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The hypothesis that parental narcissism is related to depression and anxiety of the young adult children and that this relationship is mediated by the parental rearing style as reported by the offspring was investigated. Subjects were 409 young adults (264 females), aged 22.85 (SD = 2.00) and their parents. Parental narcissism was measured with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI); the rearing style, as remembered by the offspring, was measured with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) that includes Parkers's scales of care and overprotection and Gilbert's scales of put-down/shaming andfavouritism; depression and anxiety were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) respectively. Two total mediation models (one for fathers and one for mothers), including parental NPI as a predictor, PBI scales as mediators and children's scores on BDI and STAI as criteria, showed adequate goodness of fit indices. The sums of indirect effects of both paternal and maternal narcissism on children's depression and anxiety, via all rearing style dimensions, were significant. These results suggest that parental narcissism is related to children's depression and anxiety and that this relationships is mediated by the rearing style as recalled by the offspring.
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Francesco Dentale, Valeria Verrastro, Irene Petruccelli, Pierluigi Diotaiuti, Filippo Petruccelli, Luigi Cappelli, Pietro
San Martini
The hypothesis that parental narcissism is related to depression and anxiety of the young adult children and that this
relationship is mediated by the parental rearing style as reported by the offspring was investigated. Subjects were 409
young adults (264 females), aged 22.85 (SD = 2.00) and their parents. Parental narcissism was measured with the
Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI); the rearing style, as remembered by the offspring, was measured with the
Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) that includes Parkers’s scales of care and overprotection and Gilbert’s scales of put-
down/shaming andfavouritism; depression and anxiety were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and
the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) respectively. Two total mediation models (one for fathers and one for
mothers), including parental NPI as a predictor, PBI scales as mediators and children’s scores on BDI and STAI as
criteria, showed adequate goodness of fit indices. The sums of indirect effects of both paternal and maternal narcissism
on children’s depression and anxiety, via all rearing style dimensions, were significant. These results suggest that
parental narcissism is related to children’s depression and anxiety and that this relationships is mediated by the re aring
style as recalled by the offspring.
Parental narcissism; Rearing style; Children’s depression and anxiety;
1. Introduction
The assessment of the parenting skills in custody domain frequently includes a parental psychopathological evaluation
(Ackerman & Ackerman, 1996; Bagby, Nicholson, Buis, Radovanic, & Fidler, 1999; Lempel, 1999), based on the
assumption that pathological personality traits of the parents may influence the quality of their rearing behaviors and as
a consequence of the children’s mental health. As evidence of this theoretical mediation model connecting parental
pathological traits (PPT) with their children’s mental health via the quality of rearing behaviours, many studies (see
Laulik, Chou, Browne & Allamb, 2013 for a systematic review) showed that PPT are correlated with the quality of
parentchild interactions and rearing practices such as inconsistent parental discipline, low parental affection, assistance
and encouragement, insensitive or intrusive interactions with the children, harsh or disoriented parental behavior. In
particular, of eleven studies selected and examined by the authors, nine confirmed the positive correlation between
parental Personality Disorders (PD) traits and impaired rearing behaviors even when the effects where controlled for
relevant confounding factors. Moreover, importantly, several studies showed that PD traits in the parents were found to
be related to specific psychiatric conditions in the children (see Dutton, Denny-Keys & Sells, 2011 for a review). For
instance Calvo, Lazaro, Castro, Morer, & Toro (2007) showed that in parents of children with Obsessive Compulsive
Disorder there were higher scores on PD traits if compared with control parents, and similarly Nordahl, Ingul, Nordvik
& Wells (2007) found a significant relationship between PD traits in the mothers (i.e. interpersonal difficulties with a
self-centered style) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder prevalence in the children.
Referring to specific PDs, Laulik et al. (2013) found that parental cluster B disorders and in particular Borderline
Personality traits exerted a negative effect on parenting in eight of the studies examined. Surprisingly, in spite of the
clinical and legal interest toward the effect of parental narcissism on rearing behaviours and children’s mental health
(e.g. Rappoport, 2005; Brown, 2008), only few empirical studies were conducted to investigate these hypotheses
1.1 Characteristics of the normal and pathological narcissism: lack of empathy and need to control the others
The scientific concept of narcissism has been variously defined by different relevant authors in a psychodynamic
theoretical framework (Freud, 1914; Kohut, 1971; Kernberg, 1975). They have clarified the main characteristics of
narcissistic personality as well as its relations to normal and abnormal personality development.
