Article

Post‐exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long‐term adaptations in muscle to strength training

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Abstract

We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 d⋅wk(-1) ), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P<0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P<0.05) but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7)(20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellitecells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positivesatellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P<0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P<0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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... While post-exercise application of CWI can accelerate aspects of post-exercise recovery and enhance subsequent exercise performance, there is accumulating evidence that CWI can influence long-term physiological adaptations to exercise, and in a manner that is exercise mode-specific (Malta et al., 2020). For example, there is accumulating evidence that CWI can attenuate improvements in physiological adaptations to resistance training (including muscle hypertrophy and improvements in strength and power/rate of force development) (Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019;Poppendieck et al., 2020), whereas CWI associated with endurance training does not appear to influence related adaptations including improvements in cycling time trial performance (either mean power or duration) or maximal aerobic power (Yamane et al., 2006;Halson et al., 2014;Broatch et al., 2017). Mechanistically, the mode-specific influence of CWI on physiological adaptations to exercise training is likely attributed to the short-term physiological effects of CWI on post-exercise molecular-level responses (in skeletal muscle in particular) that mediate physiological adaptations to exercise training. ...
... Human studies performed to date have investigated whether CWI influences skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance training at the whole-body (Fyfe et al., 2019), macroscopic (Ohnishi et al., 2004;Yamane et al., 2006Yamane et al., , 2015Roberts et al., 2015;Poppendieck et al., 2020), and microscopic (Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019) levels (Figure 1). The findings of these studies have been mixed, with some suggesting CWI attenuates resistance training-induced increases in wholemuscle/limb size or cross-sectional area (CSA) (Roberts et al., 2015;Yamane et al., 2015;Poppendieck et al., 2020) and muscle fiber CSA (Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019), while others have shown no influence of CWI on changes in either muscle/limb size or CSA (Ohnishi et al., 2004;Yamane et al., 2006) or total body or regional lean mass (assessed via DXA) (Fyfe et al., 2019) with resistance training. ...
... Human studies performed to date have investigated whether CWI influences skeletal muscle hypertrophic responses to resistance training at the whole-body (Fyfe et al., 2019), macroscopic (Ohnishi et al., 2004;Yamane et al., 2006Yamane et al., , 2015Roberts et al., 2015;Poppendieck et al., 2020), and microscopic (Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019) levels (Figure 1). The findings of these studies have been mixed, with some suggesting CWI attenuates resistance training-induced increases in wholemuscle/limb size or cross-sectional area (CSA) (Roberts et al., 2015;Yamane et al., 2015;Poppendieck et al., 2020) and muscle fiber CSA (Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019), while others have shown no influence of CWI on changes in either muscle/limb size or CSA (Ohnishi et al., 2004;Yamane et al., 2006) or total body or regional lean mass (assessed via DXA) (Fyfe et al., 2019) with resistance training. ...
Article
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Post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is a popular recovery modality aimed at minimizing fatigue and hastening recovery following exercise. In this regard, CWI has been shown to be beneficial for accelerating post-exercise recovery of various parameters including muscle strength, muscle soreness, inflammation, muscle damage, and perceptions of fatigue. Improved recovery following an exercise session facilitated by CWI is thought to enhance the quality and training load of subsequent training sessions, thereby providing a greater training stimulus for long-term physiological adaptations. However, studies investigating the long-term effects of repeated post-exercise CWI instead suggest CWI may attenuate physiological adaptations to exercise training in a mode-specific manner. Specifically, there is evidence post-exercise CWI can attenuate improvements in physiological adaptations to resistance training, including aspects of maximal strength, power, and skeletal muscle hypertrophy, without negatively influencing endurance training adaptations. Several studies have investigated the effects of CWI on the molecular responses to resistance exercise in an attempt to identify the mechanisms by which CWI attenuates physiological adaptations to resistance training. Although evidence is limited, it appears that CWI attenuates the activation of anabolic signaling pathways and the increase in muscle protein synthesis following acute and chronic resistance exercise, which may mediate the negative effects of CWI on long-term resistance training adaptations. There are, however, a number of methodological factors that must be considered when interpreting evidence for the effects of post-exercise CWI on physiological adaptations to resistance training and the potential underlying mechanisms. This review outlines and critiques the available evidence on the effects of CWI on long-term resistance training adaptations and the underlying molecular mechanisms in skeletal muscle, and suggests potential directions for future research to further elucidate the effects of CWI on resistance training adaptations.
... The reoxygenation rate of SmO 2 (unit, %/s) is evaluated according to the reoxygenation slope. A higher reoxygenation rate indicates greater O 2 delivery relative to O 2 consumption, which increases blood flow during recovery [16]. Few studies have explored the effects of CG use on deoxygenation rate during the fatigue period and reoxygenation rate during the recovery period. ...
... Although CG use also failed to reduce the deleterious effects of fatigue on SmO 2 , the SmO 2 results reflected the dynamic balance between oxygen supply and oxygen consumption in the muscle tissue [16,55]. The present study revealed that relative to SP use, CG use increased the deoxygenation and reoxygenation rate in the quadriceps by up to 44.3% and 49.5%, respectively. ...
... The deoxygenation rate is the negative slope of SmO 2 , which occurred during the fatigue period, a higher deoxygenation rate indicates greater muscle O 2 demand, and consequently, greater energy consumption [55]. By contrast, a higher reoxygenation rate indicates greater O 2 delivery relative to O 2 demand, which increases blood flow during recovery [16]. The rate of phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis is related to the reoxygenation rate of SmO 2 [56], and a higher reoxygenation rate (SmO 2 , rate of recovery) can be advantageous for replenishing PCr stores. ...
Article
Fatigue is a major cause of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Compression garments (CGs) can aid post-exercise recovery, therefore, this study explored the effects of CGs on muscular efficacy, proprioception, and recovery after exercise-induced muscle fatigue in people who exercise regularly. Twelve healthy participants who exercised regularly were enrolled in this study. Each participant completed an exercise-induced muscle fatigue test while wearing a randomly assigned lower-body CG or sports pants (SP); after at least 7 days, the participant repeated the test while wearing the other garment. The dependent variables were muscle efficacy, proprioception (displacements of center of pressure/COP, and absolute error), and fatigue recovery (muscle oxygen saturation/SmO2, deoxygenation and reoxygenation rate, and subjective muscle soreness). A two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was conducted to determine the effect of garment type. The results indicated that relative to SP use, CG use can promote muscle efficacy, proprioception in ML displacement of COP, and fatigue recovery. Higher deoxygenation and reoxygenation rates were observed with CG use than with SP use. For CG use, SmO2 quickly returned to baseline value after 10 min of rest and was maintained at a high level until after 1 h of rest, whereas for SP use, SmO2 increased with time after fatigue onset. ML displacement of COP quickly returned to baseline value after 10 min of rest and subsequently decreased until after 1 hour of rest. Relative to SP use, CG use was associated with a significantly lower ML displacement after 20 min of rest. In conclusion, proprioception and SmO2 recovery was achieved after 10 min of rest; however, at least 24 h may be required for recovery pertaining to muscle efficacy and soreness regardless of CG or SP use.
... However, inflammation, muscle soreness and transient decreases in performance are considered an important part of the training and adaptation process (Bishop et al., 2008). This has led some researchers to suggest that post-exercise cold water immersion may blunt chronic adaptations by reducing muscle protein synthesis and therefore limiting muscle mass maintenance and growth (Roberts et al., 2015). Although some studies investigating the longer-term effects of CWI demonstrate a decrease in anabolic signaling (Roberts et al., 2015), recent research has demonstrated a positive effect on performance in cyclists chronically exposed to CWI during a 6-weeks training camp (Halson et al., 2014). ...
... This has led some researchers to suggest that post-exercise cold water immersion may blunt chronic adaptations by reducing muscle protein synthesis and therefore limiting muscle mass maintenance and growth (Roberts et al., 2015). Although some studies investigating the longer-term effects of CWI demonstrate a decrease in anabolic signaling (Roberts et al., 2015), recent research has demonstrated a positive effect on performance in cyclists chronically exposed to CWI during a 6-weeks training camp (Halson et al., 2014). Therefore, two main theories have been proposed for the use of CWI: (1) it enables athletes to perform subsequent training sessions with a greater overall training load); (2) it decreases adaptations to training due to a reduction in the anabolic pathways (Halson et al., 2014). ...
... As mentioned, previous research has suggested that CWI used in a chronic setting may lead to the blunting of important adaptations, especially in strength and power based sports. For example, Roberts et al. (2015) observed a decrease in the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and satellite cells after 10 min of CWI at ∼10 • C two times a week after resistance training. However, the characteristics of the subjects (recreationally trained) were different from participants in the current study and training load was fixed (e.g., load lifted) so subjects were not allowed to lift heavier even if they felt more fresh. ...
Article
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Background: The use of cold water immersion (CWI) as a recovery strategy following exercise has drawn mixed findings over the last few decades. The purpose of the current study was twofold ; (1) to determine the acute effects of CWI within the training week, and (2) to investigate the longer-term effects of CWI over a 16-day period. Methods: In a randomized, controlled trial, 13 national-level volleyball athletes were allocated to two groups, an experimental (CWI, n = 7) and a control group (n = 6) during a 3-week national training camp. The experimental group were exposed to a CWI protocol after the last training session of each day (12 CWI sessions). Measures of lower (countermovement jump and squat jump height) and upper-body (medicine ball throw distance) power were collected pre-and post-training camp. Perceptual and neuromuscular performance measures (countermovement jump) were obtained during the training camp. Results: No significant differences between groups were observed for any measure (p > 0.05), however, small effect sizes were observed between experimental and control groups on day two of weeks one and two. Three weeks of training resulted in a significant decrease in countermovement jump height in the control group. A moderate effect size (d = 0.65) was found for countermovement jump performance between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: Cold water immersion seems to provide little benefit to recovery in the acute setting (within the training week), however, chronically, there was a trend toward a benefit when implementing cold water immersion in well-trained volleyball athletes over 16 days.
... Small non-coding RNAs, called microRNAs (miRs), are central in regulation of gene expression. MicroRNAs selectively bind, inhibit translation and promote degradation of targeted mRNAs (8,20). For example, miR-208a, -208b and 499a inhibit myostatin (58), whilst miR-1, -133a, -206 and 486 are all involved in the regulation of Pax7 (20,34,35) 8 and all except miR-486 are transcribed in response to increased MyoD and Myogenin expression (20,164) to provide a negative feedback mechanism. ...
... MicroRNAs selectively bind, inhibit translation and promote degradation of targeted mRNAs (8,20). For example, miR-208a, -208b and 499a inhibit myostatin (58), whilst miR-1, -133a, -206 and 486 are all involved in the regulation of Pax7 (20,34,35) 8 and all except miR-486 are transcribed in response to increased MyoD and Myogenin expression (20,164) to provide a negative feedback mechanism. Thus, all these miRs are also important in the regulation of satellite cell cycle progression. ...
... MicroRNAs selectively bind, inhibit translation and promote degradation of targeted mRNAs (8,20). For example, miR-208a, -208b and 499a inhibit myostatin (58), whilst miR-1, -133a, -206 and 486 are all involved in the regulation of Pax7 (20,34,35) 8 and all except miR-486 are transcribed in response to increased MyoD and Myogenin expression (20,164) to provide a negative feedback mechanism. Thus, all these miRs are also important in the regulation of satellite cell cycle progression. ...
