fordulójában – a különböző színű házakat látó résztvevőkhöz képest – szignifikánsan magasabb csoportközi együttműködést mértünk. A sötét személyiségvonások befolyásolták a résztvevők allokációit, ugyanakkor a várakozásainkkal ellentétben a magas sötét személyiségvonások nem mindig az önző választásokkal jártak együtt. Következtetések Kutatásunk igazolta, hogy már a másik csoportról kapott minimális információk – a házak színei – is képesek befolyásolni a csoportközi együttműködés mértékét egy társas dilemma helyzetben. Eredményeinket a törzsi ösztön hipotézis, valamint a minimális csoport paradigma elméleti keretében tárgyaljuk.
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to understand how Machiavellians switch from one kind of response to another in different circumstances to maximize their profit. We set up a specific experimental paradigm that involved both a cooperative and competitive version of a public goods game. We found that Machiavellianism accounts for the total amount of money paid by the players (N = 144) across five rounds in the cooperative but not in the competitive game. Compared with the others, individuals with higher scores on Mach scale contributed less to the public goods in the cooperative condition, but no difference was found in the competitive condition. Finally, this relationship was influenced by the sequence of the games. These results indicate that Machiavellians skillfully evaluate social environments and strive to exploit those with abundant contributions to public goods.
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies clearly show that Machiavellian thinking and behavior are characterized by some kind of cold attitude; a tendency to be detached from the emotional features of a particular situation. However, very little is known what this cold-minded attitude means, and the presence or absence of which characteristics can lead to emotional detachment. Machiavellianism was found to have significant relationships with Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. Surprisingly, our study indicated that Machiavellians - contrary to the widespread conception - show more emotional instability: they may experience strong emotions and easily lose their coolness in various situations. However, we also found that they cannot express their emotions as subtly and precisely as others. We argue that this is exactly the deficit that can create the best condition for deceiving others. If Machiavellian persons have a difficulty in expressing their own emotions, they can easily disguise their true intentions from their partners.
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are capable of exploiting others effectively even in the long run, using flexible strategies and adjusting their behavior according to the social circumstances. We predicted that information manipulation skills (e.g. memorizing, organization) would play an important role in Machiavellians' reasoning skills and flexible thinking. Subjects (N=114) performed 4 different cognitive tasks measuring ability to memorize, organize and analyze information, and use information in reasoning. We observed a significant positive association between Machiavellianism and information processing and information manipulation skills, which suggests that Machiavellians preferentially use a "rational" thinking style, which is associated with flexible processing. This interpretation is consistent with recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showing increased neural activation in areas related to working memory, inference making and anticipation of success in Machiavellians.
Article
Full-text available
The behavior, attitudes and social strategies associated with Machiavellian personality traits are well studied in psychology. Still, developmental origins of Machiavellianism have gained little attention so far, especially from a family system perspective. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Machiavellianism and family functioning in adolescence. A sample (N = 366) of adolescents completed the Mach-IV and FACES IV. High-Mach and low-Mach individuals differed in their perception of family functioning. High-Machs perceived their families as more disengaged, more chaotic, less rigid, less cohesive, and less flexible. High-Machs also reported poorer family communication and less satisfaction with family life. Results are discussed mainly from the perspectives of attachment theory and early maladaptive schemas.
Article
Full-text available
The Dark Triad consists of three overlapping but distinct personality variables: narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy. To date, however, no research has empirically identified what leads these three variables to overlap or whether other variables share the same core. The present research addresses why and how dark personalities overlap. Drawing from classic work in psychopathy, Hare's Factor 1 or manipulation and callousness were found to be the common antagonistic core. A series of latent variable procedures, including Multisample Structural Equation Models, revealed that for both samples, manipulation and callousness, completely accounted for the associations among the facet scores of the psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Sample 2 also included Social Dominance Orientation, and results further confirmed that Social Dominance Orientation has the same common core as the Dark Triad. In sum, Hare's Factor 1—manipulation–callousness—emerged as common dark core that accounts for the overlap among antagonistic traits. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Personality Psychology
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a meta-analytic review of the relations between general mental ability (GMA) and the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits—Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—to determine if individuals who display socially exploitative social qualities tend to be more intelligent or less intelligent. Across 48 independent samples, GMA showed no consistent relation with any DT trait. These effects were not sufficient to support either the “evil genius” hypothesis (highly intelligent individuals tend to display socially exploitative personality traits) or the “compensatory” hypothesis (less intelligent individuals compensate for their cognitive disadvantages by adopting manipulative behavioral tendencies). However, these relations were moderated, to some extent, by the sex and age of the participants, type of sample studied, and the measure of GMA.
