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Abstract

Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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... The results served as basis for the development of scenarios for the use of consumer products , in the frame of exposure and health risk assessment, as well as for the design of representative consumer product emission tests. This paper is the first of a series of three interrelated papers to health risk assessment from exposure to air pollutants emitted from consumer products, as estimated within the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015; Trantallidi et al., 2015). The aim of this paper is two-fold; first, to provide important data from the results of the household survey on the use of domestic products, which will supply new information to what is currently reported in other studies, regarding the location and ventilation conditions during the use of 15 consumer products that were examined within EPHECT. ...
... To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that worst-case scenarios for the daily product use have been reported in the scientific published literature, in order to be used for exposure modelling studies. These scenarios are used in the EPHECT modelling work to evaluate exposure and health risk assessment (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015; Trantallidi et al., 2015). For the various products, wherever the quantity of the various measure units (caps/tablespoons/sprayings) could be measured in grams it is provided in Table 5. ...
Article
Consumer products are frequently and regularly used in the domestic environment. Realistic estimates for product use are required for exposure modelling and health risk assessment. This paper provides significant data that can be used as input for such modelling studies. A European survey was conducted, within the framework of the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project, on the household use of 15 consumer products. These products are all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The analysis of the results from the household survey (1st phase) focused on identifying consumer behaviour patterns (selection criteria, frequency of use, quantities, period of use and ventilation conditions during product use). This can provide valuable input to modelling studies, as this information is not reported in the open literature. The above results were further analysed (2nd phase), to provide the basis for the development of 'most representative worst-case scenarios' regarding the use of the 15 products by home-based population groups (housekeepers and retired people), in four geographical regions in Europe. These scenarios will be used for the exposure and health risk assessment within the EPHECT project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that daily worst-case scenarios are presented in the scientific published literature concerning the use of a wide range of 15 consumer products across Europe. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... In Europe, the Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products (EPHECT) project was set up as a European consumer product database [11]. The EPHECT conducted exposure and risk assessments for chemicals contained in consumer products [12,13]. In the USA, the Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behaviors (SUPERB) project provided data on usage patterns for many consumer products [14]. ...
... In particular, exposure assessment is a vital step of risk assessment for people exposed to hazardous chemicals from using consumer products. To estimate chemical exposure, the deterministic method is widely used [12,30,31]. When many researchers used the deterministic method, exposure factors (e.g., amount of use, frequency, and duration of use) were used as input parameters. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1–24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments.
... Some efforts have been made so far to improve the database on consumer behaviour. For example, in the EPHECT ("Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU") project [6][7][8] information on 16 product types from 10 European countries was surveyed. These product types include several cleaning products, cosmetics, biocides and air fresheners (none of these product types are addressed in this study). ...
... Only few reliable data sources exist for consumer behaviour data for the many product types in use. Recently, in the EPHECT project, consumer behaviour data for participants from 10 EU countries on 16 different product types were published [6][7][8]. However, some of the data retrieved by EPHECT were difficult to interpret. ...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating chemical exposures from consumer products is an essential part of chemical safety assessments under REACH and may also be important to demonstrate compliance with consumer product legislation. Modelling of consumer exposure needs input information on the substance (e.g. vapour pressure), the product(s) containing the substance (e.g. concentration) and on consumer behaviour (e.g. use frequency and amount of product used). This feasibility study in Germany investigated methods for conducting a consumer survey in order to identify and retrieve information on frequency, duration, use amounts and use conditions for six example product types (four mixtures, two articles): hand dishwashing liquid, cockpit spray, fillers, paints and lacquers, shoes made of rubber or plastic, and ball-pens/pencils. Retrospective questionnaire methods (Consumer Product Questionnaire (CPQ), and Recall-Foresight Questionnaire (RFQ)) as well as protocol methods (written reporting by participants and video documentation) were used. A combination of retrospective questionnaire and written protocol methods was identified to provide valid information in a resource-efficient way. Relevant information, which can readily be used in exposure modelling, was obtained for all parameters and product types investigated. Based on the observations in this feasibility study, recommendations are given for designing a large consumer survey.
... Residential ACHs can vary somewhat depending on a variety of factors such as building location and age, but other studies would indicate that the Collaboratory House's ACHs during mechanical ventilation use would still be considered lower than the average house, while ACHs with mechanical ventilation off would represent a "tight" house and a close to worst-case ventilation environment. [65][66][67] After performing each cleaning task without ventilation to determine its overall contribution to exposure, cleaning tasks were repeated with mechanical ventilation turned on. Reduction in exposures due to ventilation use was significant for the kitchen (120 observations) and both bathrooms (90 observations) using acetic acid, while only kitchen exposures were significantly reduced when ammonia was used (Tables S4A). ...
... This was seen in a study reporting formaldehyde (and other cleaning chemical) modeling results, with exposure models showing little difference in peak formaldehyde concentrations at 0.1 and 0.35 ACH. 67 The physicochemical ...
Article
Associations between cleaning chemical exposures and asthma have previously been identified in professional cleaners and healthcare workers. Domestic workers, including housecleaners and caregivers, may receive similar exposures but in residential environments with lower ventilation rates. Study objectives were to compare exposures to occupational exposure limits (OELs), to determine relative contributions from individual cleaning tasks to overall exposure, and to evaluate the effects of ventilation and posture on exposure. Airborne chemical concentrations of sprayed cleaning chemicals (acetic acid or ammonia) were measured during typical cleaning tasks in a simulated residential work environment. Whole‐house cleaning exposures (18 cleaning tasks) were measured using integrated personal sampling methods. Individual task exposures were measured with a sampling line attached to subjects' breathing zones, with readings recorded by a ppbRAE monitor, equipped with a photo‐ionization detector calibrated for ammonia and acetic acid measurements. Integrated sampling results indicated no exposures above OELs occurred, but 95th percentile air concentrations would require risk management decisions. Exposure reductions were observed with increased source distance, with lower exposures from mopping floors compared to kneeling. Exposure reductions were also observed for most but not all tasks when ventilation was used, with implications that alternative exposure reduction methods may be needed.
... Whether this affects occupants would depend on how long occupants spend in a specific room, the ventilation rate and pollutant sources. For example: the use of candles, cleaning products, drying of clothes or simply the presence of several people are all events that could take place in a room with the door closed which could lead to poor IAQ (Satish et al., 2012;Porteous et al., 2014;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015). The difference in ventilation rates is likely to be caused by a range of factors, including the nonuniformity of air leakage paths and limited air exchange between spaces with closed doors. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Infiltration is an uncontrolled contribution to ventilation in a building and can contribute significantly to the total ventilation rate, particularly in older, leaky, dwellings which can rely on infiltration to provide adequate indoor air quality. However, as explored in this paper, using a whole house airtightness metric to characterise ventilation rates can fail to identify low ventilation rates in specific rooms. Measurements were undertaken in autumn and winter for a dwelling with an airtightness (by blower door) of 15.1 m3/hr/m2@50Pa. The dwelling was built in the 1930’s: semi-detached, suspended timber floors, cavity walls and retrofitted throughout with double glazing incorporating trickle vents. The whole dwelling ventilation rate (by CO2 tracer gas decay) with the trickle vents closed was 0.7 ach, and 0.8 ach with the trickle vents open. However, the ventilation rate (by CO2 tracer gas decay) in a single room with its internal door closed under different weather conditions was only 0.17 ach (standard deviation = 0.06 ach, number of measurements = 34), and with trickle vents open 0.32 ach (standard deviation = 0.13 ach, number of measurements = 40). This is below the 0.5 ach required for good indoor air quality. This is likely related to the closed internal door reducing cross-ventilation and the non-uniformity of air leakage paths in the dwelling. The leakage paths were investigated using smoke pens during a pressurisation test and significant air leakage paths were observed in other rooms: through the under stairs cupboard, around services in the kitchen and bathroom, and through the ceiling into the loft. Low air change rates have been observed in a building with very low airtightness, typical of older stock in the UK. The dwelling was retrofitted with double glazing, which is likely to have significantly affected the airflow, but still left the dwelling with low total airtightness. The double glazing had trickle vents, but these did not provide adequate ventilation. Inclusion of trickle vents in replacement windows is ‘good practice’ according to English building regulations, but not compulsory if there were no vents in the previous windows. Similarly, undercuts are required for doors in new dwellings, but are only required for existing buildings in new wet rooms; the tested dwelling had undercuts half the size required for ventilation regulations in new buildings. The difference in ventilation rates at different spatial scales is rarely discussed, but this research shows that there can be major discrepancies. This paper discusses the implications of this for appropriate measurement of ventilation, and the implications for ventilation regulations and guidance as well as the need for further research into the complexity of the manifestation of ventilation in occupied buildings.
