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You-are-here maps - physchological considerations.

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Abstract

You-are-here maps are standard aids for newcomers to a compelx terrain. A precisely constructed map with a properly affixed you-are-here symbol, however, is not sufficient. Two principles, one of structure matching and one of orientation, must be considered in order to maximize the map's usefulness. Indeed, neglect of these can make the map misleading. These principles lead to a set of recommendations. -from Author

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... Los you-are-here maps (YAH maps) son planos que se caracterizan por presentar un símbolo you-are-here, que indica la posición del usuario. Estos mapas se suelen emplear para indicar su posición en el entorno, y permitir tomar decisiones de desplazamiento (Levine, 1982), y al igual que el resto de mapas, presentan una serie de propiedades cartográficas en su elaboración (Ferrer y Piña, 1991;Robinson, Sale, Morrison y Muehrcke 2011;Ruiz, 1998), pero además, presentan otras propiedades psicológicas que facilitan su comprensión (Klippel, Freksa, y Winter, 2006;Levine 1982;Montello 2010) y conviene estudiar para mejorar su diseño, estructuración y adecuada localización (Campos-Juanatey, y Tarrío, 2014). Entre las propiedades psicológicas de los YAH maps, conviene citar: El "Structural Matching" (Apareamiento Estructural) hace referencia a la necesidad de establecer correspondencias entre puntos visibles en el entorno y sus respectivas representaciones en el plano, de manera que se establezcan vínculos entre plano y realidad. ...
... Los you-are-here maps (YAH maps) son planos que se caracterizan por presentar un símbolo you-are-here, que indica la posición del usuario. Estos mapas se suelen emplear para indicar su posición en el entorno, y permitir tomar decisiones de desplazamiento (Levine, 1982), y al igual que el resto de mapas, presentan una serie de propiedades cartográficas en su elaboración (Ferrer y Piña, 1991;Robinson, Sale, Morrison y Muehrcke 2011;Ruiz, 1998), pero además, presentan otras propiedades psicológicas que facilitan su comprensión (Klippel, Freksa, y Winter, 2006;Levine 1982;Montello 2010) y conviene estudiar para mejorar su diseño, estructuración y adecuada localización (Campos-Juanatey, y Tarrío, 2014). Entre las propiedades psicológicas de los YAH maps, conviene citar: El "Structural Matching" (Apareamiento Estructural) hace referencia a la necesidad de establecer correspondencias entre puntos visibles en el entorno y sus respectivas representaciones en el plano, de manera que se establezcan vínculos entre plano y realidad. ...
... Entre las propiedades psicológicas de los YAH maps, conviene citar: El "Structural Matching" (Apareamiento Estructural) hace referencia a la necesidad de establecer correspondencias entre puntos visibles en el entorno y sus respectivas representaciones en el plano, de manera que se establezcan vínculos entre plano y realidad. El "Two-point theorem" (teorema de los dos puntos), indica que, como mínimo, necesitamos 2 puntos en el entorno y su representación en el plano, para que se pueda fijar la relación entre mapa y realidad (Campos-Juanatey y Tarrío, 2014;Levine, 1982). La Equivalencia "Forward-up" (hacia delante -arriba) hace referencia a la orientación del plano en el entorno. ...
Article
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Los paneles de información turística son fundamentales para facilitar los desplazamientos por la ciudad, y permiten mejorar el conocimiento de la misma, tanto a visitantes como a sus ciudadanos. El diseño de estos paneles, además de preocuparse por la calidad estética, debe contemplar una serie de conceptos que facilitan su comprensión y afectan a su forma, localización, orientación, y contenido. Este trabajo analiza cómo se aplican estos conceptos en el caso de la ciudad de Londres, en la que se ha diseñado un completo sistema de señalización que integra los conceptos del “wayfinding” (diseño de señales e indicación de direcciones), “you-are-here maps” (diseño de planos tú-estás-aquí), y “cognitive maps” (mapas mentales o cognitivos que las personas tienen en su cabeza y les permite saber cómo es un espacio concreto).
... Estos mapas deben servir para orientar al viandante de una forma rápida, por lo que deben estar bien situados, no sólo ser fácilmente visibles, sino ser fácilmente comprensibles y no conducir a error. Estos mapas deben tener una vinculación importante con la realidad (Klippel, Freksa & Winter, 2006;Levine, 1982;Márquez, Oman, & Liu, 2004;Montello, 2010) para que puedan ser de máxima utilidad. Figura 1. Mapa "you-are-here" (Tomado de Campos Juanatey, 2016). ...
... A la hora de la confección de los mapas "you-are-here" se deben seguir dos principios: El principio de orientación y el principio de apareamiento o correspondencia estructural (Levine, 1982;Seoane, Valiña, Ferraces, & Fernández, 1992). El principio de orientación se refiere a la alineación del mapa con el entorno. ...
... Si la orientación del mapa no coincide con la realidad se dice que el mapa está desalineado, y este desalineamiento puede oscilar entre 1º y 180º (Campos Juanatey, 2016; Montello, 2010;Sadalla & Montello, 1989). Estos mapas desalineados son mucho más difíciles de interpretar que los que están alineados, implicando que en su comprensión se tarda mucho más tiempo, y se cometen muchos más errores (Aubrey, Li, & Dobbs, 1994;Levine, 1982;Levine, Marchon, & Hanley, 1984;Montello, 2010). ...
Article
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Los you-are-here maps son los mapas que se sitúan en el espacio que representan y son utilizados para conocer cómo es ese espacio y planificar desplazamientos por él. Como estos mapas suelen estar situados en paneles o soportes rígidos que no permiten su giro, es necesario proceder a realizar su rotación mentalmente. De estas investigaciones se puede concluir que el tiempo requerido para rotar mentalmente un mapa o imagen, y tomar decisiones de desplazamiento en mapas you-are-here, aumenta progresivamente a medida que aumentan los grados de rotación, hasta llegar a los 180º.
... Besides architectural features, various types of aids have traditionally been used to support people in navigating buildings, such as signs, route directions, and maps [1]. Research on wall-mounted and standing maps lists several features as important for a map's usefulness, including visible landmarks, a You-Are-Here symbol indicating the user's position, and alignment of the map with the user's orientation [8,16]. Map use triggers interaction in multiple modalities. ...
... Orientation in the sense of understanding one's location in relation to the environment has traditionally been considered essential for wayfinding [7, 8]. When using a map, one needs to compare features (cues) of the surroundings with features (other cues) of the map [22]. ...
