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THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INTERNAL COMMUNICATION CONDITIONINGS AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS

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Proper management of the internal communication process in an organization is crucial for its effective functioning. However, it should be remembered that communication is a complex phenomenon, and as such, it is conditioned by various factors. Taking into consideration the objectives of internal communication within the company, it is necessary to seek the highest level of its effectiveness. The main purpose of this paper is an in-depth analysis of internal communication process and its conditionings. Moreover, the factors contributing to increase or decrease in the degree of internal communication objectives' achievement will be analyzed as well. Based on the statistical analysis of the survey results, conducted on a sample of 1,354 respondents, and the qualitative analysis of data obtained from 23 focus groups interviews, a list of areas affecting proper communication within the company was created. For the model presented in this article, the dependent variable is the effectiveness of internal communication, defined as the realization of its objectives. As for the independent variables, they are the categories of efficiency and quality of communication within the organization and the factors determining the effectiveness of the undertaken communicational actions.
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Rogala, A. 2015. The Relations between the Internal Communication Conditionings and its
Effectiveness. International Journal of Arts & Sciences 2014 nr 7(2), University Publications.
pp. 69-77. http://www.universitypublications.net/ijas/0702/pdf/B4R392.pdf
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
CONDITIONINGS AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS
Anna Rogala
Poznan University of Economics, Poland
Abstract
Proper management of the internal communication process in an organization is
crucial for its effective functioning. However, it should be remembered that communication is
a complex phenomenon, and as such, it is conditioned by various factors. Taking into
consideration the objectives of internal communication within the company, it is necessary to
seek the highest level of its effectiveness. The main purpose of this paper is an in-depth
analysis of internal communication process and its conditionings. Moreover, the factors
contributing to increase or decrease in the degree of internal communication objectives’
achievement will be analyzed as well. Based on the statistical analysis of the survey results,
conducted on a sample of 1,354 respondents, and the qualitative analysis of data obtained
from 23 focus groups interviews, a list of areas affecting proper communication within the
company was created. For the model presented in this article, the dependent variable is the
effectiveness of internal communication, defined as the realization of its objectives. As for the
independent variables, they are the categories of efficiency and quality of communication
within the organization and the factors determining the effectiveness of the undertaken
communicational actions.
Keywords: internal communication, conditionings, determinants, effectiveness
Introduction
The process and results of internal communication are most often evaluated from the
point of view of its performance or efficiency and less frequently its effectiveness. In the
majority of cases the analysis is limited to establishing whether the sent message has been
properly understood by the recipient. However, this approach is appropriate in linguistics, but
seems insufficient from the perspective of organization and management. Communication
between a company and both internal and external recipients should induce them to
undertake, refrain from, or modify particular actions. In order to assess the organizational
process of communication, special attention should be paid to its objectives and the degree of
their achievement.
This article deals with determinants of internal communication effectiveness on the
praxeological grounds. Therefore, performance, efficiency and effectiveness of internal
communication activities will be related to particular qualities of an efficient action.
Additionally, concepts connected with the components of the process assessment and their
mutual relations will be redefined. Thanks to the in-depth analysis of internal communication
in the researched companies, its conditions and factors increasing or decreasing the degree of
achievement of its objectives, a model of relationship between internal communication and its
conditions and effectiveness will be created.
Literature review
The communication process in a company is evaluated from the point of view of a
number of aspects, among others: results, input, used tools, or the degree to which consumers’
needs are met. However, taking into account the
purposefulness
of an organization’s existence
and the considerable influence of communication on its functioning, achieving the set results
seems to be of the highest importance. In literature performance, efficiency and effectiveness
of internal communication are analyzed, but they are not clearly distinguished. Effectiveness
is identified with both performance and efficiency, whereas these categories are not identical.
In the author’s opinion, to analyze the communication processes in a company it is necessary
to accept the praxeological perspective, i.e. their assessment in the context of performance,
effectiveness and efficiency, identified with the praxeological economy. An additional
category is quality, which may significantly raise or lower effectiveness.
Praxeologists assume that performance is an universal measure, allowing for the
assessment of any activity. Its basic forms are: effectiveness, economy and profitableness.
According to B. Sobkowiak, the performance of communication in an organization can be
assessed only with reference to its universal meaning, identical with effectiveness [2005, p.
244]. In her definition, the author emphasizes mutual understanding, cooperation, also
affecting attitudes and behavior of other participants of communication processes. In this
approach the category of performance of internal communication is treated as equal to its
effectiveness. However, performance can be understood as either skillful organization of
some activities or actions, or a practical ability to do something. Therefore, analyzing the
performance of internal communication will refer to a number of aspects, among others:
access to information,
speed of information flow,
amount of information received in relations to information needed
reliability and completeness of received messages,
adopting communicational activities to employees’ needs,
communicational atmosphere.