According to Freud, some individuals develop an ego characterized as a sexual loaded object, acquiring in this
manner a narcissistic personality with a natural tendency to be dominant and to influence the others. Successively, in
order to improve their theoretical models for the treatment of borderline personality disorders, Kernberg and Kohut
proposed, as main characteristics of narcissism, not only sense of superiority, grandiosity, self-absorption,
exhibitionism, arrogance and feelings of entitlement but also fragile self-esteem and emotional instability. Importantly,
on a theoretical point of view narcissistic personality characteristics are generally considered as relatively stable over
time (e.g. Kernberg, 1975) and, recently, some longitudinal studies (Samuel et al. 2011; Vater et al. 2014) found
moderate to high levels of test-retest correlations across a temporal interval of two years, confirming the stability
More recently, a large discussion has developed in the literature (see Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010 for a review)
aimed at clarifying the nature of normal and pathological narcissism. The former has been generally characterized by a
series of defensive strategies, that permit to enhance one’s self-image and self-esteem. As such strategies are largely
used by healthy individuals, it did not seem appropriate to consider them as abnormal aspects of personality. Differently,
pathological narcissism has been viewed as composed of two complementary aspects, grandiosity - as reflected for
instance in exaggerated self-esteem and exhibitionism -, and vulnerability, characterized by fragile self-esteem and
emotional instability. Interestingly, Miller & Campbell (2008) showed that personality profiles of normal and
pathological narcissistic individuals, although differing in extraversion and neuroticism (i.e. high extraversion and low
neuroticism in the formers vs. low extraversion and high neuroticism in the latters), shared an antagonistic interpersonal
style that included (1) a strong need for power and control of the others and (2) a certain lack of empathy toward other
1.2 Parental narcissism, pathogenic rearing behaviors and affectionless control
Regarding parental narcissistic traits, several clinicians, on the basis of their clinical experience (Fraiberg, 1980; Espasa,
2004), have suggested that narcissistic parents are likely to present a tendency to deny the needs of their children and to
use them as “props” for their own self-esteem, thus assigning them a complementary role. For instance, Espasa (2004)
argued that insufficiently elaborated narcissistic needs may be recalled and renewed when individuals become parents,
bringing their children to adapt themselves to this projective parental scenario. If these projective identifications are
severe and inflexible, parents may become unable to empathize with the real needs of their children, and this may result
in distressing familiar conditions that prepare the ground for the development of different forms of psychopathology in
the offspring. For instance, recently Rappoport (2005), in order to illustrate the accommodation strategies of narcissistic
parents’ children, introduces the term “co-narcissism”. The author focused on narcissistic parents with a very low self-
esteem, interpersonally rigid, easily offended, self-absorbed, blaming, not empathic with others and who attempt to
control others’ views of them for defensive purposes. Co-narcissistic children, attempting to preserve their relationship
with parents, tend to please them, defer their points of view and would be often depressed or anxious as they may easily
considered selfish if they act assertively. Interestingly as reported by Horne (1998), parental narcissism was found to be
negatively correlated with self-esteem of the offspring, suggesting that, as hypothesized by Rappoport, children of
narcissistic parents tend to please the parents’ needs in order to avoid relational conflicts and preserve the attachment
Parental narcissism may be seen therefore as a factor that may undermine the quality of the rearing style. More
specifically, the rearing style of narcissistic people seems to be in line with the dysfunctional pattern of affectionless
control (e.g. Parker, 1979), characterized by excessive control (overprotection) and lack of empathy (low care).
1.3 Affectionless control as a pathogenic rearing style
In the attachment theory framework (e.g., Bowlby, 1977), it is generally argued that parents, not able to be a secure base
for their children, induce the development of an insecure attachment, making them more prone to psychopathology. In
order to investigate the relationship between parental rearing style and psychopathological vulnerability of the children,
several instruments have been developed based on the memories of the offspring, such as the Children’s Reports of
Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI; Schaefer, 1965), the Egna Minnen Betraeffande Unde Uppfostran (“My growth
memories; EMBU, Perris, Jacobson, Lindstrom, Van Knorring, & Perris, 1980), and the Parental Bonding Instrument
(PBI; Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979; Parker, 1989; Cappelli & San Martini, 2004, for the Italian version). Importantly
some reviews (e.g. Brewin, Andrews, & Gotlib, 1993) showed that the scales based on retrospective reports of parental
behavior generally revealed an adequate level of reliability and validity. Moreover, the use of these questionnaires
appear to be more simple in respect to other methods (e.g. interview) that implies a training for the judges and/or the
assessment of their agreement.
According to Parker, the rearing pattern of affectionless control, defined in terms of low care and overprotection, is a
factor of psychopathological risk for the offspring. In order to measure this style, he devised the Parental Bonding
Instrument (Parker, Tupling & Brown, 1979; Parker, 1979), that evaluates the parental rearing style as recalled by the
children. This instrument has been widely used in studies that have generally confirmed Parker’s claim of a
psychopathological potential of affectionless control, particularly with reference to the risk of depression and anxiety in
the children (e.g. Safford, Alloy & Pieracci, 2007; Gladstone & Parker, 2005). More recently Gilbert, Allan & Goss
(1996) broadened the pattern of affectionless control, including in the assessment of the parental style the tendency to
debase and humiliate the child (putdown-shaming) and the tendency to favour brothers or sisters to the detriment of the
subject (favouritism). The former tendency may be ascribed to an antagonistic interpersonal style that, as already
mentioned, typically characterizes both normal and pathological narcissism. The cognitive salience of antagonistic
scenarios may explain also the tendency to favour the one or the other of the children, bringing the parents to transfer
their narcissistic/competitive interpersonal scripts onto the children and to ignore their natural need for approval.