... To accurately determine one's own location, a single matching cue is not enough. Since direction is also a factor, at least two corresponding points have to be established to complete spatial localization [8]. Here, the map needs to be aligned (mentally or physically) with one's physical orientation in space, which is not straightforward [18]. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes a field study evaluating a mobile map application for the Paris Air Show. The aim of the study was to investigate how well users can navigate (to static and moving targets) and orient themselves in a fair (an unknown environment posing realistic challenges for wayfinding) with a mobile map system. The study involved 14 fair visitors who carried out three navigation tasks, which required them to switch between map navigation and deciding upon their orientation in the physical environment. Our results indicate that navigation and orientation are not as tightly coupled as described in the traditional wayfinding literature and may require different modality approaches to optimally support users. Based on this, we draw design implications on how to balance supporting the user in navigation and orientation with mobile systems without diminishing users' awareness of their surroundings.
... For example, in surface vehicles the arrow advisory indicators have been used to spatially direct vehicles to turn locations. Track-up maps then are desirable because the arrow indicators retain stimulus-response compatibility, supporting decisions that often must be made under time pressure (Aretz, 1991; Chan & Chan, 2005; Fitts & Seeger, 1953; Klippel, Freksa, & Winter, 2006; Levine, 1982; Montello, 2010; Prabhu, Shalin, Drury, & Helander, 1996). Given that the base of the guidance arrow's shaft is always vertical and therefore always heading in the driver's actual heading direction, a bend in the indicator's arrowhead will always point left for left turns and right for right turns, providing spatial consistency. ...
... For example, when heading south, the indicator's arrowhead points to the driver's left for right turns and to their right for left turns. Heading misalignments lead to a stimulus-response disagreement and likewise, longer response times and more errors (Chan & Chan, 2005; Levine, 1982; Levine, Marchon, & Hanley, 1984). Navigational decisions when map versus heading misalignments are present require the central executive to use the visuospatial sketchpad to perform the transformations needed to resolve the mismatch. ...
Article
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Navigational driving systems have used traditional track-up map displays for guiding immediate turn-by-turn decisions and traditional north-up map displays for facilitating navigational planning and learning about environmental layout (configural spatial knowledge), because no single map display has been usable for both purposes. Rizzardo and Colle (2013) showed that north-up map displays could successfully guide turn decisions when a new spatial plus verbal advisory turn indicator was used, raising the possibility of designing single map displays that also are usable for spatial learning. Multimedia instructional design models, modified for spatial learning from navigation and driving, identified the sources of extraneous cognitive load that limit spatial learning from moving maps. Predictions include that participants can learn more from north-up map displays with the new advisory indicator than the traditional indicator. Experiment 1 showed that after college students (N = 96) drove through a virtual city guided by 1 of 3 map types or voice commands, most configural spatial knowledge was acquired using the new north-up display, then the traditional north-up map display, and the least with the traditional track-up map display. In Experiment 2, college students (N = 192) watched the same map sequences from either the new north-up or the track-up map display, but with a limited duration of their glances to the map display (no driving). Viewing spatial plus verbal north-up map displays produced significant spatial learning even with short glance durations, but not when viewing track-up displays even with long glance durations. Theoretical and design implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
... When evaluations are done out of context the symbols may be incomprehensible, confusing, or otherwise ineffective at conveying information to a map reader. The effects of context are can measured using qualitative and quantitative methods (Levine 1982; Levine et al. 1984; Richter & Klippel 2005; Klippel & Winter 2005) et al. 1984), and aim to accurately recreate as many of the contextual conditions that a participant would experience while using a symbol as possible. ...
... Verification tasks can aid researchers in understanding how the environment can provide context and aid in mitigating improper use (Board 1973; Levine 1982; Levine et al. 1984). While it is hard to define a stand-alone verification task, a verification step can be added to almost any of the tasks discussed in Section 2.3.2. ...
Thesis
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Uncertainty is a complex topic that affects data and those seeking to use data. This research explores a dimension of uncertainty often passed over in the geography and cartography literature; how uncertainty is introduced through the process of interpreting a symbol, referred to herein as interpretive uncertainty. This research is grounded in an extensive analysis of research questions and methods, to re-frame and relate existing research to interpretive uncertainty, with a specific focus on the point symbols. This analysis shows that questions asked in existing literature have some ties to interpretive uncertainty, but lack metrics to enable proper understanding. Two participantreported metrics — certainty and confidence — are recommended for use in measuring interpretive uncertainty. The analysis also shows that the experimental methods used to evaluate map symbols are equally appropriate for evaluating interpretive uncertainty. Modifications to these methods are suggested for incorporating metrics that measure interpretive uncertainty as a component of more general symbol evaluations. Practicing cartographers are often limited in the time and resources available to evaluate the effectiveness of the symbols they design and use. Evaluation is a critical component for assessing the effectiveness of a map symbol, but requires considerable effort to adequately design and execute. This overhead can be reduced by providing cartographers with tools that aid in the design and execution process. This paper presents a taxonomy of point symbol evaluation methods from the perspective of a usability evaluation, and a prototype mobile application for performing evaluations using these methods.
... External visual representations , including diagrams, photographs, illustrations, flow charts, and graphs, are often used in science to both illustrate and explain concepts (e.g., Hegarty, Carpenter, & Just, 1990; Mayer, 1989 ). Visualizations can directly represent many structural and behavioral properties. They also help to draw inferences (Larkin & Simon, 1987), find routes in maps (Levine, 1982), spot trends in graphs (Kessell & Tversky, 2011; Zacks & Tversky, 1999), imagine traffic flow or seasonal changes in light from architectural sketches (e.g. Tversky & Suwa, 2009), and determine the consequences of movements of gears and pulleys in mechanical systems (e.g. ...
... Visualizations can directly represent many structural and behavioral properties. They also help to draw inferences (Larkin & Simon, 1987), find routes in maps (Levine, 1982), spot trends in graphs (Kessell & Tversky, 2011;Zacks & Tversky, 1999), imagine traffic flow or seasonal changes in light from architectural sketches (e.g.Tversky & Suwa, 2009), and determine the consequences of movements of gears and pulleys in mechanical systems (e.g.Hegarty & Just, 1993;Hegarty, Kriz, & Cate, 2003). The use of visual elements such as arrows is another benefit to learning with visualizations. ...
Article
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Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s41235-016-0031-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... In the area of navigation support, this reliance drives an urgency for cartographic methods that seamlessly integrate with our cognitive abilities to understand spatial environments and enable us to make spatial decisions efficient and effectively (Fabrikant et al, 2010). While not everyone has the same spatial orientation abilities (Allen, 1999; Hegarty et al, 2006), there are some general guidelines on how to provide spatial information to increase awareness of where we are and help us to navigate the world around us (Aretz, 1991; Arthur and Passini, 1992; Clark, 1997; Hölscher et al, 2007; Levine, 1982). A plethora of approaches exist that foster spatial awareness: physically installed you-are-here maps (Klippel et al, 2010; Levine et al, 1982; O'Neill, 1991; Warren, 1993), mapping of landmarks (Couclelis et al, 1987; Duckham et al, 2010), mobile navigation devices (Krüger et al, 2000; Raper et al, 2007), and other orientation equipment (Harrower, 2007). ...