The category of performance is most of all related to the purpose of sharing up-to-date
information about the organization with employees, i.e. information flow. Summing up, the
performance of the communication process contributes to the achievement of the
communicational aims of a company, but it does not guarantee it.
The performance of the communication process influences its efficiency, which is also
ambiguously defined in literature. As it was mentioned earlier, in English-language
publications efficiency is identified with effectiveness, though these terms are far from
equivalent. A quantitative understanding of efficiency is often used in these publications.
Many authors point to the relationship between communication processes in an organization
and the efficiency and performance of various aspects connected with its functioning. [Cf.
Clampitt & Downs, 1993; Finney, 2011; Hargie et al., 2003; Linke & Zerfass 2011; Stayer,
1990]. There are attempts to apply the quantitative approach to assess communication in a
company, with a view to confirming its contribution to the improvement of financial results,
possibly by means of the return on investment (ROI) index. However, neither scientists nor
practitioners are unanimous as to the way of measuring profitability in relation to
communicational activities. In the author’s opinion, the efficiency of internal communication
can be analyzed with reference to the following issue [Rogala 2013]:
proper, i.e. economically justified use of tools, so that the measurable effects of their
use are lower than the input;
assessment of the information policy of a company in the context of its costs and
generated effects such as: increased work productivity, saving the staff’s time spent on
looking for information, etc.;
the comparison of the cost of the used communication tools with the benefits from the
information passed by means of these tools.
All the remaining aspects of the communication process in an organization are related to
either its performance or effectiveness. In the light of the above considerations, the category
of the efficiency of internal communication should be identified with praxeological economy.
Nevertheless, due to the difficulties in measuring it, the author did not include this area in her
research.
Effectiveness is a crucial aspect of communication in a company, as it is indispensable
for the achievement of good results in any other area of a company’s activity. It refers to
achieving the purpose for which a given activity was undertaken. The purposes of internal
communication comprise [Rogala & Kaniewska-Sęba 2013]:
sharing up-to-date information necessary for proper functioning in a company,
preparation for pending changes,
unifying around a mission, a value, or a strategy of a company,
creating a good working atmosphere,
building a positive internal image of an organization,
motivating workers to work for the company.
Typically for the theory of communication, it is analyzed at the level of the information flow:
the level of effectiveness of communication depends on the degree of convergence between
the sender’s intention and the understanding by the recipient. As for the theory of praxeology,
the measure of effectiveness is the degree to which variously defined objectives are achieved.
In this way we can analyze the effectiveness of internal communication in reaching particular
purposes, e.g. a motivational one.
Besides its performance, efficiency and effectiveness, a significant aspect of internal
communication is its quality, because it is quality, rather than quantity of received information
which is of the key importance for the strengths and weaknesses of communication processes
in an organization. Quality is the degree to which a given object, action, or service meets the
requirements of the evaluator. High quality of internal communication not only facilitates the
achievement of its purposes, but also raises the efficiency of the used tools. In earlier studies
it was only treated as a combination of efficiency, effectiveness and performance. In the
author’s opinion, though, such a comprehensive approach, however valuable, may lead to the
reduction of differences and overlapping of the assessed areas. That is why, in this article the
quality of internal communication is analyzed from the point of view of the way of achieving
the objectives of communication, which assumes respecting social norms and the
interlocutors’ feelings. Therefore, it is assumed that a high level of communicative
competence of staff, good relations among employees, appropriate organizational structure, as
well as culture and organizational climate contribute to a high quality of the process.
Depending on the organization, all these aspects positively or negatively influence the quality
of internal communication. Because of the consequences of a defective communication
process, aiming for its high quality should be one of the objectives of communicational
activities undertaken within an organization [Rogala 2013].
The communication process in an organization, its performance, efficiency and quality
depend on various factors. These are, among others, conditions related to the organization, its
units, as well as interactions within the company. For the proper management of internal
communication, it is crucial to establish which of the factors is of the highest importance for
the achievement of its objectives.
Methodology
1
The presented analyses are based on the quantitative research in the form of direct and
online surveys, conducted in: production, service, trade-production and trade-service types of
companies in Wielkopolskie voivodeship (Poland). The research comprised 1,398 employees
in total, representing all levels of management. Throughout the survey 787 direct and 611
online questionnaires were collected, 1,354 of which were qualified for the further study.
In the second stage of the research the qualitative method based on the focus group
interview (FGI) was applied. 23 focus group interviews were conducted among 142
employees of production and service companies selected by means of purposive sampling.
The focus groups included representatives of all the hierarchy levels of the companies. In the
case of small entities with a flat organizational structure, the number of interviews was limited
to two – one for the low and one for the middle level. The selection of respondents was based
on the following criteria of purposive sampling:
being employed on the basis of a contract of employment;
working on a specified hierarchy level;
working in technical and administrative positions;
excluding people in charge of the information flow in a company.