Thesis
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SUMMARY Purpose: The overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of short-term blocks with high-frequency low-load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on muscular adaptations in untrained individuals, recreationally trained individuals and elite strength athletes. Three independent studies with four original papers have been completed towards this objective. High-frequency BFRRE has been shown to induce rapid muscle growth accompanied by increased numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei. However, the satellite cell and myonuclear responses appears to plateau after an initial block of training and it may be speculated that a rest period can reset the responsiveness of the system after the initial training response. Thus, the aims of Study I and II were to investigate the effect and time-course of changes in fiber and whole muscle areas, myonuclear and satellite cell numbers and muscle strength during two five-day blocks of high-frequency low-load BFRRE, separated by 10 days of rest. In addition, the importance of performing BFRRE sets to failure on cellular adaptations has not been investigated. Therefore, Study II compared the effect of a failure- vs. a non-failure high-frequency BFRRE protocol. Despite the impressive rates of muscle growth reported in some studies on high-frequency BFRRE, several recent studies have shown that BFRRE increases markers of muscle damage and cellular stress. To shed light on possible mechanisms for myocellular stress and damage after strenuous high-frequency BFRRE, heat shock protein (HSP) responses, glycogen content and inflammatory markers were investigated in Study I (paper II). Finally, the impact of low-load BFRRE has not yet been investigated in highly specialized strength athletes, such as powerlifters. Thus, the aim of Study III was to investigate the effect of implementing two five-day blocks of high-frequency low-load BFRRE during six weeks of periodized strength training in elite powerlifters, on the changes in number of satellite cells, myonuclei and muscle size and strength. METHODS: A total of 47 healthy men and women participated in the studies. Thirteen recreationally trained sports students in Study I (24±2 yrs [mean±SD], 9 men) and 17 untrained men in Study II (25±6 yrs), completed two 5-day-blocks of seven BFRRE sessions, separated by a 10-day rest period. A failure BFRRE protocol consisting of four sets with knee extensions to voluntary failure at 20% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) was performed with both legs in Study I, and randomized to one of the legs in Study II. The other leg in Study II performed a non-failure BFRRE protocol (30, 15, 15, 15 repetitions). In Study I, muscle samples from m. vastus lateralis (VL) obtained before and 1h after the first session in the first and second block (“Acute1” and “Acute2”), after three sessions (“Day4”), during the “Rest Week”, and at three (“Post3”) and ten days post-intervention (“Post10”), were analyzed for muscle fiber area (MFA), myonuclei, satellite cells, mRNA, miRNA, HSP70, αB-crystallin, glycogen (PAS staining), CD68+ (macrophages) and CD66b+ (neutrophils) cell numbers. Muscle strength (1RM knee-extension) and whole muscle size (ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging) was measured up until 20 days after the last exercise session (Post20). In Study II, muscle samples obtained before, at midtraining, and 10 days post-intervention (Post10) were analyzed for muscle fiber area (MFA), myonuclei, and satellite cells. Muscle thickness, cross-sectional area and echo intensity were measured by ultrasonography, and knee-extension strength with 1RM and maximal isometric contraction (isomMVC) up until Post24. In Study III, seventeen national level powerlifters (25±6 yrs, 15 men) were randomly assigned to either a BFRRE group (n=9) performing two blocks (week 1 and 3) of five BFRRE front squat sessions within a 6.5-week training period, or a conventional training group (Con; n=8) performing front squats at ~70% of 1RM. The BFRRE consisted of four sets (first and last set to voluntary failure) at ~30% of 1RM. Muscle biopsies were obtained from VL and analyzed for MFA, myonuclei, satellite cells and capillaries. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of VL and m. rectus femoris (RF) were measured by ultrasonography. Strength was evaluated by maximal voluntary isokinetic torque (dynMVC) in knee-extension and 1RM in front squat. RESULTS: With the first block of BFRRE in Study I (paper I), satellite cell number increased in both fiber types (70-80%, p<0.05), while type I and II MFA decreased by 6±7% and 15±11% (p<0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in number of myonuclei or strength during the first block of training. With the second block of training, muscle size increased by 6-8%, while the number of satellite cell (type I: 80±63%, type II 147±95%), myonuclei (type I: 30±24%, type II: 31±28%) and MFA (type I: 19±19%, type II: 11±19%) peaked 10 days after the second block of BFRRE. Strength peaked after 20 days of detraining (6±6%, p<0.05). Pax7- and p21 mRNA expression were elevated during the intervention, while myostatin, IGF1R, MyoD, myogenin, cyclinD1 and -D2 mRNA did not change until 3-10 days post intervention. In paper II of Study I, αB-crystallin was reported to translocate from the cytosolic to the cytoskeletal fraction after Acute1 and Acute2 (p<0.05), and immunostaining revealed larger responses in type 1 than type 2 fibers (Acute1, 225±184% vs. 92±81%, respectively, p=0.001). HSP70 was increased in the cytoskeletal fraction at Day4 and Post3, and immunostaining intensities were more elevated in type 1 than in type 2 fibers (Day4, 206±84% vs. 72±112%, respectively, p<0.001). Glycogen content was reduced in both fiber types; but most pronounced in type 1, which did not recover until the Rest Week (-15-29%, p≤0.001). Intramuscular macrophage numbers were increased by ~65% postintervention, but no changes were observed in muscle neutrophils. Both protocols in Study II increased myonuclear numbers in type-1 (12- 17%) and type-2 fibers (20-23%), and satellite cells in type-1 (92-134%) and type-2 fibers (23-48%) at Post10 (p<0.05). RF and VL size increased by 7-10% and 5-6% in both legs at Post10 to Post24, whereas the MFA of type-1 fibers in Failure was decreased at Post10 (-10±16%; p=0.02). Echo intensity increased by ~20% in both legs during Block1 (p<0.001) and was ~8-11% below baseline at Post24 (p=0.001-0.002). IsomMVC decreased by 8-10% in both legs and 1RM by 5% in the failure leg after Block1 (p=0.01-0.02). IsomMVC and 1RM were increased in both legs by 6-7% and 9-11% at Post24, respectively (p<0.05). In Study III, BFRRE in powerlifters induced selective type I fiber increases in MFA (BFRRE: 12% vs. Con: 0%, p<0.01) and myonuclear number (BFRRE: 17% vs. Con: 0%, p=0.02). Type II MFA was unaltered in both groups. BFRRE induced greater changes in VL CSA than control (7.7% vs. 0.5%, p=0.04), and the VL CSA changes correlated with the increases in MFA of type I fibers (r=0.81, p=0.02). No significant group differences were observed in SC and strength changes. CONCLUSIONS: High-frequency low-load BFRRE in Study I and II induced pronounced responses in satellite cell proliferation, delayed myonuclear addition and increases in muscle size, concomitantly with delayed increases in strength in untrained and recreationally trained individuals. While the gains in satellite cell and myonuclear numbers as well as muscle size and strength were similar between non-failure and failure BFRRE protocols in Study II, perceptions of exertion, pain and muscle soreness were lower in the non-failure leg. Hence, nonfailure BFRRE may be a more feasible and safe approach. However, we report that short-term strenuous high-frequency BFRRE can induce elevations in multiple markers of cellular stress and damage in non-strength trained individuals. We showed that low-load BFRRE stressed both fiber types, but the fiber type-specific HSP-responses and prolonged glycogen depletion strongly indicated that type 1 fibers were more stressed than type 2 fibers. It appears that the first block of unaccustomed BFRRE exceeded the capacity for recovery in both Study I and II, and may have induced muscle damage in some of our participants. In accordance with our hypothesis, our participants seemed to recover during the rest week and to respond well to the second block of BFRRE. It is intriguing that BFRRE induced preferential type I hypertrophy after the second block of training in Study I. This indicates that although the initial stress may be too high (and cause damage), adaptive responses will occur and later the same exercise stress will be the important stimuli for adaptation. Our findings from Study I and II may provide insights into some of the physiological mechanisms underpinning overreaching and subsequent recovery and supercompensation after periods of very strenuous exercise. Finally, in Study III, two one-week blocks with high-frequency low-load BFRRE implemented during six weeks of periodized strength training induced a significant increase in muscle size and myonuclear addition in elite powerlifters. Preferential hypertrophy and myonuclear addition of type I fibers appears to explain most of the overall muscle growth. Intriguingly, these responses are in contrast to heavy-load strength training, that typically induces a greater type II fiber hypertrophy. Consequently, BFRRE appears to have complementary effects to heavyresistance training and the combination of these two methods may optimize adaptations of both fiber types in highly strength-trained individuals. However, despite the increases in muscle size, we could not observe any group differences in maximal strength.
... Modalities that can be administered to larger areas of the body at a time are more commonly implemented than ice in an attempt to accelerate recovery following exercise. There are data showing beneficial effects, no benefits and even detrimental effects when cryotherapy is used in this context Leeder et al. 2012;Poppendieck et al. 2013;Hohenauer et al. 2015) and evidence suggests that repeated use of cryotherapy attenuates strength gains following resistance training (Yamane et al. 2015;Roberts et al. 2015b;Fyfe et al. 2019;Hyldahl and Peake 2020). ...
... It has also recently become evident that cryotherapy, in particular CWI, can have detrimental effects on muscle mass and strength gains (Yamane et al. 2015;Roberts et al. 2015b;Fyfe et al. 2019), and can impair muscle protein synthesis rates (Roberts et al. 2015b;Fuchs et al. 2020) if performed regularly as part of a post-exercise regime. These findings indicate that cryotherapy blunts chronic skeletal muscle adaptations from resistance exercise (Hyldahl and Peake 2020). ...
... It has also recently become evident that cryotherapy, in particular CWI, can have detrimental effects on muscle mass and strength gains (Yamane et al. 2015;Roberts et al. 2015b;Fyfe et al. 2019), and can impair muscle protein synthesis rates (Roberts et al. 2015b;Fuchs et al. 2020) if performed regularly as part of a post-exercise regime. These findings indicate that cryotherapy blunts chronic skeletal muscle adaptations from resistance exercise (Hyldahl and Peake 2020). ...
Article
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Cryotherapy is utilized as a physical intervention in the treatment of injury and exercise recovery. Traditionally, ice is used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injury while cold water immersion or whole-body cryotherapy is used for recovery from exercise. In humans, the primary benefit of traditional cryotherapy is reduced pain following injury or soreness following exercise. Cryotherapy-induced reductions in metabolism, inflammation, and tissue damage have been demonstrated in animal models of muscle injury; however, comparable evidence in humans is lacking. This absence is likely due to the inadequate duration of application of traditional cryotherapy modalities. Traditional cryotherapy application must be repeated to overcome this limitation. Recently, the novel application of cooling with 15 °C phase change material (PCM), has been administered for 3-6 h with success following exercise. Although evidence suggests that chronic use of cryotherapy during resistance training blunts the anabolic training effect, recovery using PCM does not compromise acute adaptation. Therefore, following exercise, cryotherapy is indicated when rapid recovery is required between exercise bouts, as opposed to after routine training. Ultimately, the effectiveness of cryotherapy as a recovery modality is dependent upon its ability to maintain a reduction in muscle temperature and on the timing of treatment with respect to when the injury occurred, or the exercise ceased. Therefore, to limit the proliferation of secondary tissue damage that occurs in the hours after an injury or a strenuous exercise bout, it is imperative that cryotherapy be applied in abundance within the first few hours of structural damage.
... Even though a positive effect of CWI is observed when applied acutely, research has also observed that CWI attenuated strength gains when used over the long term (Roberts et al., 2015). For example, Roberts et al. (2015) included 21 physically active men who performed resistance training for 12 weeks, with 10 min of CWI (applied only to the legs) or active recovery (lowintensity cycling) after each training session. ...
... Even though a positive effect of CWI is observed when applied acutely, research has also observed that CWI attenuated strength gains when used over the long term (Roberts et al., 2015). For example, Roberts et al. (2015) included 21 physically active men who performed resistance training for 12 weeks, with 10 min of CWI (applied only to the legs) or active recovery (lowintensity cycling) after each training session. In contrast to the data presented from the acute studies, the use of CWI in this study actually attenuated isotonic, isometric, and isokinetic strength gains. ...
... In the secondary search, there were 845 results, and two new studies (Jones, 2017;Montano, Carrillo, Weatherwax, & Dalleck, 2018) were included. Therefore, ten studies were included in this review (Fröhlich et al., 2014;Fyfe et al., 2019;Jones, 2017;Montano et al., 2018;Ohnishi et al., 2004;Poppendieck et al., 2021;Roberts et al., 2015;Wilson et al., 2021;Yamane et al., 2006;Yamane et al., 2015) (Figure 1). Of note, one paper contained two studies published within the same manuscript (Yamane et al., 2006). ...
Article
The aim of this review was to perform a meta-analysis examining the effects of CWI coupled with resistance training on gains in muscular strength. Four databases were searched to find relevant studies. Their methodological quality and risk of bias were evaluated using the PEDro checklist. The effects of CWI vs. control on muscular strength were examined in a random-effects meta-analysis. Ten studies (n = 170; 92% males), with 11 comparisons across 22 groups, were included in the analysis. Studies were classified as of good or fair methodological quality. The main meta-analysis found that CWI attenuated muscular strength gains (effect size [ES]: –0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.45, –0.01; p = 0.041). In the analysis of data from studies applying CWI only to the trained limbs, CWI attenuated muscular strength gains (ES: –0.31; 95% CI: –0.61, –0.01; p = 0.041). In the analysis of data from studies using whole-body CWI, there was no significant difference in muscular strength gains between CWI and control (ES: –0.08; 95% CI: –0.53, 0.38; p = 0.743). In summary, this meta-analysis found that the use of CWI following resistance exercise sessions attenuates muscular strength gains in males. However, when CWI was applied to the whole body, there was no significant difference between CWI and control for muscular strength. Due to the attenuated gains in muscular strength found with single limb CWI, the use and/or timing of CWI in resistance training should be carefully considered and individualized.
... To our knowledge, only one study has demonstrated that CG improve intramuscular inflammation following damaging exercise (10). Such evidence is important because it is well established that circulating inflammatory markers may not reflect the inflammatory status of exercised muscle (43)(44)(45). Valle and colleagues (10) reported attenuated neutrophil and macrophage infiltration with reduced muscular trauma, as indicated by albumin influx, 48 h after CG were worn during 40 min of downhill running. Although no measures of limb circumference were taken to assess swelling, these findings may be explained by considering the role of inflammation and vascular stasis in propagating EIMD. ...
... Evidence of anti-inflammatory (10,42) and antioxidant (47) effects from CG may have important consequences for the use of CG throughout training and competition. Emerging evidence suggests that many recovery strategies restore shortterm performance at the expense of chronic adaptation by attenuating cellular signaling processes (44,45,49), with impaired adaptive responses reported following the use of high-dose antioxidants (49), cold-water immersion (45), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (50). However, to date, no research has been carried out to assess the effects of CG on muscular adaptation. ...
... Evidence of anti-inflammatory (10,42) and antioxidant (47) effects from CG may have important consequences for the use of CG throughout training and competition. Emerging evidence suggests that many recovery strategies restore shortterm performance at the expense of chronic adaptation by attenuating cellular signaling processes (44,45,49), with impaired adaptive responses reported following the use of high-dose antioxidants (49), cold-water immersion (45), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (50). However, to date, no research has been carried out to assess the effects of CG on muscular adaptation. ...
Article
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The use of compression garments (CG) has been associated with improved recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage. The mechanisms responsible are not well established, and no consensus exists regarding the effects of compression pressure (i.e., the “dose”), which until recently was seldom reported. With the increasing prevalence of studies reporting directly measured pressures, the present review aims to consolidate current evidence on optimal pressures for recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. In addition, recent findings suggesting that custom-fitted garments provide greater precision and experimental control are discussed. Finally, biochemical data from human trials are presented to support a theoretical mechanism by which CG enhance recovery, with recommendations for future research. The effects of compression on adaptation remain unexplored. More studies are required to investigate the relationship between compression pressure and the recovery of performance and physiological outcomes. Furthermore, improved mechanistic understanding may help elucidate the optimal conditions by which CG enhance recovery.