Article
Full-text available
Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. © The Author(s) 2013.
Article
Full-text available
We study theory of mind (ToM) and empathic underpinnings of Machiavellianism by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, where account managers are used as participants in 3 studies. Study 1 finds evidence for activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, left and right temporo-parietal junction, and left and right precuneus regions; all five regions are negatively correlated with Machiavellianism, suggesting that Machiavellians are less facile than non-Machiavellians with ToM skills. Study 2 presents evidence for activation of the left and right pars opercularis, left and right insula, and left precuneus regions; the former four regions of the motor neuron system were positively associated, and the latter negatively associated, with Machiavellianism, implying that Machiavellians resonate more readily with the emotions of others than non-Machiavellians. This is the first study to our knowledge to show a negative correlation between perspective taking and emotional sharing in empathic processes in general and Machiavellianism in particular. Study 3 tests implications of managerial control on both performance and organizational citizenship behaviors, as moderated by Machiavellianism in the field. Our study grounds the functioning of Machiavellianism in organizations in basic neuroscience processes, resolves some long-standing ambiguities with self-report investigations, and points to conditions under which Machiavellianism both inhibits and promotes performance and citizenship behavior.
Article
Full-text available
Does the quality of the relationship one has with their parents influence the development of “dark” personality traits? We examined (N = 352) the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) and their components in relation to a measure of parental care and a measure of attachment. Machiavellianism was the most susceptible to variance associated with low quality or irregular parental care and attachment patterns. Low quality parental care for narcissism and psychopathy had effects localized to components of each trait and specific to the sex of the parent. Path modeling suggests the quality of parental care leads to attachment patterns which may then lead to different aspects of the Dark Triad.
Article
Full-text available
To avoid detection, those high on Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) may adopt a protean approach to interpersonal influence. We show the Dark Triad traits correlate with a number of unique tactics of influence (Study 1; N = 259). We show this protean approach was insensitive to differences in targets of manipulation (Study 2; N = 296). When forced to choose one tactic to solve different adaptive problems, the Dark Triad traits were correlated with unique tactical choices (Study 3; N = 268). We show these associations are generally robust to controlling for the Big Five and participants’ sex (Study 1 and 2). We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for both life history and cheater-detection theories.
Article
Full-text available
Machiavellianism is a personality style marked by the use of such tactics as deception and manipulation so as to perform well and achieve power, status, or material wealth. Based on the assumption that Machiavellians are very sensitive to status seeking in social contexts, which leads over time to changes in neuroplasticity, we hypothesize and find that salespeople who score high versus low on the Mach IV Machiavellianism scale exhibit changes in gray matter volume in the following brain regions: basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, insula, and hippocampus. A Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) advanced MRI technique is used to test the hypothesis on a sample of 43 healthy salespeople. Conjectures are made on the linkage between social psychological research on Machiavellianism and neuroscience research on the brain regions in question as they relate to social behavior.
Article
Full-text available
Among the Dark Triad of personality, both narcissism and psychopathy have been linked to impulsivity. What remains unclear is the pattern of associations that the Dark Triad have with functional and dysfunctional types of impulsivity. Using both student (N=142) and adult samples (N=329), we investigated the association of the Dark Triad variables with Dickman’s measures of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity. Based on regression analyses, psychopathy was most closely associated with dysfunctional impulsivity whereas narcissism was associated with functional impulsivity. It appears that narcissistic impulsivity involves venturesome social engagement whereas psychopathic impulsivity stems from poor self-regulation. As expected, Machiavellianism had no consistent association with either type of impulsivity. In short, the Dark Triad members show a coherent pattern of relations with impulsivity.