... While many responses to these questions are discussed, the need for more behavioral assessments of wayfinding with maps remains. We are particularly interested in two factors that have shown to affect wayfinding performance: the use of landmarks as a navigational tool (Newman et al, 2007; Presson and Montello, 1988; Richter, 2007) and map alignment (Levine, 1982; Rossano and Warren, 1989; Shepard and Hurwitz, 1984; Montello, 2010a). While these two factors have often been evaluated separately, very little research has explored their influence when combined. ...
Article
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Knowing where one is located within an environment is one of the most fundamental tasks humans have to master in their daily routines. Maps, as external representations of the environment offer intuitive ways to extend the capacities of the human cognitive systems. Operations such as planning a route can be performed on maps instead of in the environment. Question of how to design maps that support cognitive processes such as wayfinding in novel environments have been discussed in several disciplines. The research reported here addresses the question of how map alignment and the presence of landmarks in maps interact during wayfinding. For the purpose of systematically analyzing the relationship between map alignment and landmark presence, nine virtual environments were designed. Routes learned from maps with different alignments and different numbers of landmarks present at decision points were used. While generally landmarks are assumed to foster wayfinding performance, our results indicate that misaligned maps can cancel out positive effects obtained through landmarks.
... On the basis of research of spatial cognition, it is easier to judge the relative position within a spatial array during the test situation, when the person's perspective is aligned with the array's orientation during theFigure 1. Image of a typical time-out scenario in elite basketball during a regular Eurocup game, in which the spatial–temporal information of the upcoming playing pattern is presented to the players on the tactic board from the coach's own viewing perspective. learning phase (Levine, 1982). Such a misaligment of spatial information can also lead to performance decrements in sports-related tasks. ...
... However, none of these studies tested expert performance on upside-down rotated displays, which are typically used during basketball time-outs, as revealed by the results of the explorative study. Given the performance decrements caused by a misalignment of spatial information (Dolgov et al., 2009; Levine, 1982) and the cognitive costs associated with the mental rotation of spatial images (Shepard & Metzler, 1971), it must be assumed that identification performance of the instructed playing pattern suffers when athletes are being instructed from such a misaligned viewing perspective. Owing to the years of experience as well as the daily business of dealing with a tactic board, however, it was also expected that basketball experts obtain generally better results than novices, independently of any misalignment or rotation. ...
Article
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In professional basketball, coaches commonly use time-outs to instruct players on the upcoming playing pattern. In an explorative study a total of 154 time-outs in professional basketball were analyzed and the data revealed that coaches usually present these playing patterns from their own viewing perspective on the tactic board. This habit leads to a misalignment of the instructed playing pattern with the viewing perspective of players, so that they have to mentally rotate the pattern’s spatial–temporal information before they can execute the action on the court. In an experimental study thirty-two basketball experts and forty-eight novices watched video clips of different playing patterns, which were presented from their own or from a coaches’ viewing perspective. Identification performance suffered significantly for experts and novices when the upcoming pattern was presented upside down. It is suggested that basketball coaches should align their tactic boards with the viewing perspective of their athletes during time-outs.
... In the case of disorientation, the default view will be retrieved to determine the current location or to correct erroneous decisions. Based on the design principles of the You-Are-Here Map (Levine 1982) and the GNSS positioning technology, the default view is utilized, similar to Google Maps. The architectonic and urban environment is a perceived space, which only exists for the observer and their perception (Joedicke 1985). ...
Article
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Psychological findings indicate that the scale of human perception has implications on optimal map design. According to the map-based orientation in the real environment, this viewing scale depends on the visual field and is graphically reproduced using zoom levels, which significantly influences the map display area on smartphones. However, it is still unclear how to determine these zoom levels in the pedestrian navigation application. The purpose of this article is to adapt the map display area to the location-related viewing field using a corresponding zoom level. This optimal map display area should make it easier for the pedestrians’ self-location and navigational decisions. The results of the experiments have shown that there was a close relationship between the viewing field and the zoom level on the smartphone. However, if the first decision point of changing direction was in the viewing field, the distance between the viewpoint (You-Are-Here point) and this decision point influenced the zoom level. Otherwise, this distance did not have any influence on the zoom level. In this case, the distance between the viewpoint and the local landmarks determined the zoom level.
... Thorndyke and Hayes-Roth (1982);Gärling, Lindberg, and Mäntylä (1983)Building complexity Moeser (1988); O'Neill (1991)You-Are-Here mapsLevine (1982)1.3 Task-oriented studies Emergency exitsKlippel, Freksa, and Winter (2006)Modeling the navigation processAgarwal (2005); Hirtle, Timpf, andTenbrink (2011)Images and photographsIshikawa and Yamazaki (2009); Wang and Yan (2012) 1.4 Cognitive-architectural perspectives Hölscher, Meilinger, Vrachliotis, Brösamle, and Knauff (2006) 1.5 Analytical methods Space syntax Hillier and Hanson (1984); Richter, Winter, andRuetschi (2009); Turner, Doxa, O'Sullivan, andPenn (2001)1.6 ...
Article
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Indoor navigation has proved to be complex to understand and to support with the use of external aids, be it signage, maps, or navigational devices. Research on the spatial cognition of complex indoor environments for the purpose of navigation is reviewed. The result of this analysis is an aggregated view of what makes indoor environments different from out- door or transitional environments. The goal of this chapter is to coalesce the known cognitive principles to guide further research and tools in indoor wayfinding.
... This is known as the alignment effect. It has been found that if the alignment effect is violated, such as if straight-up on the map does not correspond to directly forward in the environment, subjects tend to be less accurate in judging the correct direction to take (Levine, 1982;Levine, Jankovic, & Palij, 1982;Levine, Marchon, & Hanley, 1984;Palij, Levine, & Kahan, 1984). ...
... Although a research movement also exists aimed at minimizing visual input and increasing auditory input [5], the visual representation of a map will still be the main navigation aid. There are already several principles about how to place and design YAH maps in the real world [6]. However, it is still unclear whether and how useful it can be to individually adapt a map with the way to a desired goal, that is, to mark the route. ...
Article
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A You-are-here map (YAH map) is a popular way to guide way-searchers (i.e. a person who is navigating in a more or less unknown area to a specific goal) through a designated area. With current technologies, information such as the current position and the optimal route to a chosen destination can be provided easily by marking the route in a map. In our study, we investigated the advantages and disadvantages of such marked routes on navigation performance in desktop virtual environments. 24 participants navigated through a 2 ½ D virtual environment. Navigation performance was measured by navigation time and number of deficiencies. In order to separate effects of cognitive maps from those of navigation performance, participants were asked to draw sketch maps after each trial. The results showed that participants who were shown the optimal route marked in the map beforehand, exhibited impaired knowledge of the environment and impaired navigation performance compared with those viewing the map without the route, independent of route complexity or viewing time of the map. Although map goodness was only slightly better when the route was not marked, the representation of the periphery was rated significantly better. Only route accuracy was better in the condition in which the route was marked. The results are interpreted in such way that basic impairments arise in cognitive mapping when reading a map of the designated area with a marked route, resulting in worse navigation performance.