... A recent systematic review with meta-analysis from Malta et al. (20) examined 5 studies (12,13,27,31,32) that investigated the impact of CWI on resistance training-induced changes and concluded that there is a deleterious effect of CWI on resistance training adaptations. Both of the studies from Yamane et al. (31,32) and the Fröhlich et al. (12) paper investigated strength adaptations between cooled and control limbs after a 4-week hand grip, and a 5-week leg curl program respectively. ...
... More recently, Fyfe et al. (13) and Roberts et al. (27) reported that strength and muscle mass increased to a greater extent after active recovery than CWI after 7 and 12 weeks of lower body resistance training respectively. In both studies, muscle biopsies demonstrated that CWI blunted the activation of key proteins and satellite cells following exercise, which may explain the improved strength and mass outcomes for subjects in the thermoneutral immersion and active recovery groups respectively. ...
... In both studies, muscle biopsies demonstrated that CWI blunted the activation of key proteins and satellite cells following exercise, which may explain the improved strength and mass outcomes for subjects in the thermoneutral immersion and active recovery groups respectively. Roberts et al. (27) postulated that suppression of satellite cell activity could lead to a cumulative detrimental response over time. ...
Article
Wilson, LJ, Dimitriou, L, Hills, FA, Gondek, MB, van Wyk, A, Turek, V, Rivkin, T, Villiere, A, Jarvis, P, Miller, S, Turner, A, and Cockburn, E. Cold water immersion offers no functional or perceptual benefit compared to a sham intervention during a resistance training program. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Cold water immersion (CWI) is regularly used by athletes as a postexercise recovery strategy, but relatively little is understood about potential training adaptations associated with habitual use. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of repeated CWI or a sham intervention on adaptations to a lower body resistance training program. Thirteen men (26 ± 6 years; 83.6 ± 15.7 kg) familiar with resistance training were allocated into a CWI (10 minutes at 10° C) or sham group and completed 2 × 4-week blocks of lower body resistance training. Subjects completed a total of 16 training sessions (2 × session·week-1), with each session immediately followed by their allocated recovery intervention. Measures of perceptual markers, muscle function, and muscle architecture were recorded at baseline, midpoint, and post-training. Data were analyzed using factorial analysis of variances. The training program resulted in significant increases in muscle fibre pennation angle (p = 0.009), isometric peak force (p = 0.018), and 1/4 squat (p < 0.001) with no differences between groups (all p > 0.05). There were no differences in perceptual responses between groups. Despite the popularity of CWI as a postexercise recovery intervention, the findings from the present study demonstrated no functional or perceptual benefit compared with a sham intervention during progressive strength and power training. Furthermore, there was no detrimental impact of CWI on morphological adaptations after 16 exposures. These findings are important for athletes and practitioners wishing to use CWI as an acute recovery strategy after training, without blunting potential training adaptations.
... When the training period was extended to 12 weeks, post-exercise CWI (10 min at 10 °C) blunted the increases in MVIC torque compared with the control condition (active recovery) [55]. In the same study, the CWIinduced impairment in muscle strength gains appeared consistent with the findings of reduced muscle hypertrophy, especially in type II muscle fibers, and reduced activation of anabolic signaling. ...
... CWI (15 °C for 15 min) blunted testosterone response after a bout of resistance exercise [56] and CWI (8 °C for 20 min) applied after every resistance exercise session decreased daily muscle protein synthesis rates over a 2-week training period [57]. These findings are in line with chronic impairments in the muscle hypertrophic response observed previously [55]. While muscle protein turnover is dictated by both synthesis and breakdown processes, CWI does not seem to affect muscle protein breakdown [35]. ...
... With regard to fatigue resistance and the use of CWI over a 4-12-week resistance training period [32,34,38,39,55], the results have consistently shown a blunted muscle fatigue resistance with CWI compared with the control condition. Muscle fatigue resistance adaptations following high-intensity exercise could be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) induced adaptations [58,59], whereby abolishing the exerciseinduced increase in muscle RONS generation with antioxidant supplementation blunted long-term endurance training adaptations [60][61][62][63][64]. RONS generation remains elevated in the recovery period after exercise [65] and CWI employed in the immediate post-exercise recovery period may diminish RONS production [66]. ...
Article
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The application of post-exercise cooling (e.g., cold water immersion) and post-exercise heating has become a popular intervention which is assumed to increase functional recovery and may improve chronic training adaptations. However, the effectiveness of such post-exercise temperature manipulations remains uncertain. The aim of this comprehensive review was to analyze the effects of post-exercise cooling and post-exercise heating on neuromuscular function (maximal strength and power), fatigue resistance, exercise performance, and training adaptations. We focused on three exercise types (resistance, endurance and sprint exercises) and included studies investigating (1) the early recovery phase, (2) the late recovery phase, and (3) repeated application of the treatment. We identified that the primary benefit of cooling was in the early recovery phase (< 1 h post-exercise) in improving fatigue resistance in hot ambient conditions following endurance exercise and possibly enhancing the recovery of maximal strength following resistance exercise. The primary negative impact of cooling was with chronic exposure which impaired strength adaptations and decreased fatigue resistance following resistance training intervention (12 weeks and 4–12 weeks, respectively). In the early recovery phase, cooling could also impair sprint performance following sprint exercise and could possibly reduce neuromuscular function immediately after endurance exercise. Generally, no benefits of acute cooling were observed during the 24–72-h recovery period following resistance and endurance exercises, while it could have some benefits on the recovery of neuromuscular function during the 24–48-h recovery period following sprint exercise. Most studies indicated that chronic cooling does not affect endurance training adaptations following 4–6 week training intervention. We identified limited data employing heating as a recovery intervention, but some indications suggest promise in its application to endurance and sprint exercise.
... In contrast, it seems a paradox exists whereby a similar augmentation of the molecular pathways controlling adaptation to resistance exercise is not evident. Indeed, regular use of CWI following resistance type exercise has been shown to dampen the magnitude of anabolic signalling [36] and myofibrillar protein synthesis [37], said to be responsible for diminished gains in muscle strength and mass [36,38,39]. ...
... In contrast, it seems a paradox exists whereby a similar augmentation of the molecular pathways controlling adaptation to resistance exercise is not evident. Indeed, regular use of CWI following resistance type exercise has been shown to dampen the magnitude of anabolic signalling [36] and myofibrillar protein synthesis [37], said to be responsible for diminished gains in muscle strength and mass [36,38,39]. ...
... One recent discussion of interest in post-exercise CWI, and perhaps one of significant debate, is the influence the cold stimulus might have on subsequent muscular adaptations to the training stimulus. A paradox exists whereby CWI may augment molecular signals for enhanced endurance type adaptations, such as mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis [41,42], whilst contrastingly CWI has been shown to blunt resistance based adaptive signals leading to a dampened gain in mass and strength [36,37]. We have spoken previously of the importance for context when applying such results in professional practice, particularly where the athlete, environment, situation, training, and competition cycle can vary considerably [41,42]. ...
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This survey sought to establish current use, knowledge and perceptions of cold-water immersion (CWI) when used for recovery. 111 athletes, coaches and support practitioners completed the anonymous online survey, answering questions about their current CWI protocols, perceptions of benefits associated with CWI and knowledge of controlling mechanisms. Respondents were largely involved in elite sport at international, national and club level, with many having used CWI previously (86%) and finding its use beneficial for recovery (78%). Protocols differed, with the duration of immersion one aspect that failed to align with recommendations in the scientific literature. Whilst many respondents were aware of benefits associated with CWI, there remains some confusion. There also seems to be a gap in mechanistic knowledge, where respondents are aware of benefits associated with CWI, but failed to identify the underlying mechanisms. This identifies the need for an improved method of knowledge transfer between scientific and applied practice communities. Moreover, data herein emphasises the important role of the ‘support practitioner’ as respondents in this role tended to favour CWI protocols more aligned to recommendations within the literature. With a significant number of respondents claiming they were made aware of CWI for recovery through a colleague (43%), the importance of knowledge transfer and context being appropriately applied to data is as important as ever. With the firm belief that CWI is useful for recovery in sport, the focus should now be on investigating the psychophysiological interaction and correct use of this methodology.
... Several studies have investigated the effects of regular CWI use (i.e., chronic effect) on training-induced muscle and performance adaptations, including mitochondrial biogenesis, muscle protein synthesis, and muscle repair [4,[21][22][23][24][25]. Initial findings suggested that the effects of regular post-exercise CWI may be task dependent. ...
... Initial findings suggested that the effects of regular post-exercise CWI may be task dependent. For example, regular CWI may attenuate training-induced anabolic responses, protein synthesis, and satellite cell activation [23][24][25], thereby contributing to an attenuation in muscle hypertrophy and strength development, when used during resistance training programs. Conversely, regular CWI may have little to no effect on oxidative signaling pathways when used during endurance training programs [4,22], consistent with the lack of effect on aerobic exercise performance [4,[26][27][28]. ...
... * "Other bias" in the present study refers to risk of bias associated with study design (with possible cross-talk effect) Figure 2 presents the individual and general results of the risk of bias judgment. Among the eight articles selected for the present study, one was performed in Brazil [21], four in Australia [4,23,24,27], two in Japan [28,36], and one in Germany [5], and all were published between the years 2006 and 2019. The study volunteers were healthy men classified as trained [27], physically active [5,21,23], recreationally active [4,24,36], or sedentary [28] (total number including CWI and control groups = 470 volunteers). ...
Article
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Background: Cold-water immersion (CWI) is one of the main recovery methods used in sports, and is commonly utilized as a means to expedite the recovery of performance during periods of exercise training. In recent decades, there have been indications that regular CWI use is potentially harmful to resistance training adaptations, and, conversely, potentially beneficial to endurance training adaptations. The current meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of the regular CWI use during exercise training on resistance (i.e., strength) and endurance (i.e., aerobic exercise) performance alterations. Methods: A computerized literature search was conducted, ending on November 25, 2019. The databases searched were MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and SPORTDiscuss. The selected studies investigated the effects of chronic CWI interventions associated with resistance and endurance training sessions on exercise performance improvements. The criteria for inclusion of studies were: (1) being a controlled investigation; (2) conducted with humans; (3) CWI performed at ≤15 °C; (4) being associated with a regular training program; and (5) having performed baseline and post training assessments. Results: Eight articles were included before the review process. A harmful effect of CWI associated with resistance training was verified for one-repetition maximum, maximum isometric strength, and strength endurance performance (overall standardized mean difference [SMD] = − 0.60; Confidence interval of 95% [CI95%] = − 0.87, − 0.33; p < 0.0001), as well as for Ballistic efforts performance (overall SMD = − 0.61; CI95% = − 1.11, − 0.11; p = 0.02). On the other hand, selected studies verified no effect of CWI associated with endurance training on time-trial (mean power), maximal aerobic power in graded exercise test performance (overall SMD = − 0.07; CI95% = − 0.54, 0.53; p = 0.71), or time-trial performance (duration) (overall SMD = 0.00; CI95% = − 0.58, 0.58; p = 1.00). Conclusions: The regular use of CWI associated with exercise programs has a deleterious effect on resistance training adaptations but does not appear to affect aerobic exercise performance. Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42018098898.
... However, mounting evidence indicates that when used regularly, cold water exercise can diminish long-term gains in strength and muscle mass after strength training (Peake, 2020). Research into the mechanisms responsible for this effect has revealed that acute cold water immersion after resistance reduces or interferes with several important acute processes and pathways that stimulate muscle hypertrophy, including: muscle protein synthesis, the expression of genes that regulate intracellular amino acid transport, satellite cell proliferation, phosphorylation of kinases in the mTOR and p38-MNK1-eIF4E signaling pathways, and ribosomal DNA transcription (Roberts et al., 2015;Figueiredo et al., 2016;Fyfe et al., 2019;Fuchs et al., 2020). Regular cold water immersion may also attenuate chronic changes in heat shock proteins, while also activating factors responsible for catabolism in muscle [e.g., Forkhead box O (FoxO)] (Fyfe et al., 2019). ...
... In the present study, we compared how acute cold water immersion and active recovery influence the expression of growth factors, ubiquitin−ligases, myostatin, FoxO and ECM genes and proteins in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. To achieve this objective, we analyzed muscle samples that we collected as part of a larger study (Roberts et al., 2015). We hypothesized that cold water immersion would attenuate the expression of growth factors and ECM genes/proteins, and enhance the expression of ubiquitin ligases and FoxO3a. ...
... We have reported details and the characteristics of the participants of this study elsewhere (Roberts et al., 2015). Nine young, healthy and physically active men (mean ± SD age 22.1 ± 2.2 years, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, body mass 83.9 ± 15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. ...
Article
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Regular postexercise cooling attenuates muscle hypertrophy, yet its effects on the key molecular factors that regulate muscle growth and remodeling are not well characterized. In the present study, nine men completed two sessions of single-leg resistance exercise on separate days. On 1 day, they sat in cold water (10°C) up to their waist for 10 min after exercise. On the other day, they exercised at a low intensity for 10 min after exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24, and 48 h after exercise in both trials. These muscle samples were analyzed to evaluate changes in genes and proteins involved in muscle growth and remodeling. Muscle-specific RING finger 1 mRNA increased at 2 h after both trials (P < 0.05), while insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 Ec, IGF-1 receptor, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45, collagen type I alpha chain A, collagen type III alpha chain 1, laminin and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 mRNA increased 24−48 h after both trials (P < 0.05). By contrast, atrogin-1 mRNA decreased at all time points after both trials (P < 0.05). Protein expression of tenascin C increased 2 h after the active recovery trial (P < 0.05), whereas FoxO3a protein expression decreased after both trials (P < 0.05). Myostatin mRNA and ubiquitin protein expression did not change after either trial. These responses were not significantly different between the trials. The present findings suggest that regular cold water immersion attenuates muscle hypertrophy independently of changes in factors that regulate myogenesis, proteolysis and extracellular matrix remodeling in muscle after exercise.
