ArticlePDF Available

Net energy content of dry extruded-expelled soybean meal fed with or without enzyme supplementation to growing pigs as determined by indirect calorimetry

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Two experiments were conducted to determine the NE content of dry extruded-expelled soybean (DESBM) and the effect of a multienzyme carbohydrase (MC) mixture on the NE content of DESBM and to determine the effect of diet design on NE values in growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC). In Exp. 1, 24 barrows (19.6 ± 0.51 kg BW) were allotted in a completely randomized design to 4 dietary treatments: a corn–soybean meal basal diet (Diet A), a diet containing Diet A and DESBM in an 80:20 ratio with a constant CP (Diet B), a diet with an 80:20 ratio of Diet A and DESBM with a constant corn:soybean meal ratio (Diet C), and a diet with simple substitution of Diet A with DESBM in an 80:20 ratio (Diet D). Pigs were fed in metabolism crates for a period of 16 d to determine the DE and ME and thereafter were moved into an indirect calorimeter where O2 consumption and CO2 production were measured to determine heat production and fasting heat production. The NE content of DESBM was calculated (difference method) to be 2,632, 2,548 and 2,540 kcal/kg DM in diets B, C, and D, respectively. Respective values obtained with published prediction equations were 2,624, 2,530 and 2,436 kcal/kg. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (16.9 ± 0.76 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments. The diets were a corn–soybean meal basal diet and a diet containing the basal diet and DESBM in an 80:20 ratio with a constant corn:soybean meal ratio with or without 2 levels (0.05% and 0.1%) of MC. The experimental procedures were similar to those described in Exp. 1. Enzyme supplementation improved (P < 0.0001) the DE, ME, and NE content of the DESBM. Multienzyme carbohydrase at 0.05% and 0.1% of the diet improved NE values of DESBM by 4.9% and 3.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the NE values of DESBM obtained with the IC method were higher than the values obtained with prediction equations; the disparity was least when diets were formulated with a constant CP level. However, as the difference method was used to determine the NE of ingredient, it is more appropriate to maintain a constant ratio between the ingredients. Also, the NE value of DESBM obtained for diets C and D were not different. Hence, the average NE value of DESBM evaluated was 2,544 kcal/kg DM. Enzyme supplementation improved the NE content of DESBM fed to growing pigs.
Content may be subject to copyright.
3402
INTRODUCTION
Feed is the single most expensive input in com-
mercial pork production, and at least 50% of this cost
can be attributed to supplying energy to the animal.
Of the available energy systems, the NE system pro-
vides a more accurate estimate of the dietary energy
available to the animal (Noblet, 2007). Energy values
of protein-rich feeds are often overestimated when
expressed on a digestible or metabolizable energy
Net energy content of dry extruded-expelled soybean meal fed with or without
enzyme supplementation to growing pigs as determined by indirect calorimetry1
D. E. Velayudhan,* J. M. Heo,*† and C. M. Nyachoti*2
*Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada; and †Department
of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea
ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to
determine the NE content of dry extruded-expelled
soybean (DESBM) and the effect of a multienzyme
carbohydrase (MC) mixture on the NE content of
DESBM and to determine the effect of diet design
on NE values in growing pigs using indirect calorim-
etry (IC). In Exp. 1, 24 barrows (19.6 ± 0.51 kg BW)
were allotted in a completely randomized design to
4 dietary treatments: a corn–soybean meal basal diet
(Diet A), a diet containing Diet A and DESBM in
an 80:20 ratio with a constant CP (Diet B), a diet
with an 80:20 ratio of Diet A and DESBM with a
constant corn:soybean meal ratio (Diet C), and a diet
with simple substitution of Diet A with DESBM in
an 80:20 ratio (Diet D). Pigs were fed in metabo-
lism crates for a period of 16 d to determine the DE
and ME and thereafter were moved into an indirect
calorimeter where O2 consumption and CO2 pro-
duction were measured to determine heat produc-
tion and fasting heat production. The NE content of
DESBM was calculated (difference method) to be
2,632, 2,548 and 2,540 kcal/kg DM in diets B, C,
and D, respectively. Respective values obtained with
published prediction equations were 2,624, 2,530
and 2,436 kcal/kg. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (16.9 ±
0.76 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treat-
ments. The diets were a corn–soybean meal basal
diet and a diet containing the basal diet and DESBM
in an 80:20 ratio with a constant corn:soybean meal
ratio with or without 2 levels (0.05% and 0.1%) of
MC. The experimental procedures were similar to
those described in Exp. 1. Enzyme supplementation
improved (P < 0.0001) the DE, ME, and NE content
of the DESBM. Multienzyme carbohydrase at 0.05%
and 0.1% of the diet improved NE values of DESBM
by 4.9% and 3.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the
NE values of DESBM obtained with the IC method
were higher than the values obtained with prediction
equations; the disparity was least when diets were
formulated with a constant CP level. However, as
the difference method was used to determine the NE
of ingredient, it is more appropriate to maintain a
constant ratio between the ingredients. Also, the NE
value of DESBM obtained for diets C and D were not
different. Hence, the average NE value of DESBM
evaluated was 2,544 kcal/kg DM. Enzyme supple-
mentation improved the NE content of DESBM fed
to growing pigs.