... Instead she gets the same information via the propositions faster and without an extra effort. One class of maps has been proven to be used successfully in navigating complex buildings (e.g., malls, hospitals, etc.) and out-door environments (such as, parks, zoos, university campuses, etc.): You-Are-Here (YAH) maps (Levine 1982; O'Neill 1999; Klippel, Freksa & Winter, 2006). They have proven to be successful in facilitating wayfinding for " seeing people " (Richter & Klippel 2002). ...
Article
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Wayfinding competence is believed to ground on different types of spatial knowledge, on of them is survey knowledge. You-Are-Here (YAH) maps were successfully used in conveying survey knowledge of complex spatial environments. Such visual maps have to be substituted by e.g. tactile maps to accommodate visually impaired people. In such a substitution, we focus on the representational layer of modalities, instead of targeting at the sensory layer. We are interested in how the disadvantages in usage that are introduced by substituting a visual map with a tactile map can be compensated for. As solution we introduce Verbally Annotated Tactile (VAT). VAT maps consist of two components: a verbal annotation system and a tactile map. We show how users could benefit from the cross-modal effects of the interaction of spatial and verbal representations in VAT maps. A first experiment to demonstrate some aspects of the approach is presented and a research agenda on cross-modal interaction of representations with VAT maps is outlined.
... As is well known, when a person views a scene or a pictorial representation, information is collected about spatial relations between objects in an environment and the person. In the research literature, this effect is known as orientation specificity, that is, when memorial representations are coded (and hence accessed) in a single preferred direction (e.g., Levine, 1982; Mou & McNamara, 2002; Nori, Grandicelli, & Giusberti, 2006). Several works showed that people are more accurate in remembering scene details when the imagined perspective is the same as the study position than when the imagined perspective is different. ...
Article
The aim was to explore the role of imagery in the Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI). The use of imagery was specifically introduced in the ECI and it is reasonable that some mixed results on specific mnemonics could be due to individual differences in the use of imagery ability. Eighty participants performed a questionnaire (Verbalizer–Visualizer Questionnaire) to measure their imagery abilities and watched a short film. Successively, participants were informed that they would be interviewed the next day as witnesses of the event they viewed earlier. Each participant was randomly allocated to one of the two interview conditions: ECI or Structured Interview (SI). Results showed that: (1) ECI elicited more correct information, specifically for action and environmental details, than SI; (2) mental image users (visualizers) recalled more correct information than verbal users (verbalizers) apart from type of interview used without increased confabulation and incorrect information. Results are discussed on the basis of the recent research on imagery individual differences for each ECI techniques.
... Traditional metric maps provide the ease of acquiring spatial knowledge of an environment but it is difficult for users to create the correspondence between map objects and objects in the environment. The challenge is establishing the corresponding relationship between the wayfinder, the world, and the map (Klippel, et al., 2006; Levine, 1982; Liben & Downs, 1993). Klippel et al. (2010) analyzed You-Are-Here (YAH) maps as a means to facilitate the awareness of wayfinders in an environment and to plan routes. ...
Article
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Navigation systems which employ sequence-based directions have been found not effective in facilitating the spatial ability for humans to be aware of themselves in an environment. Traditional maps are found easily conveying the configuration of spatial objects but having difficulty to facilitate the correspondence to spatial objects in the real world. Sketch maps as schematic map-like representations have been suggested being a possible way of achieving goals of facilitating both navigation and spatial awareness. Moreover, sketch maps as externalizations of cognitive maps have been proved as reliable representations for human spatial thinking. In this study, the authors investigate the characteristics of directions given in two different forms: sketch maps and verbal descriptions (turn-by-turn instructions). The investigation addresses three aspects of spatial relations which are orientation, street topology and sequential order and their representations using existing qualitative reasoning calculi. The results of this study demonstrate sketch maps as a better direction-giving method and provide insights of applying sketch-map-like components for navigation. Copyright © 2013, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
... It has been widely reported that the spatial representation derived from a map is viewpoint dependent. Humans encounter difficulties in mentally accommodating themselves to the direction of maps and, thus, are vulnerable to the misalignment of maps during way-finding (Aretz & Wickens, 1992; Levine, 1982; Levine et al., 1984; MacEachren, 1992; Pèruch & Lapin, 1993; Warren, 1994; for a review see Lobben, 2007). Recently, Weyers, Milnik, Muller, and Pauli (2006) replicated the results of Karev (2000) indicating that people prefer the right-side seats (in reference to the screen) in a theatre, but only when the screen positions are at the top or right of the maps. ...
Article
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It has been found that humans not only tend to avoid the middle routes and prefer the peripheral routes among multiple choices, but also rely on the 'initial segment strategy' to select the route. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic which humans apply during route selection: Participants prefer the route whose initial direction lies in the direction of their final destination, while avoiding the route whose initial direction does not. Four maps were designed. The pathways, on different maps, constituted a parallelogram, a rectangle and a square. Pedestrians were instructed to select a route from an origin to a destination on one of the maps. The results confirm the application of the newly proposed heuristic. Other possible factors, such as handedness, route angles and occurrence of turns were excluded. Moreover, the heuristics of deferring decision and relying on initial straightness are not supported.
... Consequently , they follow the typical design principles for this type of maps (e.g. discussed in [18,21]). Even though this map material provides a good guidance when used as a paper map, it is argued that it still includes too much unnecessary information for the use in a mobile indoor pedestrian navigation system. ...
Article
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In this paper a holistic approach for developing indoor pedestrian navigation systems is described: first of all, a map modeling toolkit is introduced that allows for the simple and fast creation of environment models and calculation of preference-based routes in various indoor areas. Furthermore, it is shown that landmarks can be easily derived from this model. The landmark selection is based on three user studies that show that functional landmarks like doors and stairs are suitable for navigation. The main study was conducted with 64 participants to evaluate different depictions of the user's surroundings including landmarks. For this purpose an abstract graph-like navigation prototype that uses the data of the modeling toolkit was compared to a depiction additionally showing a mobile map. Results indicate that especially users with a good sense of direction perform significantly better with the graph-like interface in terms of task completion time.
... These documents look at such issues as the power of environmental affordance (what the environment " says " to us through its structure) vs. that of manifest cues (the effectiveness of the actual signage posted in the environment) [13]. A good deal of the research on wayfinding taps into the capacity of human cognition, including how much information we can hold in short term memory, for example the seminal article by Miller [14]; difficulties in multitasking [15]; and the schemas we have for the relationship between signage and the physical environment (e.g., that movement forward in space is up on a map) [16,17]. Research with applications for wayfinding in healthcare environments has often come from other institutional settings such as housing for the elderly or long-term care facilities [18,19] and libraries [20], although beyond Carpman et al.111213 there is some early work on healthcare environments212223. ...