... Yet, the first study to address this extends considerably back to 2006 (Yamane et al., 2006). Following a hiatus, a series of studies examining the influence of CWI on adaptation to endurance exercise emerged from independent laboratories (Ihsan et al., 2014b(Ihsan et al., , 2015(Ihsan et al., , 2020bAguiar et al., 2016;Joo et al., 2016;Allan et al., 2017Allan et al., , 2019Allan et al., , 2020Broatch et al., 2017), which was followed up by others examining the influence of CWI on resistance training adaptations (Frohlich et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015;Figueiredo et al., 2016;D'Souza et al., 2018;Fyfe et al., 2019;Fuchs et al., 2020;Peake et al., 2020;Poppendieck et al., 2020). A recent metaanalytical review showed that CWI effects on exercise adaptations are mode-dependant, where resistance training adaptations were diminished, whilst aerobic exercise performance seemed unaffected (Malta et al., 2021). ...
... While some studies have shown that CWI can enhance physical recovery following resistance exercise (Vaile et al., 2008c;Roberts et al., 2014), practitioners should avoid scheduling this modality at least during the immediate recovery period. Indeed, regular CWI has been shown to attenuate the magnitude of anabolic signaling (Roberts et al., 2015) and protein synthesis (Fuchs et al., 2020), leading to reduced magnitude of strength and muscle mass gain following resistance training (Frohlich et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019;Poppendieck et al., 2020). Readers are directed to excellent reviews elsewhere (Broatch et al., 2018;Malta et al., 2021) and within this research topic (Petersen and Fyfe, 2021) elaborating on the mechanisms surrounding CWI and resistance training. ...
... While some studies have shown that CWI can enhance physical recovery following resistance exercise (Vaile et al., 2008c;Roberts et al., 2014), practitioners should avoid scheduling this modality at least during the immediate recovery period. Indeed, regular CWI has been shown to attenuate the magnitude of anabolic signaling (Roberts et al., 2015) and protein synthesis (Fuchs et al., 2020), leading to reduced magnitude of strength and muscle mass gain following resistance training (Frohlich et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019;Poppendieck et al., 2020). Readers are directed to excellent reviews elsewhere (Broatch et al., 2018;Malta et al., 2021) and within this research topic (Petersen and Fyfe, 2021) elaborating on the mechanisms surrounding CWI and resistance training. ...
Article
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In the last decade, cold water immersion (CWI) has emerged as one of the most popular post-exercise recovery strategies utilized amongst athletes during training and competition. Following earlier research on the effects of CWI on the recovery of exercise performance and associated mechanisms, the recent focus has been on how CWI might influence adaptations to exercise. This line of enquiry stems from classical work demonstrating improved endurance and mitochondrial development in rodents exposed to repeated cold exposures. Moreover, there was strong rationale that CWI might enhance adaptations to exercise, given the discovery, and central role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in both cold-and exercise-induced oxidative adaptations. Research on adaptations to post-exercise CWI have generally indicated a mode-dependant effect, where resistance training adaptations were diminished, whilst aerobic exercise performance seems unaffected but demonstrates premise for enhancement. However, the general suitability of CWI as a recovery modality has been the focus of considerable debate, primarily given the dampening effect on hypertrophy gains. In this mini-review, we highlight the key mechanisms surrounding CWI and endurance exercise adaptations, reiterating the potential for CWI to enhance endurance performance, with support from classical and contemporary works. This review also discusses the implications and insights (with regards to endurance and strength adaptations) gathered from recent studies examining the longer-term effects of CWI on training performance and recovery. Lastly, a periodized approach to recovery is proposed, where the use of CWI may be incorporated during competition or intensified training, whilst strategically avoiding periods following training focused on improving muscle strength or hypertrophy.
... On the contrary, numerous cold water immersion (CWI) studies indicate that repetitive cryotherapy can blunt training adaptations, particularly with regards to muscle strength and hypertrophy (Yamane et al., 2006;Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019). Potential associated mechanisms include blunted arterial diameter gains and expression of anabolic signals (Yamane et al., 2006), attenuation of muscle fiber size increases as well as increased protein degradation markers (Fyfe et al., 2019) and blunted increases in testosterone (Earp et al., 2019). ...
... Prior studies on cold water immersion (CWI) treatments (Roberts et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019) indicate that repetitive cryotherapy is unfavorable and potentially damaging to long term training adaptations. This could be due to attenuation of anabolic signaling and muscle protein synthesis (Petersen and Fyfe, 2021), as well as potential dampening of the inflammatory response which would otherwise be a necessary component of adaptive gains (White and Wells, 2013). ...
... The outcome of the lack of difference in strength response between WBC and CON groups contradicts previous findings of repetitive CWI attenuating gains in muscular strength (Roberts et al., 2015). The fairly modest quantity of 12 cryotherapy treatments in total could be a factor in the lack of hindrance effect on adaptations. ...
Article
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Despite its potential merit in sport and exercise recovery, the implications of repetitive Whole Body Cryotherapy (WBC) during training programmes require further review due to the possibility of repetitive cold interfering with long term adaptations. This study investigated the impact of two weekly 3 min WBC sessions (30 s at −60 • C, 150 s at −120 • C) on adaptations to a 6 week strength and endurance training programme. Sixteen male participants (mean ± SD age 33.4 ± 9.8 years, body mass 82.3 ± 9.8 kg) randomly allocated into WBC (n = 7) and non-cryotherapy control (CON, n=9) groups completed the programme consisting of two weekly strength and plyometric training sessions and two weekly 30 min runs (70% VO 2 max). Participants were assessed for body fat, VO2 max, muscle torque, three repetition maximum barbell squat and countermovement jump height before and after the programme. Resistance and running intensities were progressed after 3 weeks. Participants in both groups significantly improved muscle torque (WBC: 277.1 ± 63.2 Nm vs. 318.1 ± 83.4 Nm, p < 0.01, d = 0.56; CON: 244.6 ± 50.6 Nm vs. 268.0 ± 71.8 Nm, p = 0.05, d = 0.38) and barbell squat (WBC: 86.4 ± 19.5 kg vs. 98.9 ± 15.2 kg, p = 0.03, d = 0.69; CON: 91.1 ± 28.7 kg vs. 106.1 ± 30.0 kg, p<0.01, d=0.51) following the 6 week programme. For the CON group, there was also a significant reduction in body fat percentage (p = 0.01) and significant increase in jump height (p = 0.01). There was no significant increase in VO2 max for either group (both p > 0.2). There was no difference between WBC and CON for responses in muscle torque, 3RM barbell squat and body fat, however WBC participants did not increase their jump height (p = 0.23). Repetitive WBC does not appear to blunt adaptations to a concurrent training programme, although there may be an interference effect in the development of explosive power. Sports practitioners can cautiously apply repetitive WBC to support recovery post-exercise without undue concern on athletes' fitness gains or long term performance, particularly throughout training phases focused more on general strength development than explosive power.
... Contrast water therapy, in the form of contrasting hot-and cold-water baths, has been shown to reduce EAMD, inflammation, and delayed onset muscle soreness while enhancing the rate of recovery of muscular strength, power, and joint mobility after damaging exercise. 4,12,19 Contrast water therapy has recently gained popularity over cryotherapy, as the 2 modalities show similar clinical effects, 8 whereas cryotherapy has been shown to interfere with anabolic signaling 9 and training adaptations 23 and to reduce glycogen synthesis rate. 25 Unlike cryotherapy, whose therapeutic goal is to reduce intramuscular temperature, metabolism, and blood flow, 8,22 the proposed therapeutic effect of contrast therapy is an alternation in blood flow resulting from peripheral vasoconstriction during the cold portion and vasodilation during the heat portion. ...
... 6,8 Therefore, contrast therapy results in a minimal change in mean tissue temperature 13,19 and may avoid negative effects attributed to cryotherapy. 9,23,25 With recent advances in technology, CwC therapy can be delivered to targeted tissues using a pressurized cuff and mobile hot and cold fluid reservoirs. This novel recovery modality also provides several logistical advantages over contrast water therapy such as reduced overhead costs, mobile treatment options, targeted treatment to injured tissue, rapid temperature transitions, improved hygiene, and passive/programable treatment options. ...
... Although this method has been validated by 2 independent lab groups, 15,20 a recent study by a third lab group has questioned the use of this technique when they failed to find a significant relationship between changes in muscle glycogen when measured by biopsy and ultrasound (P = 0.11) in a euhydrated state. 23 However, the more recent study had a smaller sample size (N = 16) than the previous studies (N = 22 and N = 20) with no power analysis performed to justify the sample size. In addition, several vital control criteria were not reported in this study, such as measurement of hydration to ensure similar hydration between testing (eg, urine-specific gravity), adequate time given for fluid shift to occur before ultrasound measurements, or restriction of exercise during the evaluation period. ...
Article
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Background: Exercise-associated muscle damage (EAMD) temporally impairs muscle function and intramuscular glycogen storage. Contrast with compression (CwC) therapy provides localized EAMD treatment with minimal changes in core/tissue temperature that can impair glycogen resynthesis. Hypothesis: CwC will enhance the recovery of strength, power, and joint mobility, reduce markers of EAMD, and attenuate the disruption of glycogen storage observed after damaging exercise. Study design: Randomized controlled trial with crossover design. Level of evidence: Level 2. Methods: Ten men completed 2 bouts of eccentric elbow flexor exercise, separated by 1 week, using contralateral arms. After each bout, participants received either CwC therapy (at 0, 24, and 48 h postexercise) or no therapy with intervention order and limb randomly assigned. Prior to (pre-exercise) and 1, 24, 48, and 72 h after each exercise bout, muscular strength, muscular power, intramuscular glycogen, creatine kinase, muscle thickness, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold, active elbow flexion, passive elbow extension, and dietary intake were assessed. Comparisons were made between conditions over time (interaction effects) using separate repeated-measures analyses of variance/multivariate analyses of variance and effect sizes (Cohen d) to describe treatment effect at each time point. Results: Significant interaction effects were observed for muscular strength (d = 0.67-1.12), muscular power (d = 0.20-0.65), intramuscular glycogen (d = 0.29-0.81), creatine kinase (d = 0.01-0.96), muscle thickness (d = 0.35-0.70), muscle soreness (d = 0.18-0.85), and active elbow flexion (d = 0.65-1.17) indicating a beneficial effect of CwC over time (P ≤ 0.05). In contrast, no significant interaction effect was observed for pressure pain threshold or passive elbow extension (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These results support the use of CwC for the recovery of muscle function after damaging exercise in male patients and indicate that CwC attenuates, but does not remove, the disruption of intramuscular glycogen stores observed after intense eccentric exercise. Clinical relevance: Glycolysis-dependent athletes may benefit from CwC therapy after training/competition that causes EAMD.
... Fu et al. (1997) showed that when CWI was regularly applied to rats after exercise training, it caused advanced ultrastructural damage to myofibrils. Several human studies have also shown negative adaptive effects of repeated CWI applications after resistance training (Fröhlich et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015;Yamane et al., 2015;Fyfe et al., 2019;Poppendieck et al., 2020). However, Lindsay et al. (2016) showed that repeated CWI applied to mixed martial artists during a training camp attenuated the inflammatory response, but did not affect measures of performance. ...
... Considering that cold-stress limits mononuclear cell activity (Lindsay et al., 2016;Reynés et al., 2019), and inflammation is integral to muscle repair and regeneration (Peake et al., 2017b), it follows that CWI may in fact delay the sequence of events involved in muscle repair (Tidball, 2011) and the recovery of muscle strength and/or power. Additionally, CWI may slow recovery from structural protein damage, because protein synthesis, ribosomal biogenesis and anabolic signaling are temperature-dependent (Roberts et al., 2015;Figueiredo et al., 2016;Fuchs et al., 2020). Overall, the mechanisms by which CWI may affect recovery of muscle strength and/or power have not definitively been determined. ...
... The most popular recovery methods include cold-water immersion, compression garments, massage, eletrostimulation, nutrition, and active recovery. The acute application of cold water immersion seems not to have effects on exercise adaptation, and its effects on blunting the signs and symptoms of EIMD are controversial (18,30,47). However, chronic exposure to cold water immersion blunted performance gains and the transcriptional pathways associated with adaptation to strength training (47). ...
... The acute application of cold water immersion seems not to have effects on exercise adaptation, and its effects on blunting the signs and symptoms of EIMD are controversial (18,30,47). However, chronic exposure to cold water immersion blunted performance gains and the transcriptional pathways associated with adaptation to strength training (47). Although other methods showed low to moderate effectivity in reducing EIMD and improving recovery (21,29,45), it is not known if these methods could improve or jeopardize RBE adaptation. ...
Article
Padoin, S, Zeffa, AC, Molina Corrêa, JC, de Angelis, TR, Moreira, TB, Barazetti, LK, and de Paula Ramos, S. Phototherapy improves muscle recovery and does not impair repeated bout effect in plyometric exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The effects of photobiomodulation with red (630 nm) and near-infrared (940 nm) light wavelengths were investigated on the inhibition of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and adaptation to the repeated bout effect (RBE). Twenty-eight healthy men were randomized to receive light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) at 630 nm (4.6 J·cm, 97 J energy), LEDT at 940 nm (4.6 J·cm, 114 J), or placebo. After LEDT or placebo treatment, subjects performed 100 drop-jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions). Creatine kinase, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), countermovement jump (CMJ), and squat jump (SJ) were assessed before, immediately after, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the bout. After 14 days, the subjects were submitted to the same plyometric exercise, without LEDT, and were evaluated again. Creatine kinase levels increased significantly 72 hours after the first bout in the placebo group in relation to the LEDT 940-nm group (P < 0.01). The LEDT 630-nm group showed a significant increase in SJ at 24 hours (P < 0.05), whereas, at 48 hours, the LEDT 940 nm showed a significant increase compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). The 2-way analysis of variance revealed an effect for treatment in the SJ (F = 7.12; P = 0.001). No differences were found between groups for DOMS and CMJ after the first bout. After the second bout of exercise, there was no effect of treatment. The results suggest that treatment with LEDT 630 nm and LEDT 940 nm before eccentric exercise attenuates EIMD without impairing RBE.
