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The Couple Who Facebooks Together, Stays Together: Facebook Self-Presentation and Relationship Longevity Among College-Aged Dating Couples


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Drawing on public commitment theory, this research examined the association between Facebook self-presentations of coupledom and relationship longevity among college-aged dating partners. Using a longitudinal design and a path model analytic approach, this study shows that Facebook self-presentational cues (i.e., being listed as "in a relationship," posting dyadic photographs, writing on the partner's wall) were associated with an increase in relationship commitment for dating couples, which, in turn, increased their likelihood of remaining together after 6 months. Contrary to predictions, the number of mutual Friends and the number of posts written by partners on participants' walls were negatively related to relationship commitment. This study is the first to apply public commitment theory to an online romantic relationship context, and one of the few to examine the effects of Facebook on the state and fate of romantic relationships.
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The Couple Who Facebooks Together, Stays Together:
Facebook Self-Presentation and Relationship Longevity
Among College-Aged Dating Couples
Catalina L. Toma, PhD, and Mina Choi, MS
Drawing on public commitment theory, this research examined the association between Facebook self-presentations
of coupledom and relationship longevity among college-aged dating partners. Using a longitudinal design and a
path model analytic approach, this study shows that Facebook self-presentational cues (i.e., being listed as ‘‘in a
relationship,’’ posting dyadic photographs, writing on the partner’s wall) were associated with an increase in
relationship commitment for dating couples, which, in turn, increased their likelihood of remaining together
after 6 months. Contrary to predictions, the number of mutual Friends and the number of posts written by
partners on participants’ walls were negatively related to relationship commitment. This study is the first to
apply public commitment theory to an online romantic relationship context, and one of the few to examine the
effects of Facebook on the state and fate of romantic relationships.
Relationship theorists have long noted that the success
of romantic relationships depends in large part on couples’
social environments. For instance, the longevity of romantic
relationships is affected by the extent to which friends and
family are aware of and approve of them.
In recent years, the
social environment inhabited by romantic couples has been
substantially altered by social network sites (SNSs). On Face-
book, the largest SNS, users typically reveal detailed infor-
mation about their romantic involvements
to audiences
consisting of hundreds of Friends.
Additionally, social norms
dictate that SNS communication is positive and affirming,
enabling users to attract support for their relationship-related
postings. How does this new social environment, characterized
by publicness and social validation, affect couples’ state (i.e.,
commitment) and fate (i.e., likelihood of staying together)?
This study addresses this question using public commitment
which focuses on the effects of public self-presentations
on individuals’ self-views. We focus on dating relationships
among college-aged adults because this demographic are at a
prime developmental stage for negotiating romantic rela-
tionships and are also heavy users of SNSs.
A public commitment framework for couples’
Facebook self-presentation
Self-presentation is the act of editing the self in order to
convey a desired image to an audience.
While meant to
influence others, self-presentation has the important side-
effect of influencing how self-presenters view themselves.
The intrapersonal outcomes of self-presentation are the
purview of public commitment theory,
which argues that
people come to view themselves in ways that are consis-
tent with their public claims. For example, after publicly
claiming to be extroverted, people believe themselves to be
more extroverted.
The shifting of the self-concept to
match public self-presentations is a largely unconscious
process known as internalization (in fact, the theory is
sometimes referred to as ‘‘identity shift’’
). Internaliza-
tion occurs because deeply engrained social norms pre-
scribe that people be who they claim to be. Therefore, public
statements psychologically obligate people to fulfill them.
Indeed, the mechanism behind internalization is similar to
that behind cognitive dissonance, whereby people change
their attitudes to match their behaviors,
or the behavior–
attitude consistency norm, whereby people feel pressured to
be consistent in their behaviors and expressed views.
In all
cases, there is a powerful urge to match private beliefs with
public behaviors.
Public commitment theory has received ample support in
the context of personality traits (e.g., extraversion, sociabil-
ity, emotional stability), with individuals claiming to possess
these traits in front of real or imagined audiences believing
themselves to actually possess them more than individu-
als who lacked an audience.
However, the literature
is limited in that it has only considered self-presentational
Department of Communication Arts, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.
Volume 18, Number 7, 2015
ªMary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0060
claims related to personality traits and short-term effects,
with internalization measured immediately after the self-
presentation took place. Can the public commitment framework
be extended to self-presentations that pertain to romantic
relationships, and to long-term effects?
Facebook self-presentation and romantic commitment
We argue that it can. Public commitment is defined as
‘‘a pledging of self (a) to an action; (b) to a person, group, or
organization; or (c) to an idea.’’
