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Banana Medicinal Uses

Authors:
  • Indian biomedical innovation center, Guntur

Abstract

Banana (Genus Musa) cultivars are grown from long time throughout the world. All parts of banana have nutritional and traditional medicinal uses. Many in vitro studies , animal model studies and clinical studies suggest that various parts of banana act as food medicines for treatment of diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cancer, ulcers, diarrhoea, urolithiasis, Alzheimer's and infections. Other medicinal uses are in surgical dressing, pain relief, food and pharmaceuticals, nano medicine, pollution control, apoptosis and cell cycle.
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page152
Journal of Medical Science & Technology
Review Article Open Access
Banana Medicinal Uses
N Jyothirmayi1N Mallikarjuna Rao2*
1Ex. Biotechnology Faculty, K.L. University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Department of Biochemistry, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram , Andhra Pradesh, India.
Abstract
Banana (Genus Musa) cultivars are grown from long time throughout the world. All parts of banana have
nutritional and traditional medicinal uses. Many in vitro studies , animal model studies and clinical studies suggest
that various parts of banana act as food medicines for treatment of diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cancer,
ulcers, diarrhoea, urolithiasis, Alzheimer’s and infections. Other medicinal uses are in surgical dressing, pain relief,
food and pharmaceuticals, nano medicine, pollution control, apoptosis and cell cycle.
Key words: Banana, Medicinal uses, Anti diabetic activity, Anticancer activity, Antimicrobial activity
*Corresponding Author: `Dr N. Mallikarjuna Rao,
Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Vishnu
Dental College, Bhimavaram, India. Email:
professornmrao2002@yahoo.co.in
Received: March 2, 2015 Accepted: April 25, 2015.
Published: May 20, 2015. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original author and source are credited.
Introduction
For thousands of years products from natural sources
have been used in caring for human health. Most of the
drugs given even today are directly or indirectly from
natural sources [1]. These medicines which are safe, free
from side effects and eco-friendly are derived from a
wide variety of plants and are in use in every part of the
world [2]. Recently, interest in local plants’ research has
increased significantly for a variety of reasons including
an inability of many rural people and some governments
to afford western-based pharmaceutical care, renewed
interest in native resources and "traditional” health
systems along with a greater appreciation for local and
indigenous knowledge, international concerns for the
conservation of biodiversity and their income-generating
potential [3].
Limitations of synthesized compounds in the
treatment of chronic diseases and the potential of plant-
based medicine as a more effective and cheaper
alternative, was probably responsible for the fast growing
industry of herbal medicine [4]. India is gifted with a rich
wealth of medicinal plants. The Charak Samhita (1000
B.C.) gives details of about 340 medicinal plants of
which only 85 are accepted by the Indian Pharmacopeia
(1966). In the Ayurvedic and the traditional medicinal
systems of India, almost all the parts of banana plant
(Musa x paradisiaca) are used for the treatment of
various diseases. Banana (Musa x paradisiaca L) is
commonly a fruit but technically, a berry. The genus
Musa of herbaceous plants produces this universally
consumed fruit It is suitable for consumption by people
of any age group and so, is one of the world’s most
important food produce.
The Musaceae family is made up of three genera,
Musa,Ensete and Musella.Musa is the largest group,
with about 35 species. Musa species are divided into
different sections. According to recent DNA work, there
are three sections: Musa (with 22 chromosomes),
Callimusa (with 20 chromosomes) and Ingentimusa (with
14 chromosomes). There are about seven Ensete species
and one Musella species.
Banana is an excellent source of nourishment and a
well-balanced diet to people of all ages around the globe
and contributes to income of individuals through crop
production, processing and marketing. Banana is eaten in
many ways and has plenty of nutritional and medicinal
benefits (Table 1). Bananas and plantains are grown in
India from Vedic times and mentioned in Tamil literature
dating back to 120 BC.
India has a very rich genetic bio-diversity with
respect to banana cultivation and the cultivars available
(Table.2). There are more than 90 distinct clones,
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page153
depending on the contribution of Musa acuminata and
Musa balbisiana. India is the largest producer and
consumer with annual production of 11.7 million tones
on 404,000 Ha, contributing to 27% of the world
production and about 37% of the total fruit crop
production in the country [5].
Carbohydrates
22.84 g
Sugars
12.23 g
Dietary fiber
2.6 g
Fat
0.33 g
Protein
1.09 g
Vitamin A equiv. 3 μg
0%
Thiamin (Vit. B1) 0.031 mg
2%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.073 mg
5%
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.665 mg
4%
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.334 mg
7%
Vitamin B6 0.367 mg
28%
Folate (Vit. B9) 20 μg
5%
Vitamin C 8.7 mg
15%
Calcium 5 mg
1%
Iron 0.26 mg
2%
Magnesium 27 mg
7%
Phosphorus 22 mg
3%
Potassium 358 mg
8%
Zinc 0.15 mg
1%
Table 1: Nutritional profile of banana
Domestic production of banana in India alone
exceeds the entire world trade, with 21 per cent share of
the total production of banana in the world (Fig 1).