... Under the pressure to address this hot topic, both coaches and players frequently apply strategies that are believed to be effective, while the scientific evidence and the physiological benefits are often unclear (Crowther et al., 2017;Kellmann, 2010;Venter, 2014). In some cases, however, recovery modalities are either ineffective (Afonso et al., 2021), ineffectively timed (Ivy et al., 1988) or even harmful to athletes, i.e., an application impairing the adaptation of a training stimulus (Roberts et al., 2015), or a recovery treatment leading to potential damage in tissues and bones (Freiwald et al., 2016a). These obstacles underline the need to educate practitioners and athletes towards an effective use of commonly applied recovery strategies (Crowther et al., 2017;Murray et al., 2018). ...
... It cannot be ruled out that CWI has detrimental effects on muscular adaptations. Long term adaptations after CWI in resistance exercise seem impaired as satellite cell activity was shown to be suppressed, which may inhibit muscle hypertrophy (Frohlich et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015). However, the results of a recent review suggest that long-term training adaptations in endurance sports may not be affected (Broatch et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Strategies to improve recovery are widely used among soccer players at both amateur and professional levels. Sometimes, however, recovery strategies are ineffective, improperly timed or even harmful to players. This highlights the need to educate practitioners and athletes about the scientific evidence of recovery strategies as well as to provide practical approaches to address this issue. Therefore, recent surveys among soccer athletes and practitioners were reviewed to identify the recovery modalities currently in use. Each strategy was then outlined with its rationale, its physiological mechanisms and the scientific evidence followed by practical approaches to implement the modality. For each intervention, practical and particularly low-effort strategies are provided to ensure that practitioners at all levels are able to implement them. We identified numerous interventions regularly used in soccer, i.e., sleep, rehydration, nutrition, psychological recovery, active recovery, foam-rolling/massage, stretching, cold-water immersion, and compression garments. Nutrition and rehydration were classified with the best evidence, while cold-water immersion, compression garments, foam-rolling/massage and sleep were rated with moderate evidence to enhance recovery. The remaining strategies (active recovery, psychological recovery, stretching) should be applied on an individual basis due to weak evidence observed. Finally, a guide is provided, helping practitioners to decide which intervention to implement. Here, practitioners should rely on the evidence, but also on their own experience and preference of the players.
... The physiological benefits of WBC in athletes have been attributed to cold-induced analgesia, reduction of muscle temperature, and suppression of inflammation-derived RONS and cytokines. Studies into the effects of a cold therapy on exercise performance and recovery have reported diverse outcomes ranging from beneficial [11][12][13] through negligible [14][15][16][17] to negative ones [18,19]. Roberts et al. [19] indicated that post-exercise cold water immersion could even attenuate acute anabolic signaling and long-term adaptation of muscular system to exercise. ...
... Studies into the effects of a cold therapy on exercise performance and recovery have reported diverse outcomes ranging from beneficial [11][12][13] through negligible [14][15][16][17] to negative ones [18,19]. Roberts et al. [19] indicated that post-exercise cold water immersion could even attenuate acute anabolic signaling and long-term adaptation of muscular system to exercise. Although repeated WBC may prove effective in reducing systemic markers of skeletal muscle damage, its effect on regenerative processes is mostly limited to cortisol and cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), serum interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin 10 (IL-10). ...
Article
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The oxi-inflammatory response is part of the natural process mobilizing leukocytes and satellite cells that contribute to clearance and regeneration of damaged muscle tissue. In sports medicine, a number of post-injury recovery strategies, such as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), are used to improve skeletal muscle regeneration often without scientific evidence of their benefits. The study was designed to assess the impact of WBC on circulating mediators of skeletal muscle regeneration. Twenty elite athletes were randomized to WBC group (3-min exposure to −120 °C, twice a day for 7 days) and control group. Blood samples were collected before the first WBC session and 1 day after the last cryotherapy exposure. WBC did not affect the indirect markers of muscle damage but significantly reduced the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (H2O2 and NO) as well as the concentrations of serum interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The changes in circulating growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFBB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), were also reduced by WBC exposure. The study demonstrated that WBC attenuates the cascade of injury–repair–regeneration of skeletal muscles whereby it may delay skeletal muscle regeneration.
... CWI a jeho účinky na rast svalstva Roberts a kol. (2015) vykonali experiment, kde 21 mužov s minimálne ročnou skúsenosťou so silovým tréningom absolvovalo 12 týždňový silový pohybový program zameraný na dolné končatiny aplikovaný 2 krát týždenne. Po tréningu sa do vody ponorili do 5 minút od ukončenia tréningu. Intervenčná skupina probandov sa ponorila po pás do vody o teplote 10,1°C. Tu zotr ...
... Diskusiu o negatívnom vplyve zníženia teploty vo svale počas regenerácie, kde práve zvýšená teplota je potrebná pre regeneračné procesy, popisujú aj Yamene a kol. (2006). Autori konštatujú, že dlhodobá aplikácia CWI môže rušiť alebo spomaliť adaptačné mechanizmy tréningového procesu. Roberts a kol. (2015) dokumentujú ako ponorenie do studenej vody znižuje prietok krvi vo svaloch a končatinách. Znížením prietoku krvi vo svaloch môže ponorenie do studenej vody obmedziť dodávku aminokyselín do kostrového svalu, čo by mohlo brzdiť syntézu svalových bielkovín po cvičení. Ponorenie do studenej vody znižuje teplotu svalov, čo môže ovplyvniť exp ...
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Monografia je zameraná na otužovanie prostredníctvom vodného prostredia s fokusáciou na rekreačne otužujúcich jedincov. V publikácii opisujeme jednotlivé štruktúry a procesy v ľudskom tele, ktoré sú v interakcií s vodným prostredím (ako toleruje organizmus rôzne tepoty prostredia, tvorba a transport tepla v ľudskom organizme, tukové tkanivo, biorytmus a iné). Taktiež rekcie a spôsoby adaptácií ľudského tela na chladové podnety. Pre začínajúcich otužilcov uvádzame odporúčané metodiky ako začínať s otužovaním vodou. Záver publikácie ja zameraný na účinky chladovej expozície a jej rôzne variácie s ich účinkom pri využití v športovej aktivite.
... Later studies made use of technological advances to progress earlier work in this area assessing cooling-induced changes in muscle blood flow per se (Ihsan et al. 2013;Mawhinney et al. 2020;Choo et al. 2018). Recent advances in the field of cellular and molecular physiology have also enabled regulatory mechanisms in human skeletal muscle to be studied, developing our insight into important pathways involved in endurance (Joo et al. 2016;Ihsan et al. 2015) and strength (Roberts et al. 2015;Fyfe et al. 2019;Peake et al. 2020) adaptation after cold-water exposure. ...
... Recent expert views suggest cryotherapies that aim to benefit or improve health, injury, or recovery should be implemented in an individualised and periodised manner that takes into account the athlete, training and competition schedule, session aims, proximity of future exercise, and environmental conditions (Ihsan et al. 2021;Ihsan et al. 2020;Mawhinney 2017, Grainger et al. 2021). Whilst readers are directed to recent useful reviews highlighting the positive effects of cryotherapies upon health, injury, and recovery (Kwiecien and McHugh 2021), they should also be aware of important caveats that might arise in specific situations; for example, the paradox whereby post-exercise cooling might enhance endurance-based adaptations in skeletal muscle (Ihsan et al. 2014(Ihsan et al. , 2015(Ihsan et al. , 2020Aguiar et al. 2016;Joo et al. 2016;Allan et al. 2017Allan et al. , 2019Allan et al. , 2020Broatch et al. 2017) but dampen hypertrophic aims (Roberts et al. 2015;Fuchs et al. 2020). A point we have previously discussed (Ihsan et al. 2021) and one that serves to emphasise the need for individualisation and periodisation of recovery strategies. ...
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For centuries, cold temperatures have been used by humans for therapeutic, health and sporting recovery purposes. This application of cold for therapeutic purposes is regularly referred to as cryotherapy. Cryotherapies including ice, cold-water and cold air have been popularised by an ability to remove heat, reduce core and tissue temperatures, and alter blood flow in humans. The resulting downstream effects upon human physiologies providing benefits that include a reduced perception of pain, or analgesia, and an improved sensation of well-being. Ultimately, such benefits have been translated into therapies that may assist in improving post-exercise recovery, with further investigations assessing the role that cryotherapies can play in attenuating the ensuing post-exercise inflammatory response. Whilst considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanistic changes associated with adopting cryotherapies, research focus tends to look towards the future rather than to the past. It has been suggested that this might be due to the notion of progress being defined as change over time from lower to higher states of knowledge. However, a historical perspective, studying a subject in light of its earliest phase and subsequent evolution, could help sharpen one's vision of the present; helping to generate new research questions as well as look at old questions in new ways. Therefore, the aim of this brief historical perspective is to highlight the origins of the many arms of this popular recovery and treatment technique, whilst further assessing the changing face of cryotherapy. We conclude by discussing what lies ahead in the future for cold-application techniques.
... While the impact of CWI in recovery on subsequent physical performance is well studied, few studies have examined its effects on training adaptation. CWI in recovery from each training session reduced increases in muscle strength, mass, and anabolic signaling after resistance training (62) but had no effect on adaptations in muscle mitochondrial content and 2-km cycling time-trial performance after sprintinterval training in recreationally active men (7). In contrast, enhancements in muscle capillary density after resistance training were found when each training session was followed by CWI (16). ...
... Thus, effects of regular use of CWI are more apparent after aerobic than anaerobic training, which could at least partly explain the lack of an effect of CWI in the present study. In another study, CWI recovery reduced increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy after resistance training (62). Thus, effects of CWI on training adaptation do also seem to be dependent on the component of muscle function examined, which may be explained by the selective activation of molecular signaling pathways by COLD (45). ...
... No differences in subjective sleep quality were observed at any time during the 6-week intervention period. We can conclude from these results, that CG were not detrimental to physical performance when used in the chronic setting, and therefore, it is unlikely they had a negative impact on the adaptive response to training, as has been seen in CWI studies [15,30,31]. ...
... The small effect sizes for aerobic fitness and upper body muscular endurance in favour of CG are not congruent with recent literature that would suggest the chronic use of recovery interventions may in fact blunt adaptation. With specific reference to CWI, either negligible or negative effects on performance have been reported [30,31]. However, in an elite athlete setting, Halson et al. [32] reported that chronic CWI use in endurance trained cyclists, similar to the current study, allowed performance and perceptual recovery to be better maintained in the CWI group when compared with CON. ...
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Background: Previous studies have shown that compression garments may aid recovery in acute settings; however, less is known about the long-term use of compression garments (CG) for recovery. This study aimed to assess the influence of wearing CG on changes in physical performance, subjective soreness, and sleep quality over 6 weeks of military training. Methods: Fifty-five officer-trainees aged 24 ± 6 y from the New Zealand Defence Force participated in the current study. Twenty-seven participants wore CG every evening for 4-6 h, and twenty-eight wore standard military attire (CON) over a 6-week period. Subjective questionnaires (soreness and sleep quality) were completed weekly, and 2.4 km run time-trial, maximum press-ups, and curl-ups were tested before and after the 6 weeks of military training. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant group × time interactions for performance measures (p > 0.05). However, there were small effects in favour of CG over CON for improvements in 2.4 km run times (d = -0.24) and press-ups (d = 0.36), respectively. Subjective soreness also resulted in no significant group × time interaction but displayed small to moderate effects for reduced soreness in favour of CG. Conclusions: Though not statistically significant, CG provided small to moderate benefits to muscle-soreness and small benefits to aspects of physical-performance over a 6-week military training regime.
... Malta and co-workers (Malta et al., 2021) based on results obtained from eight papers, reported that effects of CWI (temperature <15 • C) are modified by the specificity of strength training (duration, frequency, number of sets). Findings of Roberts et al. (2015) showed that CWI (10 min at 10 • C) applied after each unit of high-intensity strength training (12 weeks, 2 units per week, 3 -5 sets of 8 -12 RM) substantially attenuated satellite cells' activity as well as suppressed the acute anabolic signaling in muscle cells after training. This resulted in a small improvement of strength and hypertrophy, mainly in type II muscle fiber. ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a specific training program, supported by 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation, on growth factors concentrations, amino acids profile and motor abilities in professional judokas. Ultimately, twelve athletes took part in the study. They were randomly assigned to the cryostimulation group (CRY, n = 6) or the control group (CON, n = 6). During 2 weeks of the judo training program, the CRY group performed 10 cryo-sessions (3-min, at a temperature of −110°C) and the CON group rested passively. Anthropometric measurements, a strength test, the Special Judo Efficiency Test (SJET) were assessed 2 days before and after the judo training program. Blood samples were collected at rest, 1 h after the first and the second SJET and 1 h after the first and the last cryo-session to establish growth factors and amino acid concentrations. Lactate level was measured before, immediately after and 1 h after the first and the second SJET. The applied intervention resulted in a significant increase of resting concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (from 10.23 ± 1.61 to 15.13 ± 2.93 ng⋅ml –1 ; p = 0.01) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1; from 174.29 ± 49.34 to 300.50 ± 43.80 pg⋅ml –1 ; p = 0.00) in the CRY group. A different response was registered 1 h directly post SJET in the CRY group (a significant increase of IGF-1, interleukin 15 and irisin: p = 0.01; p = 0.00; p = 0.03). Additionally, the significant drop of proline and leucine concentrations in the CRY group was obtained. Athletes’ performance remained unchanged in both groups. However, subjects perceived positive changes induced by the intervention – not directly after cryostimulation but in response to the specific training workload. The increase of growth factors concentrations and the improvement of amino acid profile (proline and leucine) contributed to maintaining a high level of muscle function.