Article
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The ability to successfully navigate in healthcare facilities is an important goal for patients, visitors, and staff. Despite the fundamental nature of such behavior, it is not infrequent for planners to consider wayfinding only after the fact, once the building or building complex is complete. This review argues that more recognition is needed for the pivotal role of wayfinding in healthcare facilities. First, to provide context, the review presents a brief overview of the relationship between environmental psychology and healthcare facility design. Then, the core of the article covers advances in wayfinding research with an emphasis on healthcare environments, including the roles of plan configuration and manifest cues, technology, and user characteristics. Plan configuration and manifest cues, which appeared early on in wayfinding research, continue to play a role in wayfinding success and should inform design decisions. Such considerations are joined by emerging technologies (e.g., mobile applications, virtual reality, and computational models of wayfinding) as a way to both enhance our theoretical knowledge of wayfinding and advance its applications for users. Among the users discussed here are those with cognitive and/or visual challenges (e.g., Down syndrome, age-related decrements such as dementia, and limitations of vision). In addition, research on the role of cross-cultural comprehension and the effort to develop a system of universal healthcare symbols is included. The article concludes with a summary of the status of these advances and directions for future research.
... Meanwhile, the above there spatial biases indicate that although people possess the cognitive ability for three-dimensional (3D) spatial processing, they need the navigational aid to counteract these biases and the building complexity and thus to assist the acquisition of spatial knowledge in the complex multilevel building. Traditional building maps, such as You-Are-Here (YAH) (Levine, 1982) map and floor plan (Werner & Long, 2003), are normally two-dimensional (2D) and omit the verticality connection between building levels. Hölscher, et al. (2007) found that the 2D floor plan had no positive impact on wayfinding performance in a complex multilevel building. ...
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The present study aimed to provide suggestions for designing a three-dimensional (3D) map of a multilevel building by investigating spatial representation acquired in complex real and virtual multilevel buildings. The virtual buildings were augmented with either a 3D floor map, a 3D building map, or neither. After navigation in these buildings, participants made the judgment of spatial horizontal and vertical directions between objects. The results indicated that participants generally estimated directions more accurately when objects were on the same level than on different levels, when the target object was below than above the test plane, and when they imagined facing forward than backward. Participants with a 3D floor or building map spent less time on judging the spatial direction than those without a map aid, and participants with the 3D floor map performed best despite the increased degree of building complexity. There was no significant difference between spatial representations acquired in the virtual building augmented with a 3D floor or building map and in the real building. Potential applications of the study include the design of a navigational aid for navigation in a complex multilevel building.
... Another example of a navigation system based on 'knowledge in the world' is the traditional You-Are-Here map put up at walls to help people orient themselves and navigate in emergency situations. These maps are notorious for their difficult reading, requiring advanced mental rotation and orientation skills[9,7,11]. Putting these maps on smartphones can overcome both challenges by centering and orienting the maps according to the current location and movement direction – if the smartphone can localize itself without relying on sensors in the environment; we will present such solutions below. The remaining challenges of sensor-less navigation systems are then producing maps of relevant content for navigation, in order to minimize the amount of information provided, thus maintaining low cognitive load on the user. ...
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In this short article we present concepts of indoor localization and navigation that are independent of sensors embedded in the environment, and thus, standing against the tide of technology-based indoor localization. The motivation for doing so is clear: We seek solutions that are independent of particular environments, and thus globally applicable.
... The effect can be experienced in everyday spatial activities such as navigation . For instance, misaligned you-are-here maps impede orientation in a real environment (e.g., Klippel, Freksa, & Winter, 2006; Levine, 1982; Levine, Marchon, & Hanley, 1984; Montello, 2010). Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect ...
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The present study examined the facilitating function of animations for spatial perspective taking. The task demanded to estimate directions to memorized objects in a spatial scene from an imagined position and orientation within the scene. Static pictures which required imagined reorientation of the self were compared to animations showing the reorientation externally. Individual differences in perspective taking ability were considered. Results showed a large effect in favor of animations for reaction times. An aptitude–treatment-interaction was found for accuracy: The relation between perspective taking ability and accuracy in direction estimation was moderated by type of presentation (static pictures vs. animation). Perspective taking ability played a much stronger role in direction estimation accuracy with static pictures than with animations. It is concluded that focused animations can facilitate perspective taking and thereby compensate for low spatial perspective taking ability.
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A method for controlling a mobile robot using qualitative inputs in the context of an approximate map, such as one sketched by a human, is presented. By defining a desired trajectory with respect to observable landmarks, human operators can send semi-autonomous robots into areas for which a true map is not available. Waypoint planning is formulated as a quadratic optimization problem which takes advantage of the probabilistic representation of the observed environment and the uncertain human input, resulting in robot trajectories in the true environment that are qualitatively similar to those provided by the human. This paper formally presents a methodology in which waypoints are extracted from a hand-drawn sketch, and obstacle avoidance is naturally accommodated through the addition of constraints in the optimization problem. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study how map distortions, sensor constraints, and a priori knowledge of the map orientation affect the performance of the planner. Lastly, a set of user studies is presented to demonstrate the robustness of the planner to different users' sketched maps and to illustrate the efficacy of such a method for mobile robot control.
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In Part 1, a simulation system was developed to examine human spatial orientation in a virtual weightless state. By conducting experiments in several routes of connected modules, we found some relevant variables for spatial cognition errors. Part 2 clarifies the causes of spatial cognition errors by the similar experiments using more complicated routes. The results showed the errors were able to be explained by two causes. One cause was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially more often when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. The other cause was that subjects were incorrect in the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns.
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Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the decision times for left-right decisions for a dual-coded advisory turn indicator and a typical spatial-only turn indicator in a GPS navigational map display. Background: Track-up maps are useful for turn decision making but do not facilitate configural knowledge acquisition of an area. North-up maps present a stable orientation for this type of learning, but typical implementations of north-up map displays lead to misaligned and confusing turn information. We compared a typical spatial-only indicator with a dual-coded spatial-plus-verbal indicator, systematically manipulating vehicle heading and measuring reaction time. The new display, the Dual-Coded Advisory Turn Indicator for Maps (DATIM), was based on an assumption of the advantages of concurrent verbal and spatial processing of advisory turn indicators in map displays. Method: The experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 24 mixed design with indicator type as a between-subjects factor and turn direction (left, right) and 24 heading angles (15 degrees intervals) as repeated-measures factors. Participants made turn decisions while viewing static displays of intersections at variably rotated headings. Results: Reaction time for the DATIM display was consistently faster than the typical spatial-only indicator at all heading angles but especially at heading angles beyond +/- 45 degrees (520-ms difference at 180 degrees). Conclusion: The DATIM display produced faster turn decisions at all heading angles. Application: DATIM displays could allow north-up maps to be used for turn-by-turn decision making in GPS navigational systems. Drivers could have the advantages of both the stable orientation to facilitate planning and the easy turn-by-turn guidance. Limitations are discussed.