Figure 1: Distribution of the world banana production.
Traditional (cultural) Medicinal uses of bananas
Ranking of food items as per their consumption in the
country puts banana in the fourth place after rice,
wheat and milk.
Bananas help in treating some emotional and
bodily sicknesses. They contain tryptophan,
which is an essential amino acid required in the
production of serotonin, which helps a person
relax, improve overall mood and feel happy. This
indirectly shows that bananas help in increasing
the synthesis of serotonin thereby, curing
depression.
Bananas contain high amounts of iron, which
helps stimulate the production of hemoglobin in
the blood. So, they can be used in cases of
anemia, which is a condition caused due to lack
of or low levels of iron in the body.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also
confirmed the importance of bananas in reducing
the risk of blood pressure and stroke due to its
high potassium and low salt content.
Bananas also contain Vitamin B6that helps
alleviate symptoms of Pre Menstrual
Syndrome.
Eating a banana between meals can help reduce
morning sickness because it stabilizes sugar
levels and provides the necessary vitamins
required by the mother and the developing fetus.
In folklore, the banana plant because of its
continuous reproduction is regarded by Hindus as
a symbol of fertility and prosperity, and the
leaves and fruits are deposited on doorsteps of
houses where marriages are taking place.
A banana plant is often installed in the corner of
a rice field as a protective charm.
Malay women bathe with a decoction of banana
leaves for 15 days after childbirth.
Early Hawaiians used a young plant as a truce
flag in wars.
Studies have also verified that banana helps in
fighting hangovers, constipation, heartburn,
mosquito bites, stress, ulcers, and temperature
control.
In most of the Hindu temples and functions
bananas are distributed to devotees and visitors
respectively at end.
Anti Diabetic Activity of Bananas
A study by Kaimal S et al [6] showed that
ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA
(Chenkadali) has antioxidant and hypolipidaemic
properties and may be used for treating diabetes
mellitus.L. Pari and J. Umamaheswari, [7] showed
Page153
Carbohydrates
22.84 g
Sugars
12.23 g
Dietary fiber
2.6 g
Fat
0.33 g
Protein
1.09 g
Vitamin A equiv. 3 μg
0%
Thiamin (Vit. B1) 0.031 mg
2%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.073 mg
5%
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.665 mg
4%
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.334 mg
7%
Vitamin B6 0.367 mg
28%
Folate (Vit. B9) 20 μg
5%
Vitamin C 8.7 mg
15%
Calcium 5 mg
1%
Iron 0.26 mg
2%
Magnesium 27 mg
7%
Phosphorus 22 mg
3%
Potassium 358 mg
8%
Zinc 0.15 mg
1%
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page153
depending on the contribution of Musa acuminata and
Musa balbisiana. India is the largest producer and
consumer with annual production of 11.7 million tones
on 404,000 Ha, contributing to 27% of the world
production and about 37% of the total fruit crop
production in the country [5].
Carbohydrates
22.84 g
Sugars
12.23 g
Dietary fiber
2.6 g
Fat
0.33 g
Protein
1.09 g
Vitamin A equiv. 3 μg
0%
Thiamin (Vit. B1) 0.031 mg
2%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.073 mg
5%
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.665 mg
4%
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.334 mg
7%
Vitamin B6 0.367 mg
28%
Folate (Vit. B9) 20 μg
5%
Vitamin C 8.7 mg
15%
Calcium 5 mg
1%
Iron 0.26 mg
2%
Magnesium 27 mg
7%
Phosphorus 22 mg
3%
Potassium 358 mg
8%
Zinc 0.15 mg
1%
Table 1: Nutritional profile of banana
Domestic production of banana in India alone
exceeds the entire world trade, with 21 per cent share of
the total production of banana in the world (Fig 1).
Figure 1: Distribution of the world banana production.
Traditional (cultural) Medicinal uses of bananas
Ranking of food items as per their consumption in the
country puts banana in the fourth place after rice,
wheat and milk.
Bananas help in treating some emotional and
bodily sicknesses. They contain tryptophan,
which is an essential amino acid required in the
production of serotonin, which helps a person
relax, improve overall mood and feel happy. This
indirectly shows that bananas help in increasing
the synthesis of serotonin thereby, curing
depression.
Bananas contain high amounts of iron, which
helps stimulate the production of hemoglobin in
the blood. So, they can be used in cases of
anemia, which is a condition caused due to lack
of or low levels of iron in the body.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also
confirmed the importance of bananas in reducing
the risk of blood pressure and stroke due to its
high potassium and low salt content.