... These findings suggest that chronic blockade of H 1 /H 2 receptors could negatively affect the cumulative training response, as observed in the current study. Second, sustained post-exercise muscle perfusion could be a key element for optimal muscle recovery (26) and subsequent training adaptations, as also suggested via post-exercise muscle cooling (27) and heating (28) strategies and blood flow restriction training (29). Although blood flow restriction training reduces muscle perfusion during exercise, it substantially enhances the perfusion after exercise (29). ...
Article
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Exercise training is a powerful strategy to prevent and combat cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, although the integrative nature of the training-induced adaptations is not completely understood. We show that chronic blockade of histamine H 1 /H 2 receptors led to marked impairments of microvascular and mitochondrial adaptations to interval training in humans. Consequently, functional adaptations in exercise capacity, whole-body glycemic control, and vascular function were blunted. Furthermore, the sustained elevation of muscle perfusion after acute interval exercise was severely reduced when H 1 /H 2 receptors were pharmaceutically blocked. Our work suggests that histamine H 1 /H 2 receptors are important transducers of the integrative exercise training response in humans, potentially related to regulation of optimal post-exercise muscle perfusion. These findings add to our understanding of how skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system adapt to exercise training, knowledge that will help us further unravel and develop the exercise-is-medicine concept.
... Several mechanisms explain the benefits of across many modes of cryotherapeutic exposures, including minimising muscle damage, inflammation [32] and soreness [35]. Optimal recovery may be determined by complex training load, fatigue and adaptation interactions [10]. ...
Article
ABSTRACT: Fatigue is a predisposing risk factor for injury commonly investigated in elite football populations. Little evidence advocates the most beneficial recovery strategies including contemporary cooling applications. The aim of the study was to examine immediate effects of the Game Ready® on physiological and biomechanical measures in a population of elite male academy footballers, following a fatiguing training session mid-competitive season. Twenty, elite male footballers took part (180.2 ± 8.7cm, 75.0 ± 11.4kg, 18 ± 0.5years). Following a normal fatiguing training session, players were randomly assigned to receive either cryotherapy (Game Ready®) (20-minutes at medium compression (5–55 mm Hg)) or passive recovery (PAS). Data was collected at matchday+1, immediately post-training and immediately post-intervention. Performance measures included countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric adductor strength (IAS), hamstring flexibility (HF), and skin surface temperature (Tsk). Significant main effects for group for CMJ data following exposure to cooling were displayed (p = < 0.05). Individual group analysis displayed a significant reduction in CMJ performance in the group exposed to cryotherapy (p = < 0.05) immediately post, but not for PAS. No main effects were identified for cryotherapy or PAS group for IAS or HF (p = > 0.05). Tsk reduced significantly (p = < 0.05) in the cryotherapy group, meeting therapeutic Tsk range. Reductions in performance immediately following exposure to pneumatic cryo-compressive devices may negate the justification of this recovery strategy if neuromuscular mechanisms are required in immediate short term. Application of such recovery strategies however are dependent on the type of recovery demand and should be adapted individually to suit the needs of the athlete to optimise readiness to train/play.
... Investigating the effects of professional training load and recovery modalities are paramount, given that a wide variety of recovery techniques (e.g., water immersions, active recovery, stretching, whole-body cryotherapy, compression garments. . . ) are available to tennis players. However, inconsistent results have been reported regarding the impacts of different recovery techniques on the fatigue induced by training or competition (Bahnert et al., 2013;Halson et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015;Dupuy et al., 2018;Tavares et al., 2019). Elite tennis centers have developed some practical guides regarding recovery techniques that are provided to coaches and athletes; however, no systematic evidence has been reported regarding the efficiencies of these techniques. ...
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Introduction: Modern tennis players face congested schedules that force the adoption of various recovery strategies. Thus, recovery must be fine-tuned with an accurate quantification of its impacts, especially with regards to training-induced fatigue. The present study aimed to examine the training type clusters and recovery practices adopted by elite tennis players under ecological training conditions. The respective impacts of training type clusters and recovery techniques on subjective variables, which reflect the players' recovery perceptions, were subsequently determined. Methods: During 15 consecutive months, a total of 35 elite tennis players filled out questionnaires to report their daily training load, training session content, adopted recovery modalities after training, and perceived recovery. Results: The hierarchical analysis identified three clusters: “combined tennis and S&C training,” “predominant tennis training” and “predominant S&C training.” Muscle soreness and perceived fatigue were not significantly different among these three clusters (p = 0.07–0.65). Across the 146 recorded training and recovery sessions, players primarily employed a combination of 2 or 3 modalities, with cooling strategies being the most widely used technique (87.6%). Mixed linear models revealed that independent of training clusters, cooling strategies significantly reduced muscle soreness (Δmuscle soreness: β = −1.00, p = 0.02). Among the cooling techniques used, whole-body cryotherapy induced a greater perceived recovery than cold-water immersion (p = 0.02). Conclusion: These results showed that perceived recovery was not sensitive to training clusters or the associated acute training load. However, cooling strategies were relevant for the alleviation of tennis training-induced soreness. This study represents an initial step toward a periodized approach of recovery interventions, based on the interactions between training load, training contents, and perceived recovery.
... It has been shown that CWI (8 • C, 10 min) induces significant decreases in intramuscular temperature . Lower intramuscular temperatures are speculated to affect enzymatic activity and rates of intramuscular glycogen synthesis but are also associated with attenuated training adaptions following strength training (Roberts et al., 2015a;Mawhinney and Allan, 2018). However, in cryotherapy research, the most relevant and divisive question pertains to the optimal cooling modality, temperature, and duration to elicit the required physiological response (Costello et al., 2012a). ...
... We probed for MYC at 24 h and found that it was elevated in the majority of our samples relative to Pre, but two subjects demonstrated a sharp decrease, so the difference was not significant (P = 0.28) (Fig. 3). We also measured total RPS6 as a readout of ribosome biogenesis at the protein level because recent studies in rodents and humans report increased total RPS6 after acute RE (Roberts et al. 2015, Sase et al. 2020, Takegaki et al. 2020) and similarly found a significant induction by 24 h (P = 0.04) (Fig. 3). Summary data and statistical analyses for all gene and protein measures are provided in the Supporting information. ...
Article
Key points: Ribosome biogenesis and MYC transcription are associated with acute resistance exercise (RE) and are distinct from endurance exercise (EE) in human skeletal muscle throughout a 24-hour time-course of recovery. A PCR-based method for relative ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy number estimation was validated by whole genome sequencing and revealed that rDNA dosage is positively correlated with ribosome biogenesis in response to RE. Acute RE modifies rDNA methylation patterns in enhancer, intergenic spacer, and non-canonical MYC-associated regions, but not the promoter. Myonuclear-specific rDNA methylation patterns with acute mechanical overload in mice corroborate and expand on rDNA findings with RE in humans. A genetic predisposition for hypertrophic responsiveness may exist based on rDNA gene dosage. Abstract: Ribosomes are the macromolecular engines of protein synthesis. Skeletal muscle ribosome biogenesis is stimulated by exercise, but the contribution of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy number and methylation to exercise-induced rDNA transcription is unclear. To investigate the genetic and epigenetic regulation of ribosome biogenesis with exercise, a time-course of skeletal muscle biopsies was obtained from 30 participants (18 men and 12 women; 31±8 yrs, 25±4 kg/m2 ) at rest and 30 min, 3h, 8h, and 24h after acute endurance (n = 10, 45 min cycling, 70% VO2 max) or resistance exercise (n = 10, 4×7×2 exercises); 10 control participants underwent biopsies without exercise. rDNA transcription and dosage were assessed using qPCR and whole genome sequencing. rDNA promoter methylation was investigated using massARRAY EpiTYPER, and global rDNA CpG methylation was assessed using reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing. Ribosome biogenesis and MYC transcription were associated primarily with resistance but not endurance exercise, indicating preferential upregulation during hypertrophic processes. With resistance exercise, ribosome biogenesis was associated with rDNA gene dosage as well as epigenetic changes in enhancer and non-canonical MYC-associated areas in rDNA, but not the promoter. A mouse model of in vivo metabolic RNA labeling and genetic myonuclear fluorescent labeling validated the effects of an acute hypertrophic stimulus on ribosome biogenesis and Myc transcription, and corroborated rDNA enhancer and Myc-associated methylation alterations specifically in myonuclei. This study provides the first information on skeletal muscle genetic and rDNA gene-wide epigenetic regulation of ribosome biogenesis in response to exercise, revealing novel roles for rDNA dosage and CpG methylation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Furthermore, it is discussed in the literature whether a long-term application of recovery interventions might attenuate training-specific adaptations in long-term training intervention and how to balance possible deteriorations in training adaptations with the possible beneficial short-term recovery effects. For example, Fröhlich et al. (2014), Roberts et al. (2015), and Poppendieck et al. (2020) showed that the regular use of CWI after strength training sessions reduced long-term gains in muscle mass and strength. However, the effects were rather small and therefore only of practical relevance for a few elite athletes. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether recovery from eccentric squat exercise varies depending on age and to assess whether the use of a mixed-method recovery (MMR) consisting of cold water immersion and compression tights benefits recovery. Sixteen healthy and resistance-trained young (age, 22.1 ± 2.1 years; N = 8) and master male athletes (age, 52.4 ± 3.5 years; N = 8), who had a similar half squat 1-repetition maximum relative to body weight, completed two identical squat exercise training sessions, separated by a 2-week washout period. Training sessions were followed by either MMR or passive recovery (PR). Internal training loads [heart rate and blood lactate concentration (BLa)] were recorded during and after squat sessions. Furthermore, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, resting twitch force of the knee extensors, serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness (MS), and perceived physical performance capability (PPC) were determined before and after training as well as after 24, 48, and 72 h of recovery. A three-way mixed ANOVA revealed a significant time effect of the squat protocol on markers of fatigue and recovery (p < 0.05; decreased MVIC, CMJ, twitch force, and PPC; increased CK and MS). Age-related differences were found for BLa, MS, and PPC (higher post-exercise fatigue in younger athletes). A significant two-way interaction between recovery strategy and time of measurement was found for MS and PPC (p < 0.05; faster recovery after MMR). In three participants (two young and one master athlete), the individual results revealed a consistently positive response to MMR. In conclusion, master athletes neither reach higher fatigue levels nor recover more slowly than the younger athletes. Furthermore, the results indicate that MMR after resistance exercise does not contribute to a faster recovery of Schmidt et al. Recovery in Young and Master Athletes Frontiers in Physiology | www.frontiersin.org 2 September 2021 | Volume 12 | Article 665204 physical performance, neuromuscular function, or muscle damage, but promotes recovery of perceptual measures regardless of age.
... water immersions, active recovery, stretching, whole-body cryotherapy, compression garments…) are available to tennis players. However, inconsistent results have been reported regarding the impacts of different recovery techniques on the fatigue induced by training or competition (Bahnert et al., 2013;Halson et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015;Dupuy et al., 2018;. Elite tennis centers have developed some practical guides regarding recovery techniques that are provided to coaches and athletes; however, no systematic evidence has been reported regarding the efficiencies of these techniques. ...
Thesis
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L’organisation du circuit professionnel impose actuellement au joueur de tennis de haut niveau une planification annuelle des entraînements et des compétitions très dense. Ainsi, une gestion appropriée et équilibrée de la fatigue et de la récupération apparait primordiale afin de permettre au joueur de tennis élite d’être performant lors des compétitions mais aussi d’éviter la survenue d’épisodes de fatigue sévère, de surmenage, de blessures ou de maladies. Les connaissances issues de la littérature scientifique incitent à adapter et planifier spécifiquement la récupération en fonction du contexte (discipline, période d’entraînement, type de fatigue, statut de l’athlète). Pourtant, les joueurs ont actuellement recours de façon relativement empirique à des stratégies de récupération diverses, incluant l’application de froid. Cependant, peu d’études se sont intéressées aux effets de ces méthodes de récupération sur les réponses à la charge induite par le tennis pratiqué à haut niveau. Il semble nécessaire de déterminer l’efficacité de chaque technique de récupération dans ce contexte afin d’identifier quelles stratégies répondent le mieux à la nécessité de récupérer. La première partie de ces travaux de thèse a donc eu pour objectif de décrire, sur une période de 15 mois et dans un cadre écologique, les contenus et la charge de travail induite par l’entraînement, les pratiques de récupération et leurs impacts sur la fatigue subjective des joueurs de tennis élites. À court terme, il apparait que les contenus d’entraînement, regroupés et leur charge associée n’impactent pas différemment la fatigue perceptive rapportée. Au sein des stratégies de récupération utilisées par les joueurs, les techniques par le froid (cryothérapie corps entier, immersion en eau froide, bain contrasté) sont les plus représentées. Les modèles statistiques utilisés montrent que ces techniques de récupération par le froid sont les seules associées à une diminution significative des sensations de douleurs musculaires 12-16h post-entraînement. Notre seconde étude a comparé l’efficacité de ces différentes techniques de récupération par le froid dans des conditions de fatigue accumulée, simulant celles induites lors de compétitions professionnelles de tennis. Ces travaux montrent que l’enchaînement de trois jours de matchs de tennis d’1h30, induit une fatigue significative mais modérée. En effet, les paramètres de fatigue neuromusculaire (centrale et périphérique), physiologique diminuent significativement lors du premier jour, mais ne sont pas modifiés en réponse aux matchs de tennis des jours suivants. Au cours des quatre jours de protocole, l’immersion en eau froide et de la cryothérapie corps entier permettent de limiter l’augmentation des sensations de douleurs musculaires. Ces résultats valident l’intérêt d’utiliser les techniques de récupération par le froid pour diminuer les sensations de douleurs musculaires de joueurs de tennis élites en période d’entraînement. Dans le cadre précis de compétitions réalisées sur surface dure (hors Grands Chelems), l’utilisation quotidienne des techniques de récupération par le froid seront alors conseillées pour limiter l’accumulation des sensations de douleurs musculaires.
