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History of Quinoa: Its Origin, Domestication, Diversification, and Cultivation with Particular Reference to the Chilean Context

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The biogeography of quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd.) provides a comprehensive view of a crop that is relatively minor in Chilean agriculture, despite growing in a large geographical area (18°– 47°S). Quinoa's genetic diversity illustrates that it is a vital crop in the South American Andes region. It was domesticated in various geographical zones, which generated a wide variety of adaptative morphological and environmental features. Specific adaptations in each macrozone throughout the Andes have created five ecotypes, associated with subcen-tres of diversity. Two ecotypes are present in Chile – quinoa from the salt flats in the country's extreme north: Salare quinoa, and quinoa from sea-level areas in the central and south central regions: Coastal quinoa. Recently, these ecotypes have been associated with diverse production systems, depending on their biophysical, social and cultural features. Public policies and market relations also play a vital role in determining production system dynamics.
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Chapter 2
History of Quinoa: Its Origin,
Domestication, Diversification, and
Cultivation with Particular Reference to the
Chilean Contex t
Enrique A. Martínez
1
,FranciscoF.Fuentes
2
, and Didier Bazile
3
1
Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, La Serena and Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del
Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
2
Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Ponticia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306-22, Santiago, Chile
3
UPR47, GREEN, CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement),
TA C-47/F, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5, France
QUINOA ORIGINS IN THE CENTRAL ANDES
Quinoa, a tetraploid crop plant, was described for
the rst time in 1797 by the German botanist and
pharmacist Carl Ludwig Willdenow. It has been
cultivated for the past 8,000 years in the South
American Andes. It is hypothesized that the
closest ancestors of quinoa could be the species
Chenopodium berlandieri var. nuttalliae, distributed
in North America, or a complex of species grow-
ing in the southern hemisphere, including
Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen (Kañahua),
Chenopodium petiolare Kunth, Chenopodium
carnasolum Moq., and the tetraploïd species,
Chenopodium hircinum Schard or Chenopodium
quinoa var. melanospermum. All these species are
from the Andes (Wilson and Heiser 1979; Heiser
and Nelson 1974; Mujica and Jacobsen 2000;
Fuentes et al. 2009a). The areas cultivated with
quinoa in South America goes from 2
North
latitude in Colombia to 47
South latitude in
Chile, and from 4,000 m in the high Andes to the
Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production, First Edition. Edited by Kevin Murphy and Janet Matanguihan.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
sea level in southern latitudes. Particular adapta-
tions of this species to certain geographical areas
along the Andes gave rise to ve major ecotypes
associated with subcenters of diversity, differing
in branching morphology and adaptations to
rainfall regimes with precipitation of 2000 mm
per year to strong drought stress of 150 mm per
year. These ecotypes are the (i) Inter Andean
valleys quinoa (in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru);
(ii) Highlands quinoa (in Peru and Bolivia);
(iii) Yungas quinoa (in Bolivian subtropical for-
est); (iv) “Salares” quinoa in salt ats (in Bolivia,
northern Chile, and Argentina); and (v) Coastal
quinoa, from lowlands or from sea level (in central
and southern Chile). The expansion routes from
the Titicaca Lake were summarized by Fuentes
et al. (2012) and supported with genetic data as
revealed with the use of molecular markers.
The domestication process must have included
all factors of the domestication syndrome, includ-
ing larger fruit size, higher and uniform yields,
reduced branching and bigger inorescence,
19
20 Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production
reduced seed dormancy, and less auto dehiscence
or seed fall. The quinoa landraces had also
adapted to different soils, climates, and partic-
ularly day-lengths as day-lengths grow longer
in the spring and summer seasons toward the
southern latitudes.
ANCIENT EXPANSION TO SOUTHERN
LATITUDES IN CHILE
Quinoa cultivation in Chile is centered primarily
on two of the ve main ecotypes, namely the
salt at (“salares”) and the coastal ecotypes.