The interviews were conducted in accordance with the funnel strategy, on the basis of a
previously prepared script, within the so-called affinity group. The biggest number of
participants were representatives of the middle level of management (72 people), whereas the
smallest number represented the top management (16 people). 62 respondents work for
production companies, 51 for service companies, and 29 for production-trade and service-
trade types of companies.
Findings
The obtained results were analyzed from the point of view of the relationship between
particular aspects of internal communication and its effectiveness. In accordance to the
integrated approach to the effectiveness of the communication activities within a company, it
was assumed that it would also be necessary to define their efficiency and quality. The
category of efficiency includes: access to information, speed of information flow, the amount
of information received compared to the information needed, reliability and completeness of
obtained information, as well as the adjustment of the communication activities to the
employees’ needs and the atmosphere of communication. Among the aspects determining the
quality, the following were indicated: communicativeness of superiors, communicativeness of
subordinates, the organizational structure, corporate culture and relationships among
employees. The effectiveness of internal communication results from the degree of
achievement of the following objectives:
supplying employees with up-to-date information, essential for their proper
functioning in the company;
motivating employees to act for the organization;
creating a positive atmosphere in the workplace;
unifying workers around the company’s mission, its values and its strategy;
building a positive image of the company among its employees;
preparing workers for the pending changes.
In the course of the analyses we decided to test the efficiency level of internal
communication. It was also checked whether any of the studied areas predominantly
1
The project was financed with the National Science Center resources, granted on the basis of the decision
number DEC-2011/03/N/HS4/00701
.
contributes to the general communication efficiency. To achieve this aim, the analysis of the
r-Pearson correlation between the assessments of particular aspects of communication within
the organization and the obtained efficiency was conducted (see table 1).
Table 1
r-Person correlation coefficients between different categories of efficiency and overall
efficiency assessment
Category of efficiency Overall efficiency
access to information .784**
speed of information flow .811**
amount of information received compared to the information needed, .825**
reliability and completeness of obtained information .783**
adjustment of the communication activities to the employees’ needs .775**
atmosphere of communication .756**
** Significance level α=0,01 (two-tailed)
Source: own elaboration based on
conducted questionnaires (N=1354)
All the achieved results prove the existence of the statistically valid, strong relationships
between particular aspects of communication and the efficiency of communication in an
organization. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the amount of information
received in relation to information needed (r = 0.825), as well as for the speed of the
information flow (r = 0.811), whereas the lowest coefficients reflected the communication
atmosphere (r = 0.756).
The next step was to verify whether there is a statistically valid interdependence
between the efficiency and the effectiveness of internal communication. What was taken into
account were: individual aspects of efficiency, the mean of the overall efficiency, as well as
the arithmetic mean and the weighted average of the effectiveness (see table 2).
Table 2
r-Person correlation coefficients between different categories of efficiency, overall efficiency
and arithmetic mean and weighted average of internal communication effectiveness
Category of efficiency
Arithmetic mean
of internal
communication
effectiveness
Weighted
average of the
internal
communication
effectiveness
access to information .390** .392**
speed of information flow .402** .398**
amount of information received compared to the
information needed, .413** .414**
reliability and completeness of obtained
information .395** .388**
adjustment of the communication activities to the
employees’ needs .374** .380**
atmosphere of communication .424** .414**
overall efficiency assessment .504** .507**
** Significance level α=0,01 (two-tailed)
Source: own elaboration based on
conducted questionnaires (N=1354)
The conducted analysis of the r-Pearson correlation proved that the categories of efficiency
and effectiveness are interrelated. The correlation coefficients are presented in the table.
There is a clear correlation between the access to information, reliability and completeness of
the received messages and tailoring the communication activities to the employees’ needs on
one hand, and the effectiveness of internal communication on the other. The strongest
relationship occurred between the average assessment of efficiency and the weighted average
of the effectiveness of internal communication. (r = 0.507). The obtained results justify a
conclusion that the categories of efficiency and effectiveness of communication in a company
are correlated in such a way that the higher the efficiency the higher the effectiveness of the
communication process.
The integrated approach to the assessment of internal communication requires taking
into consideration also its quality. The respondents regard the communicative abilities of
employees as the most important factor for the communication in a company. Factors
occupying the further three places in the ranking are: the communicative abilities of the
superiors (2nd place), the organizational structure (3rd place), as well as the corporate culture
and the organizational climate, all of which scored a similar number of points. The next step
was to find out how the internal communication level is assessed in companies. The most
highly evaluated factor was the one assessed as the least important by the respondents, i.e.
relationships among employees (average value 3.64). The most significant in the respondents’
opinion communicative abilities of the subordinates were also highly evaluated (3.60). The
lowest position in the respondents’ view was taken by the organizational structure (average
value 3.32).