Bananas also contain Vitamin B6that helps
alleviate symptoms of Pre Menstrual
Syndrome.
Eating a banana between meals can help reduce
morning sickness because it stabilizes sugar
levels and provides the necessary vitamins
required by the mother and the developing fetus.
In folklore, the banana plant because of its
continuous reproduction is regarded by Hindus as
a symbol of fertility and prosperity, and the
leaves and fruits are deposited on doorsteps of
houses where marriages are taking place.
A banana plant is often installed in the corner of
a rice field as a protective charm.
Malay women bathe with a decoction of banana
leaves for 15 days after childbirth.
Early Hawaiians used a young plant as a truce
flag in wars.
Studies have also verified that banana helps in
fighting hangovers, constipation, heartburn,
mosquito bites, stress, ulcers, and temperature
control.
In most of the Hindu temples and functions
bananas are distributed to devotees and visitors
respectively at end.
Anti Diabetic Activity of Bananas
A study by Kaimal S et al [6] showed that
ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA
(Chenkadali) has antioxidant and hypolipidaemic
properties and may be used for treating diabetes
mellitus.L. Pari and J. Umamaheswari, [7] showed
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page154
that banana flower extract has anti-hyperglycaemic
action. Ble-Castillo JL et al [8] studied the effects of
native banana starch (NBS) and soy milk (control) on
body weight and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2
diabetics by making the subjects undertake two
phases of 4-week supplementation either with NBS
or soy milk. It was observed that patients on NBS lost
more body weight than when they were on control
treatment. Also, plasma insulin and HOMA-I were
reduced after NBS consumption. These results
support the use of NBS as part of dietary fiber
supplementation.
S. No
Cultivar
Names in different states
1.
Giant
Cavendish
(Robusta)
A.P. Pedda Pacha Arati;
T.N. Robusta; W.B.
Bengali Jahaji; Mah
Harichal;
2.
Dwarf
Cavendish
A.P. Vamanakeli; T.N.
Pacha Vazhai; Mah
Basrai; W.B. Kabuli;
3.
Poovan
A.P. Karpura
Chakkarakeli; T.N.
Poovan; Kar- Mysore;
Kerala Palayankodan;
W.B., Bihar Champa;
Mah Lal Velchi;
4.
Chakkarakeli
A.P. Chakkarakeli; kar
Raja Bale; T.N. Then
Kadali; Kerala Chakkara
Kadali
5.
Rasthali
A.P. Amruthapani; Kar
Rasa Bale; T.N. Rasthali;
W.B. Martaman; Mah
Mutheli;
6.
Nendran
Kerala Nendran; Mah
Rajeli
7.
Bontha
A.P. Bontha; Kar
Madhuranga Bale; W.B.
Kanch Kela; Mah Khasli,
Basket
8.
Kunnan
Kar Jirige Bale; Kerala
Kunnan; Orissa Patti
Mokiri
Table 2: Edible Banana cultivars in India
Ojewole JA and Adewunmi CO [9] evaluated
the hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of
mature, green fruits of Musa paradisiaca in normal
(normoglycemic) and streptozotocin-treated, diabetic
(hyperglycemic) mice. The findings of this
experimental study indicated that the Musa extract
possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lends
credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant in
the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2
diabetes mellitus. Salau et al [10] investigated the
effect of methanolic extract of Musa sapientum Linn.
sucker on fasting blood glucose, body weight and
pancreas histology of alloxan induced hyper-
glyceamic rats. It was observed that the extract at all
tested doses significantly lowered fasting blood
glucose level in the treated rats, it was efficient in
reducing blood glucose level, improving body weight
and rejuvenating the damaged pancreas of alloxan
induced diabetic rats. Thus the potential use of the
methanolic extract of Musa sapientum sucker in
ethnomedical practice for diabetic management and
possibly the curative properties at a dose of 10 mg
kg-1 body weight per day was confirmed.
Antihypertensive, Antilipemic and Antioxidant
activity of Bananas
Sarkar C et al [11] tested the effect of banana
on cold stress induced hypertension, peak expiratory
flow rate and plasma ACE activity in healthy human
volunteers. The property of banana of decreasing
blood pressure during cold stress may be utilized in
clinical situations, and banana may be used with
benefit as an adjuvant in hypertension therapy. Jo S
and Megawati R [12] reported that consumption of
one pisang ambon banana per day for a week
lowered blood pressure in women with cold stress
induced hypertension. Rao N.M et al [13]
investigated ripened and unripened 'Nendran',
'Rasthali', 'Poovan', 'Robusta', 'Bontha' and 'Safed
Velchi' bananas for inhibition against angiotensin
converting enzyme (ACE). The result was that
inhibition of ACE by different ripened banana
cultivars was much more than that of unripened
banana cultivars.