... It has been shown that CWI (8 • C, 10 min) induces significant decreases in intramuscular temperature . Lower intramuscular temperatures are speculated to affect enzymatic activity and rates of intramuscular glycogen synthesis but are also associated with attenuated training adaptions following strength training (Roberts et al., 2015a;Mawhinney and Allan, 2018). However, in cryotherapy research, the most relevant and divisive question pertains to the optimal cooling modality, temperature, and duration to elicit the required physiological response (Costello et al., 2012a). ...
Article
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Post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) is a widely accepted recovery strategy for maintaining physical performance output. However, existing review articles about the effects of CWI commonly pool data from very heterogenous study designs and thus, do rarely differentiate between different muscles, different CWI-protocols (duration, temperature, etc.), different forms of activating the muscles before CWI, and different thickness of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. This systematic review therefore aimed to investigate the effects of one particular post-exercise CWI protocol (10°C for 10 min) on intramuscular temperature changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle while accounting for skinfold thickness. An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, LIVIVO, Cochrane Library, and PEDro databases. Pooled data on intramuscular temperature changes were plotted with respect to intramuscular depth to visualize the influence of skinfold thickness. Spearman's rho (rs) was used to assess a possible linear association between skinfold thickness and intramuscular temperature changes. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of CWI on pre-post intramuscular temperature for each measurement depth. A total of six articles met the inclusion criteria. Maximum intramuscular temperature reduction was 6.40°C with skinfold thickness of 6.50 mm at a depth of 1 cm, 4.50°C with skinfold thickness of 11.00 mm at a depth of 2 cm, and only 1.61°C with skinfold thickness of 10.79 mm at a depth of 3 cm. However, no significant correlations between skinfold thickness and intramuscular temperature reductions were observed at a depth of 1 cm (rs = 0.0), at 2 cm (rs = −0.8) and at 3 cm (rs = −0.5; all p > 0.05). The CWI protocol resulted in significant temperature reductions in the muscle tissue layers at 1 cm (d = −1.92 [95% CI: −3.01 to −0.83] and 2 cm (d = −1.63 [95% CI: −2.20 to −1.06]) but not at 3 cm (p < 0.05). Skinfold thickness and thus, subcutaneous adipose tissue, seems to influence temperature reductions in the muscle tissue only to a small degree. These findings might be useful for practitioners as they demonstrate different intramuscular temperature reductions after a specific post-exercise CWI protocol (10°C for 10 min) in the quadriceps femoris muscle.
... Positiv scheinen sich Kaltwasseranwendungen auf das subjektive Erholungsempfinden auszuwirken, wobei dies auf den Placebo-Effekt zurückzuführen sein könnte (Broatch et al., 2014), da eine Blindung bei Kältestudien kaum möglich ist. Es bestehen Hinweise darauf, dass sich eine dauerhafte Anwendung von KWI negativ auf Anpassungsmechanismen im Bereich des Krafttrainings auswirken könnte (Fröhlich et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Das Regenerationsmanagement im Leistungssport umfasst die Abschätzung von Ermüdungszustand und Regenerationsbedarf (Teil 1 dieser Beitragsreihe) sowie den Einsatz regenerationsfördernder Maßnahmen (Teil 2 dieser Beitragsreihe). Die Erfassung des Regenerationsbedarfs erfolgt durch die Dokumentation der externen Trainings- und Wettkampfbelastung, der damit einhergehenden internen Beanspruchung und der resultierenden Leistungsveränderung. Hierzu sind zahlreiche Surrogat-Parameter verfügbar (z. B. Laborparameter, sportmotorische Tests und psychometrische Verfahren). Diese sollten sensitiv für unterschiedliche Belastungsformen und Dimensionen der Ermüdung, ausreichend reliabel und objektiv, kostengünstig und praktikabel sowie engmaschig durchführbar und demnach nicht zu belastend sein. Für die Beurteilung des Regenerationsbedarfs einzelner Athleten sind neben einer individualisierten Interpretation der Surrogat-Parameter stets auch der vertrauensvolle Diskurs zwischen Athleten und deren Betreuerstab erforderlich.
... Researches have shown that training adaptation using cold water treatment lowered proliferation of satellite cell [35]. Prolong effects results in reduce muscular enlargement and complexity of cell muscle fibers structure [41]. On the basis of conventional wisdom, inflammation may be adapted to suit the challenges in health. ...
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... Positiv scheinen sich Kaltwasseranwendungen auf das subjektive Erholungsempfinden auszuwirken, wobei dies auf den Placebo-Effekt zurückzuführen sein könnte (Broatch et al., 2014), da eine Blindung bei Kältestudien kaum möglich ist. Es bestehen Hinweise darauf, dass sich eine dauerhafte Anwendung von KWI negativ auf Anpassungsmechanismen im Bereich des Krafttrainings auswirken könnte (Fröhlich et al., 2014;Roberts et al., 2015). ...
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Einleitung. Angesichts der großen Wettkampfdichte und hoher Trainingsbelastungen im Spitzensport wird eine schnelle und effektive Regeneration immer wichtiger, um konstant hohe Leistungen zu gewährleisten. Dies sehen auch die Spitzenverbände des deutschen Sports und ihr Dachverband, der Deutsche Olympische Sportbund (DOSB), so. Gleichzeitig besteht ein Defizit an wissenschaftlich fundierten Empfehlungen, nach denen sich Spitzenathletinnen und -athleten richten können. Angesichts des Unterstützungsbedarfes der Sportpraxis und der unzureichenden Befundlage fördert das Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (BISp) von Oktober 2012 bis Ende 2016 das Verbundprojekt „Optimierung von Training und Wettkampf: Regenerationsmanagement im Spitzensport“ (REGman) (AZ 081901/2012-16). Das interdisziplinär ausgerichtete Projekt ist Bestandteil der Umsetzung des Forschungsprogramms für das Wissenschaftliche Verbundsystem im Leistungssport (WVL). Es wird von der Universität des Saarlandes geführt und von dem Sportmediziner Prof. Tim Meyer (Universität des Saarlandes), den Trainingswissenschaftlern Prof. Alexander Ferrauti (Ruhr-Universität Bochum) und Prof. Mark Pfeiffer (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) sowie dem Sportpsychologen Prof. Michael Kellmann (Ruhr-Universität Bochum) geleitet. In der vorliegenden Broschüre werden die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der bisherigen Projektarbeit vorgestellt. Sie ist damit wichtiger Bestandteil der umfassenden Transfermaßnahmen von REGman (weitere Informationen zum Projekt unter regman.org). Sie ist damit wichtiger Bestandteil der umfassenden Transfermaßnahmen von REGman und wurde noch vor Ende der Projektlaufzeit auf den Weg gebracht, um der Sportpraxis für die Vorbereitung auf die Olympischen Spiele 2016 in Rio de Janeiro fundierte Informationen zum Regenerationsmanagement zur Verfügung zu stellen.
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Murphy, CJ, Mason, BS, and Goosey-Tolfrey, VL. Exercise recovery practices of wheelchair court sports athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Research that describes the recovery practices of Para-athletes around training and competition is limited. This study investigated if and why athletes in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby, and tennis) use recovery strategies, what type of strategies are used, and whether the period of the season influences the prevalence of use. A cross-sectional questionnaire was developed to acquire data pertaining to individual characteristics, recovery habits, reasons for use/nonuse, the use of specific recovery strategies, and lifestyle habits. One hundred forty-four athletes (92 = international and 52 = national/club) completed the questionnaire online. In total, 85% (n = 122) of athletes reported using at least one type of recovery strategy, yet most specific types of recovery strategies were not popular (<34% of recovery strategy users). The most commonly used type of recovery strategy was stretching (n = 117), whereas both stretching and heat-related recovery were the most highly rated types of recovery strategies (μ = 4.2/5). The 3 most prevalent reasons for use across all strategies were "reduces muscle soreness," "reduces muscle tightness," and "reduces muscle spasms." The prevalence of sleep complaints was apparent with 38% (n = 55) of respondents reporting difficulties sleeping. This study highlights that although the frequent use of well-known recovery practices is positive, the lack of diversity in strategies implemented may have implications due to the specific requirements of exercise recovery. Therefore, strength and conditioning professionals should educate wheelchair athletes further around this area and increase the range of recovery-specific and impairment-specific strategies used.
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Blood flow restriction (BFR) with low-load resistance exercise (RE) is often used as a surrogate to traditional high-load RE to stimulate muscular adaptations, such as hypertrophy and strength. However, it is not clear whether such adaptations are achieved through similar cellular and molecular processes. We compared changes in muscle function, morphology and signaling pathways between these differing training protocols. Twenty-one males and females (mean ± SD: 24.3 ± 3.1 years) experienced with resistance training (4.9 ± 2.6 years) performed nine weeks of resistance training (three times per week) with either high-loads (75-80% 1RM; HL-RT), or low-loads with BFR (30-40% 1RM; LL-BFR). Before and after the training intervention, resting muscle biopsies were collected, and quadricep cross-sectional area (CSA), muscular strength and power were measured. Approximately 5 days following the intervention, the same individuals performed an additional 'acute' exercise session under the same conditions, and serial muscle biopsies were collected to assess hypertrophic- and ribosomal-based signaling stimuli. Quadricep CSA increased with both LL-BFR (7.4±4.3%) and HL-RT (4.6±2.9%), with no significant differences between training groups (p=0.37). Muscular strength also increased in both training groups, but with superior gains in squat 1RM occurring with HL-RT (p<0.01). Acute phosphorylation of several key proteins involved in hypertrophy signaling pathways, and expression of ribosomal RNA transcription factors occurred to a similar degree with LL-BFR and HL-RT (all p>0.05 for between-group comparisons). Together, these findings validate low-load resistance training with continuous BFR as an effective alternative to traditional high-load resistance training for increasing muscle hypertrophy in trained individuals.
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Purpose: Cold-water immersion is increasingly used by athletes to support performance recovery. Recently, however, indications have emerged suggesting that the regular use of cold-water immersion might be detrimental to strength training adaptation. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 11 participants performed two 8-week training periods including 3 leg training sessions per week, separated by an 8-week "wash out" period. After each session, participants performed 10 minutes of either whole-body cold-water immersion (cooling) or passive sitting (control). Leg press 1-repetition maximum and countermovement jump performance were determined before (pre), after (post) and 3 weeks after (follow-up) both training periods. Before and after training periods, leg circumference and muscle thickness (vastus medialis) were measured. Results: No significant effects were found for strength or jump performance. Comparing training adaptations (pre vs post), small and negligible negative effects of cooling were found for 1-repetition maximum (g = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.42 to 1.26) and countermovement jump (g = 0.02; 95% CI, -0.82 to 0.86). Comparing pre versus follow-up, moderate negative effects of cooling were found for 1-repetition maximum (g = 0.71; 95% CI, -0.30 to 1.72) and countermovement jump (g = 0.64; 95% CI, -0.36 to 1.64). A significant condition × time effect (P = .01, F = 10.00) and a large negative effect of cooling (g = 1.20; 95% CI, -0.65 to 1.20) were observed for muscle thickness. Conclusions: The present investigation suggests small negative effects of regular cooling on strength training adaptations.
Chapter
Temperature is a fundamental quantity that can regulate various biological phenomena and thus important in clinical biology as well as sport and health sciences. This chapter reviews how the body temperature is regulated in the organisms (mainly in mammals including humans), and how the body temperature of not only the surface but also the deep tissues. As an emerging technique, the luminescence nanothermometry that works in the over-thousand-nanometer (OTN) near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range, which allows us to look the biological tissues transparently, is being developed to visualize and reveal the mechanisms of dynamic time-dependent changes in body temperature distribution in deep tissues. The data and knowledge collected with the new techniques will provide insights in body temperature control in biology and its management in biomedical and engineering fields.
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of regular hot water bathing (HWB), undertaken 10 min after the last training session of the day, on chronic adaptations to training in elite athletes. Six short-track (ST) speed skaters completed four weeks of post-training HWB and four weeks of post-training passive recovery (PR) according to a randomized cross-over study. During HWB, participants sat in a jacuzzi (40 °C; 20 min). According to linear mixed models, maximal isometric strength of knee extensor muscles was significantly increased for training with HWB (p < 0.0001; d = 0.41) and a tendency (p = 0.0529) was observed concerning V ˙ O 2 m a x . No significant effect of training with PR or HWB was observed for several variables (p > 0.05), including aerobic peak power output, the decline rate of jump height during 1 min-continuous maximal countermovement jumps (i.e. anaerobic capacity index), and the force-velocity relationship. Regarding specific tasks on ice, a small effect of training was found on both half-lap time and total time during a 1.5-lap all-out exercise (p = 0.0487; d = 0.23 and p = 0.0332; d = 0.21, respectively) but no additional effect of HWB was observed. In summary, the regular HWB protocol used in this study can induce additional effects on maximal isometric strength without compromising aerobic and anaerobic adaptations or field performance in these athletes.