Article
Full-text available
Although previous research has demonstrated that ego-threatened narcissists react aggressively, no allowance was made for the overlap of subclinical narcissism with subclinical psychopathy. Nor is there research directly comparing the reactions of these two personalities to physical threat. To investigate these distinctions, the present study examined the degree to which narcissists and psychopaths respond with aggression to ego threat versus physical provocation. Participants were given the opportunity to aggress with a white noise blast against an ostensible partner who had provoked them. Results replicated previous findings that narcissists aggress in response to ego threat provocation (a personal insult), even when overlap with psychopathy is controlled. By contrast, psychopathy emerged as the unique predictor of aggression in response to physical provocation (a gratuitous blast of loud white noise). The results point to qualitatively different aggression mechanisms underlying narcissistic and psychopathic aggression.
Article
Full-text available
Original Papers Machiavellians are usually associated with unusually high interpersonal skills which seem to be vital for effective manipulation of other people. However, the current research has not confirmed such an opinion. The aim of this study was to examine relations between Machiavellianism (Mach) and self-report emotional intelligence (EI as a trait), self-report social competences (SC) and recognizing emotions from facial expressions. Mach was negatively correlated with EI and SC overall result and with subscales of social competences in intimate situations (SC-I) and in situations requiring social exposure (SC-ES). There was no correlation between Mach and recognizing emotions and between Mach and social competences in situations requiring assertiveness (SC-A). Exploratory path analyses showed a direct negative association between Mach and EI, SC-I and SC-ES. Mach predicted indirectly (through mediation of EI) SC-I, SC-ES and SC-A.
Article
Full-text available
Ten years ago Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three members – Machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy – often show differential correlates but share a common core of callous-manipulation. There are now dozens of studies on the triad and, according to Google Scholar, over 350 citations. The goal of this review is to update and critically evaluate this rapidly expanding literature. The standard measures of each Dark Triad member are reviewed along with newer combination measures. The Dark Triad members are located in mainstream structural models, namely, the interpersonal circumplex as well as Five- and Six-Factor Models. Key issues and controversies are addressed.
Article
Full-text available
Early in the 16th century, Niccolo Machiavelli acted as chief political advisor to the ruling Medici family in Florence, Italy. The details of his counsel are well known because Machiavelli laid them out for posterity in his 1513 book, The Prince. The gist of his advice for maintaining political control is captured in the phrase "the end justifies the means." According to Machiavelli, a ruler with a clear agenda should be open to any and all effective tactics, including manipulative interpersonal strategies such as flattery and lying. Richard Christie, noticed that Machiavelli's political strategies had parallels in people's everyday social behavior. Christie and his colleagues at Columbia University identified a corresponding personality syndrome, which they dubbed Machiavellianism. The label was chosen to capture a duplicitous interpersonal style assumed to emerge from a broader network of cynical beliefs and pragmatic morality. Christie applied his psychometric expertise to develop a series of questionnaires designed to tap individual differences in Machiavellianism. Those questionnaires, along with the research supporting their construct validity, were presented in Christie and Geis's (1970) book, Studies in Machiavellianism. Of these measures, by far the most popular has been the Mach IV. Used in more than 2,000 cited studies, the scale has proved valuable in studying manipulative tendencies among student, community, and worker samples. The follow-up version, Mach V, was designed as an improvement but, in the end, raised more problems than it solved. Our strategy here is to summarize its conclusions and springboard into the subsequent research. Our emphasis is on the Christie tradition primarily focused on research using his scales. We conclude by discussing new directions in theory and research on Machiavellianism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The presence of others has long been known to have an effect on people’s decisions to engage in more helping behavior, but relatively few studies have examined the interaction between the observation of the helping act and various personality traits of the altruist person. In the present study, subjects were asked to volunteer by offering a less and a more costly charity service in public and under anonymous conditions. We found that prosocial personality traits showed relative independence of situational factors. Scores on the scale of Machiavellianism, in contrast, proved to be strongly dependent on the presence of others, but not on the cost of the offered charity act. Those obtaining high scores on this scale (high-Mach persons) disguised their selfishness and pretended altruism in the presence of others, but realized their self-interest when others were not observing their behavior. This responsiveness to the strategic distinction between the presence and absence of others is discussed in terms of reputation-gaining and competitive altruism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