Parmar HS and Kar A [14] investigated the
effects of Musa paradisiaca peel extracts on tissue
lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of
thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. .
The findings of this study revealed the hitherto
unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the
regulation of thyroid function and glucose
metabolism.
Yin X et al [15] studied the effects of a
single banana meal on plasma lipids and lipoprotein
profile, plasma oxidative stress and susceptibility of
LDL to oxidation and concluded that the
consumption of banana reduced the plasma oxidative
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page155
stress and enhanced the resistance to oxidative
modification of LDL.
Antimicrobial activity of ripened and unripened
Bananas
Scott et al, [16] presented the partial
antibiotic spectrum of extracts obtained from the pulp
and skins of green, naturally ripened, and ethylene-
ripened bananas, and from banana leaves and petioles
by means of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol and
petroleum-ether). Antifungal activity was exhibited
by all extracts. Very little, if any, measurable
antibacterial activity in either the pulp or skins of
green bananas was detected, but there was
appreciable antibacterial activity in the pulp and skins
of ripe bananas. Mokbel et al [17] evaluated the fresh
green and yellow banana peel of (Musa, cv.
Cavendish) (chloroform and ethyl acetate) extracts.
The ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of green
peel displayed high antimicrobial and antioxidant
activity, respectively. The investigation was
undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant and
antibacterial power of banana fruit peel. Ethyl acetate
extract of green banana peel recorded significant
antimicrobial activities, while yellow peel extracts
recorded low activity and no activity was recorded to
chloroform and water extracts as measured by paper
disk methods
CS Alisi et al [18] prepared aqueous extract
from the unripe fruit peels (called the bark) and
leaves of Musa paradisiaca var sapientum and tested
it for inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in
pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus and
Pseudomonas species. The bark and leaves of M.
paradisiaca could be an available source of raw
material for the production of chemotherapeutic
agents against pathogenic bacteria
Fagbemi et al [19] investigation on the
potency of unripe banana (Musa sapientum L.), was
carried out against pathogens. The antimicrobial
activity of these plants was examined using different
solvents (ethanol and water) and efficacy was
compared. All ethanolic extracts of unripe banana
had antimicrobial activity. Under the conditions
employed, all the test samples had potent inhibitory
effects on the group of bacteria tested. Unripe banana
(ethanolic extract) showed a high antimicrobial
activity against all test organisms. For the aqueous
extracts, only unripe banana had good antimicrobial
activity against five organisms. In this study, it was
observed that the potency of unripe banana was
enhanced by the type of solvent used, indicating that
some of the active materials in these medicinal plants
dissolve well in ethanol than in water. Unripe banana
had more antibacterial activity when used with the
two different solvents (ethanol and water)
Jyothirmayi et al [20-23] studied the
antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic,
methanolic and hexane extracts of fruit pulp of local
varieties of unripened and ripened Amruthapani,
Bontha and Chakkarakeli bananas. Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the extracts
and bioactive phytochemicals by qualitative tests and
GC-MS method were determined. The antibacterial
activities of aqueous and solvent extracts of ripened
and unripened bananas were evaluated using the
Kirby-Bauer method against Bacillus cereus,
Escherichia coli, Micrococcus flavus and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts exhibited
significant antimicrobial activity. Of the different
extracts from the cultivars tested, ethanolic extracts
showed maximum activity (in terms of zone of
inhibition) against all the test organisms followed by
methanolic, hexane and aqueous extracts. Low MIC
values of ethanolic extracts of ripened bananas
indicate that ripened bananas are more potent against
the test organisms.
Phytochemical screening of these extracts by
qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids,
terpenoids and alkaloids, phenols and esters.
Furthermore, analysis of these extracts by GC-MS
method indicated presence of phenols, aldehydes,
ketones, alkaloids, terpenes, alkanes, esters, furans,
sugars, sulfur-containing organic compounds,
nitrosamines and pyrimidines. Since alkaloids,
aldehydes, ketones, alkaloids, terpenes and phenols
have antibacterial effects, antimicrobial activity of
unripened and ripened Amruthapani, Bontha and
Chakkarakeli bananas (Musa plants) may be due to
the presence of these compounds.
Antiviral and Antifungal Activities of Bananas
Swanson MD et al [24] isolated BanLec, a
jacalin-related lectin from the fruit of bananas, Musa
acuminata. This lectin has the property of binding to
high mannose carbohydrate structures including,
those found on viruses. The tests carried out indicated
that BanLec is a potential component for an anti-viral
microbicide that could be used to prevent the sexual
transmission of HIV-1.