The “salares” ecotype is distributed in the
Tarapacá and Antofagasta regions (1825
S) in
northern Chile, with elevations over 3,000 m high
(Fig. 2.1). In these regions, highland indigenous
communities (Aymara and Quechua people)
traditionally cultivate these quinoas in saline
soils, with precipitation uctuating between
100 and 200 mm per year falling during the
southern hemisphere summer, from December
to February (Lanino 2006). These ecotypes are
closely related to the quinoa Bolivian varieties
that are also of the “salares” ecotype, probably
because these are also cultivated by the Aymara
and Quechua communities on both sides of
the current ChileBolivia border. On the other
hand, there is evidence for the introduction of
some quinoa genetic materials from the Peruvian
Andean zone to the Antofagasta region. Despite
this evidence, the dominant morphology of most
of the quinoa studied so far in Chile is of the “salt
at” ecotype (Fuentes et al. 2009b).
In central Chile (Fig. 2.1) and even at the
more southern latitudes (43
S) (O’Higgins to
Lakes’ political regions), the cultivated quinoa
are different landraces of the coastal ecotype.
Areas of quinoa cultivation are rain-fed and
have variable altitudes between sea level and
1,000 m height. A remarkable difference is that
compared to the extremely dry conditions where
the “salares” quinoa is grown in northern Chile,
rainfall in the central and southern zones of
Chile occurs during the southern hemisphere
winter (JuneAugust), with rainfall uctuations
between 500 and 2,000 mm per year. This rainfall
increases steadily across 3440
S.
When the two ecotypes, “salares” and coastal
ecotypes cultivated in Chile, are compared, there
is a recognized and remarkable difference in
terms of their adaptation to altitude, tolerance to
drought and salinity, and day-length sensitivity
(Bertero et al. 1999; Bertero 2001). In addition,
the genetic backgrounds of the two main ecotypes
cultivated in Chile are also very different. Inter-
estingly, even within the southern coastal quinoa,
the genetic backgrounds are extremely diverse
(Fuentes et al. 2012).
Only one hybrid has been produced and
recorded in the Chilean national system of
protection for new varieties. The hybrid “La
Regalona” (Von Baer et al. 2009) has been bred
for higher yields and wide adaptation and is able
to grow under day-lengths in latitudes close to the
equator to latitudes as far as the polar latitudes up
to 40
(S or N).
The expansion pattern of quinoa in Chile
implies that it underwent a micro-evolutionary
process, supported by a high genetic diversity
that made it possible for ancient peoples to select
quinoa adapted to contrasting and extended
agroecological gradients (Fuentes et al. 2012).
The quinoa adaptation process in Chile occurred
at least since the past 3,000 years, as revealed
by recent dating of seeds found in El Plomo
hill in Santiago, at central Chile (Planella et al.
2011). Seed exchanges occurred throughout
Chile even when ancient peoples from the north
(Aymara, Quechua, Atacameños or Licanantay,
Coyas, Diaguitas), from the center (Picunches,
Pehuenches), and from the south (Mapuches,
Huilliches) spoke different languages. The people
from the south even gave quinoa another name,
dawue (Sapúlveda et al. 2003).
REINTRODUCTION OF QUINOA IN ARID
CHILE AFTER LOCAL EXTINCTION
Quinoa cultivation probably disappeared very
early in the rst two regions colonized by the
Spanish conquerors some 400 years ago, in the
Santiago and the Coquimbo regions, at 33 and
History of Quinoa: Its Origin, Domestication, Diversification, and Cultivation 21
Peru
Bolivia
Chile
Ecuador
Colombia
Argentina
25°S
25°S
50°S
50°S
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
Pacific Ocean
Fig. 2.1 Position of Chile in South America (right upper corner) where a long Atacama Desert (a) isolates the country from
southern Peru and Bolivia. Quinoa is cultivated in places as the eastern Altiplano (b) at 4,000 m high (“salares” ecotypes), in the
center (c) and south (d) of the country (“coastal” ecotypes) at sea level or piedmont (1,000 masl).
30
S, respectively. The recent ongoing efforts
to reintroduce quinoa in the arid region of
Coquimbo are supported by the scientic com-
munity. In 2003, a new research center, Centro de
Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA),
started its activities in this northern zone of Chile.