... The simulations of indoor air concentrations and calculations of inhalation exposure were predicted from a single product use as well as from simultaneous use of multiple products that were documented in the form of 'most representative worst-case scenarios'. The predictions of aggregate exposure took into account product co-use profiles developed for over 4,000 adults split into two specific consumer groups: housekeepers and retired people in different European regions (Dimitroulopoulou et al, 2015b). The questions considered for the development of these scenarios were related to the use of consumer products in the domestic environment resulted in acquisition of the information on frequency, the amount, the time and location of product use for every single individual. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report details much of the current state-of-the-art of consumer exposure assessment data and models that can be used in chemical risk assessment, with a particular focus upon aggregate exposure assessment. Aggregate exposure considers all sources of exposure to a single chemical (e.g. hair care products, cosmetics, detergents, foods, environmental media, etc.) via all routes (oral, dermal, and inhalation). The report focuses on consumer products (not including the assessment of occupational exposure), considering the following product domains: cosmetics and personal care products, household products, food and other consumer products (such as surface coatings, adhesives, sealants, disinfectants, automotive care products, toys etc.). Exposure assessment is, by necessity, an iterative process. If, in any tier, negligible or acceptable risk cannot be demonstrated, the assessment moves to a higher tier. The risk assessment is finished if (in any tier of the approach) it has been demonstrated that the risk for the population under consideration is negligible or acceptable, or if in the highest tier the risk is not acceptable and further refinements are not possible. This approach was proposed in the WHO/IPCS framework for risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (Meek et al, 2011). The report is divided into four sections. Section One gives background on the tiered approach to exposure assessment, including aggregate exposure assessment in the consumer product domains. Section Two provides an overview of the current exposure landscape, detailing the main data sources, models and tools that are available for chemical risk assessment in the food, cosmetics, household, and consumer products domains. Conclusions and recommendations on current opportunities for the development and provision of new tools and data are also presented based on the outcome of this landscaping exercise. This section is accompanied by a detailed spreadsheet referencing all identified data sources and tools identified for chemical exposure assessment. Section Three presents examples of case studies of aggregate exposure to the chemicals triclosan and phenoxyethanol (PhE), outlining how current models and data can be best used for higher-tier exposure assessments. In addition, there is a literature review of the broader domain of aggregate exposure assessment, detailing other examples and approaches that exist for aggregate exposure assessment. Section Four contains discussion and conclusions on areas of opportunity for exposure science over the next two to five years. The key conclusions of this report are summarised as follows: • Exposure assessments should involve an iterative process, and should be conducted using a tiered strategy, where the lowest tier (0) involves a semi-quantitative assessment of the all sources, pathways and routes contributing to aggregate exposure to a substance, the mid-tier (1) tends to be a deterministic estimate with conservative assumptions, the higher tier (2) is a more realistic estimation of population exposure with increased use of measured data using probabilistic methods, and at the highest tier (3) exposure is modelled with a person-orientated approach using raw data sets. • Many tools and databases exist to support consumer exposure assessment, as demonstrated in the landscaping effort. Users can select the data and tools that best fit their specific situation and level of assessment. • Most consumer exposures tools are designed to evaluate single substance, single use assessments. • Higher tier exposure assessments require more realistic and representative data to the situation being assessed and additional understanding of data correlations. • Subject oriented aggregate tools (PACEM, Creme Care & Cosmetics) are available that allow aggregate exposure assessment within some consumer product domains. For example, in cosmetics and personal care products, the availability of robust tools and data sets (habits and practices data with product co-use, and the use of presence probabilities) allow refined estimates of aggregate exposure. • A major challenge in estimating aggregate exposure in many product categories is obtaining representative information on exposure factors (Habits and Practices Data, Co-use Data, Chemical Concentration Data and Chemical Occurrence Data), as well as potential correlations between these factors. For some domains, such as household care products, the available data are limited. • Guidance should be developed to indicate when higher tier aggregate assessments might be a priority. Considerations include relative contributions of different sources, level of conservatism in a screening single source assessment (for example, the case study indicates a higher tier aggregate assessment may produce a lower exposure estimate than the maximum screening exposure predicted for a single uses), and total exposure levels from representative biomonitoring studies. • Model verification with real-life data (e.g. biomonitoring) on a representative range of chemicals would assist to promote use/acceptance of exposure model predictions. Wider engagement of industry, the public and regulators into the generation, harmonisation and management of input data related to consumer exposure will foster the advances in aggregate exposure modelling, especially in domains where currently little data are available.
... The simulations of indoor air concentrations and calculations of inhalation exposure were predicted from a single product use as well as from simultaneous use of multiple products that were documented in the form of 'most representative worst-case scenarios'. The predictions of aggregate exposure took into account product co-use profiles developed for over 4,000 adults split into two specific consumer groups: housekeepers and retired people in different European regions (Dimitroulopoulou et al, 2015b). The questions considered for the development of these scenarios were related to the use of consumer products in the domestic environment resulted in acquisition of the information on frequency, the amount, the time and location of product use for every single individual. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report details much of the current state-of-the-art of consumer exposure assessment data and models that can be used in chemical risk assessment, with a particular focus upon aggregate exposure assessment. Aggregate exposure considers all sources of exposure to a single chemical (e.g. hair care products, cosmetics, detergents, foods, environmental media, etc.) via all routes (oral, dermal, and inhalation). The report focuses on consumer products (not including the assessment of occupational exposure), considering the following product domains: cosmetics and personal care products, household products, food and other consumer products (such as surface coatings, adhesives, sealants, disinfectants, automotive care products, toys etc.). Exposure assessment is, by necessity, an iterative process. If, in any tier, negligible or acceptable risk cannot be demonstrated, the assessment moves to a higher tier. The risk assessment is finished if (in any tier of the approach) it has been demonstrated that the risk for the population under consideration is negligible or acceptable, or if in the highest tier the risk is not acceptable and further refinements are not possible. This approach was proposed in the WHO/IPCS framework for risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (Meek et al, 2011). The report is divided into four sections. Section One gives background on the tiered approach to exposure assessment, including aggregate exposure assessment in the consumer product domains. Section Two provides an overview of the current exposure landscape, detailing the main data sources, models and tools that are available for chemical risk assessment in the food, cosmetics, household, and consumer products domains. Conclusions and recommendations on current opportunities for the development and provision of new tools and data are also presented based on the outcome of this landscaping exercise. This section is accompanied by a detailed spreadsheet referencing all identified data sources and tools identified for chemical exposure assessment. Section Three presents examples of case studies of aggregate exposure to the chemicals triclosan and phenoxyethanol (PhE), outlining how current models and data can be best used for higher-tier exposure assessments. In addition, there is a literature review of the broader domain of aggregate exposure assessment, detailing other examples and approaches that exist for aggregate exposure assessment. Section Four contains discussion and conclusions on areas of opportunity for exposure science over the next two to five years. The key conclusions of this report are summarised as follows: • Exposure assessments should involve an iterative process, and should be conducted using a tiered strategy, where the lowest tier (0) involves a semi-quantitative assessment of the all sources, pathways and routes contributing to aggregate exposure to a substance, the mid-tier (1) tends to be a deterministic estimate with conservative assumptions, the higher tier (2) is a more realistic estimation of population exposure with increased use of measured data using probabilistic methods, and at the highest tier (3) exposure is modelled with a person-orientated approach using raw data sets. • Many tools and databases exist to support consumer exposure assessment, as demonstrated in the landscaping effort. Users can select the data and tools that best fit their specific situation and level of assessment. • Most consumer exposures tools are designed to evaluate single substance, single use assessments. • Higher tier exposure assessments require more realistic and representative data to the situation being assessed and additional understanding of data correlations. • Subject oriented aggregate tools (PACEM, Creme Care & Cosmetics) are available that allow aggregate exposure assessment within some consumer product domains. For example, in cosmetics and personal care products, the availability of robust tools and data sets (habits and practices data with product co-use, and the use of presence probabilities) allow refined estimates of aggregate exposure. • A major challenge in estimating aggregate exposure in many product categories is obtaining representative information on exposure factors (Habits and Practices Data, Co-use Data, Chemical Concentration Data and Chemical Occurrence Data), as well as potential correlations between these factors. For some domains, such as household care products, the available data are limited. • Guidance should be developed to indicate when higher tier aggregate assessments might be a priority. Considerations include relative contributions of different sources, level of conservatism in a screening single source assessment (for example, the case study indicates a higher tier aggregate assessment may produce a lower exposure estimate than the maximum screening exposure predicted for a single uses), and total exposure levels from representative biomonitoring studies. • Model verification with real-life data (e.g. biomonitoring) on a representative range of chemicals would assist to promote use/acceptance of exposure model predictions. Wider engagement of industry, the public and regulators into the generation, harmonisation and management of input data related to consumer exposure will foster the advances in aggregate exposure modelling, especially in domains where currently little data are available.
... Nell'ambito di EU_LCI è stato effettuato un censimento di circa 100 sostanze chimiche prioritarie usate nei materiali di costruzione e, quindi, ne sono stati definiti i relativi livelli massimi consentiti in termini di emissione, affinché il materiale non sia da classificare come pericoloso in relazione alla potenziale esposizione in ambienti indoor (EU-LCI Working group). Nel progetto EPHECT sono stati invece valutati i principali prodotti di consumo e le relative sostanze chimiche prioritarie che hanno un impatto sulla esposizione in ambienti indoor (Trantallidi M. et al., 2015) Idrocarburi policliclici aromatici (IPA) L'insorgenza di alcuni effetti sulla salute conseguenti all'esposizione in ambienti indoor può essere associata alla composizione chimica del PM, che può contenere alcune sostanze pericolose, quali ad esempio gli IPA, generati da processi di combustione incompleta di sostanze organiche. Gli IPA sono composti semi-volatili che possono essere originati ad esempio dalla combustione di legna e combustibili fossili. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduzione Con l'espressione ambiente indoor ci si riferisce agli ambienti chiusi di vita e di lavoro non industriali, e in particolare quelli adibiti a dimora, lavoro, trasporto e svago. Alcune indagini condotte a livello europeo hanno evidenziato che la popolazione dei centri urbani trascorre in media il 95-97% del tempo in ambienti indoor, il 2-4% nei mezzi di trasporto e solo l'1% nell'ambiente esterno (Fuselli S. et al., 2013a). Studi analoghi sono stati condotti in Italia sulla popolazione residente in alcune aree urbane per acquisire informazioni sugli stili di vita; i risultati di questi studi hanno mostrato come la popolazione italiana trascorra all'interno di ambienti indoor una percentuale media dell'89% del tempo con valori che oscillano tra l'84% e il 93%. In questa percentuale sono altresì compresi i lavoratori che operano nel settore terziario (uffici, commercio, banche, ospedali, scuole ecc.), e che rappresentano più del 67% della popolazione lavorativa italiana (e il 70% del totale dei lavoratori occupati in Europa) (Bastone A. et al.; 2006; Fuselli S. et al., 2013b). Considerando la grande quantità di tempo che la popolazione trascorre in questo tipo di ambienti, l'inquinamento degli ambienti indoor derivante dalla presenza, spesso concomitante, di agenti fisici (radiazioni ionizzanti e non ionizzanti), chimici (composti organici e inorganici, sotto forma di gas, vapori o materiale particolato) e biologici (microrganismi, muffe e acari) rappresenta dunque una questione ad oggi molto rilevante. Per quanto riguarda gli agenti chimici in particolare, nel corso degli ultimi decenni, la qualità dell'aria indoor è andata incontro ad un progressivo cambiamento sia dal punto di vista qualitativo che quantitativo, con un aumento di alcune sostanze inquinanti e dei relativi livelli in aria. A tal proposito, diversi studi hanno evidenziato la presenza negli ambienti indoor di numerosi agenti inquinanti (come ad esempio biossido d'azoto, biossido di zolfo, composti organici volatili, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici e particolato atmosferico aerodisperso) che, anche per esposizioni croniche a basse concentrazioni, possono determinare effetti sulla salute non ancora completamente noti (Sarigiannis D.A. et al., 2011). È da notare poi che alcuni studi hanno messo in evidenza che, in presenza di fonti interne e bassi livelli di ricircolo dell'aria, le concentrazioni di inquinanti rilevabili negli ambienti indoor, possono essere di molto superiori rispetti a quelli rilevati all'esterno (Salthammer T. et al., 2010). In definitiva, gli inquinanti chimici indoor, agendo singolarmente o in combinazione con altri fattori, possono determinare una diminuzione del comfort ambientale e, in alcuni casi, rischi per la salute umana. L'esposizione agli inquinanti presenti nell'aria indoor può essere infatti responsabile dell'insorgenza di specifiche patologie o dell'aggravamento di patologie già esistenti, con particolare riferimento alle fasce di popolazione più vulnerabili, in relazione anche alla suscettibilità individuale (Franchi M et al., 2006). Oltre a queste patologie ben definite possono manifestarsi sintomatologie " caratterizzate da effetti neurosensoriali che determinano condizioni di malessere, diminuzione del comfort degli occupanti e percezione negativa della qualità dell'aria " (sindrome dell'edificio malato o Sick Building Syndrome) (Bastone A. et al., 2006). L'interesse per la qualità dell'aria indoor in Europa è in crescita per le misure in atto di contenimento dei consumi energetici e per i rischi correlabili agli inquinanti secondari di reazione (Wolkoff P. et al., 2013). In questo contesto, e considerando l'enorme interesse in termini di impatti sulla salute umana, durante gli ultimi anni sono stati promossi diversi progetti di ricerca europei finalizzati allo studio dell'esposizione a inquinanti in ambienti indoor e alla gestione di tali ambienti. Tuttavia, l'incidenza e le cause di sintomi e di patologie potenzialmente correlabili all'inquinamento dell'aria indoor, in particolare agli inquinanti secondari di reazione, non sono ancora completamente note, così come le più efficaci misure per la loro prevenzione. Considerata l'ampiezza della tematica, e la grande numerosità degli agenti di rischio chimici legati agli ambienti indoor, il presente contributo intende presentare una breve discussione di alcuni agenti chimici che tipicamente possono essere presenti negli ambienti indoor, fornendo indicazioni utili allo studio dell'esposizione della popolazione generale negli ambienti indoor, quale contributo all'esposizione giornaliera ad agenti chimici potenzialmente pericolosi per la salute.