Ho VS and Ng TB [25] isolated two proteins
with N-terminal sequence homology to chitinases
from fruits of the emperor banana and showed that
both the proteins exhibited inhibition of mycelial
growth. i.e, antifungal activity.
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page156
Martins, F. O et al [26] evaluated the
antiviral (simple human herpesvirus type 1 and
simple human herpesvirus type 2) activity of extracts
and fractions of Musa acuminata Colla. The results
indicated that the tested extracts of M. acuminata
could be potential target for use in antiviral therapy.
Anti ulcer and Anti Diarrhoreal activity of
Bananas
Lewis DA et al [27] dried and extracted the
active anti-ulcerogenic ingredient from unripe
plantain banana by solvent fractionation and
identified it as leucocyanidin which has a protective
effect against aspirin-induced erosions. Agarwal PK
et al [28] undertook the present work with plantain
banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) with the
premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could
have effect on wound healing. Both aqueous and
methanolic extracts when studied for incision and
dead space wounds parameters showed good safety
profile. Plantain banana thus, favored wound healing
which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on
various wound healing biochemical parameters.
Rao NM [29] found that the proteolysis of
casein by trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain was
inhibited by ripened and unripened bontha, poovan,
nendran, cavendish and rasthali bananas. The
probable role of unripened banana papain inhibitors
in curing stomach ulcers was discussed.
Goel et al [30] explored the ulcer protective
and healing effects of unripe plantain banana (dried
plantain banana pulp powder). It was reported from
their study that dried plantain banana pulp powder is
a potent herbal drug for the treatment of peptic ulcer
disease Rabbani GH et al [31] studied the
effectiveness of green banana in the home
management of acute or prolonged diarrhea at the
community level and reported that a green banana-
supplemented diet hastened recovery of acute and
prolonged childhood diarrhea.
Rabbani GH et al [32] studied therapeutic
effects of mature Green Banana in childhood
shigellosis by determining colonic fatty acid
production in a double-blind, randomized, controlled,
clinical trial. Mature green banana (GB) fruit is rich
in amylase-resistant starch that stimulates colonic
production of short-chain fatty acids and is useful in
treating diarrheal diseases. The conclusion was that
green banana diet improved clinical severity in
childhood shigellosis and could be a simple and
useful adjunct for dietary management of this illness.
Agarwal et al [28] observation confirms the
potential use of the methanolic extract of Musa
sapientum sucker in ethnomedical practice for
diabetic management and possibly the curative
properties at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight per
day. The results of this study indicated an important
healing effect of both aqueous and methanolic
extracts of dried pulp powder of mature unripe fruit
of Musa sapientum var paradisiaca and their effects
were comparable to Vitamin E on various physical
and biochemical parameters of wound healing.
Anticancer activity of bananas
Hugo, D Pet al [33] studied the effect of
vegetables and fruits on colorectal cancer. This study
indicated that banana intake influences colorectal
cancer risk. Banana consumption reduced risk for
colorectal cancer. Sun J et al [34] study was designed
to investigate the profiles of total phenolics,
including both soluble free and bound forms in
common fruits like Cranberry, apple, red grape,
strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange,
pear, and grapefruit, by applying solvent extraction,
base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods
along with measurement of Total antioxidant activity
using the TOSC assay and anti-proliferation activities
in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells. This
study confirmed the presence of phenols, antioxidants
and anti-proliferative action of banana.
Kazi A et al [35] hypothesized that Cell
Quest, a patented formula which contains high level
of tannic acid (TA) obtained from a Musaceae
(plantain) plant extract, inhibited the tumor cell
proteasome activity. The present study suggested that
CellQuest targets and inhibits the proteasome
selectively in tumor cells, which may contribute to
the claimed anticancer activity. Rashidkhani,B P and
Lindblad A W [36] reported that consumption of
banana was associated with low risk of renal cell
carcinoma which represents majority of all cancers
of kidney.
A methanol extract of banana peel (BPEx)
was shown by Akamine K et al [37] to significantly
suppress the re-growth of ventral prostates and
seminal vesicles induced by testosterone in castrated
mice. Further studies in the human prostate cancer
cell line showed that BPEx inhibited testosterone-
induced cell growth. These results indicated that
methanol extract of banana peel can inhibit 5alpha-
reductase and might be useful in the treatment of
benign prostate hyperplasia.
Andrade CU et al [38] carried out a study
of the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca
fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel
electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays.