Chapter
Ermüdung und Regeneration sind integrale Bestandteile des Trainingsprozesses. Dabei steht die kontinuierliche Leistungsentwicklung in ständiger Wechselwirkung mit den durch Trainings- und Wettkampfaktivitäten ausgelösten Ermüdungs- und Regenerationsvorgängen. Während die Steigerung der Trainingsqualität seit jeher im Fokus trainingswissenschaftlicher Bemühungen steht, richtet sich das Augenmerk zunehmend auch auf die Erholungsprozesse und deren Optimierung. Das Regenerationsmanagement lässt sich dabei im Wesentlichen in die Messung des Regenerationsbedarfs sowie in die individualisierte Planung und Anwendung von Regenerationsstrategien strukturieren. Hierbei ist die Bedeutung einer angemessenen Ernährung sowie von ausreichend Schlaf unbestritten. Zusätzlich kann in der (leistungs-)sportlichen Praxis aus einer Vielzahl an regenerationsfördernden Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, deren Wirksamkeitsnachweis jedoch nur selten unter wissenschaftlich kontrollierten Bedingungen überzeugend erfolgt ist. Dies gilt sowohl für „traditionelle“ und bei den Athleten beliebte Maßnahmen wie beispielsweise die Massage als auch für neuartige Regenerationstrends wie Foam-Rolling oder für technologisch unterstützte Interventionsstrategien wie z. B. LED-Bestrahlung oder Kältekammern. Sowohl Ermüdungs- als auch Erholungsprozesse sind äußerst komplexe und multifaktorielle Phänomene, die in Abhängigkeit von den Belastungsmerkmalen sowie adressaten- und umweltspezifischen Besonderheiten auf verschiedenen Funktionsebenen des menschlichen Organismus (u. a. Muskulatur, Bindegewebe, zentrales Nervensystem, autonomes Nervensystem, endokrines System) in unterschiedlichen zeitlichen Dimensionen sowie in unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeit und Ausprägung stattfinden. Basierend hierauf werden in diesem Kapitel sowohl die Wirkmechanismen und Effekte von Regenerationsinterventionen, die sich in der Sportpraxis großer Beliebtheit erfreuen, diskutiert als auch Grundlagen zum Ernährungsmanagement im Sport besprochen. Unter Berücksichtigung individueller und sportartspezifischer Rahmenbedingungen werden Praxistipps für die Regenerationssteuerung im (Leistungs-)Sport vorgestellt.
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The study aimed to determine whether combining cryostimulation with resistance training would effectively increase muscle strength, and if so, whether this adaptation would be related to changes in circulating levels of exerkines (i.e., mediators of systemic adaptation to exercise). Twenty-five students completed 12 sessions of resistance training, each followed by either cryostimulation (n = 15, 3 min exposure at −110 °C) or passive recovery (n = 10). Prior to and post this intervention, participants performed two eccentric cycling bouts (before and after training). At these points, serum concentrations of muscle damage marker (myoglobin), exerkines (interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 15 (IL-15), irisin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor), hypertrophy-related factors (myostatin, insulin-like growth factor 1), and muscle strength were measured. The applied procedure reduced the physiological burden of the second eccentric cycling bout and myoglobin concentrations only in the group subject to cryostimulation. The same group also exhibited decreased levels of myostatin (from 4.7 ± 1.7 to 3.8 ± 1.8 ng·mL−1, p < 0.05). A significant and large interaction between the group × time was noted in IL-15 concentration (p = 0.01, ηp2= 0.27). Training and cryostimulation induced a positive and likely significant improvement of isokinetic muscle strength. Altogether, obtained results support the claim that resistance training combined with cold exposure modified muscle strength through modulation of myostatin and IL-15 concentrations.
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Athletes use cold water immersion, cryotherapy chambers or icing in the belief that these strategies improve postexercise recovery and promote greater adaptations to training. A number of studies have systematically investigated how regular cold water immersion influences long-term performance and muscle adaptations. The effects of regular cold water immersion after endurance or high-intensity interval training on aerobic capacity, lactate threshold, power output and time trial performance are equivocal. Evidence for changes in angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle in response to regular cold water immersion is also mixed. More consistent evidence is available that regular cold water immersion after strength training attenuates gains in muscle mass and strength. These effects are attributable to reduced activation of satellite cells, ribosomal biogenesis, anabolic signaling and muscle protein synthesis. Athletes use passive heating to warm up before competition or improve postexercise recovery. Emerging evidence indicates that regular exposure to ambient heat, wearing garments perfused with hot water or microwave diathermy can mimic the effects of endurance training by stimulating angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle. Some passive heating applications may also mitigate muscle atrophy through their effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle fiber hypertrophy. More research is needed to consolidate these findings, however. Future research in this field should focus on (1) the optimal modality, temperature, duration and frequency of cooling and heating to enhance long-term performance and muscle adaptations and (2) whether molecular and morphological changes in muscle in response to cooling and heating applications translate to improvements in exercise performance.
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Cryotherapy is one of the most common treatments for trauma or fatigue in the field of sports medicine. However, the molecular biological effects of acute cold exposure on skeletal muscle remain unclear. Therefore, we used zebrafish, which have recently been utilized as an animal model for skeletal muscle, to comprehensively investigate and selectively clarify the time-course changes induced by cryotherapy. Zebrafish were exposed intermittently to cold stimulation three times for 15 min each. Thereafter, skeletal muscle samples were collected after 15 min and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. mRNA sequencing revealed the involvement of trim63a, fbxo32, fbxo30a, and klhl38b in “protein ubiquitination” from the top 10 most upregulated genes. Subsequently, we examined the time-course changes of the four genes by quantitative PCR, and their expression peaked 2 h after cryotherapy and returned to baseline after 6 h. Moreover, the proteins encoded by trim63a and fbxo32 (muscle-specific RING finger protein 1 [MuRF1] and muscle atrophy F-box, respectively), which are known to be major genes encoding E3 ubiquitin ligases, were examined by western blotting, and MuRF1 expression displayed similar temporal changes as trim63a expression. These findings suggest that acute cold exposure transiently upregulates E3 ubiquitin ligases, especially MuRF1; thus, cryotherapy may contribute to the treatment of trauma or fatigue by promoting protein processing.
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Introduction The effectiveness of different forms of cryotherapy and combined compression (cryo-compression) commonly used in sport to enhance recovery following exercise are not fully understood. Therefore, the exploration of protocols that use contemporary cryo-compression is warranted. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a cryo-compression device to recover hamstrings eccentric strength following a fatiguing exercise. Methods Eighteen healthy male adult footballers were randomly allocated to receive cryo-compression or rest following a lower limb fatiguing protocol. Cryo-compression was applied for 15-minutes, target temperature of 10°C, and high intermittent pressure (5-75 mm Hg) using the Game Ready® device. Rest consisted of 15-minutes in a prone position on a plinth. To induce hamstring fatigue, participants performed the Yo-Yo intermittent fatigue test (IFT). Skin surface temperature (Tsk) and hamstring eccentric strength measures were taken at three time points; pre-IFT, immediately post-fatigue test (IPFT), and immediately post-intervention (IPI) (rest or Game Ready®). Participants returned one week later and performed the Yo-Yo IFT again and were exposed to the opposite intervention and data collection. Results Significant decreases in Tsk over the posterior thigh were reported for all timepoints compared to pre cryo-compression temperatures (p=<0.05). Overall data displayed no significant main effects for timepoint or condition for PT or AvT (p=<0.05). There was no timepoint x condition interaction for PT or AvT (p=<0.05). Collapse of the data by condition (CC / R) demonstrated no significant effect for time for PT or AvT (p=>0.05). Conclusions No significant changes in HES occurred after exposure to cryo-compression or rest applied immediately following the Yo-Yo IFT. Further investigations to maximise beneficial application of contemporary cryo-compression applications in sport are required. Multiple measures of performance over rewarming periods, within competitive training schedules after sport-specific training are required to develop optimal cooling protocols for recovery.
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This study investigated the effect of regular post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) on muscle aerobic adaptations to endurance training. Eight males performed 3 sessions∙wk-1 of endurance training for 4 weeks. Following each session, subjects immersed one leg in a cold water bath (10°C; COLD) for 15 min while the contra-lateral leg served as control (CON). Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis of both CON and COLD legs prior to training and 48 h following the last training session. Samples were analysed for signalling kinases; p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), enzyme activities indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis and protein subunits representative of respiratory chain complexes I-V. Following training, subjects' peak oxygen uptake and running velocity were improved by 5.9% and 6.2%, respectively (p < 0.05). Repeated CWI resulted in higher total AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK, phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase, β-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and the protein subunits representative of complex-I and III (p < 0.05). Moreover, large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8) were noted with changes in protein content of p38 (d = 1.02, p = 0.064), PGC-1α (d = 0.99, p = 0.079) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (d = 0.93, p = 0.010) in COLD compared with CON. No differences between conditions were observed in the representative protein subunits of respiratory complexes-II, IV, V and in the activities of several mitochondrial enzymes (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that regular CWI enhances p38, AMPK and possibly mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
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The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC) as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18-35 yrs) participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of -1.9-24.7%) and 21.0±4.0% (range of -7.0 to 51.7%) in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA), respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM), analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Training resulted in an expansion of the SC pool associated with type I (pre: 10.7±1.1; post: 12.1±1.2 SC/type I fibre; p<0.05) and type II fibres (pre: 11.3±0.9; post: 13.0±1.2 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Analysis of individual SC responses revealed a correlation between the relative change in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.566, p = 0.012) and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.493, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training.
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Immobilization causes skeletal muscle atrophy via complex signaling pathways that are not well understood. To better understand these pathways, we investigated the roles of p53 and ATF4, two transcription factors that mediate adaptations to a variety of cellular stresses. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that three days of muscle immobilization induces muscle atrophy and increases expression of p53 and ATF4. Furthermore, muscle fibers lacking p53 or ATF4 are partially resistant to immobilization-induced muscle atrophy, and forced expression of p53 or ATF4 induces muscle fiber atrophy in the absence of immobilization. Importantly, however, p53 and ATF4 do not require each other to promote atrophy, and co-expression of p53 and ATF4 induces more atrophy than either transcription factor alone. Moreover, muscle fibers lacking both p53 and ATF4 are more resistant to immobilization-induced atrophy than fibers lacking only p53 or ATF4. Interestingly, the independent and additive nature of the p53 and ATF4 pathways allows for combinatorial control of at least one downstream effector, p21. Using genome-wide mRNA expression arrays, we identified p21 mRNA as a skeletal muscle transcript that is highly induced in immobilized muscle via the combined actions of p53 and ATF4. Additionally, in mouse muscle, p21 induces atrophy in a manner that does not require immobilization, p53 or ATF4; and p21 is required for atrophy induced by immobilization, p53 and ATF4. Collectively, these results identify p53 and ATF4 as essential and complementary mediators of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy, and discover p21 as a critical downstream effector of the p53 and ATF4 pathways.
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Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index = 26.4±0.9 kg•m(2)) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001) above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037) 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7%) (P<0.001) after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.
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Several studies analysed the effectiveness of cold water immersion (CWI) to support recovery after strenuous exercise but the overall results seem to be conflicting. Most of these studies analysed only short-term recovery effects, whereas the adaptational aspect has been widely neglected. Therefore, we analysed the effects of repeated cooling following training sessions (CWI) on adaptations to strength training. 17 trained male students volunteered. After a two week familiarization period, a pre-test (T1) of 1-RM and 12-RM was conducted followed by the 5-week strength training period (withinsubject design). After the post-test (T2) and a 2-week detraining period a retention-test (T3) was carried out. Directly after each training session, CWI was applied for one randomly assigned leg. Cooling consisted of three 4-minute intervals with a 30-s rest period. The other leg was not cooled. A significant increase in 1-RM and 12-RM from baseline to T2 and T3 (p < 0.001), respectively, as well as a further significant increase in 12-RM from T2 to T3 (p < 0.05) was observed. In addition, a tendency for a large leg effect with higher values for the "control leg" in both parameters (p = 0.08 each) as well as a moderate time * leg interaction in favor of the control leg was found (1-RM: p = 0.11; 12-RM: p = 0.09). The percentage change differences between both conditions were 1.6% for the increase in 1-RM from T1 to T2 and 2.0% from T1 to T3 in favor of the control leg. Long-term strength training adaptations in trained subjects can be negatively affected by CWI. However, effects were small and the practical relevance relative to possible recovery effects needs to be considered in a sports practical setting.
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Cold water immersion may be beneficial for acute recovery from exercise, but it may impair long-term performance by attenuating the stimuli responsible for adaptation to training. We compared effects of cold water immersion and passive rest on cycling performance during a simulated cycling grand tour. Thirty-four male endurance-trained competitive cyclists were randomized to cold water immersion (CWI) for four times per week for 15 min at 15°C or control (passive recovery) groups for 7 d of baseline training, 21 d of intensified training, and an 11 d taper. Criteria for completion of training and testing were satisfied by 10 cyclists in the CWI group (maximal aerobic power, 5.13 ± 0.21 W/kg; mean ± SD) and 11 in the control group (5.01 ± 0.41 W/kg). Each week cyclists completed a high intensity interval cycling test and two 4-min bouts separated by 30 min. CWI was performed four times per week for 15 min at 15°C. Between baseline and taper, cyclists in the CWI group had an unclear change in overall 4-min power relative to control (2.7%, ±5.7%), although mean power in the second effort relative to the first was likely higher for the CWI group relative to control (3.0%, ±3.8%). The change in 1-s maximum mean sprint power in the CWI group was likely beneficial compared to control (4.4%, ±4.2%). Differences between groups for the 10-min time trial were unclear (-0.4%, ±4.3%). While some effects of CWI on performance were unclear, data from this study do not support recent speculation that CWI is detrimental to performance following increased training load in competitive cyclists.
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Water immersion is increasingly being used by elite athletes seeking to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. Accelerated short-term (hours to days) recovery may improve competition performance, allow greater training loads or enhance the effect of a given training load. However, the optimal water immersion protocols to assist short-term recovery of performance still remain unclear. This article will review the water immersion recovery protocols investigated in the literature, their effects on performance recovery, briefly outline the potential mechanisms involved and provide practical recommendations for their use by athletes. For the purposes of this review, water immersion has been divided into four techniques according to water temperature: cold water immersion (CWI; ≤20 °C), hot water immersion (HWI; ≥36 °C), contrast water therapy (CWT; alternating CWI and HWI) and thermoneutral water immersion (TWI; >20 to
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