... Quantitative considerations in risk assessments include dose-response assessments, exposure assessments, and characterization of uncertainty. Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine the health risks posed by the ingredients in deodorizing products [38,39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes). The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards.
... Previous research on VOC emissions from fragranced consumer products found the most common compounds were ethanol and limonene (Steinemann 2015), limonene (Dimitroulopoulou et al. 2015), and limonene and linalool (ter Burg et al. 2014). In addition, other terpenes such as alpha-pinene and beta-pinene and other volatiles such as acetone, acetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and methanol were also common (Steinemann 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fragranced consumer products have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Babies are exposed to a variety of fragranced consumer products, which can emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some considered potentially hazardous. However, fragranced baby products are exempt from disclosure of all ingredients. Consequently, parents and the public have little information on product emissions. This study investigates VOCs emitted from a range of fragranced baby products, including baby hair shampoos, body washes, lotions, creams, ointments, oils, hair sprays, and fragrance. The products were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) headspace analysis. Of the 42 baby products tested, 21 products made claims of green, organic, or all-natural. Results of the analysis found 684 VOCs emitted collectively from the 42 products, representing 228 different VOCs. Of these 684 VOCs, 207 are classified as potentially hazardous under federal regulations, representing 43 different VOCs. The most common VOCs emitted were limonene, acetaldehyde, ethanol, alpha-pinene, linalool, beta-myrcene, acetone, and beta-pinene. A comparison between ingredients emitted and ingredients listed reveals that only 5% of the 684 VOCs, including 12% of 207 potentially hazardous VOCs, were listed on the product label, safety data sheet, or website. More than 95% of both green and regular products emitted one or more potentially hazardous VOCs. Further, emissions of the most prevalent VOCs from green, organic, or all-natural products were not significantly different from regular products. Results from this study can help improve public awareness about emissions from baby products, with the aim to reduce pollutant exposure and potential adverse effects on babies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s11869-018-0593-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Miscellaneous products. In the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU) several household and consumer products (cleaning agents air fresheners, polish, perfume) were selected and studied in test chambers [96,97]. On the basis of determined emission rates Trantallidi et al. [98] calculated exposure scenarios for different population groups in four geographical regions of Europe. ...
Article
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A literature study was carried out with respect to the release and accumulation of formaldehyde indoors. With reference to representative emission data, exposure scenarios were calculated on the basis of the European Reference Room with the aid of Monte-Carlo methods. Furthermore, data concerning formaldehyde concentrations in indoor and outdoor air, as well as data on air exchange, were collected for the European region. Various permanent, intermitting and temporary emission sources were compared under the specified conditions of the Reference Room. It was thereby necessary to bear in mind that, for example, the emission tests for raw wood-based materials and mineral wool do not take place under realistic conditions, as these products are not applied open in indoor areas. It is demonstrated that coatings and coverings drastically reduce the release of formaldehyde into the room air. Moreover, it becomes clear that the Reference Room concept allows a comparison of emission sources but also greatly overestimates the formaldehyde concentrations in indoor areas when diverse sources are simply added together. In view of the discussed aspects, as well as taking into account outdoor air conditions and diverse secondary sources, the potential problem of exposure to high formaldehyde concentrations in indoor areas can therefore not be solved through the further tightening of already existing regulations, in particular because peak concentrations and therefore high exposures would remain largely uninfluenced. Due to the fact that formaldehyde is a compound with a threshold effect, this aspect is of considerable importance. Consequently, an appropriate risk management option would be to primarily address the peak concentrations originating from temporary and intermitting sources.
... Household products that fall under these regulations are required to be assessed for exposure and risk in order to evaluate the health and environmental hazards associated with their use. Exposure and risk assessment involves the systematic scientific characterization of potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations [12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
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Understanding how indoor-air contaminants affect human health is of critical importance in our developed society. We assessed the combined exposure by inhalation of preschool children and children to household products. A total of 1175 families with 72 infants, 158 toddlers, 230 children, and 239 youths were surveyed to determine the combined respiratory exposure concentrations and amounts associated with 21 substances in eight household product groups. We determined the mean concentrations of these substances in each product, and derived reference toxicity values based on the information gathered in order to identify respiratory health risks. On average, cleaners were used at a rate of 1.0 × 103 g/month, while coating agents and other substances were used at 43 g/month. The combined inhalation exposure concentrations of methanol to infants and toddlers were 5.1 and 4.2 mg/m3 per month, respectively, with values of 2.1 and 1.7 mg/m3 for isopropanol, respectively. Risks to preschool children and children should be assessed on the basis of the toxicity values of combined exposed hazardous substances, as well as their combined concentrations and amounts. This exposure assessment approach can be used to establish improved guidelines for products that may pose inhalation hazards to preschool children and children.
... In addition, Guo and Kannan [18] reported human exposure to phthalates and parabens in personal care products. In Europe, the EPHECT project determined the exposure and risks of formaldehyde, d-limonene, α-pinene, and naphthalene in 15 consumer products [19,20]. In Korea, Kim et al. [21] determined the exposure levels and health risks of substances in deodorants. ...
Article
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Public concern regarding the use of products with chemicals has increased in Korea, following reports indicating that hazardous chemicals in products, such as disinfectants, can cause fatal lung disease. Despite the widespread use of car colorant products, little is known regarding their potential health risks. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential health risks of substances that exist in car colorant products. Thirteen car colorant products were purchased from the Korean market and 15 commonly used chemicals were analyzed. Exposure and risk assessments were conducted in two assessment stages (screening and refined). The analysis showed that all of the examined products contained toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. The maximum concentration of toluene was 52.5%, with a median concentration of 10.8%. Tier 1 (screening) assessment showed that four chemicals (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 2-butoxyethanol) may pose health risks, but tier 2 (refined) assessment showed that these chemicals do not pose any risk. However, these chemicals were present in all of the examined products, and government regulations did not control their concentrations in these products. Therefore, we suggest that levels of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in car colorant products should be regulated to protect public health.
... Several studies on exposure information associated with household products were conducted. A European household product database for domestic use of 15 products was established to provide information that would enable exposure and risk assessment of the chemicals included in common household products (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015b;Trantallidi et al., 2015). In the USA, the study of use of products and exposure-related behaviors project provided data on usage patterns for many household products (Bennett et al., 2010). ...
... The numerical algorithms are often tailored to exposure route, the direct pathway by which a chemical enters the body (typically dermal absorption, ingestion, or inhalation). There are a variety of approaches and definitions of exposure scenarios relevant to consumer products [10,15,16,[19][20][21]. However, some common aspects often considered when formulating scenarios include the environmental compartment of the release (e.g., air, skin, or surfaces), microenvironment where the release occurs (e.g., indoors or outdoors), and method of application/form of release (e.g., vapor, liquid, or aerosol). ...