A new measure of Machiavellianism, the Machiavellian Personality Scale (MPS), was developed and validated over two studies. Machiavellianism is conceptualized as one's propensity to distrust others, engage in amoral manipulation, seek control over others, and seek status for oneself Study I developed and tested the factor structure of the scale, whereas Study 2 provided evidence for the convergent, divergent, and criterion-related validity of the MPS. The results of these studies supported the a priori factor structure of the MPS and indicated that it is a valid predictor of such outcomes as job satisfaction, task performance, and counterproductive work behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report correlates. The measures were moderately inter-correlated, but certainly were not equivalent. Their only common Big Five correlate was disagreeableness. Subclinical psychopaths were distinguished by low neuroticism; Machiavellians, and psychopaths were low in conscientiousness; narcissism showed small positive associations with cognitive ability. Narcissists and, to a lesser extent, psychopaths exhibited self-enhancement on two objectively scored indexes. We conclude that the Dark Triad of personalities, as currently measured, are overlapping but distinct constructs.
Article
Full-text available
Theory of mind – the ability to attribute independent mental states and processes to others – plays an important role in our social lives. For one, it facilitates social cooperation, for two, it enables us to manipulate others in order to reach our own goals. In our study, we intend to analyze some basic aspects of the complex relationship between adult theory of mind and social behavior that had not been researched in depth so far. Our results show (1) a strong negative correlation between Machiavellianism and social cooperative skills; (2) a connection between the extent of cooperative tendency and the level of mindreading; and (3) a lack of significant correlation between theory of mind and Machiavellianism. For the interpretation of the results – especially for our third finding – we used the concepts of “hot” and “cold” empathy, the lack of representation of moral emotions, as well as other cognitive explanatory models.
Article
Although previous research has revealed a number of social, cognitive and neural components of Machiavellians' decision making processes, less attention has been given to the neural correlates of the high Mach (HM) and low Mach (LM) people's responses to situations involving risks and costs imposed by others in interpersonal relationships. In the present study, we used an fMRI technique to examine individuals as they played the Trust game in fair and unfair situations. Our results revealed that the social environment involving opportunities for exploiting others may be more demanding for Machiavellians who showed elevated brain activities in the fair condition (where the partner made a cooperative initiation) but not in the unfair condition. Regarding the specific activated brain areas in the fair condition, the HM's anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was responding, which is likely to be involved in the inhibition of the prepotent social-emotional response to the partner's cooperative initiative. Furthermore, we found increased activity in the HM subjects' inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), compared to LMs, that plays a crucial role in the evaluation of the signals associated with the others' social behavior, especially when the player faces a cooperative partner. Alternatively, although Machiavellians are regarded as poor mind readers, inferior frontal gyrus may be effective in anticipating their partner's subsequent decisions in the social dilemma situation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Psychopathy is related to parasitic behavior that is both antisocial and high-risk. Such individuals are unlikely to consider consequences when engaging in selfish financial behavior, even in the face of punishment and financial loss. After completing Dark Triad measures (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism), participants were told that everyone could gamble (in a clearly biased game) with the next person's bonus. Participants were then randomly assigned to think their bonus was still intact or nearly depleted. Participants were then given the option to punish the previous participant. Finally, participants were given the option to gamble with the next participant's bonus. Wins benefited current participants, and losses hurt the next participant. Participants were reminded that they could be punished by the next participant and lose everything. Results indicated that all three Dark Triad traits correlated with attempting one round of gambling. However, only individuals high in psychopathy persisted in gambling, leading to greater financial loss of the next participant. These findings highlight the importance of screening for malevolent traits in the financial world, particularly psychopathy.