This article rests on the assumption that the categories of effectiveness, efficiency and
quality of internal communication are correlated and interact with each other. Therefore, it
was necessary to check if there is any statistically valid interdependence between individual
variables. To begin with, an attempt to verify the following hypothesis was undertaken:
H1: The effectiveness of internal communication is positively correlated with the quality of
the communicative activities directed towards employees.
With a view to verifying this hypothesis, the analysis of the r-Pearson correlation between the
assessed effectiveness of internal communication and the assessed quality of the
communicative activities directed towards employees was conducted. The achievement of
particular objectives of internal communication was analyzed as well (see table 3).
Table 3
r-Person correlation coefficients between assessment of the degree of internal communication
objectives realization, arithmetic mean of internal communication effectiveness and overall
quality of communication assessment
Assessment of the degree of internal communication
objectives realization r-Pearson
coefficient Significance
level
supplying employees with up-to-date information, essential for
their proper functioning in the company 0.45 < 0,001
motivating employees to act for the organization 0.43 < 0,001
creating a positive atmosphere in the workplace 0.42 < 0,001
unifying workers around the company’s mission, its values and
its strategy 0.36 < 0,001
building a positive image of the company among its employees 0.43 < 0,001
preparing workers for the pending changes 0.36 < 0,001
arithmetic mean for internal communication effectiveness 0.43 < 0,001
Source: own elaboration based on
conducted questionnaires (N=1354)
The analysis of the correlation showed that the respondents who more highly evaluated the
quality of internal communication also had a higher opinion about the degree of
implementation of its individual targets. In each of the researched areas, the correlation
coefficients fluctuated between r = 0.36 and r = 0.45. The coefficient value of the correlation
between the assessed quality and effectiveness was the highest for the objective of giving the
employees information indispensable for their functioning in the company. The lowest value
of the coefficient was for the objectives of unifying employees around a mission, a value, or a
strategy of the company, as well as for preparing the staff for the pending changes. It was also
noted that there is a statistically valid moderate interdependence between the general
assessment of the quality of the internal communication and its effectiveness (r = 0.43).
Therefore, it has been decided to accept hypothesis 1.
Furthermore, in order to obtain the full view of the existing correlations it was checked
if there are any statistically valid correlations between the particular categories of the
assessment of communication within the organization, i.e. its efficiency, quality and
effectiveness. As a result, statistically valid moderate correlations were noted between these
categories (see table 4).
Table 4
r-Person correlation coefficients between mean of the internal communication efficiency,
quality and effectiveness
Variables AM
efficiency AM
quality WA
quality WA
effectiveness AM
effectiveness
AM efficiency
1 .613** .637** .434** .431**
AM quality
.613** 1 .613** .486** .481**
WA quality
.637** .613** 1 .434** .431**
WA effectiveness
.434** .486** .434** 1 .982**
AM effectiveness
.431** .481** .431** .982** 1
** Significance level α=0,01 (two-tailed);
AM – average mean, WM – weighted mean
Source: own elaboration based on
conducted questionnaires (N=1354)
The correlation coefficient had the highest value for categories of efficiency and quality of
communication (in the case of the arithmetic mean of the quality assessment r = 0.637, based
on the weighted average r = 0.631). Moreover, moderately strong correlations were observed
between the effectiveness of the communication activities in an organization and the quality
and the efficiency in the researched area.
The in-depth analysis of internal communication in a company, its determinants, and
factors increasing or decreasing the degree to which its targets are met allowed for creating a
model of correlation between the effectiveness of internal communication and its
determinants. the statistical analysis of the results of the survey and the qualitative analysis of
the focus group interviews were a basis for preparing a list of areas influencing the proper
course of communication activities in a company. The dependent variable of this model is the
effectiveness of internal communication understood as the achievement of its objectives. This
effectiveness can be full or partial. Activities undertaken for the sake of facilitating
communication in a company can also bring results opposite to the expected ones – it is the
so-called counter-effectiveness. The overall assessment of the effectiveness (expressed as the
arithmetic or weighted mean) comprises the degree of accomplishment of the partial
objectives of internal communication (independent variable), whereas it is acceptable to
assign each objective a separate weight. There are the following objectives: informative,
motivational, related to the atmosphere at workplace, integrational, as well as related to the
image and changes. Other independent variables are the categories of efficiency and quality,
which comprise sets of specific factors (see figure 1).
Figure 1
Model of relations between the internal communication conditionings and its effectiveness
Source: Rogala 2013.
As far as efficiency is concerned, the following constituents are taken into account:
access to information,
speed of information flow,
the relation of the received to the needed information,
reliability and completeness of messages
adjusting communication activities to the employees’ needs,
communication atmosphere,
the use of instrumentarium,
barriers.