Article
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Consumer product categorizations for use in predicting human chemical exposure provide a bridge between product composition data and consumer product use pattern information. Furthermore, the categories reflect other factors relevant to developing consumer product exposure scenarios, such as microenvironment of use (e.g., indoors or outdoors), method of application/form of release (e.g., spray versus liquid), release to various media, removal processes (e.g., rinse-off or wipe-off), and route-specific exposure factors (dermal surface areas of application, fraction of release in respirable form). While challenging, developing harmonized product categories can generalize the factors described above allowing for rapid parameterization of route-specific exposure scenario algorithms for new chemical/product applications and efficient utilization of new data on product use or composition. This can be accomplished via mapping product categories to likewise categorized release and use patterns or exposure factors. Here, hierarchical product use categories (PUCs) for consumer products that provide such mappings are presented and crosswalked with other internationally harmonized product categories for consumer exposure assessment. The PUCs were defined by applying use and exposure scenario information to the products in EPA’s Chemical and Products Database (CPDat). This paper demonstrates how these PUCs are being used to rapidly parameterize algorithms for scenario-specific use, fate, and exposure in a probabilistic aggregate model of human exposure to chemicals used in consumer products. The PUCs provide a generic representation of consumer products for use in exposure assessment and provide an efficient framework for flexible and rapid data reporting and consumer exposure model parameterization.
... Therefore, ozone-initiated terpene chemistry and the evaluation of the potential impact of ozone-induced pollutants on building occupants are issues of concern in indoor research field (Rohr, 2013). Moreover, it is a major subject of public concern because cleaning products are recognized as the most widespread consumer products with the highest market penetration (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015). Ozone is a reactive species present indoors with average concentrations about 20-70% of outdoor levels (Weschler, 2000(Weschler, , 2006. ...
Article
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emission and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) formation from a water-based carpet deodorizer were investigated in a 20 m3 walk-in climate chamber with and without a textile carpet installed. The deodorizer was tested under near-realistic user conditions at low (< 2 ppbv) and high (~50 ppbv) ozone concentrations and controlled micro-environmental parameters. Fifty grams of the deodorizer was pump sprayed onto 2 m2 inert stainlesssteel surface or carpet in order to mimic normal use. Characterization of primary VOCs and ozone-initiated products was performed by air sampling on Tenax TA followed by TD-GC/MS analysis and on DNPH cartridges followed by liquid extraction and HPLC/UV analysis. SOA formation was monitored simultaneously by means of high-time resolution instruments. Emission testing onto steel plates at ~50 ppbv ozone showed the decay of reactive VOCs (i.e., dihydromyrcenol and linalool) concurrent with the consumption of ozone and formation of oxygenated reaction products (i.e., acetaldehyde, acetone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one) and an increase of SOA. Emission testing on carpet at ~50 ppbv ozone showed a significant ozone removal and an increase of nonanal and dodecanal, but without detection of oxygenated products and SOA formation. The reactive VOCs from the carpet experiment followed a first order decay.
... The composition of emissions from household products has been associated with health hazards for indoor occupants. [9]- [13] Nevertheless, limited information is available about composition and emissions associated to housekeeping activities in confined environments. The available scientific data are for most cases incomparable due to the wide variety in evaluation protocols. ...
Article
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As society has become aware of health hazards related to the exposure to chemicals, major efforts have been made to address indoor air current problematic. Consequently, popularity of “green” cleaning products has upsurge. These products are formulated with essential-oils relying on their anti-bacterial properties to improve indoor air quality. Indeed, essential oils might contain a hundred of odorous molecules, mainly terpenes and terpenoids (TerVOCs) which acts as antibacterial agents. Nonetheless, do essential-oil-based products really contribute to indoor air quality improvement? This study is addressed to evaluate emissions from the use of essential-oils-based cleaning products by various scale experiments. Firstly, a correlation of liquid composition from 7 natural cleaning products with their emission potentials has been investigated. Volatile fractions are evaluated by using micro-chamber testing. A total of 28 terpenes are quantified among products in the liquid form. Nevertheless, only 22 species are detected in gas samples with a yield ranking from 9.1 % to 99.8 %. Results do not verified a direct correlation between liquid mass and emitted concentrations of terpenes. Indeed, chemical affinities between terpenes and solvent matrix in product formulation are evidenced. Then, 4 products from different cleaning purposes have been selected for emission evaluation in a test chamber of 1-m3. Product application process are correlated to real case scenario regarding applied quantity and loading factor. Emitted terpenes and carbonyl compounds are quantified by off-line and on-line chromatography measurements. Results evidenced that peak concentrations from terpenes reached up to 1.5 h after cleaning activity. Major compound emitted concentration range from 121 to 152 μg/m3, in the test chamber, for different product categories. Specific emission dynamic is evidenced for formaldehyde, in where continuous increasing concentration is revealed due to the presence of formaldehyde releasers. This study contributes to further assessment of exposure hazards related to cleaning activities.
... Indoor activities that generate air pollution include NO 2 and PM 2.5 from cooking and PM 2.5 from solid fuel heating or smoking (Klepeis & Nazaroff, 2006;Géhin et al., 2008;O'Leary et al., 2019). Cleaning activities are a common source of indoor VOC emissions from aerosols and solvents (Dumanoglu et al., 2014;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015). Activities may vary in terms of presence, source intensity, frequency, and duration across SES. ...
Article
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Disparities in outdoor air pollution exposure between individuals of differing socio-economic status is a growing area of research, widely explored in the environmental health literature. However, in developed countries, around 80% of time is spent indoors, meaning indoor air pollution may be a better proxy for personal exposure. Building characteristics - such as build quality, volume and ventilation - and occupant behaviour, mean indoor air pollution may also vary across socio-economic groups, leading to health inequalities. Much of the existing literature has focused on inequalities in exposure to outdoor air pollution, and there is thus a lack of an evidence base reviewing data for indoor environments. In this study, a scoping review of the literature on indoor air pollution exposures across different socio-economic groups is performed, examining evidence from both monitoring and modelling studies in the developed world. The literature was reviewed, identifying different indoor pollutants, definitions for socio-economic status and pre- and post- housing interventions. Based on the review, the study proposes a modelling methodology for evaluating the effects of environmental policies on different socio-economic populations. Using a sample size calculation, obstacles in obtaining sufficiently large samples of monitored data are demonstrated. A modelling framework for the rapid quantification of daily home exposure is then outlined as a proof of concept. While significant additional research is required to examine inequalities in indoor exposures, modelling approaches may provide opportunities to quantify exposure disparities due to housing and behaviours across populations of different socio-economic status.
... contact, inhalation, and at times, ingestion (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015). Insect repellants which are usually directly applied to the skin contain picaridin in its formulation that may contribute to skin diseases such as acanthosis and hyperkeratosis (Roy et al., 2017). ...
Article
The numerous formulated products which are introduced to the market consist of chemical ingredients that may cause various safety and health hazards to the consumers. Therefore, it is extremely important to practice a systematic methodology to formulate products with acceptable safety and health performances. This work presents an index-based methodology to assess the safety and health hazards of the ingredients during the early formulation stage of product design. Hence, new inherent safety and health sub-indexes are introduced to improve the current safety and health hazards that are needed in formulated product design. The inherent safety and health sub-indexes are assigned with scores based on the degree of potential hazards. A higher score indicates a higher safety risk or severe health effect, and vice versa. The proposed methodology will greatly assist the users to identify the adverse safety and health effects caused by the ingredients. Hence, it is pivotal to eliminate or reduce the safety and health impacts from product usage. A case study on common ingredients used in the formulation of paint is presented on this study to describe the proposed method.
... It has been observed that, beyond the instructions, the applied quantity of cleaning products depends on the category of product used, its diffusion mode and the surface to clean. [4], [9], [48], [69]- [71] Emissions and reactivity of terpenes from the use of essential-oil-based household products under realistic conditions Impact on indoor air quality Chapter 1 ...
Thesis
Essential oils, as natural fragances, are frequently used in green marketed housecleaning products and air fresheners. Nonetheless, they contain volatile and reactive chemical species. This thesis investigates the emissions of essential-oil-based household products under real consumer use patterns to assess their impacts on indoor air quality. The experimental approach allows an integrated assessment of the estimation of the terpene emissions from 10 selected essential-oil-based household products in experimental chambers at different scales ; from micro-chamber to the 40m3 experimental room. Regarding essential-oil-based cleaning products, contrasted concentration levels are evidenced for terpenes species related to the application process and use purpose of these products. Morover, long-term increase of formaldehyde concentrations are noticed after the application of these products that might be related to secondary sources. Concerning the indoor diffusion of tea tree oil, contrasted concentration levels and kinetics are evidenced depending on the mechanism of diffusion used. Concentrations can exceed by more than one order of magnitude the recommanded Critical Exposure Level (CEL). It is noticed that the relative contribtions of individual terpenes is the gas phase vary all along the diffusion process, for any investigated diffusion device. Finally, essential-oil-based household products have to be seriously envisaged as versatile anfdsignificant sources of VOCs since they might induce indoor concentrations of terpenes exceeding exposure limits established by the European Union and the United States.
... A European research project found that both acute (high-level, short-term) and chronic (low-level, long-term) exposure to certain VOCs were related to irritative and respiratory health effects 115,116,117 . This includes acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. ...
Chapter
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Air pollution is the environmental public health problem of our time. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child sets out clear guidance to protecting the rights of children and young people, including a child's right to the best possible health (Article 24) and the right to a good standard of living. Unicef also consider that clean air is a right for all children. The UK Royal Medical Colleges vigorously advocate for a healthy environment at the population level and in local communities, especially where socio-economic circumstances limit the choice of where people can live, and which school children attend. Despite substantial progress in understanding outdoor air pollution, the potential risk to health, especially that of children and young people, from the indoor air has been largely overlooked, yet in modern times, the indoor environment has never been more important as lockdown with the Covi-19 virus pandemic has shown us. Here we provide an abridged version of the RCPCH/RCP Report The inside story: Health effects of indoor air quality on children and young people but without the section on recommendations. The full Report along with recommendations, released on 28 January 2020, can be accessed at https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/resources/inside-story-health-effects-indoor-air-quality-children-young-people. While we recognise that some aspects of this commentary are UK specific, much of the content has wide implications.
... For example: the use of candles, cleaning products, drying of clothes or simply the presence of several people are all events that could take place in a room with the door closed and could lead to poor IAQ(Satish et al., 2012;Porteous et al., 2014;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015).To date there has been relatively little empirical work exploring how internal spaces are divided and used by occupants.Banfill et al. (2012) found that particular doors were opened and closed at regular times each day, while particular rooms were almost permanently closed off due to adult children moving away.McDermott et al. (2010) found several reasons people opened or closed doors including: watching children in next door rooms, letting light in, and blocking sounds. ...