Key words: dry extruded-expelled soybean meal, enzyme, NE, pig
© 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. J. Anim. Sci. 2015.93:3402–3409
doi:10.2527/jas2014-8514
1
The authors thank R. Stuski and D. Ramos for animal care
and A. Karamanov for technical assistance. Support for this re-
search was provided by the Agri-Food Research and Development
Initiative and Manitoba Pork Council.
2Corresponding author: Martin.Nyachoti@umanitoba.ca
Received September 16, 2014.
Accepted April 15, 2015.
Published July 17, 2015
NE of dry extruded-expelled SBM for pigs 3403
system (Noblet et al., 1994). These discrepancies in
measurement of available energy have a drastic effect
on the economics of pig production, and there is, there-
fore, an ongoing interest in adopting the NE system.
Soybean contains certain antinutritional factors
whose detrimental effects could be signicantly re-
duced by heat treatment during meal processing (Pe-
rilla et al., 1997). One such process is the combination
of extrusion with expelling, which produces the dry
extruded-expelled soybean meal (DESBM). However,
published data pertaining to the energy values of DES-
BM for grower pigs are limited.
Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) are complex
carbohydrates that form the main component of di-
etary ber. Pigs lack enzymes to digest such com-
pounds. Moreover, NSP are known to reduce nutrient
utilization in nonruminant animals. In vitro studies
have shown that combinations of carbohydrases were
more effective in NSP depolymerization of oil seed
meals than when the individual carbohydrases were
used (Meng et al., 2005). Although multienzyme prep-
arations have been shown to improve performance
and nutrient utilization in pigs (Omogbenigun et al.,
2004; Emiola et al., 2009), only limited data are avail-
able on the effect of the exogenous enzyme on the NE
aspect in growing pigs. Thus, the aim of this study was
to determine the NE content of DESBM in growing
pigs using either indirect calorimetry (IC) or predic-
tion equations and to determine the effect of a multi-
enzyme (MC) mixture on the NE content of DESBM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All experimental procedures were reviewed and ap-
proved by the University of Manitoba Animal Care Com-
mittee, and pigs were cared for according to the guide-
lines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care (2009).
Animals and Diets
In Exp.1, 24 growing male pigs (Yorkshire ×
Landrace × Duroc) with an average initial BW of
19.6 ± 0.51 kg (mean ± SD) were acquired from the
Gleanlea Swine Research Unit, University of Mani-
toba. Pigs were individually housed for 16 d in adjust-
able metabolism crates (1.80 × 0.60 m) with smooth
transparent plastic sides and plastic-covered expanded
metal sheet ooring in a temperature-controlled room
(22°C ± 2°C). The diets were formulated to meet NRC
(1998) requirements for growing pigs. Four test diets
(Table 1) were corn–soybean meal basal diet (Diet A),
a diet containing Diet A and DESBM in an 80:20 ratio
with a constant CP content compared with the basal
diet (Diet B), a diet with an 80:20 ratio of basal diet
and DESBM with a constant corn:soybean meal ratio
(Diet C), and a diet with simple substitution of basal
diet with DESBM in an 80:20 ratio (Diet D).