Romantic coupledom
can be conceptualized both as a pledging of self to another
person, and to the idea of being in a relationship. As dis-
cussed, Facebook self-presentations tend to be highly public,
thus meeting the criterion for internalization. Further, they
are recordable and salient for long periods of time. Through
repeated exposure, internalization may become deeply roo-
ted and long lasting.
Several self-presentational elements on Facebook should
induce public commitment toward one’s romantic partner.
First, Facebook allows users to associate with romantic
partners by listing themselves as ‘‘in a relationship’’ and
linking to their partner’s profile. Relationship listing on Fa-
cebook is so meaningful for today’s dating couples that it has
received its own colloquial nomenclature, ‘‘going Facebook
Research shows a connection between relation-
ship listing on Facebook and relationship functioning: More
committed and satisfied couples are more likely to declare
themselves ‘‘in a relationship.’
A second option for broadcasting one’s romantic in-
volvement on Facebook is via photographs depicting the
self-presenters with their partners. These dyadic photographs
are a potent display of merged identities, as they illustrate
joint activities and often affectionate behavior. The fre-
quency of posting dyadic photographs has been shown to
correlate with relationship satisfaction for both married and
dating couples.
Third, Facebook enables romantic partners to converse
publicly with one another by posting messages on their re-
spective walls. Focus groups indicate that public communi-
cation serves the purpose of affirming togetherness, with one
participant memorably stating that it is the ‘‘ultimate form of
PDA.cause everyone can see it.’’
Fourth, Facebook allows users to declare publicly which
events they attended, what interest groups they are affiliated
with (e.g., ‘‘Cat lovers’’), and what networks they belong to
(e.g., high schools, universities). When partners partake in
the same events, groups, and networks, they can be con-
ceptualized as having joint affiliations, an indicator of to-
getherness. Research in face-to-face settings shows that
participating in social activities together affirms romantic
partners’ coupledom by gaining the recognition of friends
and family.
Finally, Facebook allows users to accrue mutual Friends.
Research shows that closer and more stable romantic part-
ners have more friends in common, a situation referred to as
network embeddedness.
While couples may not be pur-
posefully accumulating Friends for self-presentational pur-
poses, this system-generated cue enables them to visualize
their own network embeddedness, and therefore may lead
them to understand themselves as part of a social unit, bound
together by common relations.
In sum, we propose that the frequency of posting the
above-mentioned self-presentational elements is associated
with an increase in individuals’ commitment toward their
romantic partners (H1). In turn, this increased commitment
should produce a stabilization of the relationship, with more
committed couples more likely to endure over time. Indeed,
the link between relationship commitment and relationship
duration is well established,
particularly among young
adults in dating relationships.
Therefore, we hypothesize
that relationship commitment will serve as a mediator be-
tween Facebook self-presentations of coupledom and rela-
tionship longevity (H2).
Participants and procedure
Participants were 212 undergraduates at the University of
Wisconsin–Madison, who were currently involved in a
geographically close
dating relationship. Only heterosexual
students were invited to participate in a study of ‘‘romantic
relationships and media use.’’ Participants were recruited
through advertisements posted on the department of Com-
munication Arts’ subject pool Web site, and were compen-
sated with extra credit in their classes.
A longitudinal design was used, where Facebook self-
presentation was hypothesized to correlate with participants’
commitment to their partner measured during a lab ap-
pointment (time 1) and their likelihood of remaining together
6 months after the lab appointment (time 2).
At time 1, participants filled out a questionnaire with de-
mographic and relationship measures. Then, they were asked
to log into their Facebook profile and use the freely available
‘‘Friendship’’ application on themselves and their partner.
This application generates a joint profile for any pair of
Friends, on which it displays the Facebook information
shared by these two individuals (e.g., number of mutual
Friends, numbers of dyadic photographs). A research assis-
tant copied this information
into an Excel file, without
downloading the joint profile.
Thirty-two participants were unable to use the application
because they or their partners were not Facebook users, re-
ducing the sample size to 180 (78.3% women; M
years, SD =1.92; 83.9% white, 12.8% Asian, 2.8% other).
The excluded participants did not differ from the rest of the
sample in terms of relationship longevity, t(164) =-1.28,
p=n.s., but reported lower relationship commitment,
t(206) =-2.16, p<0.05.
Six months later, participants were asked via e-mail
whether they and their romantic partners were still together.