Conference Paper
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The paper outlines a pilot test on the UCSB Wearable Computer developed in conjunction with Project Battuta. The UCSB Wearable incorporates geographic context information (location and orientation) to display an electronic digital map to a user via a Heads-Up Display (HUD). Features of the custom designed Geographic Referenced Graphic Environment (GEORGE) software allow the user to switch between types of maps, and automatically center and rotate the map. The pilot study used pre and post-experiment questionnaires, performance records and interaction logs to evaluate which aspects of the system were most useful both in terms of user attitudes and objective performance on a navigation task. Zoom, pan and auto-rotate features were shown to be well used, while subjects showed indifference to map type and perspective view options. Performance on the wayfinding task generally improved over each segment of the trial, with subjects approaching normal walking speeds at the end of the trial.
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In this paper we discuss the necessity of insight in the cognitive processes involved in environment navigation into mathematical models for pedestrian motion. We first provide a review of psychological literature on the cognitive processes involved in walking and on the quantitative one coming from applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. Then, we present a critical analysis of the experimental setting for model testing and we show experimental results given by observation. Finally we propose a cognitive model making use of psychological insight as well as optimization models from robotics.
Conference Paper
For the visually impaired it is challengeable to identify their position through maps, specifically in unfamiliar regions. In this article, we develop an audio-haptic You-are-here map system through a novel touchable tactile display. Users' position is rendered on the map, and users can explore the tactile surrounding environments freely. The results of a pilot study with blind users indicate the proposed system helps users locate themselves correctly, and support their mobility by learning about the surrounding environments.
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We present the first study to discover optimal reality sampling for mobile imagery. In particular, we identify the minimum information required for fast recognition of images of directly perceivable real-world buildings displayed on a mobile device. Resolution, image size, and JPEG compression of images of façades were manipulated in a same--different recognition task carried out in the field. Best-effort performance is shown to be reachable with significantly lower detail granularity than previously thought. For best user performance, we recommend presenting images as large as possible on the screen and decreasing resolution accordingly.
Conference Paper
The aim of this research is to design a simplified and acceptable interface for an indoor wayfinding map for elderly users. This research proposes a single-tap, zooming user interface using a hierarchy-structured zoom that integrates the operation of re-center zoom and a non-predefined hierarchy-structured map. Simulated maps and interfaces were built to test user acceptance.
Conference Paper
In this paper we investigate a new interaction technique that enables users to capture You-Are-Here maps using their smartphone, and then manipulate the captured image in such a way that it can be used for navigation purposes. This technique utilises groups of similar You-Are-Here maps, which we call map constellations. Results from our field study, in which we tested a working prototype of our interaction technique, are presented. The results show an insight into users' views towards the interaction, and the techniques they employed to identically frame two You-Are-Here maps using a smartphone camera.
Thesis
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Many hospitals have developed over a number of years in a piecemeal fashion. This has resulted in complex environments made up of long and confusing corridor systems with bends, turns, and confusing signs. Such settings challenge and frustrate those who visit them. The importance of wayfinding to building use, costs and safety and the growth in terms of theories, principles, guidelines, and methodologies over the years does not appear to have made an impact on wayfinding performance in complex hospitals. Thus, there remains a need to find more effective wayfinding solutions to the problems that continue to occur in complex hospitals. This research aims at improving wayfinding systems/strategies in older and complex environments such as hospitals. The study adopts a design science research approach informed by uniquely adequate observations of how wayfinders make sense of wayfinding information embedded in the complex built environments they have to navigate. The approach includes an extensive review of literature on wayfinding supported by that of the fields of knowledge management, design (architectural and industrial), and production and operations management. Therefore, the research brings together the disciplines of design and knowledge management to sensitise designers to the varied needs and knowledge levels of wayfinders when designing wayfinding systems. In addition, the study draws on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in hospital environments. The successful application of this approach to researching the problems of wayfinding is a methodological contribution, aimed to help mitigate the problem of relevance often associated with academic management research. The derivation of wayfinding solutions and generic guidelines for designing wayfinding systems for complex hospital environments is yet another contribution
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This article presents research designed to investigate map use. Specifically, we interrogate the long-held assumption that people use maps for specific purposes and in specific ways and those purposes and ways differ from other types of graphics. Our approach investigated the behavioral and neurological correlates of map use, differentiated from geometric object use given the same overall task (mental rotation in this case). We asked participants to complete a multisection test of mental rotation, which included different types of graphics—simple geometry, complex geometry, maps with text, and maps without text. A second phase of the research asked a group of participants to complete the mental rotation test while undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Our results reveal that behaviorally, mental rotation performance of the different stimuli type is statistically consistent within categorical type and statistically different among categorical types. Further, the brain activation results reveal that participants are using the maps differently than they are using the geometric objects. These activation results are consistent with previous nonmap studies in which participants adopt different perspective-taking strategies, resulting in different brain activation patterns, when mentally rotating different types of objects.
Thesis
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La présente thèse de doctorat s’intéresse à l’assistance à la navigation et à la planification d’itinéraires (wayfinding) fournie par les systèmes d’aide à la navigation — communément appelés « GPS » — et les plateformes cartographiques en ligne (p. ex. Google Maps). Les sciences cognitives, qui forment avec la géographie humaine le socle théorique et conceptuel de cette thèse, offrent deux énoncés de base : des instructions de navigation optimales incluent nécessairement des points de repère à chaque changement de direction ; l’aide au wayfinding à partir d’un support cartographique n’est effective que si l’utilisateur acquiert ou dispose d’un minimum de connaissances spatiales. Dans un contexte où les données massives (Big data) prennent une ampleur considérable, la personnalisation algorithmique tend à s’imposer comme une norme ; une fonctionnalité que tout système « intelligent » se doit de proposer à ses utilisateurs. Pour une partie de la communauté scientifique, la personnalisation d’instructions de navigation et d’itinéraires est donc synonyme d’évolution. Cette assertion mérite cependant d’être confrontée à l’épreuve des faits. Car après réflexion, une personne qui parcourt un environnement connu utilise-t-elle nécessairement un GPS ? Auquel cas, a-t-elle forcément besoin d’un point de repère familier à chaque changement direction ? Dans le même esprit, a-t-elle réellement besoin d’un itinéraire personnalisé lorsqu’elle prépare ses déplacements à l’aide d’une plateforme cartographique ? Évaluer l’impact de la familiarité spatiale dans le choix de points de repère (en situation de navigation) et la planification d’itinéraires (à partir d’une plateforme cartographique) constitue l’objectif de recherche principal de cette thèse. Celle-ci s’organise en deux volets complémentaires. Le premier se propose de vérifier à partir d’une expérimentation de navigation virtuelle s’il existe bien une relation statistiquement significative entre la familiarité spatiale et la saillance sémantique des lieux urbains. Le second volet se veut plus qualitatif et explore dans un premier temps les usages des plateformes cartographiques par le biais d’entretiens semi-directifs. Les stratégies cognitives de wayfinders familiers et étrangers aux villes de Québec et Montréal ont été analysées dans un second temps à partir d’expérimentations basées sur la méthode de la pensée à voix haute. Spécifiquement, les résultats de cette recherche démontrent que les lieux qui bénéficient d’une attraction sémantique élevée captent l’attention des individus qui ont une connaissance préalable de l’environnement parcouru. Ces mêmes individus ont par ailleurs tendance à sélectionner des points de repère familiers le long des itinéraires calculés automatiquement par la plateforme cartographique. Si ces résultats accréditent la thèse algorithmique, il est important de souligner que cette manière de procéder limite l’acquisition de nouvelles connaissances spatiales. Elle peut également engendrer d’autres dommages chez l’utilisateur comme une dépendance vis-à-vis du système ou bien une diminution de sa capacité à interpréter une carte. Dans la mesure où ces éléments remettent en question les bénéfices de la personnalisation des systèmes d’aide à la navigation et au wayfinding, il serait sans doute plus judicieux d’envisager des solutions qui favorisent l’engagement actif de l’utilisateur ; notamment dans la composition de l’itinéraire.