One of the objectives of the research conducted in
this region is to relate climate change and natural
and human-induced activities on natural and
cultivated lands and coastal waters. In this region
(2932
S), the climate is mediterranean-desertic
and semi-desertic with a marked seasonality, with
rainfall occurring in winter and 810 dry months
per year (Novoa and López 2001). The weather
information available indicates that average
rainfall in La Serena (30
S) has dropped about
100 mm (50%) in the past century (Martínez
et al. 2009a), placing it among those regions with
the greatest decrease in precipitation worldwide
(http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/tpbiodiv_s.pdf ).
These changes in precipitation coincided with
increases of 0.6
C in the earth’s temperature dur-
ing the past century (http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/
un/ipccwg1s.pdf ).
The environmental conditions in the Co-
quimbo region are transitional between the
Mediterranean climate and the Atacama Desert.
Its main transversal (East-West) valleys (Elqui,
Limarí, and Choapa) present an increasing
pluviometry from the North to the South, with
approximately 60 mm per year rainfall in the
Elqui Valley to 300 mm per year in the Choapa
valley (Favier et al. 2009). Farmers lost income
from grain crops such as wheat due to low yields.
Farmers who had more income started farming
fruit plantations for export and have been using
drip irrigation (Jorquera 2001). Even though
quinoa had been cultivated as early as 3000 B.P.
in the arid region of Coquimbo (Planella et al.
2011), it probably disappeared very early during
22 Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production
the Spanish conquest when the conquistadores
introduced wheat and other European crops. The
city of La Serena was the second city founded in
Chile, after Santiago, and farmers around both
cities have forgotten even the word “quinoa.”
The social memory loss of quinoa has driven this
crop to near extinction in Chile, with less than
300 quinoa farmers represented in the national
agronomic statistics (INE 2007). In fact, all
ancestral seeds have been lost from the arid region
of Coquimbo. When this fact was known, CEAZA
started to acquire quinoa seeds through eld col-
lections in the rest of the country, from farmers
in the Andes highlands, who cultivate quinoa
at 4,000 m high, and also from other sources in
southern latitudes at sea level (3440
S). The
rst efforts focused on evaluation of the seeds
collected for their adaptation to the arid region,
particularly to determine if quinoa could be
cultivated under the current low precipitation.
The tests were also conducted to determine if
quinoa could replace the wheat crop in areas
from which it has already disappeared due to
the increasing drought trend. The rst results
indicated that seeds from the center and south
of Chile gave higher yields than those collected
from the Andes highlands if sown in the spring
season (Martínez et al. 2007, 2009b). Later on,
results showed that extremely low irrigation was
adequate for the quinoa to produce seeds but
under experimental conditions, where all water
applied was from articial irrigation (Martínez
et al. 2009a). Such experiments showed that
quinoa could grow and produce seeds under
extremely low levels of irrigation, equivalent to
50 mm of rainfall, but applied at very precise
moments of the cycle (growth, owering, and
rain lling). However, precipitation at critical
growth stages cannot be assured for farmers
who depend solely on rainfall. Even though
rainfall could reach 100 mm per year, there are
years when majority of the rainfall comes in a
span of a few days, as in the case in 2012, when
90% of the rainfall came in a single autumn day.
Thus, experimental results can only predict the
economic prot and yields from the arid region of
Chile if articial irrigation is provided. However,
for other southern and more rainy regions of
the country, quinoa undoubtedly can be a good
rain-fed crop for the future.
Quinoa’s tolerance to abiotic stresses is one of
the reasons why the Food and Agriculture Orga-
nization (FAO) of the United Nations declared
2013 as the International Year of Quinoa and to
promote it as one of the crops that alleviate world
hunger and poverty. Other reasons to promote
quinoa are related to its outstanding capacity to
withstand other stressful conditions such as frost
and salinity in soils and irrigation water. Our
experience in reintroducing quinoa in the arid
region of Chile conrmed that germinating seeds
have a high tolerance to salinity. Experimental
results also showed that genetic mechanisms
are triggered in response to salinity: either salts
are rejected from plant tissues or higher salt
concentrations can be tolerated inside the cell
vacuoles (Orsini et al. 2011; Ruiz-Carrasco et al.