Article
Recent theoretical work on the Life History Theory and empirical findings on Machiavellianism suggest that Machiavellian individuals are motivated to acquire short-term benefits and prioritize situations with high potential rewards. Accordingly, in our study, we investigated the associations between reward/punishment sensitivity and Machiavellian interpersonal tactics with self-report measures. Moreover, as a first attempt, we investigated the correlates of Machiavellianism and the behavioral preference for rewards with the IOWA Gambling task (IGT). The results showed robust positive associations of Machiavellian behavioral characteristics with Sensitivity to Reward, and a moderately negative correlation with Sensitivity to Punishment. This finding was further supported by IGT: Machiavellians tended to make reward-oriented decisions.
Article
Different forms of racism and racist groups should be differentially attractive to politically motivated members of the Dark Triad. Study 1 showed that high levels of both Machiavellianism and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted modern racism, whereas high levels of psychopathy and RWA predicted old-fashioned racism. In Study 2, those high in Machiavellianism and RWA wanted to join a traditional Ku Klux Klan (KKK) group, emphasizing nonviolence and political strategies. However, those high in psychopathy and RWA wanted to join a violent, Neo-Nazi militia group. The studies highlight differences between Machiavellianism and psychopathy in expression of antisocial tendencies and dispositions. In addition, when combined with RWA endorsement, these traits can lead to the support of destructive organizations.
Article
We employ Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory of motivation in three studies to examine the goals and motivational orientation associated with Machiavellianism (MACH). Goals were classified as either extrinsic (e.g., financial success) or intrinsic (e.g., community feeling). The two types of goals are generally associated with different motivational experiences. Extrinsic goals are typically experienced as externally controlled, whereas intrinsic goals are experienced as self-determined. We predicted that MACH would be associated with an emphasis on the extrinsic goal of financial success specifically, and on a control motivational orientation in general. These predictions received support. Additional findings indicate that MACH is positively associated with alienation and antisocial behavior, but inversely associated with social interest (i.e., Adler, 1964/1938) and prosocial behavior.
Article
This study explored the reasons and motives underlying the decisions of individuals with strong Machiavellian attitudes (High Machs). One hundred and fifty undergraduate students completed the Mach-IV test, and their contributions to, financial success in and narrative reports of a public goods game were analysed. High Machs contributed less to the public good and gained more benefit than Low Machs. Analysis of the narrative reports showed that High Machs used significantly fewer verbs referring to emotional involvement and first person plural verb forms, than did Low Machs. This study confirmed previous findings that High Machs have a cool and rational character and a proself orientation and showed that their lack of group orientation may account for their low cooperation in social dilemmas. The results of narrative content analysis provide a new perspective on the motives and values behind High Machs' decisions and success in different fields of social life.
Article
In the present experiment, we simultaneously examine the effect of personality and situational factors on decisions in a social dilemma game. Our first question is what temperament and character factors would make Machiavellian people successful in social interactions? The second question refers to situational factors: how does the composition of the group influence the Machiavellians’ decisions? Using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scales, the scores on Mach IV test showed a positive correlation with Novelty Seeking and a negative correlation with Reward Dependence, Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence. We found that the Mach scores negatively correlated with the players’ contribution over the game, and positively with the total profit they gained by the end of the game. Regression analyses revealed that the contribution of high Mach persons (those who had relatively high scores on Mach scale) to the public good were primarily influenced by the number of altruists in the group, whereas low Machs’ decisions were influenced more by a temperament factor (Persistence). We assume that, compared to others, Machiavellians may be more sensitive to situational factors and take the behavior of their playmates into account to a greater degree, which may lead to their success in the exploitation of others.