Participants were reminded of the initials of the partner on
whom they previously reported. Eighty percent of the partici-
pants responded to the e-mail, a rate consistent with similar
There were no differences between participants
who responded and those who did not in terms of any of the
variables reported in this study.
Relationship commitment. This was measured using the
relationship commitment subscale of the investment model
(7 items; e.g., ‘‘I am committed to maintaining my
relationship with my partner,’’ ‘‘I feel very attached to our
relationship—very strongly linked to my partner’’). Items
were rated on a scale from 1=‘‘not at all’’ to 7 =‘‘extreme-
ly.’’ High reliability was achieved (a=0.85), and a confir-
matory factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure. The
relationship commitment score was normally distributed.
Relationship longevity. This was operationalized as
whether the relationship endured until the 6 month check-
point (yes/no). A total of 76.4% of the participants were still
together with their partners, while 23.6% had broken up, a
rate consistent with prior research.
Facebook cues. The following cues generated by the
‘‘Friendship’’ application were recorded: (a) whether par-
ticipants were listed as ‘‘in a relationship’’ with their ro-
mantic partners
; (b) the number of photographs in which
both participants and their partners were tagged; (c) the
number of comments posted by participants on partners’ wall
during the last month (i.e., participant-initiated wall posts);
(d) the number of comments posted by partners on partici-
pants’ wall during the last month (i.e., partner-initiated wall
posts); (e) the number of mutual Friends; and (f) the total
number of networks (e.g., high schools, universities), groups,
and events in which both partners were enrolled (i.e., joint
affiliations). Descriptive statistics for these variables are
presented in Table 1.
Covariates. These included gender (because women’s
mate selectivity is different from men’s in ways that may
affect relationship longevity),
age (because younger peo-
ple’s relationships tend to be shorter, less committed, and
more likely to break-up
), and the length of the romantic
relationship (M=15.22 months, SD =14.76; because rela-
tionships that have already stood the test of time may have a
higher chance of endurance).
Analytic approach
The hypotheses were tested through a path analysis con-
ducted with the Lavaan package in R.
Since the endoge-
nous variable in the model (i.e., relationship longevity) was
binary, we used the maximum likelihood estimator with ro-
bust standard errors (MLR), which can handle non-normal
A test of joint significance
was used to examine the
mediating effect of relationship commitment. See Table 2
for a partial correlation matrix between all variables, after
controlling for gender, age, and the length of the romantic
Hypotheses testing
Our primary goal was to examine whether Facebook self-
presentation of coupledom increased relationship longevity
among college-aged dating couples by enhancing relation-
ship commitment. To test this prediction, a path model was
generated with the hypothesized Facebook cues entered as
exogenous variables, relationship longevity as an endoge-
nous variable, and relationship commitment as a mediator
(see Fig. 1). Gender, age, and relationship length were en-
tered as covariates. Based on Kline’s
cutoff criteria, the
model demonstrated excellent fit with the data—v
(6) =
4.07, p=0.67; RMSEA =0.00 [90% confidence interval
0.00–0.09]; CFI =1.00; GFI =0.97; TLI =1.15; WRMR =
0.43—and explained 35.7% of the variance in the endoge-
nous variable, relationship longevity.
The following Facebook cues were positively associated
with relationship commitment: relationship listing, number
of dyadic photographs, and number of participant-initiated
wall posts. Contrary to expectations, the number of mutual
Friends and of partner-initiated wall posts were negatively
associated with relationship commitment. Joint affiliations
were not significantly related to relationship commitment.
H1 was therefore partially supported.
Consider now the mediational role of relationship com-
mitment between Facebook self-presentation and relation-
ship longevity. The preceding analyses demonstrate that
some Facebook cues were related to relationship commit-
ment. Further, relationship commitment had a direct and
Table 1. Means and Standard Deviations for All
the Continuous Variables in the Path Model
Relational commitment* 5.69 1.02
Number of dyadic photographs 50.06 82.99
Number of participant-initiated wall posts 1.05 2.07
Number of partner-initiated wall posts 0.67 1.29
Number of joint affiliations 7.65 18.70
Number of mutual Friends 126.67 146.92
*Measured on a scale from 1 =‘‘not at all committed’’ to
7=‘‘extremely committed.’