2011). Both studies also revealed that quinoas
from central Chile and those from the high Andes
do have landraces highly tolerant to salt stress.
However, those landraces from the more southern
latitudes (39
S) are less tolerant to salt stress, as
shown by the study of Delatorre-Herrera and
Pinto (2009).
The nutritional value of quinoa is another
aspect invoked by FAO to promote its world
cultivation and consumption. The presence of
the 20 amino acids in quinoa seed, and twice
the quantity of proteins than that of many
cereals, in addition to minerals, vitamins, good
quality oils and antioxidants, and good quality
starch, make quinoa seed of high nutritional
and functional value (Galwey 1992; Schlick and
Bubenheim 1996; Vega-Gálvez et al. 2010). All
these nutritional properties have been conrmed
for landraces of quinoa from the three ancestral
production zones in Chile (Miranda et al. 2011,
2012a, 2012b). Isoavones, important for improv-
ing milk during breast milk production, have
also been found in Chilean quinoa (Lutz et al.
2013). Other avonoids, probably from its seed
coat saponins, seem to be involved in antibacterial
activity (Miranda et al. 2013).
History of Quinoa: Its Origin, Domestication, Diversification, and Cultivation 23
FINAL REMARKS
The ancestral progenitors of quinoa might
have originated in North America, but quinoa
production and the culture that developed
alongside its cultivation and consumption is
known to be shared among the ancient peoples
of South America. In ancient times, quinoa was
grown from the southern part of South America
from the highlands of what is now Bolivia, to the
furthest austral latitudes and lowlands of Chile
and Argentina, where the agrocultural tradition of
quinoa almost disappeared. This long latitudinal
gradient implies at least 3,000 years of quinoa
acclimation to new lands, new climates, and
longer day-lengths. Interestingly, the nutritional
quality and stress-tolerant properties of quinoa
did not change. Efforts to reintroduce quinoa
to the arid regions of Chile have shown that
certain quinoa landraces could produce seed even
under extremely low irrigation levels, but it has
to be applied at precise points during the growth
cycle. At present, there is a wide range of quinoa
landraces that can be adapted to new areas in the
world. Stress-tolerant quinoa can be grown in
marginal areas or under harsher environments
where the more traditional crops cannot be
grown. Moreover, quinoa seed is extremely
nutritious and can fulll the need and demands of
a growing world population for high-quality food.
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... A lot of work done by scientists on quinoa adaptation towards salinity, but still more working is needed to attain maximum benefits. History and role of quinoa Chenopodium quino is a grain that originated in the Andes and has been their staple food (Martinez et al., 2015). It is a pseudo-cereal and is adaptable to different environmental conditions, and has a great potential to deal with other abiotic stresses and to meet the growing food demand of the world's population; thus, quinoa alleviates poverty worldwide. ...
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In light of declining freshwater supplies and soil salinization, it is critical to evaluate the ability of halophytic plant species to grow in semi-arid and arid environments, where crop plant production is significantly reduced. Soil salinity is a major agricultural issue in Pakistan, with alt-affected soils alone covering over six million hectares and more than 70% of tube-wells in saline areas pumping out salty water. Quinoa is a crop with seeds having a variety of nutrients in it as well as it’s seed are gluten-free with good agronomic, morphologic and biochemical characteristics and has a great potential to grow under combative climatic conditions; this property of quinoa makes it an excellent crop especially in the countries where adverse climatic conditions exist. It is a pseudo-cereal and is adaptable to different environmental needs, and has a great potential to deal with various abiotic stresses. Quinoa grows well under arid to semi-arid conditions where salinity and drought are common problems. Several studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms used by quinoa to cope with high salt levels in the soil at various stages of plant development, but further research is still needed. Despite several recent researches on quinoa abiotic tension, much detail remains undisclosed. The present review discusses the quinoa adaptation towards salinity and drought stress
... A lot of work done by scientists on quinoa adaptation towards salinity, but still more working is needed to attain maximum benefits. History and role of quinoa Chenopodium quino is a grain that originated in the Andes and has been their staple food (Martinez et al., 2015). It is a pseudo-cereal and is adaptable to different environmental conditions, and has a great potential to deal with other abiotic stresses and to meet the growing food demand of the world's population; thus, quinoa alleviates poverty worldwide. ...