Thesis
In the UK, steps have been taken to reduce air permeability of buildings and reduce their energy consumption due to unplanned ventilation. However, adequate ventilation is required for good indoor air quality. The building regulations require means for adequate ventilation in new buildings for good indoor air quality, and in England Approved Document F (ADF) sets out how this may be achieved. Nonetheless, few detailed studies of ventilation in occupied homes have been carried out. This project addresses aspects of ventilation measurement, performance of ventilation systems and the sociotechnical nature of ventilation in occupied homes. Ventilation in occupied buildings is driven by building characteristics, ventilation equipment, weather conditions and occupant actions and therefore can be highly variable. Despite this, much ventilation research in occupied homes either measures a long-term average ventilation rate or collects a small number of `snap-shot’ measurements of ventilation rate. This research developed a method for measuring ventilation rates in occupied homes based on the tracer gas decay technique using metabolic CO₂. The method was applied in four occupied dwellings over 6 months to give more than 500 ventilation rate measurements. These results facilitated assessment of the performance of the ventilation system and exploration of the variation in ventilation rates. This revealed significant differences in the ventilation rates experienced by occupants in the different dwellings and highlighted shortcomings in the planned ventilation system. Ventilation in occupied homes is strongly influenced by occupants. The final part of the research used a social practice theory framework to compare the participants’ practices with the intended uses of ventilation equipment implicit in ADF. This revealed that although the participants shared many of ADF’s goals in terms of the air in their homes, their practices were more nuanced than ADF and that their use of the ventilation equipment did not reflect ADF’s intentions.
... It has been established that some NMVOCs contained in aerosols products are toxic (Dales et al., 2013) and extensive studies are available in the literature to this effect (Comiskey et al., 2015, Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a, Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015b, McDonald et al., 2018, Rahman and Kim, 2014, Steinemann, 2016, Trantallidi et al., 2015, Wieck et al., 2018, Wolkoff and Nielsen, 2017, Zota et al., 2017. The concentration measurements of the NMVOCs from aerosols at the indoor interface (Bartzis et al., 2015, Batterman et al., 2012, Pelletier et al., 2017, Wieck et al., 2018 and their outdoor impacts in terms of secondary ozone formation (Atkinson and Arey, 2003, Carter, 1994, Dinh et al., 2015, Li et al., 2020, Niu et al., 2017, Rohr, 2013, Yan et al., 2017 have also been highlighted. ...
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Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) from domestic aerosol sprays are emerging pollutants and have substantial negative effects on human health and the environment. This study, for the first time, carried out quantification of the NMVOC emissions from off-the-shelf domestic aerosol sprays, at "source" in the UK. These aerosol sprays contain harmful organic compounds as propellants and products. The results showed that the cosmetic category (i.e. body sprays) have higher concentrations of NMVOCs with 93.7 wt% per can compared to households (i.e. air fresheners) with 62 wt%. Also, water-based products showed less NMVOCs in all analyses compared to solvent-based formulations. Direct replacement of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) propellants from conventional products with 'clean air' (i.e. nitrogen) showed the potential emission reduction of 50%. Hair spray products, however, have the highest ozone forming potential with about 105.1 g of Ozone per litre of the product compared to other domestic aerosol sprays. The level of global warming contribution of the selected aerosol sprays in the UK was measured to be 129.8 ktCO2e in 2018 and globally, this can be projected to be 3154.6 ktCO2e in 2020. Furthermore, NMVOC emissions contribution from the domestic aerosol sprays in the UK was measured as 61.2 kt in 2018 based on annual consumption of 520 million cans. Globally this can equate to 1437.6 kt based on the projected usage of 17.5 billion cans. Therefore, it is vital to expedite replacing LPG propellant with nitrogen in a drive for a 'near-zero' emission in aerosol industry. The results presented in this study can also be used to steer policy makers to the potentially brewing danger from an otherwise passive emission source.
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Introduction: There are numerous risk factors for cancer occurrence, including: age, family history, microbial infections, lifestyle and contact with harmful exogenous or endogenous factors associated with touching, eating, drinking, or breathing. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential carcinogenic effect of using some cosmetics and household detergents by cancer patients and to describe their toxic and carcinogenic ability. Methods: One hundred of cancer patients from Baghdad city were included in the questionnaire during the period from June to September 2019, in which the frequency of using ten different items(external formulas) was investigated. which in contact with the skin. Results: The results indicated that the most vulnerable age for cancer among the individuals who used to deal with chemicals was the 50s (29%). While the highest rate of cancer was the breast cancer in women (22%), lung and tracheal cancer in men accounted for18% and gut cancers ranked third (14%) in both sexes. Housewives reported the highest number of cancer cases (30%), followed by the group of painters, carpenters, barber and building workers (20%), and finally the group of drivers and oil workers (15%). There was a significant value for the daily use of the selected items, especially powder detergents, liquid cleaning products, , skin moisturizes, and sunblock. However, no significant value appeared when cancer patient used these items weekly or monthly. Conclusion: The excessive use of chemicals can cause many health disorders, one of them is cancer. Therefore, it is recommended to use alternative and safe products instead of those containing chemicals as much as possible to avoid direct their effects, such as burns, allergies, or cancer at the long term.
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The current scientific report aims at providing a document that compiles and summarise relevant information on non-dietary exposure derived from the use of consumer products and via the environment (dust, air, etc.). Leading institutions and organisations on non-dietary exposure are presented, in particular, the European Chemical Agency (ECHA). This scientific report also provides an overview of the registration process of chemical substances that should be followed under Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), including the use descriptor system. This system provides an appropriate level of information to allow understanding what is done with the substance and to ensure a meaningful and complete exposure assessment of the uses. Special attention is given to algorithms and toolboxes described by ECHA guidance that are used to estimate the external dose of one particular chemical through different routes and sources of exposure. These algorithms allow the estimation of non-dietary exposure following a stepwise or tiered approach, from deriving a reasonable ‘worst-case’ scenario to more refined exposure estimations when needed. Sources of information are also provided on default values (exposure factors) to be used when not measured values are available, such as body weight, dermal factors (e.g. skin area), consumer products use, activity factors, inhalation rates, incidental soil ingestion rates, etc. Finally, few examples are given on how to use some of the mentioned toolboxes and algorithms to estimate non-dietary exposure to different chemical compounds (carvone and bisphenol A) from consumer products and environment (indoor air). This scientific report was endorsed by the EFSA Scientific Committee on its 78th Plenary Meeting.
Article
In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios specifically constructed for the present study, following a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' approach for exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) and air filtration, where such solution is feasible and when the system is properly installed, operated and maintained. Groups at high risk of these adverse health effects include the elderly (especially those living on their own), individuals with pre-existing illnesses, people living in overcrowded accommodation, and the socioeconomically deprived. A better understanding of how current and emerging building infrastructure design, construction, and materials may affect health in the context of climate change and mitigation and adaptation measures is needed in the UK and other high income countries. Long-term, energy efficient building design interventions, ensuring adequate ventilation, need to be promoted.
Article
Over the past few decades, multiple low level indoor pollutants have been found in domestic dwellings. The types and concentrations of these indoor pollutants have not been consistent over time and have changed with alterations in lifestyle, the development of novel products used in housing, and the development of new measurement technologies. To clarify the highest risk pollutants for which health risks should be reduced, we conducted a health risk assessment of 49 indoor air pollutants measured in 602 houses during winter and summer from 2012 to 2014. Inhalation reference concentrations were determined, and the margins of exposure were estimated for each indoor pollutant from measured indoor air concentrations. Health risks due to ammonia and acidic gases, including formic acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen chloride, were also assessed. Overall, during both winter and summer, the highest risk pollutants were acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, formic acid, and hydrogen chloride. The health risks of propanal, acetaldehyde, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were also high. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested an independent principal component for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The primary source of exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene in Japan is an indoor household insect repellent. The improvement of individual lifestyle and housing may be appropriate targets for reducing the risk associated with this compound. The provision of further information on the risk to consumers and promotion of changes in consumer consciousness are needed. PCA suggested that the health risks of indoor air pollutants are amalgamated into similar chemical families, such as aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, or acetic esters. Our results suggest that health-based guidelines or source control measures, based on these chemical families and similar health endpoints, are appropriate for reducing total health risk due to multiple low level indoor pollutants.
Chapter
Abstract In this article, several aspects of environmental benzene exposure are treated by using International Agencies documents and peer reviewed literature updated to 2015. Specifically, the following points are touched: Benzene production and use, emission sources, Outdoor, Indoor, and Personal Levels of Benzene, International Recommended Limits with a view on Benzene toxicity, health effects and biomonitoring. Finally, preventive actions and research priorities are suggested based on existing literature.
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Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.
Article
Noncombustible air fresheners are indoor air emission sources of concern. The associated health risks should be better understood. Based on 15 products (4 sprays, 6 passive diffusers, and 5 active diffusers), the health risk assessment (HRA) approach was applied to a national use survey in France and to concentrations measured in an experimental house. The targeted substances included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and fine particles (PM2.5). Mean-use and reasonable worst-case generic scenarios were designed. No situation of concern occurred regarding chronic exposure associated with the mean use. Under the reasonable worst-case scenarios, the chronic risk could exceed selected health reference standards, mainly for acrolein (average inhaled concentration (AIC) up to 3.5 µg/m³), benzene (AIC up to 4 µg/m³), and limonene (AIC up to 8 mg/m³). The acute exposure, defined as a 1-h exposure, could exceed selected health standards, primarily for acrolein (up to 23 µg/m³) and formaldehyde (up to approximately 370 µg/m³). Furthermore, the 1-h average PM2.5 concentration, including ultrafine particles, could exceed 100 µg/m³, typically for sprays. These results suggest that the highest exposures should be reduced and, as such, that the emissions of the highest-emissivity products should be lowered.