Table 2. Partial Correlation Matrix for the Variables Used in the Path Model
After Controlling for the Covariates (N=144)
1 2 3 456 78
1. Relationship listed on Facebook
2. Number of dyadic photographs 0.22*
3. Number of participant-initiated wall posts 0.21* 0.33***
4. Number of partner-initiated wall posts 0.15* 0.61*** 0.61***
5. Number of joint affiliations 0.07 0.15 -0.09 0.08 —
6. Number of mutual Friends -0.16 0.06 -0.05 -0.05 0.16
7. Relationship commitment 0.37*** 0.26** 0.20* 0.11 0.15 -0.15 —
8. Relationship longevity 0.27** 0.12 0.13 0.05 0.20* -0.01 0.43*** —
*p <0.05; **p<0.01; ***p <0.001.
positive association with relationship longevity. For a one-
unit increase in the relationship commitment score, the odds
of the couple staying together after 6 months increased by
50%. According to the test of joint significance,
H2 was
supported. None of the covariates reached statistical signif-
icance. See Figure 1 for all the path coefficients in the model.
Despite our theoretical predictions that Facebook self-
presentation affects relationship commitment, it is possible
that it reflects couples’ pre-existing commitment. That is,
couples who are more committed are more likely to create
the types of self-presentations examined here. To investigate
this competing possibility, we generated a path model with
relationship commitment as the exogenous variable, rela-
tionship longevity as an endogenous variable, and Facebook
cues as mediating variables. Following Kline’s
cutoff cri-
teria, this alternative model showed an unsatisfactory fit with
the data—v
(16) =639.58, p=0.00; RMSEA =0.53 [90%
confidence interval 0.43–0.50]; CFI =0.54; TLI =0.20;
WRMR =03.95. Therefore, we conclude that the data are
consistent with the claim that Facebook self-presentation
affects, rather than is affected by, relationship commitment
among college-aged dating couples.
Romantic relationships do not exist in isolation. Rather,
they are affected by the social context in which they are
embedded. In recent years, Facebook has changed this social
context by, among others, allowing couples to make public
claims about their relationship. This study investigated how
these public self-presentations of coupledom shaped indi-
viduals’ commitment toward their romantic partners, as well
as the fate of the relationship.
Results show that the public association between the self
and a romantic partner generally boosted Facebook users’
relationship commitment, which, in turn, increased their
likelihood of staying together after 6 months. The more
participants listed themselves as ‘‘in a relationship’’ with
their partners, shared dyadic photographs, and wrote mes-
sages on their partners wall, the more commitment they
experienced. Consistent with public commitment theory,
these publicly posted cues likely induced participants to
perceive themselves as part of a romantic unit, thus ce-
menting the relationship.
However, several self-presentational elements did not op-
erate in the predicted way. First, the number of mutual Friends
was negatively associated with relationship commitment. This
could be the case because more mutual Friends signal a larger
social network and, thus, the availability of many alternative
romantic partners. Indeed, the investment model of relation-
proposes that the more alternative partners are
available, the less committed individuals feel toward their
existing partners. Second, posts written by partners on par-
ticipants’ wall diminished relationship commitment, unlike
posts written by participants on their partners wall. This
double standard could occur because participants interpret
partners’ wall posts as a sign of possessiveness, or over-
sharing, but their own as a sign of commitment. Finally, joint
affiliations were not associated with relationship commitment.
These cues are not displayed straightforwardly on Facebook
profiles. For instance, in order to determine whether both
participant and his/her partner attended the same events, it is
necessary to click on each event and scroll through the list of
attendees. Due to their decreased visibility, these cues may not
exercise psychological effects. Future research is required to
test these possibilities fully.
Despite these unexpected findings, the general pattern of
results advances public commitment theory in meaningful
ways. The present study represents the first application of
this theory to romantic self-presentations, thus extending its
boundaries to a new and important self-presentational do-
main. It is also the first to demonstrate the temporal endur-
ance of public commitment effects.
This study also advances the literature on the effects of
Facebook on romance by suggesting a causal order of the
variables under scrutiny. While previous literature
FIG. 1. Path coefficients for all
the hypothesized relationships in
the model.
p<0.10; *p <0.05;
**p<0.01; ***p <0.001.
used correlational or qualitative methods to suggest that
Facebook activity reflects relationship characteristics (e.g.,
more committed couples are more likely to list themselves as
‘‘in a relationship’’), this is the first study to indicate that
Facebook activity might also affect relationship character-
istics. In fact, the path analysis suggests it is more likely that
Facebook self-presentation was associated with changes in
the way partners experienced their romantic relationships,
rather than it merely reflected this experience.
Limitations and future research
Several limitations need to be acknowledged. First, this
study’s focus was on premarital, dating relationships among
heterosexual college-aged adults. Future research should
examine individuals across life stages and relationship types.