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Since our societies have diverse people and built environments, studies must be needed to develop systems assuring people's safety in potential emergent situations. We have developed a multimedia guidance system available in evacuation. In the present paper, we examined the effect of map presentation types on evacuation behavior. The results showed that sequential evacuation paths indicated on the map almost cancelled the negative effects of map rotation and alignment on the course of evacuation behavior, and that these map conditions made it difficult for evacuees to construct a spatial image like a survey map.
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The issue of alignment of you-are-here map in underground town, one of the conclusions in the above paper, is discussed. A few but fundamental questions about the experimental conditions, data, and their explanations relevant to the results are also pointed out. Contrary to the suggestion of "north-up" alignment manner in the above paper, a "forward-up" principle is advocated by the present author.
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Today, exposure to new and unfamiliar environments is a necessary part of daily life. Effective communication of location-based information through location-based services has become a key concern for cartographers, geographers, human-computer interaction and professional designers alike. Recently, much attention was directed towards Augmented Reality (AR) interfaces. Current research, however, focuses primarily on computer vision and tracking, or investigates the needs of urban residents, already familiar with their environment. Adopting a user-centred design approach, this paper reports fndings from an empirical mobile study investigating how tourists acquire knowledge about an unfamiliar urban environment through AR browsers. Qualitative and quantitative data was used in the development of a framework that shifts the perspective towards a more thorough understanding of the overall design space for such interfaces. The authors analysis provides a frame of reference for the design and evaluation of mobile AR interfaces. The authors demonstrate the application of the framework with respect to optimization of current design of AR. © 2014, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
Article
In museums, visitors are immediately drawn to striking or iconic objects, but there are many less conspicuous but important items which illustrate cultural contexts and content and are equally deserving of their attention. The authors of Museums and Silent Objects, offer a methodology for judging the quality of museum exhibitions from the visitor's perspective, and offer practical tools for museum professionals to evaluate displays, and design new galleries and exhibits. Fully illustrated and based on studies of world-famous galleries, this book is essential reading for those creating effective museum displays.
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It has been several years since we published a special issue of Visitor Behavior on visitor orientation and circulation [ Visitor Behavior, 1(4),1987]. The cur-rent article is an update on this topic. Unfortunately, ex-hibition centers do not always pay enough attention to these areas. Visitors, on the other hand, can be painfully aware of this lack of attention. People are more likely to return or spread positive word-of-mouth about their visit if orientation and circulation factors facilitate, rather than hinder a successful visit. General principles will be divided into three major areas: conceptual orientation, visitor circulation, and wayfinding. While the principles which follow are not meant to be exhaustive, research and experience sug-gest they include many of the important considerations from the visitor perspective. Principles of Conceptual Orientation 1. Visitors tend to have a more satisfying experience and acquire more knowledge when they are given information about where to go, what to expect, how long it might take to visit, where to find rest rooms, etc. [e.g., Bitgood & Benefield,'1989; Shettel-Neu-ber & O'Reilly, 1981]. 2. Advance organizers that give pre-knowledge about the theme and content of the exhibit before entering the exhibit area are preferred by visitors and will usually facilitate understanding of the messages. However, these must be carefully designed and placed if they are to be effective. [e.g., Griggs, 1983; Screven, 1986]. 3. The only sure way to determine if visitors are ade-quately conceptually oriented is to obtain system-atic input from a visitor study.
Article
In developmental studies of spatial perspective taking, it is important to clearly distinguish imagining body movement from other related cognitive information processing, to capture the genuine features of this ability in aging. This study examined the characteristics of these abilities in the older adults by comparing differences among age groups. A video game task was devised to evaluate response times from various angles of rotation. Four hundred twenty-eight healthy individuals aged 6 to 79 years (eight age groups at 10-year intervals) participated. Average response times for each age group confirmed a curvilinear change that accelerated from childhood to early adulthood and decelerated in later life. However, older participants did not display inferior performance compared with the younger adults on the response times to rotate an imaginary self to a 180 degrees position. These results confirm previous findings that spatial perspective taking, particularly imagining body movement, remains robust in normal aging.
Article
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We present results from an experiment studying how people mentally integrated partial configurations of objects shown across a sequence of displays with varying matches between frames of reference. Consistent with previous research on spatial updating, performance was better when the frame of reference in the final display aligned with the main display axes (up/down, left/right) than when it aligned with the diagonal axes. However, we also found that spatial updating was more efficient when the sequence of presentation of objects was consistent with the final frame of reference from which objects were integrated. Results suggested that spatial updating depended on the sequence of spatial operations required to integrate new spatial information into existing ones. Implications to theories of spatial updating in reasoning tasks are discussed.
Chapter
In this chapter we review some of the most important models at microscopic, macroscopic, and mesoscopic scale, which, in our opinion, represent milestones in their respective fields or are of particular interest for this book. We also report some models for rational pedestrians, which make use of techniques from optimal control theory. For the sake of convenience, we present all models in two space dimensions.
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Maps ease spatial orientation. By far most of them are purely visual and thus not made for being read by visually impaired persons. Maps that are customized for the communication between sighted and visually impaired persons, e.g. by showing spatial information as tactile map and as color print, could help building a common foundation for multimodal representations of spatial knowledge in one form that is accessible to visually impaired and sighted people. Before the interaction of the modalities can be questioned some principles of interaction with unimodal tactile maps need to be investigated. This presentation focuses on questions on how to transform a concept for an exemplary class of maps to the tactile domain and exemplifies the difficulties and questions that arise. First experiments on how to realize one part of the interaction between language and these tactile maps for visually impaired persons are proposed.