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Introduction: There are numerous risk factors for cancer occurrence, including: age, family history, microbial infections, lifestyle and contact with harmful exogenous or endogenous factors associated with touching, eating, drinking, or breathing. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential carcinogenic effect of using some cosmetics and household detergents by cancer patients and to describe their toxic and carcinogenic ability. Methods: One hundred of cancer patients from Baghdad city were included in the questionnaire during the period from June to September 2019, in which the frequency of using ten different items(external formulas) was investigated. which in contact with the skin. Results: The results indicated that the most vulnerable age for cancer among the individuals who used to deal with chemicals was the 50s (29%). While the highest rate of cancer was the breast cancer in women (22%), lung and tracheal cancer in men accounted for18% and gut cancers ranked third (14%) in both sexes. Housewives reported the highest number of cancer cases (30%), followed by the group of painters, carpenters, barber and building workers (20%), and finally the group of drivers and oil workers (15%). There was a significant value for the daily use of the selected items, especially powder detergents, liquid cleaning products, , skin moisturizes, and sunblock. However, no significant value appeared when cancer patient used these items weekly or monthly. Conclusion: The excessive use of chemicals can cause many health disorders, one of them is cancer. Therefore, it is recommended to use alternative and safe products instead of those containing chemicals as much as possible to avoid direct their effects, such as burns, allergies, or cancer at the long term.
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In 2008, a proposal for assessing the risk of induction of skin sensitization to fragrance materials Quantitative Risk Assessment 1 (QRA1) was published. This was implemented for setting maximum limits for fragrance materials in consumer products. However, there was no formal validation or empirical verification after implementation. Additionally, concerns remained that QRA1 did not incorporate aggregate exposure from multiple product use and included assumptions, e.g. safety assessment factors (SAFs), that had not been critically reviewed. Accordingly, a review was undertaken, including detailed re-evaluation of each SAF together with development of an approach for estimating aggregate exposure of the skin to a potential fragrance allergen. This revision of QRA1, termed QRA2, provides an improved method for establishing safe levels for sensitizing fragrance materials in multiple products to limit the risk of induction of contact allergy. The use of alternative non-animal methods is not within the scope of this paper. Ultimately, only longitudinal clinical studies can verify the utility of QRA2 as a tool for the prevention of contact allergy to fragrance materials.
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An increasing fraction of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions come from the domestic use of solvents, contained within myriad commonplace consumer products. Emission rates are often poorly characterized and depend significantly on individual behavior and specific product formulation and usage. Time‐concentration profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) arising from the use of a representative selection of personal care products (PCPs) during showering are generated, and person‐to‐person variability in emissions calculated. A panel of 18 participants used a standardized set of products, dosages, and application times during showering in a controlled indoor bathroom setting. Proton transfer mass spectrometry was used to measure the in‐room VOC evolution of limonene (representing the sum of monoterpenes), benzyl alcohol, and ethanol. The release of VOCs had reproducible patterns between users, but noticeable variations in absolute peak concentrations, despite identical amounts of material being used. The amounts of VOC emitted to air for one showering activity were as follows: limonene (1.77 mg ± 42%), benzyl alcohol (1.07 mg ± 41%), and ethanol (0.33 mg ± 78%). Real‐world emissions to air were between 1.3 and 11 times lower than bottom‐up estimates based on dynamic headspace measurements of product emissions rates, likely a result of PCPs being washed away before VOC evaporation could occur.
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Essential oils are frequently used as natural fragrances in housecleaning products and air fresheners marketed as green and healthy. However, these substances are volatile and reactive chemical species. This review focuses on the impact of essential oil-based household products on indoor air quality. First, housecleaning products containing essential oils are explored in terms of composition and existing regulations. Specific insight is provided regarding terpenes in fragranced housecleaning products, air fresheners, and pure essential oils. Second, experimental methodologies for terpene monitoring, from sampling to experimental chambers and analytical methods, are addressed, emphasizing the experimental issues in monitoring terpenes in indoor air. Third, the temporal dynamics of terpene emissions reported in the literature are discussed. Despite experimental discrepancies, essential oil-based products are significant sources of terpenes in indoor air, inducing a high exposure of occupants to terpenes. Finally, the fate of terpenes is explored from sorptive and reactive points of view. In addition to terpene deposition on surfaces, indoor oxidants may induce homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, resulting in secondary pollutants, such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols. Overall, essential oil-based products can negatively impact indoor air quality; therefore, standard protocols and real-scale approaches are needed to explore the indoor physics and chemistry of terpenes, from emissions to reactivity.
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Technical Report
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CHAPTER 1 Product testing strategy 1.1. Structure of the report “Part II product testing experiments” 1.2. Test chamber experiments of the 15 product classes CHAPTER 2 Assessment of the composition of selected consumer products (TUM) 2.1 Information on product composition 2.1.1 Information on product label 2.1.2 Information directly by company 2.1.3 Information available online 2.1.4 Consumer product composition analysis in EPHECT 2.1.5 Sample and compound selection for (TUM) laboratory studies 2.1.6 Sample preparation and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) method 2.1.7 Analytical method 2.1.8 Terpenoid and Aromate Determination 2.1.9 Open access data on consumer product composition versus analysis CHAPTER 3 consumer product emission testing 3.1 Emission testing at VITO 3.1.1 Laboratory facilities 3.1.2 Test Conditions 3.1.3 Use scenario simulations 3.2 Emission testing at NRCWE 3.2.1 Laboratory facilities 3.2.2 Use scenario simulations 3.3 Emission testing at IDMEC 3.3.1 Laboratory facilities 3.3.2 Test conditions 3.3.3 Use scenario simulations 3.4 Emission testing at UOWM 3.4.1 Laboratory facilities 3.4.2 Test conditions 3.4.3 Use scenario simulations CHAPTER 4 Intercomparison experiment and QA/QC in EPHECT 4.1 Intercomparison of the consumer product emission tests 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Experimental test conditions 4.1.3 Specific emission rate calculations based on test chamber concentrations 4.1.4 Emissions behaviour in the intercomparison studies (first preliminary report – UOWM) 4.2 Quality assurance and quality control in EPHECT 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes– 1st Phase, Autumn 2011 3.4.1 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes– 1st Phase 3.4.2 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes – 2nd phase CHAPTER 5 EPHECT consumer product emission tests 5.1 Calculating the SER of the tested consumer products 5.2 Consumer product emissions, beyond EHPECT key compounds CHAPTER 6 Conclusion quantification of product emissions by laboratory testing References Annex 1 Source strength determination (NRCWE) 87 Annex 2 Specific emission rate calculations based on test chamber concentrations (VITO) Annex 3 Specific emission rate calculations of EPHECT consumer products, based on test chamber concentrations Annex 4 Comparison of the A.I.S.E. candle emission test protocol (in 0.913 m³) with the EPHECT candle emission test at VITO (0.913 m³), at IDMEC (0.05 m³) https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/Pages/documents.aspx
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EPHECT work package 6 (WP6) involves 4 different laboratories that will perform lab testing experiments in product test chambers of different dimensions. The main aim of this document is to tune the laboratory activities of these research institutes for obtaining meaningful emission data. Several aspects of the laboratory work are addressed and described in this document. These include: The formulation of consumer product test protocols (chapter 2) The assessment of priority compounds, studied in WP6 and further WPs (chapter 3) The detailed description of analytical methods, used by the different involved laboratories (chapter 4) The QA/QC strategy, applied in the EPHECT lab testing activities (chapter 5) The EPHECT plan of work (Chapter 6) Secondly this document may contribute to the definition and formulation of a general consumer product test protocol, to assess emissions related to the use and typical use scenarios of consumer and personal care products in households. It can be considered as a first step to obtain harmonized lab testing experiments of consumer products. Since different laboratories are involved, using emission test chambers of various dimensions, attention is also put to analyse products in more than one lab. The latter experiments will provide valuable information concerning the error of emission rates from consumer products, which are calculated based on this consumer product test protocol presented in this document. This document addresses a strategy to assess product emissions, related to the household use of consumer products. This is based on available open literature and on pre-screening experiments, performed by the laboratories involved in WP6. The strategy presented in this document is optimized, updated and fine-tuned, based on the results of the EPHECT lab experiments that are organised based on this protocol. The strategy presented here, more specifically applies to the 15 EPHECT product classes that comply with the 6 EPHECT criteria, defined in the EPHECT project proposal. These selection criteria are the following: - The product is used in households - The use of the product causes an exposure related to the use - The product emits key or emerging pollutants - The product has a considerable indicative household use frequency - The product mainly causes inhalation exposure - The use causes a health end point https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/Pages/documents.aspx
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Legal notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. Foreword In the past decades a large number of studies have indicated the presence of many different compounds belonging to a variety of chemical classes in indoor environments (buildings, homes). The presence of these chemicals in indoor air is the result of infiltration of polluted outdoor air and of emissions from various indoor sources, including building materials, activities of the occupants, consumer products, smoking etc. For many of these chemicals, the risk to human health and comfort is almost totally unknown and difficult to predict because of lack of toxicological data and information on the dose-response characteristics in humans or animal models. On the other hand, a full toxicological testing as requested by the " existing chemicals " legislation is difficult to accomplish for these compounds, because it would involve investigation of acute and subacute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity according to testing protocols that are complex, time-consuming and expensive. Moreover, the EU policy on limitation of unnecessary animal testing further limits the possibility of advocating a generalized animal testing of these chemicals. The result of this situation is that there is an objective difficulty in regulating the presence of these substances in indoor air principally because of the absence of adequate hazard and risk assessment. There is therefore an urgent need to develop a strategy for the identification of priorities in testing, assessment and regulation. In the frame of the INDEX project the existing knowledge worldwide has been assessed on-type and levels of chemicals in indoor air and-available toxicological information to allow the assessment of risk to health and comfort. The collection and evaluation of the aforementioned information within the frame of the INDEX project shall contribute to develop a strategy for prioritization in assessment and regulation of chemicals in indoor environments.