Article
Full-text available
In light of declining freshwater supplies and soil salinization, it is critical to evaluate the ability of halophytic plant species to grow in semi-arid and arid environments, where crop plant production is significantly reduced. Soil salinity is a major agricultural issue in Pakistan, with alt-affected soils alone covering over six million hectares and more than 70% of tube-wells in saline areas pumping out salty water. Quinoa is a crop with seeds having a variety of nutrients in it as well as it’s seed are gluten-free with good agronomic, morphologic and biochemical characteristics and has a great potential to grow under combative climatic conditions; this property of quinoa makes it an excellent crop especially in the countries where adverse climatic conditions exist. It is a pseudo-cereal and is adaptable to different environmental needs, and has a great potential to deal with various abiotic stresses. Quinoa grows well under arid to semi-arid conditions where salinity and drought are common problems. Several studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms used by quinoa to cope with high salt levels in the soil at various stages of plant development, but further research is still needed. Despite several recent researches on quinoa abiotic tension, much detail remains undisclosed. The present review discusses the quinoa adaptation towards salinity and drought stress.
... Moreover, during the last decade, quinoa played an important role in food security, thus focusing global attention on nutrition and poverty eradication event by the United Nations declaring the year 2013 as its international year (FAO 2013). It has been used as a staple food crop for thousands of years (Martinez et al. 2015). Nowak et al. (2016) mentioned that quinoa is one of humans' foods that have high total antioxidant capacity and used as an excellent source of essential amino acids, micronutrients, vitamins, phenolic compounds, and minerals. ...
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Background and objective Researches on compost introduced the evidence of its benefits to plant productivity and soil fertility. These advantages are noticed in forms of improving soil water holding capacity and nutrient availability for plants. These changes can also improve plants’ capability to overcome salinity stress conditions. The application of osmo-protectant materials (proline and trehalose) and/or compost addition enhances plant antioxidative defense system against stress conditions. This experiment conducted to study the effect of spraying quinoa plants with proline and trehalose with and without soil compost addition under salinity stress on some morphological and physiological aspects. Materials and methods Quinoa plant was grown with or without compost in the soil and foliar sprayed with proline or trehalose under salt irrigation. Plant samples were taken after 60 days from sowing and at the end of the experiment for growth, yield, and biochemical measurements. Results Growth and yield measurements were decreased with salinity stress. High levels of both proline and trehalose recorded the highest values of total soluble sugars, proline, and free amino acids in both unstressed or salinity stressed plants with or without compost addition. The use of compost in soil for cultivating quinoa plants with either proline or trehalose treatments increased growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, and yield attributes. In addition, these treatments improved the accumulation of some organic solutes in leaves and promoted antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusion Compost addition to soil with spraying proline or trehalose improved quinoa growth and yield and produced seed nutritional value.
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Evaluating the growth, yield and seed quality of ten Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) genotypes planted in two different agro-ecological zones (EATU and TTHA) of Central Highlands, Vietnam showed that EATU-grown Moradas and Cahuil were significantly higher than other genotypes (above 142 cm), and taller than the highest genotypes Isluga, Moradas, Cahuil and Haiwan grown at TTHA (over 129 cm). At the harvest time, Cahuil also showed the biggest size of stem (14 mm) and number of branches per plant-1 (28.3 branches) when planting at EATU, whereas those were smaller at TTHA with above 12.4 mm and 27.2 branches recorded on Atlas and Moradas. The highest number of panicle plant-1 (over 33 panicles), and the greatest actual yield (above 1.9 ton ha-1) were observed on Atlas ad Cahuil when growing at EATU. In line with this, TTHA-grown Atlas, Cahuil expressed the heaviest weight of 1000 seeds (over 3 g), and the greatest yields (over 1.5 ton ha-1). Atlas and Cahuil also accumulated the highest content of protein (over 19.4 %) when growing in both agro-ecological zones. Noticeably, 70% of tested genotypes exhibited higher yields when growing at EATU compared to those grown at TTHA.