Chapter
In this chapter we begin the discussion about crowd dynamics from an informal phenomenological point of view. In particular, we put in evidence how simple interaction rules adopted independently by pedestrians generate, at a collective level, complex group behaviors featuring various forms of self-organization. Bearing in mind the ultimate goal of the book, which is mathematical modeling, we promote the idea that understanding such basic behavioral rules contributes to the modeling at all scales, also those not directly focused on single individuals. In the light of these arguments, we critically analyze the main scales of observation and representation which are typically used in mathematical modeling, namely the microscopic, the macroscopic, and the mesoscopic (or kinetic) scale. For each of them we discuss the advantages/drawbacks in catching/losing specific features of crowd dynamics, with a view also to the interplay with the available experimental knowledge about crowds. Finally we elucidate the role of the book in this cultural framework and we give reading directions through the various chapters targeted to a few different kinds of readerships.
Thesis
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Previous studies investigating how humans build reliable spatial knowledge representations allowing them to find their way from one point to another in complex environments have been focused on comparing the relative importance of the two -dimensional visual geometry of routes and intersections, multi -dimensional data from direct exposure with the real world, or verbal symbols and/or instructions. This thesis sheds further light on the multi-dimensional and multi-sensorial aspects by investigating how the cognitive processing of spatial information derived from different sources of sensory and higher order input influences the performance of human observers who have to find their way from memory through complex and non-familiar real-world environments. Three experiments in large scale urban environments of the real world, and in computer generated representations of these latter (Google Street View), were run to investigate the influence of prior exposure to 2D visual or tactile maps of an itinerary, compared with a single direct experience or verbal instructions, on navigation performances in sighted and/or visually deficient individuals, and in individuals temporarily deprived of vision. Performances were analyzed in terms of time from departure to destination, number of stops, number of wrong turns, and success rates. Potential strategies employed by individuals during navigation and mental mapping abilities were screened on the basis of questionnaires and drawing tests. Subjective levels of psychological stress (experiment 2) were measured to bring to the fore possible differences between men and women in this respect. The results of these experiments show that 2D visual maps, briefly explored prior to navigation, generate better navigation performances compared with poorly scaled virtual representations of a complex real-world environment (experiment 1), the best performances being produced by a single prior exposure to the real-world itinerary. However, brief familiarization with a reliably scaled virtual representation of a non-familiar real-world environment (Google Street View) not only generates optimal navigation in computer generated testing (virtual reality), but also produces better navigation performances when tested in the real -world environment and compared with prior exposure to 2D visual maps (experiment 2). Congenitally blind observers (experiment 3) who have to find their way from memory through a complex non -familiar urban environment perform swiftly and with considerable accuracy after exposure to a 2D tactile map of their itinerary. They are also able to draw a visual image of their itinerary on the basis of the 2D tactile map exposure. Other visually deficient or sighted but blindfolded individuals seem to have greater difficulty in finding their way again than congenitally blind people, regardless of the type of prior exposure to their test itinerary. The findings of this work here are discussed in the light of current hypotheses regarding the presumed intrinsic nature of human spatial representations, replaced herein within a context of working memory models. It is suggested that multi-dimensional temporary storage systems, capable of processing a multitude of sensory input in parallel and with a much larger general capacity than previously considered in terms of working memory limits, need to be taken into account for future research.
Chapter
This chapter is devoted to a multiscale approach to the modeling of crowd dynamics, which is the core topic of the book. We begin by presenting, in Sect. 5.1, a general measure-based modeling framework suitable to include the basic features of pedestrian kinematics at any scale. Specifically, we assume that pedestrian motion results from the interplay between the individual will to follow a preferred travel program and the necessity to face the rest of the crowd. We discuss in Sect. 5.2 how to properly model these behavioral aspects. In Sect. 5.3 we show how discrete (microscopic) and continuous (macroscopic) models can be obtained in the proposed framework, before focusing, in Sect. 5.4, on multiscale modeling issues. We also propose a detailed dimensional analysis, which highlights the role of a few significant parameters, and a numerical scheme for the approximate solution of the equations. The scheme is obtained in two steps in Sect. 5.5. First we derive a discrete-in-time model; next we discretize the space variable as well, obtaining an algorithm (cf. Appendix B) which can be implemented on a computer to produce simulations (cf. Chap. 2). Finally, in Sect. 5.6 we extend the previous modeling structures to the case of two interacting crowds.
Article
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Background: Sense of orientation in hospitals can be tricky considering the large extension of buildings and the inadequate signage. Aim: To report some of the findings of a larger research project on wayfinding and patient navigation in Chilean hospitals. Material and methods: Five hundred nine hospital users waiting for attention in three hospitals were contacted and asked to answer a survey that lasted 10 minutes, about wayfinding and sense of orientation within the hospital. Results: Users declared to have a good opinion of existing signage in the three hospitals analyzed as well as their architectural organization in terms of their capacity to orient people. However, the vast majority of users asked for directions to navigate within the hospital to staff and medical personnel. Conclusions: Patient navigation problems are imposing a great "hidden" cost to hospitals management due to missed appointments.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to take another point of view in the modeling of the crowd. Namely, here we report some approaches focusing on pedestrians as individuals. Then it is of paramount importance to take into account the psychological aspects of the problem, distinguishing moving humans from “particles” or even from self-propelled agents (e.g., birds). Such psychological components show up both in the choice of walking strategies and preferences and in interaction rules with other pedestrians. The focus will be mainly on investigations addressing the behavior of the single pedestrian moving in an organized environment. Moreover, we will discuss some models proposed by works in different fields, not limited to psychology. However, the latter are more of qualitative nature, as opposed to mathematically advanced ones discussed in Chaps. 4 and 5. Then we will deal with experiments and measurements. In particular we will discuss how the experimental setting influences results because of expected psychological bias. Also a view on the most used measurement tools is included, since this may also affect the perception of experiment participants. Finally, we will compare some experimental setting, showing how sensitive to them measurements can be.
Article
Historical maps displayed in power-related settings have often been considered from a critical, representational perspective and have been researched with regard to their predictive, ideological content. With the recent emergence of a post-representational approach to cartography, a call for contextual creative research on maps "in the wild" has emerged. The consideration of pervasive digital cartography has increased attention toward aspects such as context-specific design, display formats, and areas. Common people encounter these digital "cartifacts," as well as more traditional ones, within the everyday urban environment (mainly as part of city wallscapes). Photography could be used to profitably research "mapscapes" as they are perceived, lived, and felt. The photographic selective reading of cartographic signs on urban surfaces, beyond being a means of playfully engaging the material spatialities of maps, could also serve as a tool for generating map theorization. A photo essay based on cartographic encounters in Istanbul in 2010 is provided here as an example of creative exchange between map studies and visual methodologies.
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