The general assessment of the quality of communication is determined by the following
factors:
the communicative abilities of subordinates,
employees’ personality,
communicative abilities of superiors,
employees’ individual experience,
management style,
the organizational structure,
the culture and the climate of an organization,
conflicts.
The created model illustrates the correlations between various aspects of the internal
communication management and factors determining the effectiveness of the undertaken
activities. What is more, it shows areas requiring the special attention of people planning
communication strategies and implementing communication solutions in organizations. In the
author's opinion, the categories of efficiency and quality determine the category of the
effectiveness of internal communication. Therefore, the achievement of a high level of its
implementation requires obtaining satisfactory results in both of these areas.
Conclusions
In the light of the above analysis it can be concluded that a high level of achievement
of communication objectives in an organization requires an integrated approach. The obtained
results justify a statement that the categories of performance and efficiency of internal
communication are interrelated. The relation: the higher the performance, the higher the
efficiency of the process (r = 0.43; p < 0.01) seems to be of a particular significance. The
analysis of the correlation between efficiency and quality of internal communication proved
the existence of a statistically significant, moderately strong relation between the general
assessment of the internal communication quality and its efficiency (r = 0.43; p < 0.01)
Additionally, it has been stated that the categories of performance and quality are also
interrelated (the results were statistically significant).
Knowing the aspects of particular categories of the process and the effects of internal
communication, it is possible, on the one hand, to identify areas requiring improvement, and
on the other, properly allocate the resources meant to raise the effectiveness of the process. At
the same time, it should be stressed that communication audits should be conducted regularly,
by means of reliable tools and their results should be confronted with the employees’
expectations in this respect. Depending on the results obtained for a given organization,
people responsible for internal communication may stimulate changes in the specific areas of
the process, in this way contributing to the increase of effectiveness of communicational
activities addressed to the staff.
References
Clampitt, P., Downs, C., 1993, Employee Perceptions of the Relationship Between
Communication and Productivity: a field Study, Journal of Business Communication,
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Finney, S., 2011, Stakeholder perspective on internal marketing communication, Business
Process Management Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2.
Hargie, O., Rainey, S., Dickson, D., 2003, Working Together, Living Apart: Inter-group
Communication within Organizations in Northern Ireland, w: Communication
Research and Media Science in Europe, Schorr, A., Campbell, W. i Schenk, M. (eds.),
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Linke, A., Zerfass, A., 2011, Internal Communication and Innovation Culture: Developing a
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... Ces dernières années, nous assistons à un regain d'intérêt de la part des chercheurs pour cette question de la mesure de la performance ou de l'efficacité de la communication interne avec plusieurs projets de recherche qui ont été consacrés à cette question (Meng et Berger, 2012 ;Mendez, Casadesus et Gimenez, 2013 ;Calabrese, 2004 ;Rogala, 2015 ;Institute for Public Relations, 2018). Une série d'auteurs ont envisagé cette question de l'évaluation de la performance de la communication interne en analysant les pratiques des professionnels de communication. ...
... Anna Rogala (2015) a souligné que l'analyse des processus de communication dans les organisations se limite la plupart du temps à établir si le message envoyé a été correctement compris par le récepteur, une approche qu'elle juge insuffisante du point de vue de l'organisation et du management. Elle estime ainsi que, pour évaluer les processus de communication organisationnelle, il est essentiel de se concentrer sur les objectifs poursuivis et leur degré de réalisation. ...
... Enfin, elle suggère que l'efficacité (« effectiveness ») de la communication interne résulte du degré de réalisation des objectifs suivants : fournir aux employés des informations à jour et indispensables à leur bon fonctionnement dans l'organisation ; motiver les employés à agir pour l'organisation ; créer une atmosphère positive sur le lieu de travail ; unifier les travailleurs autour des missions de l'organisation, de ses valeurs et de sa stratégie ; construire une image positive de l'organisation parmi les employés ; préparer les travailleurs aux changements à venir. (Rogala, 2015) Le modèle d'Anna Rogala soutient l'hypothèse que les catégories liées à l'efficience, la performance/efficacité et la qualité de la communication sont corrélées et interagissent les unes avec les autres (Rogala, 2015). ...
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... 1. Providing current information which is necessary for efficient and appropriate functioning in the company [22] including [21]: underlining the links between different elements of the message, shedding light on a network of interrelationships between various elements, providing employees with the information they need for work and helping in placing them in the broader context (big picture); 2. Educating employees on how to behave appropriately in dealing with the external environment [23]; 3. Preparing for pending changes and providing employees with information on important decisions that affect them in order to make them more willing to accept these decisions [24]; 4. Unification of around the company's mission, values and strategy [25]. 5. Creating a pleasant working atmosphere [24]; 6. Building a positive internal positive corporate identity [22]; 7. Motivating the employees to work in a company [12]; 8. Integrating by establishing strong relations between the company and employees, which result in a high level of loyalty and dedication to the workplace [24]; Internal communication helps to solve problems and introduce necessary changes in the organization, which translates into a positive organizational climate and interpersonal relations [26]. Effective internal communication primarily creates the company culture and motivates their members to work [27]. ...