1.4 Aim of the study
This study explores the relations between parental narcissism, affectionless control style (as retrospectively reported
by the offspring) and the psychological vulnerability of the young adult children. Specifically, our expectations are that,
in a non clinical sample, parental narcissism is related to children’s depression and anxiety, and that this relations are
mediated by the rearing style retrospectively reported by the offspring (Parker, Tupling & Brown, 1979; Parker, 1979;
Gilbert, Allan & Goss, 1996)
2. Method
2.1 Measures
Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988; Montebarocci, 2002, for the Italian version). The NPI is
generally conceived as a measure of normal (Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010; Miller & Campbell, 2008), but for some
aspects also of pathological narcissism (Ackerman, Witt, Donnellan, Trzesniewski, Robins & Kashy, 2011). It is
composed of 40 items consisting of two opposite statments (e.g. “I think I am a special personvs. I am no better or
worse than most people”). Participants are forced to choose the alternative that best matches with him/her. The Italian
version showed a Cronbach's alpha of .83 . In accordance with the studies mentioned above on the temporal coherence
of narcissistic personality characteristics (Samuel et al. 2011; Vater et al. 2014), NPI scores showed a high level of test-
retest correlation over time (Del Rosario & White, 2005), suggesting that also parents involved in the present research
may show a similar stability, especially in adult age.
StateTrait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Y form; Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg & Jacobs, 1983; Pedrabissi &
Santinello, 1989, for the Italian version). Anxiety was assessed with the trait scale of the STAI-Y form, an inventory
containing 20 items that assess symptoms of anxiety on a 4-point Likert scale (1 _ almost never, 4 _ almost always).
The Italian version presented alphas > .85 in both adult and adolescent samples, .
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Rush, Shaw & Emery 1979; Scilligo, 1983, for the Italian version). The BDI
was used to assess the presence and severity of depressive symptoms over the last two weeks. It is a 21-item inventory
with four response options. The Italian version presented an alpha = .89 .
Parental Bonding Instrument, enlarged version (PBI; Parker, Tupling & Brown, 1979; Parker, 1979; Gilbert, Allan and
Goss, 1996; Cappelli & San Martini, 2004, for the Italian version). The parental rearing style was measured by an
enlarged version of the PBI, containing, the original scales of care and overprotection, and also Gilbert’s scales (Gilbert
et al., 1996) of putdown/shaming and favouritism. For each item the respondent was requested, with a 5 point-likert
scale, to assess the parental behaviour dunring the his/her first sixteen years of life. Two forms are available for each
scale, one for fathers and the other for mothers. All these scales, in the italian version, showed good internal
consistencies, with alphas ranging from .87 to .93 .
2.2. Respondents and procedure
Six hundred young adults were administered with the paternal and maternal forms of the PBI, along with the BDI and
the STAI. They were also invited to ask their parents to fill in the NPI if they agreed to do so. Both biological parents of
409 respondents (264 females and 145 males; aged 22.85, SD = 2.00) agreed to participate. Only one adult child for
each family was involved as participant. The mean age of mothers was 50.37 (SD = 5.14) and that of fathers was 54.10
(SD = 5.56). Mothers were prevalently housewives (28.6%), workers (13.9%), clerks (9.3%) and teachers (5.4%) while
fathers were prevalently workers (21.3%), clerks (14.2%), retired persons (8.1%) and entrepreneurs (4.6%).
2.3. Statistical analyses
To test the mediating model hypothesized, two path analyses (one for the fathers and one for the mothers) were
conducted, with parental narcissism as a predictor, PBI scales as mediators, and depression and anxiety as criteria, using
M-plus statistical package (Muthén & Muthén, 2007). A preliminary evaluation of partial mediation models did not
show any significant improvement in terms of fit indices with respect to the total mediation model. Moreover, the direct
effects estimated between parental narcissism and children’s vulnerability criteria (i.e. depression and anxiety scores)
were not significant. As a consequence these models were discarded following the scientific criterion of parsimony and
only total mediation models were considered (fig.1a and 1b). For the path coefficients a maximum likelihood estimation
method was used and 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals were calculated for all effects with a bootstrap procedure
(Preacher & Hayes, 2008).
3. Results and discussion
3.1 Correlations between parental narcissism, PBI scales and children depression and anxiety
Kurtosis and asymmetry parameters showed values close to zero and thus compatible with an approximately normal
As expected both paternal and maternal narcissism were negatively correlated with care and positively with all other
parental rearing scales (as evaluated by the children), with correlations ranging from small to medium in terms of
Cohen’s standards (See table 1). Moreover, they showed small but significant positive correlations with the scores of
depression and anxiety of the children. PBI scales were all highly inter-correlated, and as expected, moderately
correlated with depression and anxiety of the children in the expected direction.
Overall, this pattern of correlations appears to be consistent with the mediation model hypothesized (fig. 1a and 1b).