Second, self-presentation is only one aspect of Facebook use
in the context of romantic relationships, along with partner
and the maintenance of back-burner relation-
for instance. How do self-presentations of couple-
dom fit into this larger ecology of Facebook use? What is the
net effect of these different aspects of Facebook use on ro-
mantic commitment and longevity? Third, it bears noting
that while longitudinal designs are superior to cross-sectional
surveys in drawing conclusions about causality, they still do
not provide definitive evidence. Future research employing
an experimental approach is needed.
While originally intended to connect people with their
friend networks, Facebook has become an important space
for the negotiation of romantic relationships. Indeed, the
present research suggests that Facebook use may have an
impact on the very existence of dating relationships.
a. Following Ellison and boyd’s
suggestion, we capita-
lize the word ‘‘friends’’ to denote social connections
on Facebook. Facebook Friends include close and dis-
tant friends, family members, acquaintances, and even
b. Long-distance relationship partners were excluded
from this study because a large body of research shows
that they use and are affected by the media differently
than geographically close partners.
c. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the authors’
institution only allowed the numeric information pro-
duced by the ‘‘Friendship’’ application to be recorded
(e.g., number of mutual Friends, number of photos),
but did not grant permission to record the content of
the messages exchanged by the partners, or to save
their photographs. This information could therefore not
be examined in the present study.
d. In addition to listing themselves as ‘‘in a relationship’
with their partners, Facebook users also have the op-
tion of choosing other romantic relationship listings,
such as ‘‘in an open relationship’’ or ‘‘it’s complicat-
ed.’’ Since fewer than 5% of our sample chose these
other options, they were not considered in our model.
e. We also ran a structural equation model (SEM) with
relationship commitment as a latent variable and ob-
tained similar results—v
(5) =2.91, p=0.71; RMSEA =
0.00 [90% confidence interval 0.00–0.07); CFI =1.00;
GFI =0.99; TLI =1.13; WRMR =0.40. The model
explained 29.5% of the variance in the endogenous
variable, relationship longevity. We decided to report
the path model, rather than the SEM, because our
sample size was below that recommended for running
The authors are grateful to Amelia Gordon and Samantha
Hersil for their help with data collection, and to the Hamel
Family Foundation for their financial assistance.
Author Disclosure Statement
No competing financial interests exist.
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Address correspondence to:
Dr. Catalina L. Toma
Department of Communication Arts
University of Wisconsin–Madison
6144 Vilas Hall
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... Relational activity on Facebook has many documented benefits. Studies suggest that changing status to "in a relationship," posting joint pictures of the couple, exchanging messages on each other's walls, accumulating shared friends, and belonging to shared groups and events are associated with a stronger commitment to the relationship and with its longevity (Emery et al., 2014(Emery et al., , 2015Toma & Choi, 2015). More generally, social media use may be beneficial for relationship development (Fox & Anderegg, 2014) and for successful coping with relational dissolution (LeFebvre et al., 2015). ...
... Alternatively, it suggests that each of Knapp's offline stages has some facets that manifest online, and that these online manifestations can shape the relational dynamics as a whole, including the offline practices that remain seemingly detached from social media. In other words, social media affordances allow for online relational practices, which have been found to shape offline relationships, from influencing levels of commitment (Toma & Choi, 2015) to determining relationship satisfaction (Saslow et al., 2012). For example, we have shown that Facebook's editability enables partners to erase textual and visual information about their previous partners, thus helping them move forward as part of the establishment stage. ...
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This study draws on Knapp’s offline relationship development model to examine how people construct romantic relationships on social media, with particular attention to the role of affordances in this process. Based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 30 relational partners, we show that Knapp’s five traditional stages of relationship construction merge online into three because of social media affordances, including searchability, visibility, anonymity, persistence, storage, and editability. These affordances allow users to search and obtain information about potential partners quickly, conveniently, and anonymously before, during, and after the first interaction. They also enable users to initiate or avoid romantic interactions relatively easily, present shared memories, build a sense of togetherness, and edit or erase online content about previous partners. The findings suggest that most participants perceived Facebook, more than Instagram, as a platform of choice for relationship construction. Addressing the interplay between social media affordances, online relational practices, and offline relationship dynamics, the study shows that offline and online spaces are highly interrelated in terms of interinfluence. Therefore, we argue that the merger of stages is not merely a technical rearrangement but an indication of the fundamental role that online practices play in people’s offline realities, including romantic relationships.