... 1. Providing current information which is necessary for efficient and appropriate functioning in the company [22] including [21]: underlining the links between different elements of the message, shedding light on a network of interrelationships between various elements, providing employees with the information they need for work and helping in placing them in the broader context (big picture); 2. Educating employees on how to behave appropriately in dealing with the external environment [23]; 3. Preparing for pending changes and providing employees with information on important decisions that affect them in order to make them more willing to accept these decisions [24]; 4. Unification of around the company's mission, values and strategy [25]. 5. Creating a pleasant working atmosphere [24]; 6. Building a positive internal positive corporate identity [22]; 7. Motivating the employees to work in a company [12]; 8. Integrating by establishing strong relations between the company and employees, which result in a high level of loyalty and dedication to the workplace [24]; Internal communication helps to solve problems and introduce necessary changes in the organization, which translates into a positive organizational climate and interpersonal relations [26]. Effective internal communication primarily creates the company culture and motivates their members to work [27]. ...
... 1. Providing current information which is necessary for efficient and appropriate functioning in the company [22] including [21]: underlining the links between different elements of the message, shedding light on a network of interrelationships between various elements, providing employees with the information they need for work and helping in placing them in the broader context (big picture); 2. Educating employees on how to behave appropriately in dealing with the external environment [23]; 3. Preparing for pending changes and providing employees with information on important decisions that affect them in order to make them more willing to accept these decisions [24]; 4. Unification of around the company's mission, values and strategy [25]. 5. Creating a pleasant working atmosphere [24]; 6. Building a positive internal positive corporate identity [22]; 7. Motivating the employees to work in a company [12]; 8. Integrating by establishing strong relations between the company and employees, which result in a high level of loyalty and dedication to the workplace [24]; Internal communication helps to solve problems and introduce necessary changes in the organization, which translates into a positive organizational climate and interpersonal relations [26]. Effective internal communication primarily creates the company culture and motivates their members to work [27]. ...
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... It can be explained by the fact that a company's internal communication shapes the internal image of the organization, the employees' knowledge about their company's offer and their willingness to recommend it, as well as their readiness to recommend the company as an employer. Moreover, on the basis of the research 1 conducted by the author of the article it was established that there are statistically significant positive relations between the achievement of internal communication objectives and the assessment of the consistency of internal and external communication in particular aspects, as well as between the overall evaluation of internal communication effectiveness and the evaluation of consistency of comprehensive communication activities [Rogala 2014a]. Consequently, internal communication takes part in shaping employees' attitudes in relation to both the organization and to the world outside it. ...
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The aim of this paper is to highlight and to point out the importance of the evaluation of the investment project regarding the social aspect. The authors explore aspects of social cost-effectiveness assessment of the investment project, i.e. the impact of the investment on the overall economy, which depends heavily on the size and nature of the project and the amount of funds involved .This is why it is necessary to create economic and financial evaluation of investment projects from the viewpoint of society, or total economy, with special emphasis on the analysis and evaluation of the contribution of investment to regional development. Methodological planning and evaluation of return on investment, with special emphasis on the socio-economic dimension of investment, in the paper and associated with that considers the problems of divergence of private and social costs. The paper also points to the importance of a clear definition of the overall investment project in the very beginning of its economic and financial analysis, which is crucial for a proper assessment of the social effectiveness due to "cover up" social benefits and costs that may not be subject of direct trade off. The basic hypothesis of the paper stems from the stated and can be explicated as: adequate analysis and assessment of the social aspect of the effectiveness of the investment project significantly contributes to the regional economic development.
... The research presented in the paper will attempt to outline a framework of management information flows in Polish enterprises. Consequently, we look for a link between theories and concepts included in a broad literature on internal communication in a context of general corporate communication, HRM and public relations (Smeltzer 1996;Quirke 2000;Kitchen & Daly 2002;Daly, Teague & Kitchen 2003;Downs & Adrian 2004;Kalla 2005;Holtz 2006;Welch & Jackson 2007;Ruck et al. 2012;Rogala 2014) on the one hand, and only a slightly narrower literature on modelling information flows in a management context (Feinstein & Morris 1988;Ben-Arieh and Pollatscheck 2002;Burstein & Diller 2004;Ho, Lau, Ip & Ning 2004;Berente, Vandenbosch & Aubert 2009;Durugbo, Tiwari & Alcock 2013) on the other one. The search for the said link is requested considering the limited exiting body of knowledge on internal information flows coupled with MCSs (Segars, Grover & Teng 1998;Otley 1999;Abernethy, Bouwens & Van Lent 2010;Pärl 2012). ...