3.2 The indirect effect of paternal narcissism on children’s depression and anxiety: the mediation role of the paternal
rearing style
As illustrated in fig.1a, a total mediation model including paternal narcissism as predictor, paternal PBI scales as
mediators and children’s depression and anxiety as criteria was tested. As stated before, partial mediation models were
preliminarily evaluated and discarded, as no improvements in terms of fit indices was found with respect to the total
mediation model and no significant direct effects emerged between paternal narcissism and children’s depression and
The model showed an excellent fit, with a non-significant chi-square [χ2 (2 df) = .97, p = .61] and adequate levels for
other relevant fit indices (CFI = 1; TLI = 1.012; RMSEA = .00, CI = .00.08; SRMR = .01), suggesting that the rearing
style fully mediated the effect of paternal narcissism on the scores of depression and anxiety. Overall, the model
accounted for 16% of depression and for 17% of anxiety variance. All individual direct effects (see fig.1a), between
paternal narcissism and PBI as well as between PBI and depression and anxiety, were significant (or close to
significant) and in the expected direction, except for put-down/shaming that did not show direct effects on depression
and anxiety.
The total indirect effect of paternal narcissism (via all PBI scales) was significant both on depression (standardized sum
of indirect effects = .13, p < .001; CI = .06 -.20) and on anxiety (standardized sum of indirect effects = .13, p < .001; CI
= .06 -.20). With the exception of the indirect effect via put-down/shaming that did not contribute uniquely to the
mediation model, individual indirect effects of paternal narcissism were all significant (or close to significant) for both
children’s depression and anxiety, with standardized values ranging from .02 to .07
3.3 The indirect effect of maternal narcissism on children’s depression and anxiety: the mediation role of maternal
rearing style
A similar total mediation model was tested for the maternal scales (see fig. 1b) as, also in this case, a preliminary
analysis of partial mediation models did not show any improvement in terms of fit indices and no significant direct
effects emerged between paternal narcissism and children’s depression and anxiety.
Again the total mediation model revealed an excellent fit, with a non-significant chi-square [χ2 (2 df) = .40, p = .82] and
adequate levels of the other relevant fit indices (CFI = 1; TLI = 1.019; RMSEA = .00, CI = .00.06; SRMR = .01).
Overall the model accounted for 21% of depression and for 17% of anxiety variance. All individual direct effects (see
fig.1b), between maternal narcissism and PBI as well as between PBI and depression and anxiety, were significant (or
close to significant) and in the expected direction, except for care that did not show any direct effects on both
depression and anxiety. The total indirect effect of maternal narcissism (via rearing scales) was significant both on
depression (standardized sum of indirect effects = .14, p < .001; CI = .07 -.22) and on anxiety (standardized sum of
indirect effects = .13, p < .001; CI = .06 -.21). Individual indirect effects of maternal narcissism were all significant (or
close to significant) for both depression and anxiety, ranging from .03 to .05 (standardized values), except for the
indirect effect via the care scale that did not offer any unique indirect contribution to the model.
As illustrated in the results section, total mediation models, including parental narcissism as predictor, PBI scales as
mediators and children’s depression and anxiety as criteria, showed a good fit both for fathers and for mothers, while
partial mediation models were discarded based on preliminary analyses that did not show any improvement in the fit
indices for them and any significant direct effect between parental narcissism and children vulnerability criteria (i.e.
depression and anxiety). Both paternal and maternal narcissism are significantly correlated with parental rearing
dimensions as well as with depression and anxiety of the young adult children in the expected direction. At the same
time, PBI scales and children’s depression and anxiety were significantly correlated with the expected pattern.
Importantly, paternal and maternal path analyses showed that the effect of parental narcissism was mediated by the
parental rearing style with significant sum a indirect effects both on depression and anxiety. These results are
compatible with a generally assumed mediation model, mentioned in the introduction (see Laulik, Chou, Browne &
Allamb, 2013 for a review), that posits parental pathological traits, quality of parenting behaviours and children’s
mental health indices as predictors, mediators and criteria respectively.
A relevant limitation of the present study is the use of retrospective measures of the parental rearing style as reported by
the young adult children. More specifically, an important review of the literature (Brewin, Andrews & Gotlib, 1993)
reported that the assessment of parental behaviour with retrospective reports has been questioned for some different
reasons, such as the low reliability and validity of autobiographical memories, the presence of memory impairment
associated with psychopathology, and the presence of specific mood-congruent memory biases associated with
psychopathology. However, based on a critical discussion of these limitations, Brewin et al. (1993) concluded that
retrospective measures of parental rearing are more reliable compared to what is generally thought and suggested to
reconsider their utility and validity, even though (they added) other studies should be carried out to further examine and
overcome them.
Another important limitation is that the study assumes that individual differences on parental narcissism are relatively
invariant over time. In particular, individual differences of parental narcissism when the child was a young adult are
assumed to be similar to those present earlier when the child was younger than sixteen. As we mentioned in the
introduction (Samuel et al. 2011; Vater et al. 2014), many authors have hypothesized, and shown empirically, that
narcissistic personality characteristics are substantially consistent over time. Furthermore, test-retest correlation of NPI
scores has been shown to be high across an interval of two years (Del Rosario & White, 2005) in the adult life. These
results may suggest the presence of a similar invariance also in the parents involved in our research, even if the cross-
sectional nature of the data does not permit to assess how the measure is stable over time in this case.
Another consequence of the cross-sectional nature of our design is that it does not allow to draw methodologically
correct causal inferences, but only to show a compatibility of the data with the mediation model assumed.