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The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related health effects by extensive review of the literature as well as further analyses of published data. Daily inhalation intakes of indoor ozone (micrograms per day) are estimated to be between 25 and 60% of total daily ozone intake. This is especially noteworthy in light of recent work indicating little, if any, threshold for ozone's impact on mortality. Additionally, the present study estimates that average daily indoor intakes of ozone oxidation products are roughly one-third to twice the indoor inhalation intake of ozone alone. Some of these oxidation products are known or suspected to adversely affect human health (e.g., formaldehyde, acrolein, hydroperoxides, fine and ultrafine particles). Indirect evidence supports connections between morbidity/mortality and exposures to indoor ozone and its oxidation products. For example, cities with stronger associations between outdoor ozone and mortality tend to have residences that are older and less likely to have central air conditioning, which implies greater transport of ozone from outdoors to indoors. Indoor exposures to ozone and its oxidation products can be reduced by filtering ozone from ventilation air and limiting the indoor use of products and materials whose emissions react with ozone. Such steps might be especially valuable in schools, hospitals, and childcare centers in regions that routinely experience elevated outdoor ozone concentrations.
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The aim of this review is to evaluate existing knowledge on the presence of indoor air contaminants in office buildings, and to report on recent studies on volatile organic compounds and particle emissions from electronic equipment. The most commonly found chemicals are aromatic compounds (BTEX), linear and cyclic alkanes (hexane, nonane, methyl-cyclohexane), terpenes (α-pinene, limonene), carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) and particulate matter. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings in Europe and North America are in the range of 0.1-1000 μg/m3, with average concentrations being in most cases <100 μg/m3. Higher concentrations (up to 1600 μg/m3) were measured in Asiatic countries. Thus, concentrations of benzene and toluene in European countries range from 2 to 11.2 and from 4.3 to 43.1 μg/m3, respectively, while, in non-European countries, concentrations range from 3.4 to 87.1 and from 52.8 to 287.3 μg/m3, respectively. Emission rates of chemicals from office equipment (including fax machines, laser jet printers, ink-jet printers, scanners, and photocopying machines) were studied in test chambers. Highest emission rates were obtained for toluene, ethylbenzene, m,pxylene, and styrene, as these compounds are normally used as solvents in toner for printers. Emissions from desktop computers using CRT or TFT screens include aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, with emission rates upto 103 μg/h per unit. For particles, the PM levels measured in European offices range from 7 to 180 μg/m3 (for PM10) and 5 to 60 μg/m3 (for PM2.5). Indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 0.34-0.88 (for PM2.5) and 0.46-1.7 (for PM10). Significant PM levels are generally found during operation of printers, copy machines and multi-functional devices.
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The European Indoor Air Monitoring and Exposure Assessment Project (AIRMEX) (2003-2008) was designed with the aim to identify and quantify the principal air contaminants present in public buildings, including indoor environments frequented by children, like in schools and kindergartens, and to evaluate to what extent people's exposure to these pollutants is affected while working and/or remaining in these areas. Within this frame, measuring campaigns in eleven European cities located in Southern, Central and Northern Europe were carried out to monitor indoor/outdoor and personal exposure concentrations of selected volatile hydrocarbons (VOCs) including low molecular weight carbonyls (CARB). In total, about 1000 samples from 182 working environments (offices, class rooms, waiting halls) in public buildings, schools and kindergartens, from 103 private (home) places and from adult volunteers (148 samples) were analysed for VOCs and CARBs. The campaigns were carried out twice in each site at different seasons to evaluate possible climate-related variations in indoor, outdoor and exposure concentrations. The results indicate that indoor air pollution values are higher than the respective outdoor ones for the chemical families this study is focused on. Personal exposure concentrations were higher or similar to indoor as well as significantly higher than outdoor ones. In some cases, home indoor concentrations by far exceeded public building and school/ kindergarten levels, and dominated personal exposures indicating the presence of strong indoor sources at home. For some compounds (e.g. benzene, formaldehyde) median or mean average and 95th percentile personal exposures and indoor concentrations are well above health benchmarks, so that outdoor concentration measurements alone would underestimate long-term health risks from human exposure to these pollutants. The non-cancer effect of the combined exposure to the main VOCs at the levels meas-ured in the campaigns was investigated using whole genome gene expression micro-arrays (toxicogenomics). The results show that the presence of toluene in indoor air mixtures comprising benzene and other single aromatic compounds enhances non-carcinogenic responses like inflammation.
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) research program on total human exposure to environmental pollution seeks to develop a newly emerging concept in the environmental sciences. Instead of focusing purely on the sources of pollution or their transport and movement through the environment, this research focuses on human beings as the receptors of these pollutants. People and daily activities become the center of attention. The methodology measures and models the pollutant concentrations found at the physical boundaries of people, regardless of whether the pollutants arrive through the air, water, food, or skin. It seeks to characterize quantitatively the impact of pollution on people by determining if an environmental problem exists at the human interface and, if so, by determining the sources, nature, extent, and severity of this environmental problem. By exploiting an emerging new arsenal of miniaturized instruments and by developing statistically representative survey designs for sampling the population of cities, significant progress has been made in recent years in providing previously unavailable human exposure field data needed for making valid risk assessments. The U.S. EPA total human exposure research program includes: development of measurement methods and instruments, development of exposure models and statistical protocols, microenvironmental field studies, total human exposure studies, validation of human exposure models with empirical data, and dosage research investigations.
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This article reviews laboratory and epidemiological research into the endocrine disruptive effects of components of personal care products, namely, phthalate esters, parabens, ultraviolet (UV) filters, polycyclic musks, and antimicrobials. High doses of phthalates in utero can produce “phthalate syndrome,” demasculinizing effects in male rat offspring due to impaired testosterone production by fetal testes. However, evidence linking phthalate exposure to similar effects in humans appears inconclusive. Furthermore, phthalate exposure derived from personal care products is within safe limits and its principal bioavailable phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), does not produce “phthalate syndrome.” Parabens exhibit very weak estrogen activity in vitro and in vivo, but evidence of paraben-induced developmental and reproductive toxicity in vivo lacks consistency and physiological coherence. Evidence attempting to link paraben exposure with human breast cancer is nonexistent. Select UV filters at high doses produce estrogenic, antithyroid, and other effects in rats in vivo. Again, no evidence links UV filter exposure to endocrine disruptive effects in humans. Some polycyclic musks weakly bind to estrogen, androgen, or progestin receptors and exhibit primarily antagonistic activity in vitro, which for the most part, has yet to be confirmed in vivo in mammals. The antimicrobials triclocarban and triclosan evoke weak responses mediated by aryl hydrocarbon, estrogen, and androgen receptors in vitro, which require confirmation in vivo. Preliminary observations suggest a novel interaction between triclocarban and testosterone. In conclusion, although select constituents exhibit interactions with the endocrine system in the laboratory, the evidence linking personal care products to endocrine disruptive effects in humans is for the most part lacking.
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This report provides guidance to the use of ConsExpo 4.0, successor to ConsExpo 3.0, a computer program that was developed to assist in the exposure assessment of compounds in non-food consumer products. The wide range of available consumer products is associated with an even wider variation in consumers and product use. Measured data on exposure to compounds in products is not always available. In the absence of these data, ConsExpo 4.0 can be used to estimate the exposure for different exposure scenarios. The program offers a number of generally applicable exposure models and a database with data on exposure factors for a broad set of consumer products. Together, database and models provide the tools to assess exposure for a wide range of consumer products, whereby only basic additional information on product composition and the physicochemical properties of the compound of interest are needed. Moreover, ConsExpo 4.0 can be used to obtain insight in the factors affecting exposure levels to compounds in consumer product by using the tools of sensitivity analysis and probabilistic calculation. In the development of the fourth version of the program special effort has been taken to improve transparency and ease of use of the software. This report provides an overview of ConsExpo 4.0, an explanation of the available exposure and uptake models in ConsExpo 4.0 and important notes on the interpretation of the exposure assessment. Dit rapport is een handleiding voor het gebruik van ConsExpo 4.0, de opvolger van ConsExpo 3.0, een computer programma dat is ontwikkeld ter ondersteuning van de blootstellingsschatting van stoffen in consumentenproducten. Er is een grote verscheidenheid aan consumentenproducten, consumenten en wijzen waarop deze consumenten producten gebruiken. Gemeten blootstellingsniveaus aan stoffen in producten zijn niet altijd voorhanden. Bij afwezigheid van deze gegevens kan ConsExpo 4.0 gebruikt worden om blootstellingen te schatten voor verschillende blootstellingsscenario's. Het programma biedt een aantal algemeen toepasbare blootstellingsmodellen en een database met gegevens over blootstellingsfactoren. Tezamen bieden modellen en database een uitgangspunt van waaruit blootstelling van een specifiek product geschat kan worden. Daarnaast kan ConsExpo 4.0 inzicht geven in de factoren die de blootstellingsniveaus van stoffen in consumentenproducten beinvloeden door gebruik te maken van de mogelijkheden van gevoeligheidsanalyse en probabilistische berekeningen. Bij de ontwikkeling van ConsExpo 4.0 is speciaal aandacht besteed aan het verbeteren van de transparantie en de gebruikersvriendelijkheid van de software. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van ConsExpo 4.0, een uitleg van de beschikbare blootstellings- en opname modellen en belangrijke informatie met betrekking tot het interpreteren van de blootstellingsschatting.
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Exposure scenarios (ES) under REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals; new EU legislation) aim to describe safe conditions of product and substance use. Both operational conditions and risk management measures (RMMs) are part of the ES. For consumer use of chemicals, one of the challenges will be to identify all of the consumer uses of a given chemical and then quantify the exposure derived from each of them. Product use categories can be established to identify in a systematic fashion how products are used. These product categories comprise products that are used similarly (e.g. paints, adhesives). They deliver information about product use characteristics, and provide an easy-to-handle tool for exchanging standardised information. For practical reasons, broad ES will have to be developed, which cover a wide range of products and use. The challenge will be to define them broadly, but not in a way that they provide such an overestimation of exposure that a next iteration or a more complex model is always needed. Tiered and targeted approaches for estimation of exposure at the right level of detail may offer the best solution. RMMs relevant for consumers include those inherent to product design (controllable) and those that are communicated to consumers as directions for use (non-controllable). Quantification of the effect of non-controllable RMMs on consumer exposure can prove to be difficult. REACH requires aggregation of exposure from all relevant identified sources. Development of appropriate methodology for realistic aggregation of exposure will be no small challenge and will likely require probabilistic approaches and comprehensive databases on populations' habits, practices and behaviours. REACH regulation aims at controlling the use of chemicals so that exposure to every chemical can be demonstrated to be safe for consumers, workers, and the environment when considered separately, but also when considered in an integrated way. This integration will be another substantial challenge for the future.