Chapter
Climate change has had devastating effects on agriculture, industry, and food security. The recent outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated this situation as tons of crops have had to be destroyed due to the global closure of retail outlets. This raises questions on the world’s preparedness to deal with pandemics without ceasing food production and distribution. Most staple foods comprise grain crops; therefore, feeding the ever-increasing global population means increasing production of these crops. There is a need for drought, pest, and disease-resilient crops that are nutritionally superior and health-promoting. Future grain crops need to be produced in a cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally conscious way. Therefore, some innovative farming methods need to be explored. The future of agriculture, therefore, conceivably lies in the use of artificial intelligence, less reliance on agricultural chemicals as well as carbon-emitting fuels, hydroponics, and short-season cultivars, among others.
Chapter
The cultivation of a very limited number of crops does not fulfil the nutritional requirements of the growing population. For this, underutilized crops can play a vital role to meet food and nutrition security globally. They are of significant importance in localized areas, as they are highly adapted to marginal lands, do not require high inputs and is resilient to climate variability. The underutilized crops include food crops, such as cereals, vegetables, legumes, oil seeds, root, and tubers, mainly produced as a source of income for livehood of poor farmers in developing countries. Limited germplasm resource availability, lack of information on production, nutritional quality of many of the underutilized plant products, and the lack of improved quality material are the main constraints impacting the availability and productivity of these crops. Plant germplasm resources are the materials required for initiating any crop improvement programme with the help of advances in genomic techniques and various programmes for the improvement of major underutilized crops. At national and international level, genebanks are concerned with the collection, maintenance, ex situ conservation, regional and global germplasm exchange. The chapter highlights the potential of underutilized crops in context to nutrition, food security, and germplasm resources of major underutilized crops for further crop improvement studies.
Chapter
Quinoa domestication studies based on seed’s morphological traits and conducted in the Central Andes region concluded that it occurred somewhere around Lake Titicaca before 3000 BC. Recent genetic studies showed quinoa (an allotetraploid) resulting from the fusion of two diploid species (carrying the A and B genomes), one Eurasian and one American (probably in North America), from where a tetraploid ancestor migrated to South America. Extant wild relatives are found from the U.S. to South America, and quinoa is part of a complex of domesticates including Chenopodium berlandieri spp. jonesianum and nuttalliae. Quinoa domestication in the Andes appears as a diffuse process occurring in a wide area within the Bolivian Highlands. Here, we pose the hypothesis and provide evidence that quinoa was domesticated twice: in the Andes and Central Chile. The domestication syndrome in quinoa included bigger seeds with a reduced testa width and a range of colours, plus a wide array of plant architectures, panicle morphologies and reproductive partitioning. We widen those studies including root traits and phenological adaptations to a wide climatic range. Finally, the hypothesis that reduced testa width can be related more to reduced restrictions to seed growth than to a reduced dormancy is presented.
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Quinoa has been cultivated since centuries in the Andean region as a seed crop by indigenous communities. The crop has gained renewed interest because of its highly nutritious grain with high-quality protein rich in essential amino acids, and several bioactive compounds, along with its ability to grow under stress conditions. Despite the importance of the crop, limited research work on breeding aspects has been undertaken, leading to lack of information on the understanding of levels of variability of genotypes for different traits and their interactions. The aim of the present study was to assess and quantify the early response to mass selection in two quinoa landraces in highland conditions. Mass selection experiments were conducted during two successive crop seasons using eleven morphological traits. Correlation, genetic gain (gg) per selection cycle and principal component analysis was carried out. Only plant height (PH) and number of branches (NB) presented changes between selection cycles in both germplasm lines. Grain yield per plant (GYP) was positively correlated with inflorescence length (IL), stem diameter (SD) and plant weight (PW) for both quinoa lines. The results obtained would be useful to facilitate selection of the most relevant variables of quinoa considering its variation and interactions in the highland environment in Chile.