Furthermore, Maxwell & Cole (2007) have shown that parameters estimations in cross-sectional designs may differ
substantially from the values of a classical three-steps longitudinal model (Maxwell & Cole, 2007) that is considered as
a gold standard for the study of mediation. However, Maxwell & Cole conclusions concerned a condition where
predictors, mediators and criteria are all changing over time whereas, in the present research, at least the mediators (i.e.
adults’ retrospective reports of parental rearing style) are not expected to vary across adult age temporal intervals (e.g.
20, 25, 30 years) in their true variance, but only for the just mentioned lack of reliability and validity of the
autobiographical memory due to mood-congruent effects or to other mnemonic impairments (Brewin, Andrews &
Gotlib, 1993). A way to carry out the aims of the present study designing a multi-steps longitudinal model, is assessing
the rearing style across temporal intervals within the first 16 years of life (e.g. 10, 13, 16 years) until the young
adulthood (e.g. 19 years), a proposal that may be realized in future studies but only with substantial modifications of the
PBI or with other kind of rearing measures.
A final limitation is that parental psychopathology was not assessed and, therefore, the direct and indirect effects
emerged, may be due to other mental health dimensions not controlled for.
This study may be extended in the future to further clarify the differential effect of normal and pathological narcissism
on the vulnerability of the offspring. On the one hand, by including in the assessment of the parents also measures of the
pathological facet of narcissism, on the other hand, by including in the research also parents with a psychiatric diagnosis
of narcissistic personality disorder.
A further evidence in favour of the pathogenic effect of parental narcissism via the associated rearing style could also
come from investigations comparing the narcissistic features and rearing styles of parents of normal vs. those of clinical
children, i.e. parents of normal sons and daughters vs. parents of psychiatric sons and daughters.
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Table 1
Figure 1a: Path diagram of the mediating model hypothesized that illustrates all direct effects estimated among paternal
narcissism, paternal rearing dimensions and children depression and anxiety
Figure 1b: Path diagram of the mediating model hypothesized that illustrates all direct effects estimated among maternal
narcissism, maternal rearing dimensions and children depression and anxiety
... Children of narcissistic parents often suffer from life-lasting behavioral issues, and may have a high vulnerability [31,32]. They may have experienced traumatic situations, especially when they were unable to please their parent [8]. ...
... Literature shows that living with narcissistic abuse can be hazardous for mental and physical health [32,34]. Consider a scenario which explains such a parent-child relationship: ...
... Much research is done on how to cope with narcissists and to lead a healthy life [32,34]. In this section, we present a scenario in which a child is learning to cope with the unhappy behavior of a narcissistic parent. ...
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Parents play an important role in the mental development of a child. In our previous work, we addressed how a narcissistic parent influences a child (online/offline) when (s)he is happy and admires the child. Now, we address the influence of a parent who is not so much pleased, and may curse the child for being the reason for his or her unhappiness. An abusive relationship with a parent can also cause trauma and poor mental health of the child. We also address how certain coping behaviors can help the child cope with such a situation. Therefore, the aim of the study is threefold. We present an adaptive agent model of a child, while incorporating the concept of mirroring through social contagion, the avoidance behaviors from a child, and the effects of regulation strategies to cope with stressful situations.
... In terms of parental Dark Triad personality, one study reported that negative parenting behaviors fully mediated the relationship between parental subclinical narcissism and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety in both mother and father models, except that putdown/shaming was not significant for fathers, and low care (e.g., lack of empathy) was not significant for mothers (Dentale et al., 2015). In a study with fathers and their offspring, higher paternal narcissism was associated with increased involvement with their adolescent children (Dottan & Cohen, 2014). ...
... As these domains capture aspects of interpersonal behavior that may be maladaptive, or potentially adaptive in the case of narcissism, they were examined in association with parenting behavior and adolescent development in the current studies. Prior work also highlights the differential influence that maternal and paternal personality traits exert on parenting styles and offspring outcomes, such as the difference in paternal and maternal narcissism (Dentale et al., 2015). Therefore, in Study 1 models were run separately based on parent gender. ...
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The Tri-Directional Framework highlights parental personality-context interactions in affecting offspring development. We examined: (1) context, parental personality, and their interactions as predictors of parenting (parents only); and (2) context, parental personality, parenting, and personality-parenting interactions as predictors of adolescent behavioral outcomes (parentadolescent dyads). Parents (N=283) completed assessments of SES, adverse childhood experiences, personality (Big Five, Dark Triad), and parenting. Adolescents (N=257) completed an assessment of behavior. Parent Dark Triad domains explained more variance in parental warmth and hostility than the Big Five. Parental personality models explained equivalent variance in adolescent behavior, and evinced interactions with contextual factors and parenting. Results showcase the importance of assessing a wider spectrum of parental personality in affecting offspring development, and examining environmental influences.
... Parents who are less responsive to their adolescent children's needs and adopt controlling parenting behaviors are more likely to experience high levels of conflict with their children [19]. An authoritarian parenting style, characterized by low responsiveness, high demandingness, and harsh discipline, is positively associated with lower cohesion between parents and their adolescent children, higher conflict frequency [20], and more total conflicts. A lack of affection towards their children may also be related to depression and anxiety among their children and adolescents [21]. ...