... Although it should be noted that others have similarly defined virtual possession in the context of digital artifacts (Toma & Choi, 2015) or digital traces (Haimson et al., 2016;Hogan & Quan-Haase, 2010). These possessions are often objects that encompass both historical and/or sentimental relics that are technologically mediated and obtained throughout a relationship. ...
... On the aspect of dyadic interaction on social media such as intimate relationships, youngsters seek online dating at a high rate of 41% (WeAreSocial 2022). Youngsters' mental health has been heavily influenced by social media, particularly in terms of intimate relationship communication (Toma and Choi 2015;Barker et al. 2018;Dobson et al. 2018). Several studies have shown that personal relationships are not as private as people imagine, and they are often shaped by cultural and social factors (Dobson et al. 2018;Hofstede 2006). ...
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WeChat has become the most popular type of social media among youngsters in China. They use it for various reasons including communicating in intimate relationships. This study aims to investigate the impact of the density of individuals’ social networks on WeChat Usage in Intimate Relationships among Chinese youngsters, guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). An online questionnaire was constructed and disseminated to respondents online. In total, 923 undergraduate students from Chinese universities completed the questionnaires. Utilizing Structural Equation Modelling, findings show that the density of individuals’ social networks has a limited impact on WeChat usage. On the other hand, TPB factors such as subjective norms and perceived control bring a substantial impact on WeChat usage, while attitude has a less significant impact. These results indicate that Chinese youngsters exhibit strong attributes of the collective culture. This study also suggests that future social media research should place more emphasis on cultural and social factors.
... The concept of a musician's relationship status with music plays on the idea from social media that our relationships with others are often a 'status' to be updated and amended over time -friends, separated, engaged, 'it's complicated' . Indeed, there is a small body of literature exploring the links between these online relationship status posts and the impacts they can have in users' real lives (Papp et al., 2012;Toma and Choi, 2015;Lane et al., 2016). We borrowed this idea as a way to conceptualise how musicians might understand their 'relationship status' to music making and to their musical ambition. ...
... In a way, online displays of individuals can become normative, and message creators are expected to reinforce their publicized claims and then alter their real-world behavior to be in line with their displayed self-presentations, attitudes, and behaviors. The proposition of identity shift on social media, or self-effects of social media, has received rich empirical support across a variety of contexts, including shift in personality traits (e.g., Carr & Foreman, 2016), relationship satisfaction and longevity (e.g., Toma & Choi, 2015), and health behaviors (e.g., Nabi et al., 2019). ...
A growing body of research supports that publicly displayed alcohol references on social media are positively associated with alcohol use among college students. However, unaddressed questions remain, particularly what types of alcohol references (i.e., alcohol use vs. intoxication) have such influence, and whether the association between sharing alcohol references on social media and drinking behavior is a within-person effect, or rather reflects group differences. The current study (N = 338) used secondary data analysis of a four-wave longitudinal dataset collected as part of a larger project, which evaluated college students’ Facebook profiles and their alcohol use across their college experience. Using a random intercept cross-lagged panel analysis, we found empirical support for a positive relationship between sharing alcohol references and alcohol use at between-person level rather than the within-person level. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between sharing intoxication alcohol references on Facebook and alcohol use at the within-person level. This means that we find more support for the idea that the association between sharing alcohol references on social media and drinking behavior reflects group differences, rather than true self-effect of social media use.
... As such, Facebook provides a myriad of opportunities for its users to re-socialize and reconnect with their old acquaintances, as well as to maintain existing networks (e.g., Boyd & Ellison, 2007;Chennamaneni & Taneja, 2015;Johnston, Chen, & Hauman, 2013a;Johnston, Tanner, Lalla, & Kawalski, 2013b;Joinson, 2008). As self-disclosure on SNSs has become commonplace, scholars are closely examining the underlying factors which contribute to online self-disclosure (e.g., Lian, Sun, Yang, & Zhou, 2018;Lin, Liu, Niu, & Longobardi, 2020;Toma & Choi, 2015;Twomey & O'Reilly, 2017;Walther, 2018). ...
As privacy concern is proven to be a pivotal thought that determines online self-disclosure, the current study examined the simultaneous influence of the antecedents of privacy concern. Specifically, this study focused on the nature of information (i.e., personal involvement) and the diversity of recipients (i.e., audience representation) in influencing individuals’ cognitive processes pertinent to privacy concerns on Facebook. We conducted an experiment and a total of 241 young adults participated in the study. The results suggested that information that was highly involved with oneself would trigger extended thought elaboration related to privacy. However, surprisingly, influence from audience representation in the network was revealed to be minimal. The study underscores the self-serving purpose of privacy concern online, such that users would primarily focus on considerations surrounding themselves. The results of the current study highlight the importance of self-concerns when users are making sense of their decisions pertinent to self-disclosure on SNSs. Future directions are discussed.