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Background: The application of modern information technologies alone does not solve communication problems in companies. The effectiveness of internal information flow is contingent on many factors with employees’ participation in planning being supposedly the one. Research aims: The paper examines downward and upward information flows by looking through ‘the lens of employees’ and considering their participation in planning processes. It links strategic awareness and operational planning on the one hand with performance reporting, a scope of control, post-control information and managerial feed-back on the other one. Methodology: The results presented in the paper are based on a survey comprising 179 Polish companies. The authors employed a qualitative approach based on mining descriptive comments provided by employees matched with quantitative results based on predefined answer options. Key findings: The content analysis revealed a certain level of reporting duties being delegated at a departmental level. It was also visible that control activities were a part of a corporate learning process, and that meetings of managers with their employees contributed to a performance related dialogue. On the other hand, the said effects were achieved by a small share of Polish companies, since only one fifth of those engaged employees in their planning processes.
Book
PARTLY AVAILABLE AT https://books.google.pl/books?id=Ok4iDQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=pl#v=onepage&q&f=false This book showcases an interdisciplinary and comprehensive study of the issues related to communication in corporate environments. Including perspectives from psychology, sociology and management science, Communication in Organizational Environments analyzes original quantitative and qualitative research, and determines the functions, objectives and conditions of effective internal communication. In this book, the authors bridge the gap in the literature on the management of corporate internal communication, and provide a tool for measuring communication effectiveness. Useful as a guide for internal communication managers in various organizations, this book is also important reading for academics in corporate communication, public relations, corporate management and behaviour, and human resource management.
Article
This book showcases an interdisciplinary and comprehensive study of the issues related to communication in corporate environments. Including perspectives from psychology, sociology and management science, Communication in Organizational Environments analyzes original quantitative and qualitative research, and determines the functions, objectives and conditions of effective internal communication. In this book, the authors bridge the gap in the literature on the management of corporate internal communication, and provide a tool for measuring communication effectiveness. Useful as a guide for internal communication managers in various organizations, this book is also important reading for academics in corporate communication, public relations, corporate management and behaviour, and human resource management. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016. All rights reserved.
Chapter
This chapter discusses issues related to the effectiveness of internal communication from a praxeological point of view. In the light of quantitative and qualitative research results, the authors will analyse the categories of efficiency, quality, and the effectiveness of internal communication, along with their components. They will also present a theoretical model of interdependence between the determinants of internal communication and its effectiveness, as well as presenting a measuring instrument—an evaluation sheet for the effectiveness of internal communication, which gives rise to an integrated index of internal communication effectiveness. What is more, a list of factors that increase or decrease internal communication effectiveness will also be presented. On the basis of the conclusions, the model of internal communication will be modified and updated.
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Skuteczność komunikacji w przedsiębiorstwie w istotny sposób warunkuje jego sprawne funkcjonowanie, dlatego też tak ważne jest kontrolowanie jej przebiegu. Ze względu na złożoną systematykę celów tego procesu, analizie należy poddawać stopień realizacji wszystkich z nich, co jest równoznaczne z przyjęciem prakseologicznego spojrzenia na zagadnienie skuteczności porozumiewania się w organizacji. Celem głównym niniejszych rozważań jest kwantyfikacja relacji obszarów w skuteczności komunikacji wewnętrznej. Z kolei za cel pośredni przyjęto ustalenie czynników w najwyższym stopniu warunkujących realizację poszczególnych celów działań komunikacyjnych skierowanych do pracowników.
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Marketing communication constitutes an interactive dialogue between an organization and its environment. Scientists focus on its external influence, marginalizing an internal aspect. Meanwhile, because of fierce competition and the development of information technologies, the integration of activities directed to the market and the company's inside is indispensable. Therefore, the analysis of relations and dependencies between external and internal communication is required. The main objective of the following paper is the analysis of internal communication's usage as a tool of marketing communications directed to the company employees. The activities from the fields of: human resources marketing, internal marketing and internal public relations are considered as internal marketing communications forms with special attention given to the last two. Moreover, the authors' aim is to redefine the term " effectiveness of internal communication " taking into consideration its different goals rather than only the informative one. The paper is based on a critical analysis of subject literature, taking into account publications related to the practical dimension of the problem.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between communication and productivity. Specifically, we had two aims: (a) to determine employee perceptions of the impact of eight dimensions of communication satisfaction on productivity, and (b) to understand how the type of organization may moderate the link between communica tion and productivity. Two businesses, representative of service and manufacturing or ganizations, were investigated by administering the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire and interviewing all employees. The results showed that communica tion was perceived to have an impact on productivity that varied in both kind and magnitude. Moreover, a number of intriguing differences emerged between these two companies. The findings suggest that the link between communication and produc tivity is more complex than previously assumed.