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This research investigated parent–adolescent conflict, conflict resolution strategies and perceived parenting styles by adolescents during the social movements in Hong Kong in 2019, a period characterized by considerable social unrest in which many young people participated in demonstrations and protests. The study drew on responses from 866 adolescents aged between 11 and 16 who completed a questionnaire that included a conflict issue checklist and elicited respondents’ conflict resolution strategies as well as perceived parenting styles. Correlation analysis was performed to identify the correlation of parent–adolescent conflicts with differences in political stances with their parents and other demographic data. Regression analysis was performed to identify the correlation of perceived parenting styles and conflict resolution strategies adopted by adolescents. Results indicated that early adolescents have a higher intensity of conflicts with their parents than late adolescents in this period. Respondents had more intense conflicts with their parents over political differences and ways of expressing their political views than other issues. Those respondents in conflict or ineffective arguing strategies perceived their parents as more authoritarian than those who adopt positive conflict resolution strategies. However, when asked about their ideal ways of resolving conflicts, adolescents preferred problem-solving rather than conflict strategies.
... Along with the changes and developments of the times, the forms of parenting are built on the basis of fear and anxiety of parents about the future of their children, and those have given rise to various new forms of parenting, namely: Neglectful parenting (Gaudin, 1995); Positive parenting (Neighbourhoods, 2020); Narcissistic parenting (Cohen, 1998;Dentale et al, 2015;Evans, 2018;Kenyon, 2020;Watson et al, 1992); Overparenting or Helicopter parenting (Earle & LaBrie, 2016;Hesse et al, 2018;Lemoyne & Buchanan, 2011;Odenweller et al, 2014;Winner, 2019); Slow and steady parenting (Sanderson, 2007); Toxic parenting (Dunham et al, 2011;Forward & Buck, 1990); Dolphin parenting (Kang, 2015); Hypnoparenting (Firdaningrum, 2019;Wasmin et al, 2019); Hyperparenting (Jansen, 2015;Venkatesan, 2019) Tiger parenting (Chua, 2011;Fauziyah, 2020;Fu & Markus, 2014;Kim et al, 2013); Elephant parenting (Kroll, 2004;Musman, 2020); Lighthouse parenting (Byrne, 2019); Spiritual parenting (Anthony, 2010); Unconditional Parenting or Conscious Parenting (Cousens & Lynn, 2015;Plugarasu, 2020;Rahmqvist et al, 2014); Jellyfish parenting, Brickwall parenting, Backbone parenting (Coloroso, 2010); Free range parenting (CBC Pimentel, 2016; Radio, 2013); Punitive parenting (Zubizarreta et al, 2019); Islamic Parenting (Akin, 2012;Rahmawati, 2016;Ubaidillah, 2019;Yani, 2017); Prophetic Parenting (Hairina, 2016;Suwayd, 2010); Kingdom parenting (Munroe & Barrows, 2011); Christian Parenting (Sinclair, 1992); Jewish Spiritual parenting (Kipnes & November, 2015); Intuitive parenting (Goode & Paterson, 2009;Snyder, 2010); Sacred Parenting (Glickman, 2009;Thomas, 2017Thomas, , 2018; Mindful parenting (Race, 2014;Rogers, 2005;Bögels & Restifo, 2013); Digital parenting (Maisari & Purnama, 2019;Ulfah, 2020;Wong et al, 2020); Screen Smart parenting (Gold, 2014); Cyber Smart parenting (Primary, 2012); Indonesian Parenting (Khomeny et al., 2020); Parenting with Heart (James & Dodd, 2018;Phelan & Webb, 2018); Parenting with Love (Bienenfeld, 2014;Anshor & Ghalib, 2010); Adaptive parenting (Claudio, 2016;Osofsky & Thompson, 2000;Prakoso, 2018); Enlightening parenting (Fitriani, 2017); Screaming Free Parenting (Perdana, 2011;Runkel, 2008); The Danish waf of parenting (Alexander & Sandahl, 2018); Islamic Hypnoparenting (El Shakir, 2014), and there are many forms of parenting that exist, including the latest parenting pattern associated with technological advances as revealed by Sun Sun Lim, namely, Transcendent Parenting (Lim, 2019;Livingstone & Ross, 2020). ...
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The massive development of information technology based on big data, internet, and artificial intelligence has brought fundamental changes to human patterns and lifestyles, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic that hit globally, has added to a large and complex problems in parenting, as well as demanding people to take care of their children. Parents must be able to adapt and reposition themselves with new and effective forms of parenting, this can increase parental anxiety. To determine the level of parental anxiety, this research was conducted using a quantitative descriptive method through the distribution of questionnaires based on the GAD-7 instrument. This study focuses on efforts to capture the level of parental anxiety and the need for a new form of parenting. The results can be the basis for further research to find and develop new forms of parenting. The results of research on 669 parents living in West Java, Indonesia, showed that the level of parental anxiety was 63.08% at the level of moderate and severe anxiety. The level of parental satisfaction regarding the form of parenting used is at a low level of 67.12%, while the level of parental interest in the new form of parenting is at a very high level of 98.51%. The need for the latest form of parenting that can respond to the challenges and demands of the times is very necessary to minimize parental anxiety.