... Online couple visibility was found to positively correlate with relational satisfaction (Emery et al., 2015;Papp et al., 2012) and with the overall relationship quality (Steers et al., 2016). Becoming FBO led to high levels of closeness (Castañeda et al., 2015;Saslow et al., 2013), love (Sabiniewicz et al., 2017), intimacy and support (Sherrell & Lambie, 2016), high commitment (Castañeda et al., 2015), relationship longevity (Toma & Choi, 2015), and high level of communication . Moreover, online couple visibility increased relationship satisfaction, commitment, and investment (Lane et al., 2016). ...
Facebook has been identified as one of the most influential social network site (SNS) in the formation, maintenance and interruption of romantic relationships. Over the last decade, several studies have been carried out on Facebook and romantic relationships; however, there is still lack of evidence on how the reciprocal perceptions of partners’ behaviours on Facebook relate with couple relationship quality. This study aimed to fill this gap examing whether and to what extent participants’ surveillance and visibility behaviour related with the perception of their partner’s surveillance and visibility behaviour, and to what extent this perception related with both romantic jealousy and relationship quality. A sample of 635 heterosexual women having a romantic relationship participated in a study, which consisted of answering an online questionnaire with items on both the participants’ and their partner’s online behaviour. Path analyses were used for testing the hypotheses. Results showed that Facebook supported behaviours that can affect the quality of romantic relationship. Contrary to what expected, both online surveillance and couple visibility positively related with romantic jealousy, which in turn mediated the relation between surveillance and relationship quality, thereby worsening the participants’ perception of couple relationship quality.
Embedded within the sociocultural context of romantic relationships are features such as race, culture, neighborhoods, the legal system, and governmental policy. Due to the inherent difficulties with studying large structures and systems, little work has been done at the macro level in relationship science. This volume spotlights the complex interplay between romantic relationships and these structural systems, including varied insights from experts in the field. In turn, more diverse and generalizable research programs on the social ecology of relationships can be developed, helping to facilitate advances in theory. Scholars and students of relationship science in psychology, sociology, communication, and family studies will benefit from these discussions. This title is part of the Flip it Open programme and may also be available Open Access. Check our website Cambridge Core for details.
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Bu çalışma, romantik ilişkisi olan üniversite öğrencilerinin bu ilişkilerini sosyal ağ siteleri aracılığıyla nasıl deneyimlediklerine ve kullanıcı davranışlarını nasıl algıladıklarına odaklanmıştır. Türkiye’de yürütülen çalışmalarda sosyal ağ sitesi kullanımının, romantik ilişkileri deneyimleme şeklini nasıl etkilediğine yönelik nitel çalışmaların bulunmaması bu araştırmanın çıkış noktasıdır. Çalışma, bir devlet üniversitesinin lisans bölümlerinde öğrenim gören ve romantik ilişkisi bulunan 20-28 yaş arasındaki 12 (6 kız, 6 erkek) katılımcıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma fenomenolojik desende yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formuyla elde edilen veriler tematik analiz yöntemiyle analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, sosyal ağ sitelerinin kullanım şeklinin romantik kıskançlığı tetiklediğini göstermektedir. Sosyal ağ sitelerinin potansiyel eş hakkında bilgi toplamak için önemli bir kaynak olduğu, aynı zamanda diğer kullanıcılardan gelen çeşitli beğeni, mesaj, yorum ve isteklerin romantik ilişkiyi tehdit eden unsurlar olarak algılandığı belirlenmiştir. Katılımcıların romantik ilişkilerine yönelik tehdit olarak algıladıkları davranışları önlemek amacıyla; romantik ilişkilerinin görünürlüğünü ve bilinirliğini arttırmaya yönelik ortak hesap açtıkları ve ilişki durumunu belirten çeşitli paylaşımlarda bulundukları belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca romantik kıskançlığın bir sonucu olarak, katılımcıların romantik eşlerini izleme davranışını sergiledikleri belirlenmiştir.