The data obtained from the study indicated that fruit
peel extract from M. paradisiaca showed mutagenic
effect in the peripheral blood cells of Swiss albino
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page157
mice. Zhang C X et al [39] studied the influence of
banana fruit intake on breast cancer risk. The
onclusion was that greater intake of banana was
associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in
women.Cheung AH et al [40] isolated a
homodimeric, fructose-binding lectin from Del
Monte bananas by using a protocol that involved ion-
exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The
lectin showed hemagglutinating activity which was
stable up to 80 degrees C and also stable in the range
pH 1-13. The lectin was capable of fructose-binding
activity and cytokine-inducing activity. It was
concluded that it could be possible for developing the
banana lectin into a useful anti-HIV,
immunopotentiating and antitumor agent in view of
its trypsin stability and thermostability.
Banana in neurological diseases
Heo H J et al [41] studied the effect of
banana fruit extracts in protecting neuronal cells from
oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Results of this
study suggest banana reduces risk of oxidative stress
induced neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimers
disease.
Banana use in urolithiasis
Poonguzali P K and Cheju H [42] found that
banana stem extract was useful in the treatment of
urolithiasis and kidney stones. In hyperoxaluric
induced rats banana stem extract reduced excretion of
urinary oxalates.
Banana in apoptosis
Cell quest a patented banana product showed
induction of apoptosis in tumor cells which resulted
in tumor cell growth arrest. Apoptoic changes
observed in tumor cells treated with cell quest were
PARP cleavage and increased caspase -3 activity[35]
.Banana flower extract induced apoptic death of
ovarian cancer He LA cells [43] . Activation of
apoptic enzyme caspase -9 by banana flower extract
fraction caused apoptic death of He La cells.
Banana in cell cycle
Timsina B and Nadumane V K [43] studied
the effect of banana flower extract on cell cycle
kinetics of He La cells in vitro. In presence of banana
flower extract there were few He La cells in S and
G2/M phase due to inhibition of cell cycle.
Bananas in surgical dressing and anaesthesia
Wanitphakdeedecha R et al [44] studied the
usage of banana as a surgery training model to refine
blade control for Mohs layer removal and skin
incisions. Gerstle RK [45] made a study of the usage
of Bananas and beans as simulation models for
training in trigger point injection i.e. a technique used
in pain management that involves placing a needle
into the trigger point and subsequent injection into
the trigger point of a local anaesthetic, a
corticosteroid or saline.
Gore MA and Akolekar D [46] in their search
for new dressing material for partial thickness burn
wounds developed the banana leaf dressing (BLD)
and compared its results with that of boiled potato
peel bandage (BPPB). After analysis of the results,
the use of banana leaf dressing for all partial
thickness burn wounds in our environment was
strongly recommended.
Gore MA and Akolekar D. [47] conducted a
trial to compare efficacy of BLD with vaseline gauze
(VG) dressing used by majority of burns centers for
dressing skin graft donor areas. The study clearly
indicated that BLD is a completely non-adherent and
painless dressing and it was recommended that BLD
be used for all skin graft donor areas.
Suvarna et al [48] studied the analgesic
activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of stem of
Musa sapientum Linn. using hot plate method and tail
immersion method and concluded that aqueous and
ethanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum Linn.
Possess potential analgesic activity which can be
explored further.
Bananas in Food and Pharmaceuticals
Rao NM [49] found inhibitors of
Cysteine proteases in ripened and unripened
banana (Musa paradisiaca) extracts.Ripe and unripe
banana extracts showed papain, bromelein and
subtilisin caseinolytic inhibition.
Karthikeyan A and Sivakumar N [50]
showed that peels of banana (Musa acuminata) could
be used as alternative, novel and economical
substrates for the production of citric acid using
Aspergillus niger.
Ramli S et al [51] made a study that
described the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa
acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa
acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel
flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline
noodles. The conclusion was that banana pulp and
peel flour could be useful for controlling starch
hydrolysis of yellow noodles.
Carvalho GB et al [52] concluded that
banana, being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and
providing low acidity, may well be used as an adjunct
in brewing methods, helping in the development of
new products as well as in obtaining concentrated
worts. Juarez-Garcia E et al [53] obtained Banana
flour (BF) from unripe banana (Musa paradisiaca
Jyothirmayi N, Rao NM. (May 2015) Banana Medicinal Uses. Jour of Med Sc & Tech; 4(2); Page No: 152 – 160.
J Med. Sci. Tech. Volume 4. Issue 2
ISSN: 1694-1217 JMST. An open access journal © RA Publications
Page158
L.). Experimental bread was formulated with BF
flour and the product was studied regarding chemical
composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch
(RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. BF bread
had higher protein and total starch content than
control bread. Results revealed BF as a potential
ingredient for bakery products containing slowly
digestible carbohydrates.
Bello-Perez LA et al [54] isolated
maltodextrin from banana starch and saccharified it
to obtain glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of
this banana glucose syrup were compared with those
of commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Thus,
it was concluded that banana starch may be used to
obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar
chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize
starch, with special emphasis on the color of banana
maltodextrin which is adequate for its use in food
products.