Article
One of the important prerequisites for successful social interaction is the willingness of each individual to cooperate socially. Using the ultimatum game, several studies have demonstrated that the process of decision-making to cooperate or to defeat in interaction with a partner is associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula (AI), and inferior frontal cortex (IFC). This study investigates developmental changes in this neuronal network. 15 healthy children (8-12 years), 15 adolescents (13-18 years) and 15 young adults (19-28 years) were investigated using the ultimatum game. Neuronal networks representing decision-making based on strategic thinking were characterized using functional MRI. In all age groups, the process of decision-making in reaction to unfair offers was associated with hemodynamic changes in similar regions. Compared with children, however, healthy adults and adolescents revealed greater activation in the IFC and the fusiform gyrus, as well as the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, healthy children displayed more activation in the AI, the dorsal part of the ACC, and the DLPFC. There were no differences in brain activations between adults and adolescents. The neuronal mechanisms underlying strategic social decision making are already developed by the age of eight. Decision-making based on strategic thinking is associated with age-dependent involvement of different brain regions. Neuronal networks underlying theory of mind and reward anticipation are more activated in adults and adolescents with regard to the increasing perspective taking with age. In relation to emotional reactivity and respective compensatory coping in younger ages, children have higher activations in a neuronal network associated with emotional processing and executive control.
Article
The dark triad represents the most prominent, socially aversive personalities (viz., Psychopathy, Narcissism, and Machiavellianism) characterised by a common underlying deficit in empathy. Although, evidence shows that empathy can be further divided into cognitive and affective systems, this two-dimensional conceptualisation had not been considered when examining the empathic impairments of the complete dark triad. The present study aimed to determine whether the dark triad is associated with deficits in cognitive or affective empathy as measured through self-reports and facial expressions tasks. The sample comprised 139 university students. All dark triad personalities were associated with deficits in affective empathy, but showed little evidence of impairment in cognitive empathy. The facial expression tasks provided further support for the affective nature of the dark triad’s empathic deficits. Finally, the results emphasised the importance of primary psychopathy, as the main predictor of empathic deficits within the dark triad.
Article
Due to small screens, inaccuracy of input and other limitations of mobile devices, revisitation of Web pages in mobile browsers takes more time than that in desktop browsers. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to facilitate revisitation. We designed AutoWeb, a system that clusters opened Web pages into different topics based on their contents. Users can quickly find a desired opened Web page by narrowing down the searching scope to a group of Web pages that share the same topic. Clustering accuracy is evaluated to be 92.4% and computing resource consumption was proved to be acceptable. A user study was conducted to explore user experience and how much AutoWeb facilitates revisitation. Results showed that AutoWeb could save up a significant time for revisitation and participants rated the system highly.
Article
Subjects who score high on Machiavellianism are often charming and attractive in short-term social interactions. It is unclear from their behavior whether they are using a deceptive strategy of exploitation or whether they are merely exceptionally capable social actors. We used a story-telling method to explore aspects of Machiavellianism that are not obvious from short-term social interactions. Subjects who scored high and low on Machiavellianism wrote stories in the first person, whose main characters (referred to as “I”) were evaluated by another set of subjects. The stories reveal the cooperative nature of low-Machs and the exploitative nature of high-Machs in particularly sharp focus. Judged by their fictional creations, high-Machs were rejected as social partners for most relationships, except when their exploitative skills could be directed against members of other groups.
Article
The volitional model of Machiavellianism emphasizes that the Machiavellian person chooses to be manipulative. The model is critiqued. An alternative model is proposed, which asserts that the Machiavellian is a person who is unconnected to his or her own emotion, that is he or she is alexithymic. This deficit results in an inability to emotionally connect to others with the result that other people are treated as objects to be controlled to meet his or her self-focused goals. The model was tested on a general population sample of university students. Findings indicate that Machiavellianism was highly associated with alexithymia. In particular Machiavellianism was positively associated with externally orientated thinking and difficulty in identifying feelings. In addition Machiavellianism was positively associated with shame proneness but negatively associated with guilt proneness. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotion and the formation of interpersonal relationships, and the concept of volitional Machiavellianism. Implications for the concept of "successful psychopathy" are explored.