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Purpose Communication strategy during the management of change has been one success factor widely cited in the literature. However, despite its recognition within the enterprise resource planning (ERP) domain, there has been little regard for stakeholder perspective and even less for practical suggestions regarding communication planning. Design/methodology/approach This mixed‐method research investigated the ERP implementation process from the perspective of four key stakeholder groups and generated greater understanding of their differing views on communication effectiveness and preferred communications strategies during the management of change process. Findings The findings of this study revealed that stakeholders differ, significantly in some respects, in how each group believes certain aspects of the project should be handled, from a tactical communication standpoint. Research limitations/implications The research is based on a single case study, which adds caution to the generalizability of the results. Further, the survey sample was self‐selected and not random. Practical implications This paper has made a significant contribution in terms of understanding differing perspectives regarding communication strategies during change. Particularly, we have learned how each group believes certain aspects of the project should be handled, from a tactical standpoint. Originality/value The lack of case studies addressing practical challenges has already been identified as a gap in the literature. Further, with a stakeholder perspective combined, this research has revealed another element, which is that the management of ERP projects is not as simple as a “one size fits all” strategy.
Chapter
Over the past 30 years, the Northern Ireland workplace has suffered the consequences of ongoing politico-religious conflict, often resulting in severe operational disruption and financial loss. Yet little, if any, research has been carried out into organizational communication in the context of potentially divided workplaces, such as exist in Northern Ireland. This chapter therefore represents a novel attempt to examine communication within such a setting. Four key methodologies were tested to ascertain their suitability for conducting research in this environment. The relative merits and demerits of each are considered. Among the substantive recommendations discussed are employees' perceptions of the most appropriate manner of dealing with contentious issues. © 2003 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 10785 Berlin. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
Purpose – Since employees are considered to be one of the most important sources for innovation, the purpose of this study is to create a change management framework for implementing an innovation culture by means of internal communication. Design/methodology/approach – First, an interdisciplinary model was derived from research and existing literature. It was then tested in a case study with qualitative expert interviews and a quantitative online survey among all employees of a sample firm. Findings – Instead of a linear change, as implied by the theoretical model, different identification levels existed simultaneously within the firm's culture. A typology summed up the corresponding perceptions of the innovation culture: innovation culture, innovation pioneers, mediocrity, standstill, and refusal. Significant correlations between identification and internal media (r=0.405), as well as identification and action (r=0.158) underlined the importance of internal communication. Research limitations/implications – This study only explores the topic from a communication science perspective. However, examining its link to other important factors like organisational structure would provide further insight. Also, research in different countries and fields is needed, since the results of this case study cannot be considered representative. Practical implications – The goal of communication managers should be to lead employees through the phases of identification by specifically targeting their identification levels and using the appropriate media to address the findings. Originality/value – The developed framework helps as a management tool for assessing how employees perceive messages of an innovation philosophy and internal media. By linking the internal, innovation, and change communication, it identifies new essential aspects for creating a communication mix and specifically communicating with the target‐group.
Article
In 1980, Ralph Stayer owned a successful, growing sausage company that had him badly worried. Commitment was poor, motivation was lousy, the gap between performance and potential was enormous. Over the next five years, Stayer turned the company upside down, but only by turning himself upside down first. For years he had insisted on his own control, made all decisions, delegated nothing. But when he tried to picture what the company would have to look like to sell the most expensive sausage and still enjoy the biggest market share, he saw an organization whose employees took responsibility for their own work. After several false starts, he finally began in earnest by making himself give up much of his own authority. Stayer turned quality control over to the workers on the production line. Workers also began answering letters of complaint from customers. Rejects went from 5% to 0.5%. Employees thrived on their new responsibility and asked for more. Gradually, people on the shop floor took over personnel functions as well, followed by scheduling, budgeting, and capital improvements. Managers came to function more as coaches than as bosses. Stayer--a little to his own dismay--began to find himself superfluous. In mid-1985, the company faced a watershed decision--whether or not to accept a massive new order that would make huge demands on every employee and strain the company's capacities. Stayer asked the employees to make the decision. They accepted the challenge, and productivity, profits, and quality all rose dramatically. By the late 1980s, Stayer had reached his goal of working himself out of a job.
Interpersonalne i grupowe komunikowanie się w organizacji, Wydawnictwo Forum Naukowe
  • B Sobkowiak
Sobkowiak, B., 2005, Interpersonalne i grupowe komunikowanie się w organizacji, Wydawnictwo Forum Naukowe, Poznań -Wrocław.