Gebre-Mariam T and Nikolayev AS [55]
evaluated the binding and disintegrant properties of
starch obtained from Ensete ventricosum Musaceae.
The effect of the starch was compared with tablets
prepared with potato starch. The results showed that
Ensete starch can be used both as a tablet binder and
disintegrant and the indication is that Ensete starch
has a better binding ability and less disintegrating
power than potato starch.
Banana in Nanomedicine
Bankar A et al [56] synthesized Gold nano-
particles by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a
simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'.
Further studies carried out indicated efficient
antimicrobial activity by the BPE mediated nano-
particles towards most of the tested fungal and
bacterial cultures like Candida albicans BX, C.
albicans BH, Shigella sp., Enterobacter aerogenes,
Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Ibrahim M M H [57] synthesized
silver nanoparticles using banana peel extract which
showed anti microbial activity against pathogenic
B.Subtilis, S. Aureus, P.Aeruginosa, C.Albicanus and
E.Coli.organisms.
Bananas in Pollution Control
Salman JM and Hameed BH [58] prepared
activated carbon from banana stalks (BSAC) waste
and used it to remove the insecticide carbofuran from
aqueous solutions. The results of this study indicated
that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability
characteristics and could be used as alternative to
present commercial activated carbon.
The study of Memon JR et al [59] described
the use of banana peel, a commonly produced fruit
waste, for the removal of Cr (VI) from industrial
wastewater.
Achak M et al [60] determined the potential
of application of banana peel as a biosorbent for
removing phenolic compounds from olive mill
wastewaters. The results showed that the increase in
the banana peel dosage and the pH to above
neutrality increased the phenolic compounds
adsorption rates and capacity and the opposite
(Desorption) happened at low pH value. These results
indicated clearly the efficiency of banana peel as a
low-cost solution for olive mill wastewaters
treatment and gave some preliminary elements for the
comprehension of the interactions between banana
peel as a bio-adsorbent and the very polluting
compounds from the olive oil industry.
Sonawane GH and Shrivastava VS [61]
showed that an adsorbent prepared from Musa
paradisica leaves--a low cost bioadsorbent, could be
successfully used to remove methylene blue from an
aqueous solution in batch study.
Conclusion
Globally banana plant and its various parts
are consumed as part of food and used in traditional
medicine for treatment of several diseases. Several
finding suggest that various parts of banana can cure
many diseases and useful in other areas also. Further
studies are required to characterize effective
molecules which serve as novel food medicines in
future.
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... The high mineral content allows it to serve as a mineral supplement in the diet. They have high potassium content, essential for the proper functioning of the heart and to maintain human blood pressure (Jyothirmayi and Rao, 2015). A study about the nutritional composition of ripe and unripe banana varieties in India, such as Robusta, Nendran, and Nyali poovan. ...
... Ripe banana contains 546.48 ± 0.427 mg potassium/100 g. The results were close to the findings of (Jyothirmayi and Rao, 2015). The FDBP had a significantly higher level of potassium (486.92 ± 0.127) than the tray and SDBP. ...
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Background Medicinal plants have been used countless times for curing diseases mainly in developing countries. They are easily available with little to no side effects when compared to modern medicine. This manuscript encompasses information on ethnomedicinal plants in Champhai district, located in the North East Region (NER) of India. The region lies within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. This study will be the first quantitative report on the ethnomedicinal plants used by the local tribes of this region. Knowledge of medicinal plants is mostly acquired by word of mouth, and the knowledge is dying among the local youths with the prevalence of modern medicine. Hence, there is urgency in deciphering and recording such information. Methods Information was gathered through interviews with 200 informants across 15 villages of the Champhai district. From the data obtained, we evaluate indices such as used report (UR), frequency of citation (FC), informant consensus factor (Fic), cultural values (CVs) and relative importance (RI) for all the plant species. Secondary data were obtained from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Sci Finder and Science Direct. The scientific name of the plants was matched and arranged in consultation with the working list of all plant species (http://www.theplantlist.org). Results Totally, 93 plant species from 53 families and 85 genera were recorded. The most common families are Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae with six and five species representatives, respectively. Leaves were the most frequently used part of a plant and were usually used in the form of decoction. Curcuma longa has the most cultural value (27.28 CVs) with the highest used report (136 FC), and the highest RI value was Phyllanthus emblica. The main illness categories as per Frequency of citation were muscle/bone problem (0.962 Fic), gastro-intestinal disease (0.956 Fic) and skin care (0.953 Fic). Conclusion The people of Mizoram living in the Champhai district have an immense knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants. There were no side effects recorded for consuming ethnomedicinal plants. We observed that there is a scope of scientific validation of 10 plant species for their pharmacological activity and 13 species for the phytochemical characterisation or isolation of the phytochemicals. This might pave the path for developing a scientifically validated botanical or lead to semisyntheic derivatives intended for modern medicine.