... They have a higher possibility of struggling with symptoms of depression or anxiety disorder. [20] They also have a higher possibility of suffering from a psychiatric disorder compared to children raised by non-narcissistic parents. [21] Children of narcissistic parents also tend to have a higher rate of shame associated with their needs and a higher rate of sense of obligation to their parents, or others' happiness and wellbeing. ...
This research discusses narcissistic parenting represented in the comic Fruits Basket by Natsuki Takaya. Narcissistic parenting is a parenting style affected by a parent’s narcissism. This parenting style doesn’t offer enough space for a child to be themselves. A parent’s narcissism causes the parent to inflict physical and emotional abuse against children. This research is a descriptive qualitative research based on the concept of narcissistic parenting written in The Narcissistic Family: Diagnosis and Treatment by Stephanie Donaldson-Pressman and Robert M. Pressman. This research discusses the effect of narcissistic parenting found in children through the relationship between characters in the text. This research found out that children who survive narcissistic parenting might develop internal problems such as lack of emotional stability, lack of confidence and self-esteem, fragile sense of identity, inappropriate desire to be the center of attention, lack of empathy, grandiosity, and tendency to justify one’s wrongdoing and commit blame-shifting.
... In addition, as was done with the PCS, the 12 items for maternal parenting and the 12 items for the paternal parenting were totalled to create corresponding indexes. The PBI manifests good internal consistency and has been used in previous narcissism research (Dentale et al., 2015;Jonason et al., 2014;Maxwell & Huprich, 2014). In the present study, internal reliability for the total PBI score was α = .80. ...
Despite its longevity as a personality construct, theoretical understandings of gender differences in narcissistic presentation are underdeveloped given the overemphasis of grandiose features indicative of the male gender. The existing literature is also fragmented across empirical and clinical subfields, with inconsistent conceptualisations regarding an assumed heterogeneous construct encompassing grandiose and vulnerable features. In this context, this thesis aims to enhance theoretical knowledge regarding gender differences in grandiose and vulnerable narcissism through undertaking three distinct but interrelated studies. The focus was specifically on parenting styles in the development of narcissism and variances in self-esteem regulation within Intimate Partner Violence, and the gender bias of narcissistic pathology as captured in the psychiatric nomenclature. Results demonstrate that hypothetical patients with vulnerable narcissism symptomatology are being (mis)diagnosed as having other ‘vulnerable disorders’, findings which may contribute to the observed gender bias in the psychiatric nomenclature (Study 1). Converging evidence demonstrates gender differences linking females to vulnerable features of narcissism (Study 2 and Study 3). Retrospective accounts of childrearing experiences generated findings which associated different parenting styles with manifestations of narcissism and partner violence outcomes in each gender, further elucidating the underling construct of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (Study 2). The complexity of narcissism is revealed, as gender roles were perceived to shape self-regulatory strategies in females to obtain their self-worth (Study 3). It is concluded that gender socialisation processes play an important role in producing these gender differences, impacting on the diagnostic assessment, development, and manifestation of narcissism. It is recommended that a significant theoretical re-synthesis is required to capture gender issues in narcissism at the level of conceptualisation and clinical treatment, and integrate the disjointed subfields. Limitations of the thesis are identified and suggestions for future research made.
... Among the contextual factors, several studies have shown how parental practices can play a very important role in the development of problematic behaviours in adolescents, and especially addictions (Dentale et al. 2015;Li et al. 2018;Pinquart 2017). Specifically, parental psychological control is a form of parental practice that recent studies have shown to be extremely dangerous for the psychosocial functioning of adolescents (Soenens and Vansteenkiste 2010). ...
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Although technological addictions, similar to other behavioural addictions, share psychosocial risk factors with substance-related addictions, the studies on the interplay between contextual and personal variables in the prediction of technological addictions are still limited. For this reason, in accordance with Self-determination Theory (SDT), the aim of this study was to examine the integrated role of parental psychological control and parental autonomy with need satisfaction and need frustration in the understanding of technological addictions (Internet addiction, gaming addiction, smartphone addiction, and social network addiction) in adolescents. Using a sample of 482 adolescents (200 males) with an age range between 14 and 17, path analyses showed that both parental psychological control and need frustration predicted all the technological addictions examined. Furthermore, indirect effects from psychological control to all technological addictions through need frustration were also found. The findings are discussed in line with the SDT.
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Narcissism is a personality trait characterised by selfishness, coldness, entitlement, and grandiosity. There has been much research on different parenting dimensions and their relationship to narcissism in grown-up children, with a notable lack of studies investigating the influence of narcissistic parents on their children. This study focused on individuals' experiences in romantic relationships, using personal narratives from a popular 'Reddit' community for people who perceived to have grown up with narcissistic parents. Using an inductive thematic analysis on 77 Red-dit posts, we identified four themes: (i) Strategies and emotions in current relationships, (ii) behaviours and characteristics of partners and their families, (iii) parent intrusiveness in current relationships , and (iv) journey to realisation and recovery. Themes are discussed in relation to existing literature and theory. We add to the sparse literature on narcissistic parents' influence in adult relationships , highlighting the importance of process from parental behaviour to adult romantic relationships .