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This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cahuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in all the nutritional properties of the quinoa seeds in all three areas. Quinoa of the Villarrica ecotype showed the highest protein content (16.10 g 100 g(-1) DM) and the highest content of vitamins E and C (4.644 +/- 0.240 and 23.065 +/- 1.119 mg 100 g(-1) DM, respectively). The highest content of vitamins B1 (0.648 +/- 0.006 mg 100 g(-1) DM) and B3 (1.569 +/- 0.026 mg 100 g(-1) DM) was found in the Regalona ecotype, while the highest value of vitamin B2 (0.081 +/- 0.002 mg 100 g(-1) DM) occurred in the Ancovinto ecotype. Potassium was the most abundant mineral with a maximum value of 2325.56 mg 100 g(-1) DM in the Cancosa ecotype. Saponin content varied from 0.84 g 100 g(-1) DM in the Villarrica ecotype to 3.91 g 100 g(-1) DM in the Cahuil ecotype. Significant differences were found among the Chilean quinoa ecotypes grown under different climatic conditions; however, all the quinoa seeds exhibited a high nutritional value. These results are compatible with the genetic differences previously observed in the three geographical areas under study. Thus, if more studies are conducted to show the particular properties of quinoa from specific areas, it would be possible in the future to coin the term "controlled designation of origin" (appellation d'origine controlee) and add commercial value to Chilean quinoa seeds in the domestic and international markets.
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Contenido: 1. Introduccion. 2. Conservacion ex situ (definiciones basicas, actividades de los sistemas de conservacion ex situ de recursos geneticos vegetales). 3. Conservacion ex situ de especies vegetales en Chile (capacidades fisicas para la conservacion ex situ, bancos de germoplasma, otros centros de conservacion, jardines botanicos y arboretos, centros de semillas y viveros). Especies conservadas (en bancos de germoplasma, en otros centros de conservacion). Acceso a las colecciones. Sistemas de documentacion e informacion. Recursos humanos. Financiamiento (instituciones nacionales que financian acciones/proyectos en o relacionados con la conservacion ex situ de recursos fitogeneticos). Investigacion en recursos fitogeneticos. 4. Normativa e institucionalidad de la conservacion ex situ de recursos fitogeneticos (institucionalidad internacional) Comision de recursos fitogeneticos, grupo consultivo para la investigacion agricola internacional, conferencia de las partes. Normativa y directrices en el ambito internacional (Sistema Mundial de Conservacion y Utilizacion de los Recursos Fitogeneticos para la Alimentacion y la Agricultura de la FAO). Normas para banco de genes. Convenio sobre diversidad biologica. Estrategia mundial para la conservacion de las especies vegetales. Agenda internacional para la conservacion en jardines botanicos. Institucionalidad nacional (Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, Ministerio de Agricultura). Normativa y directrices nacionales en recursos fitogeneticos (Curaduria de los recursos geneticos de Chile, estrategia nacional de biodiversidad, plan de accion pais para la implementacion de la estrategia nacional de la biodiversidad 2004-2005. Reglamento para la clasificacion de especies silvestres. Politica nacional para la proteccion de especies amenazadas. 5. Limitantes para el desarrollo de la conservacion ex situ en Chile. 6. Recomendaciones.
Article
A New World assemblage of tetraploid Chenopodium species (section Chenopodium, subsection Cellulata) includes two domesticates, C. quinoa of Andean South America and C. nuttalliae of Mexico. Both have been combined into a single species and the Mexican form has been considered as a possible derivative of C. quinoa. The domesticates and related, sympatric weed forms, C. berlandieri of North America and C. hircinum of the Andes, were examined for variation in morphological and biochemical characteristics and also were included in a program of artificial hybridization. Results indicate that the domesticated forms are more closely related to their sympatric weeds than to each other. The Mexican cultigen is placed as a subspecies of C. berlandieri, the taxon from which it most likely evolved under human selection in North America. Possible origins for the Andean weed-crop complex are considered. Southward migration of a North American tetraploid appears to be more likely than independent allotetraploidy in South America. Of the North American tetraploids examined, C. berlandieri var. zschackei of the western U.S. shows closest affinities to the Andean complex.