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance In African traditional medicine, there are several plant species that are used in combination with either plant species or other non-plant derived combinations such as sugar and honey, salt and vinegar, milk, fat etc. This review examines the role of these combinations and postulates the scientific and therapeutic validation of such combinations. Aim of the study This study reviewed the ethnopharmacological literature, document the use of southern African plant combinations, find a scientific rationale for such combinations, and provide recommendations for future studies. Materials and methods Ethnobotanical books and online databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google Scholar were used to find ethnobotanical studies within the southern African context that focus on the combinations of plants with other plants or various additional ingredients. The scientific literature was examined to determine if evidence was available to substantiate such combinations. Results One hundred and eighty-seven medicinal plant (plant-to-plant) combinations that are used in the southern African traditional healing system were recorded. These plant combinations were used against infections of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and skin as well other non-infectious diseases such as reproductive and psychiatric disorders. Respiratory infections were the most documented infections to be treated using plant combinations. The plant that was documented to be most commonly used in combination with other plants was Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. While plant-plant combinations have drawn a marked interest, comparatively, plant-adjuvant (e.g. milk, sugar, honey, salt, vinegar, fats) combinations have attracted less research interest. Milk was reported as the most used additional ingredient in combination with medicinal plants. The combination of animal urine and dung with medicinal plants has been reported as a treatment for treat prostate infections, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and abdominal pains. Other ingredients such as clay and flour were also documented, and these are often mixed with medicinal plants to treat fever, stomach ailments, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and skin conditions. Although combination therapy has been frequently reported in ethnobotanical records, over 90% of the combinations reviewed still need to be scientifically validated. Conclusion Scientific reports on the antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological effects of these combinations may offer an understanding of traditional combination therapy. In addition, investigation into the mechanisms of action of these combinations are also recommended to supplement the findings. Nonetheless, the use of plant combinations is still an untapped research area in southern Africa and there is a need to validate the use of those documented combinations to obtain a better understanding of traditional medicinal plant use.
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Background Medicinal plants have been used countless times for curing diseases mainly in developing countries. They are easily available with little to no side effects when compared to modern medicine. This manuscript encompasses information on ethnomedicinal plants in Champhai district, located in the North East Region (NER) of India. The region lies within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. This study will be the first quantitative report on the ethnomedicinal plants used by the local tribes of this region. Knowledge of medicinal plants is mostly acquired by word of mouth and the knowledge is dying among the local youths with the prevalence of modern medicine. Hence, there is urgency in deciphering and recording such information. Methods Information was gathered through interviews with 200 informants across 15 villages of the Champhai District. From the data obtained, we calculated the Used Report (UR), Frequency of Citation (FC) and Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) for all the plant species. Secondary data was obtained from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Sci Finder and Science Direct. The scientific name of the plants were matched and arranged in consultation with the working list of all plant species (http://www.theplantlist.org ). Results 93 plant species from 53 families were recorded. The most common families are Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae with six and five species representatives respectively. Leaves were the most frequently used part of a plant and were usually used in the form of decoction. The plant species with the highest used report (UR) were Curcuma longa L. (136 FC) and Flueggea virosa (126 FC). The main illness categories as per Frequency of citation were Muscle/Bone Problem (0.962 Fic), Gastro-intestinal Disease (0.956 Fic) and Skin Care (0.953 Fic). Conclusion The people of Mizoram living in the Champhai district have an immense knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants. There are no new adverse effects recorded. We observed that there is a scope of scientific validation of 10 plant species for their pharmacological activity and 13 species for the phytochemical characterization or isolation of the phytochemicals. This might pave the path for developing a scientifically validated botanical or lead to semisyntheic derivatives intended for modern medicine.
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The present work assesses the antibacterial activity of solvent extracts (aqueous, ethanol, methanol and hexane) of ripe and unripe fruit pulps of Musa x paradisiaca L. cv. Amruthapani against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus flavus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) pathogenic bacteria by Kirby-Bauer method along with, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The phytochemical composition of non-polar solvent extract, hexane, was analyzed, qualitatively, by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The aqueous unripened and ripened pulp extracts of Amruthapani showed minimum inhibition at highest tested concentration against all the test organisms. Ethanolic ripened extracts exhibited good activity against all the test organisms in comparison with unripened pulp extracts and also the methanolic extracts. Hexane extracts showed very little activity against all test organisms even at high concentrations. A wide spectrum of bioactive compounds like phenols, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes, esters and terpenes were found to be present in the hexane extract and may be responsible for antibacterial activity exhibited.
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