Previous studies have shown that making hostile attributions, that is, attributing hostile intentions to other people mainly in ambiguous situations, increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior. Moreover, fathers' hostile attributions are associated with the aggressiveness of their children. There is also a positive relationship between hostile attributions and vulnerable narcissism among adults. However, currently, there are no empirical studies that test the connections between fathers' VN and the hostile attributions of both fathers and sons. To address this gap, the current study included 77 dyads of sons and fathers. Although fathers' hostile attributions subfactors (intentionality, blame ascription, and angry feelings in ambiguous situations) were not associated with sons' hostile attributions subfactors, fathers' angry feelings, as well as the sons' blame ascription and angry feelings, were related to fathers' vulnerable narcissism. Furthermore, fathers' vulnerable narcissism predicted sons' angry feelings which are, in turn, associated with sons' aggressiveness. The observation that fathers' vulnerable narcissism may have an impact on sons' angry feelings in ambiguous situations, which in turn is related to sons' aggression may be a crucial insight for therapeutic interventions for adolescents with aggression problems and suggests a need to focus on the father-son relationship.
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Female college students (N = 26) from ethnically and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds participated in in-depth qualitative interviews focused on the nature of their relationships with fathers. Holistic coding of interviews indicated three types of father–daughter relationships: connected, conflictual, and uncomfortable. Daughters perceived relationships with fathers as shaped by distinct factors all of which were, for the most part, in place prior to the transition to college. These included fathers' personality characteristics, parental marital disruptions, fathers' employment status or conditions, and shared interests and activities. Daughters also discussed ways in which college enrollment had impacted their own autonomy development and how their fathers' reactions to their increasing autonomy had changed the trajectories of their relationships—for better or for worse.
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Personality disorders are characterized as temporally stable patterns of symptoms (APA, 2000). However, evidence on the stability of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is generally lacking. This study tracked the prevalence and remission rates of individual criteria for NPD over the course of 2 years. In addition, the stability of dimensional personality pathology in patients with NPD (assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, DAPP-BQ) was assessed over time. A sample of 96 patients with a diagnosis of NPD was recruited at baseline. Forty patients participated in the follow-up assessment 2 years later. Our results indicate a moderate remission rate (53%) for NPD as a categorical diagnosis. However, single NPD criteria differed in their prevalence and temporal stability, similar to findings for other personality disorders. Moreover, scores on dimensional subscales of the DAPP-BQ remained stable over time. Theoretical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
The emotional bond between a parent or caregiver and a young child defines a core and continuing human experience. This primary parent-child union constitutes the strongest and the most important attachment for a young child, and serves as an essential ingredient for the child's growth and development, both physically and psychologically. The parental bonding instrument (PBI) was developed in response to the need for empirical data to broaden the study of parental influences, and as a research tool to examine the influence of aberrant parenting on the psychological and social functioning of recipients. The PBI is completed for the respondent's first 16 years of life; thus, it represents an overall view of parent-child bonding during these years of development. Parenting is a complex set of behaviors and psychological processors that are determined by multiple factors. Some salient factors include parent's own personality or the presence of parental psychopathology.
Objective To systematically review the literature on the link between personality disorder and parenting capacity from an attachment theory perspective. Method Four electronic databases were searched systematically. Those studies that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were quality assessed. Data was then extracted and synthesized from the included studies using a qualitative approach. Results Fifteen thousand and sixty one hits were found. A further 22 studies were identified through expert contact, and two from references lists. Two thousand eight hundred and eighty five duplicates were removed and a further 11,926 irrelevant studies were excluded. Of the remaining 250 articles, 229 did not meet the inclusion criteria and were therefore removed and two articles were unobtainable. A further 19 studies were removed following quality assessment, leaving a total of 11 studies to be reviewed. The majority of the findings supported the association between a diagnosis of personality disorder, poor parent–child interactions and problematic parenting practices. Conclusions Parental personality disorder was identified as a risk factor for impaired parenting behaviors and disturbed parent–infant. More rigorous research is required in relation to how co-morbidity and personality disorder alone influence the broad dimensions of parenting capacity for both mothers and fathers.
In this article the author discusses some of the indications for short- or long-term parent – infant psychotherapeutic interventions in terms of what he defines as ‘problems of parenthood’ and ‘problems of parental narcissism’. Brief parent – infant psychotherapeutic interventions are most frequently indicated in the case of the former: more neurotic problems of parenthood where the parents present a manic or counter-depressive type of narcissism. Masochistic problems of parenthood are also susceptible to treatment through brief parent – infant interventions, although in such cases treatment may have to be continued in another modality of long-term psychotherapy. More dissociated problems of parental narcissism constitute a contraindication for brief psychotherapeutic parent – infant interventions. The persecutory narcissism of these parents contributes to a ‘negative pre-transference’ which creates a major resistance to the therapeutic process.