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In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios specifically constructed for the present study, following a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' approach for exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Consumer products are frequently and regularly used in the domestic environment. Realistic estimates for product use are required for exposure modelling and health risk assessment. This paper provides significant data that can be used as input for such modelling studies. A European survey was conducted, within the framework of the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project, on the household use of 15 consumer products. These products are all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The analysis of the results from the household survey (1st phase) focused on identifying consumer behaviour patterns (selection criteria, frequency of use, quantities, period of use and ventilation conditions during product use). This can provide valuable input to modelling studies, as this information is not reported in the open literature. The above results were further analysed (2nd phase), to provide the basis for the development of 'most representative worst-case scenarios' regarding the use of the 15 products by home-based population groups (housekeepers and retired people), in four geographical regions in Europe. These scenarios will be used for the exposure and health risk assessment within the EPHECT project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that daily worst-case scenarios are presented in the scientific published literature concerning the use of a wide range of 15 consumer products across Europe. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
A wide range of consumer and personal care products may, during their use, release significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the air. The identification and quantification of the emissions from such sources is typically performed in emission test chambers. A major question is to what degree the obtained emissions are reproducible and directly applicable to real situations. The present work attempts partly to address this question by comparison of selected VOC emissions in specific consumer products tested in chambers of various dimensions. The measurements were performed in three test chambers of different volumes (0.26-20m(3)). The analytic performance of the laboratories was rigorously assessed prior to chamber testing. The results show emission variation for major VOC (terpenes); however, it remains in general, within the same order of magnitude for all tests. This variability does not seem to correlate with the chamber volume. It rather depends on the overall testing conditions. The present work is undertaken in the frame of EPHECT European Project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Cited By (since 1996): 195 , Export Date: 4 February 2013 , Source: Scopus , The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: Author Address: Dept. of Civ. and Environ. Eng., University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, United States Author Address: Environ. and Occup. Hlth. Sci. Inst., Univ. Med. and Dent. of New Jersey, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, United States Author Address: Intl. Ctr. Indoor Environ. and Ener., Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
Article
Cited By (since 1996): 96 , Export Date: 4 February 2013 , Source: Scopus , The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: Author Address: Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854, United States Author Address: International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
Article
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants. This review examines, first of all, why residential ventilation is an issue of concern in Europe and how is related to the human health. A review of the current status of residential ventilation standards and regulations in Europe is also provided, as a reference. Finally, a review of measurements of ventilation rates in European dwellings is provided, where the compatibility with the European standards/regulations is examined. The review shows that ventilation is increasingly becoming recognised as an important component of a healthy dwelling. Ventilation requirements receive major attention in building regulations, across Europe. However, ventilation measurements across Europe show that ventilation is in practice often poor, resulting in reduced ventilation rates (lower than 0.5 h−1, which is currently a standard in many European countries), increased concentrations of indoor pollutants and hence exposure to health risk. Surveys showed that although occupants generally think that ventilation is important, their understanding of the ventilation systems in their own houses is low, resulting to under-ventilated homes.
Article
Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. The simple microenvironment monitoring model measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. Since this model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, it is easy to implement. However, the model can only be used to estimate the average exposure in a population, and it does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. The replicated microenvironment monitoring model provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type. However, possible collinearity problems might result in low precision in those estimates. Moreover, it might be difficult to adjust for a possible Hawthorne effect. Continuous personal monitoring has the advantage of recording exposure in each microenvironment type separately, allowing direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of exposures in each microenvironment type. Moreover, it can also be conducted in conjunction with a two-stage sampling scheme, using information from a large data base on activity patterns, thereby making more efficient use of the monitoring data. It is also easier to adjust for a possible Hawthorne effect in this design.
Article
Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone–terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals.
Article
A dynamic multi-compartment computer model has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor concentrations, indoor emission rates and building characteristics. The model has been parameterised for typical UK homes and workplaces and linked to a time-activity model to calculate exposures for a representative homemaker, schoolchild and office worker, with respect to NO2. The estimates of population exposures, for selected urban and rural sites, are expressed in terms of annual means and frequency of hours in which air quality standards are exceeded. The annual mean exposures are estimated to fall within the range of 5–21 ppb for homes with no source, and 21–27 ppb for homes with gas cooking, varying across sites and population groups. The contribution of outdoor exposure to annual mean NO2 exposure varied from 5 to 24%, that of indoor penetration of outdoor air from 17 to 86% and that of gas cooking from 0 to 78%. The frequency of exposure to 1 h mean concentrations above 150 ppb was very low, except for people cooking with gas.
Article
This paper summarizes recent data on the occurrence of major organic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, naphthalene, limonene, α-pinene and ammonia, classified by the European Commission's INDEX strategy report as the priority pollutants to be regulated) and evaluates accordingly cancer and non-cancer risks posed by indoor exposure in dwellings and public buildings in European Union (EU) countries. The review process indicated that significant differences in indoor air quality exist within and among the countries where data were available, indicating corresponding differences in sources and emission strength of airborne chemicals, identified or not. Conservative exposure limits were not exceeded for non-carcinogenic effects, except for formaldehyde; for carcinogenic agents the estimated risks were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. However, the risk assessment evaluation process faces crucial difficulties, either due to the relative paucity of indoor air quality measurements in many EU countries, or by the lack of sampling consistency in the already existing studies, indicating the need for additional measurements of indoor air quality following a harmonized sampling and analytical protocol. Additionally, uncertainties embodied in the cancer potency factors and exposure limit values impose further difficulties in substance prioritization and risk management.
Article
The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are scarce. Therefore, future research needs to focus on developmental and reproductive endpoints in humans. It should be noted that phthalates occur in mixtures but most toxicological information is based on single compounds. Thus, it is concluded that it is important to improve the knowledge of toxic interactions among the different chemicals and to develop measures for combined exposure to various groups of phthalates.
Article
Cleaning is a large enterprise involving a large fraction of the workforce worldwide. A broad spectrum of cleaning agents has been developed to facilitate dust and dirt removal, for disinfection and surface maintenance. The cleaning agents are used in large quantities throughout the world. Although a complex pattern of exposure to cleaning agents and resulting health problems, such as allergies and asthma, are reported among cleaners, only a few surveys of this type of product have been performed. This paper gives a broad introduction to cleaning agents and the impact of cleaning on cleaners, occupants of indoor environments, and the quality of cleaning. Cleaning agents are usually grouped into different product categories according to their technical functions and the purpose of their use (e.g. disinfectants and surface care products). The paper also indicates the adverse health and comfort effects associated with the use of these agents in connection with the cleaning process. The paper identifies disinfectants as the most hazardous group of cleaning agents. Cleaning agents contain evaporative and non-evaporative substances. The major toxicologically significant constituents of the former are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), defined as substances with boiling points in the range of 0 degree C to about 400 degrees C. Although laboratory emission testing has shown many VOCs with quite different time-concentration profiles, few field studies have been carried out measuring the exposure of cleaners. However, both field studies and emission testing indicate that the use of cleaning agents results in a temporal increase in the overall VOC level. This increase may occur during the cleaning process and thus it can enhance the probability of increased short-term exposure of the cleaners. However, the increased levels can also be present after the cleaning and result in an overall increased VOC level that can possibly affect the indoor air quality (IAQ) perceived by occupants. The variety and duration of the emissions depend inter alia on the use of fragrances and high boiling VOCs. Some building materials appear to increase their VOC emission through wet cleaning and thus may affect the IAQ. Particles and dirt contain a great variety of both volatile and non-volatile substances, including allergens. While the volatile fraction can consist of more than 200 different VOCs including formaldehyde, the non-volatile fraction can contain considerable amounts (> 0.5%) of fatty acid salts and tensides (e.g. linear alkyl benzene sulphonates). The level of these substances can be high immediately after the cleaning process, but few studies have been conducted concerning this problem. The substances partly originate from the use of cleaning agents. Both types are suspected to be airway irritants. Cleaning activities generate dust, mostly by resuspension, but other occupant activities may also resuspend dust over longer periods of time. Personal sampling of VOCs and airborne dust gives higher results than stationary sampling. International bodies have proposed air sampling strategies. A variety of field sampling techniques for VOC and surface particle sampling is listed.
Article
A series of tests is described that measured the concentration of aerosol ingredients in a test room for a period of several hours after spraying. The results were compared to a simple exponential decay model used by the industry to predict exposure to aerosol ingredients. The results showed that the model can be used to predict exposure once the ingredients had become dispersed throughout the room, and that the exposure dose is initially heavily influenced by location during the period soon after spraying.
Article
Access to reliable exposure data is essential to evaluate the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study was carried out by European cosmetic manufacturers acting within the trade association Colipa, with the aim to construct a probabilistic European population model of exposure. The study updates, in distribution form, the current exposure data on daily quantities of six cosmetic products. Data were collected using a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study. In total 44,100 households and 18,057 individual consumers in five European countries provided data using their own products. All product use occasions were recorded, including those outside of home. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between frequency of product use and quantity used per application for body lotion, facial moisturiser, toothpaste and shampoo. Thus it is not appropriate to calculate daily exposure to these products by multiplying the maximum frequency value by the maximum quantity per event value. The results largely confirm the exposure parameters currently used by the cosmetic industry. Design of this study could serve as a model for future assessments of population exposure to chemicals in products other than cosmetics.
Article
In this study, we describe the statistical analysis of the usage profile of the European population to seven cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to construct a reliable model of exposure of the European population from use of the selected products: body lotion, shampoo, deodorant spray, deodorant non-spray, facial moisturiser, lipstick and toothpaste. The first step in this process was to gather reliable data on consumer usage patterns of the products. These data were sourced from a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study by the trade association Colipa. The market information study contained a large number of subjects, in total 44,100 households and 18,057 habitual users (males and females) of the studied products, in five European countries. The data sets were then combined to generate a realistic distribution of frequency of use of each product, combined with distribution of the amount of product used at each occasion using the CREMe software. A Monte Carlo method was used to combine the data sets. This resulted in a new model of European exposure to cosmetic products being constructed.
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