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The chapter discusses the role of the manner of attitude formation. It focuses on the development of an attitude through direct behavioral experience with the attitude object and examines whether such attitudes better predict subsequent behavior than attitudes formed without behavioral experience. The chapter provides an overview of the attitude-behavior consistency problem and describes the effect of the manner of attitude formation through the “housing” study, the “puzzle” experiment, and the “subject pool” study. The prior-to-later behavior relation is also discussed in the chapter, wherein it has described the self-perception of past religious behaviors, attitudes and self-reports of subsequent behavior, an individual difference perspective, and a partial correlation analysis. The chapter discusses attitudinal qualities—namely, confidence and clarity, the persistence of the attitude, and resistance to attack. The reasons for the differential strength are also explored in the chapter—namely, the amount of information available, information processing, and attitude accessibility. The chapter briefly describes the attitude-behavior relationship, personality traits, and behavior.
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Used a longitudinal study of heterosexual dating relationships to test investment model predictions regarding the process by which satisfaction and commitment develop (or deteriorate) over time. Initially, 17 male and 17 female undergraduates, each of whom was involved in a heterosexual relationship of 0-8 wks duration, participated. Four Ss dropped out, and 10 Ss' relationships ended. Questionnaires were completed by Ss every 17 days. Increases over time in rewards led to corresponding increases in satisfaction, whereas variations in costs did not significantly affect satisfaction. Commitment increased because of increases in satisfaction, declines in the quality of available alternatives, and increases in investment size. Greater rewards also promoted increases in commitment to maintain relationships, whereas changes in costs generally had no impact on commitment. For stayers, rewards increased, costs rose slightly, satisfaction grew, alternative quality declined, investment size increased, and commitment grew; for leavers the reverse occurred. Ss whose partners ended their relationships evidenced entrapment: They showed relatively low increases in satisfaction, but their alternatives declined in quality and they continued to invest heavily in their relationships. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
As a construct of psychological relevance, commitment has for some time been the focus of numerous programs of research, including explorations in decision making (Edwards, 1954; Festinger, 1957), deviation, and conformity in group settings (Kiesler & Corbin, 1965; Kiesler & Kiesler, 1969; Kiesler, Zanna, & De Salvo, 1966); the maintenance of costly courses of action (Staw, 1976, 1981; Staw & Fox, 1977); and job turnover (Aranya & Jacobson, 1975; Grusky, 1966; Porter, Crampon, & Smith, 1976). However, the examination of commitment specifically within the context of close relationships is a relatively recent development, with most theoretical treatments of the construct emerging after 1965 and most empirical studies being published after 1980. Given the relatively long history of research on interpersonal relationships, it is somewhat perplexing that the critical examination of commitment has been so late in coming to this area.
Changes in the structure of friendship networks are thought to complement change in a couple's level of involvement in a close relationship. As a pair become close, their network of mutual friends should increase in size, and with declining involvement a concurrent reduction in the number of mutual friends should occur. A measure of network overlap was derived from daily reports of social activity provided by participants. The hypothesized variations of stage and overlap are consistently supported in both cross-sectional and logitudinal tests. Network overlap covaries with stage of relationship, and this covariation cannot be accounted for by a couple's familiarity or length of dating. Underlying variations in overlap are compositional changes in the stability of the network membership, involving either the reclassification of friends or actual changes in network membership. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of considering the social context of developing relationships, since that context can serve both facilitative and disruptive functions.
Due to their prevalence and unique affordances, social networking sites such as Facebook have the potential to influence offline relationships. This study employed Baxter's (2011) refinement of relational dialectics theory to explore Facebook's role in emerging adults' romantic relationships. Data from ten focus groups revealed that Facebook contributes to and provides a forum for discursive struggles related to the integration-separation, expression-privacy, and stability-change dialectics. Romantic partners are able to connect with each other and integrate their social networks on Facebook, but some struggle to maintain privacy and independence. As such, SNSs can be a site of and trigger for romantic conflict. Participants' responses indicated that Facebook is interwoven with the experience of these dialectics due to its affordances, specifically the semi-public nature of relationship activities on Facebook and the shift in control over relational information from individuals to network members.
We conducted a longitudinal investigation to advance our understanding of determinants of the breakups of premarital relationships. We considered causes, derived from several major theories, that were located in a variety of sources in the relationship, in the social network environment, and in the individual. We extended previous longitudinal research methodologically by analyzing the data with hazard analysis, in which the dependent variable is the instantaneous rate at which a relationship terminates. In the analyses we examined how measures of different factors affected the rate at which a relationship changed from intact to broken up. We found that several variables were significant predictors of the rate at which relationships terminated, including comparison level for alternatives, amount of time spent together, dissimilarity in race, support from partner's social network, and duration of the relationship. These findings offer evidence suggesting that variables derived from social exchange, similarity, and social network theories all contribute toward an explanation of premarital breakups.