In Exp. 2, 24 growing male pigs (Yorkshire × Land-
race × Duroc) with an average initial BW of 16.9 ± 0.76
kg (mean ± SD) were acquired from Gleanlea Swine
Research Unit, University of Manitoba, and were
housed individually in adjustable metabolism crates
(1.80 × 0.60 m) with smooth transparent plastic sides
and plastic-covered expanded metal sheet ooring in a
temperature-controlled room (22°C ± 2°C) for a period
of for 16 d. The experimental diets in this study were
formulated to contain a constant ratio between corn and
Table 1. Ingredient and calculated and analyzed com-
position of the experimental diets, Exp. 11
Item
Diet A,
basal
Diet B,
constant CP
Diet C,
constant
corn:
soybean
Diet D,
substitution
Ingredient, % of diet
Corn 67.40 67.66 53.31 53.92
S oybean meal
(44% CP) 28.20 8.57 22.30 22.56
DESBM20.00 20.00 20.00 19.94
Soybean oil 0.84 0.00 0.84 0.67
Limestone 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.80
M onocalcium
phosphate
0.70 0.70 0.70 0.56
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40
V itamin-mineral
premix31.00 1.00 1.00 0.80
Lys-HCl 0.06 0.11 0.00 0.05
dl-Met 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00
l-Trp 0.00 0.09 0.05 0.00
Titanium dioxide 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Calculated composition
DE, kcal/kg 3,436 3,510 3,557 3,571
ME, kcal/kg 3,276 3,365 3,382 3,394
CP, % 18.00 18.00 22.85 22.99
Analyzed composition
DM, % 90.0 90.0 90.0 90.0
CP, % 18.2 18.0 21.8 22.7
GE, kcal/kg 3,940 4,028 4,078 4,086
Ash, % 4.7 4.3 5.1 5.0
NDF, % 9.7 10.4 10.4 11
ADF, % 3.2 4.4 4.3 4.4
Starch, % 42.5 33.1 35.2 33.5
Ether extract, % 4.2 5.1 5.1 5.2
1As-fed basis.
2DESBM = dry extruded expelled soybean meal. Analyzed composition
of DESBM: CP = 40.0%, GE = 4,703kcal/kg, DM = 93.0%, ash = 5.7%,
NDF = 14.9%, ADF = 9.2%, starch = 1.7%, and EE = 9.9%.
3Supplied the following per kilogram of nished feed: vitamin A, 2,000
IU; vitamin D, 200 IU; vitamin E, 40 IU; vitamin K, 2 mg; choline, 350
mg; pantothenic acid, 14 mg; riboavin, 7 mg; folic acid, 1 mg; niacin, 21
mg; thiamin, 1.5 mg; vitamin B6, 2.5 mg; biotin, 70 mg; vitamin B12, 20
mg; Cu, 25 mg; Zn, 150 mg; Fe, 100 mg; Mn, 50 mg; I, 0.4 mg; Se, 0.3 mg.
Velayudhan et al.
3404
soybean meal because a difference method was used to
determine the NE of ingredient, and hence, it is more
appropriate to maintain a constant ratio between the
ingredients. The diets were formulated to meet NRC
(1998) requirements for growing pigs. The 4 test diets
(Table 2) were a corn–soybean meal basal diet (Diet A),
a diet containing Diet A and DESBM in an 80:20 ratio
with a constant corn:soybean meal ratio (Diet B), Diet B
+ 0.05% MC (Diet C), and Diet B + 0.1% MC (Diet D).
The MC used was a mixture of carbohydrases provided
by Canadian Bio-System Inc. (Calgary, Alberta, Can-
ada). The DESBM used in these studies was obtained
from Jordan Mills (Winkler, MB, Canada).
Experimental Design and Procedure
Both experiments were conducted in 2 consecu-
tive periods (12 pigs per each period) using the same
facility and similar experimental conditions and pro-
cedures because only 2 respiration chambers were
available for this study. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4
experimental diets in a completely randomized design
to give 3 replicates per diet (per period).
Pigs were fed their respective diets at 550 kcal ME/
kg BW0.60 per day on the basis of BW on d 1, 5, and 10,
which was close to ad libitum intake. During the study,
pigs were fed at 0830 h and were trained to consume
their daily feed allowance within 1 h. Pigs had unlim-
ited access to water via a low-pressure nipple through-
out the study. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 16 d,
including 10 d for adaptation to feed and environmental
conditions. During the last 6 d of each feeding period,
total fecal and urine collection were performed for the
estimation of DE and ME as described previously by
Woyengo et al. (2010b). From d 11 to 16, feces was
collected once daily in the morning and were stored at
−20°C. Collection of urine commenced on the morning
of d 11 and ended on the morning of d 16. Urine was
collected once daily in the morning (in jugs containing
10 mL of 6 N HCl to minimize N losses) and weighed. A
sample (10% of the total weight) was obtained, strained
through glass wool, and stored at −20°C.
On d 16, 2 pigs each were transferred to the calo-
rimetric chambers (1.22 × 0.61 × 0.91 m metallic box
with a glass door on the front side and a valve at the
bottom to collect urine; Columbus Instruments, Co-
lumbus, OH) for 36 h of heat production (HP) and fast-
ing heat production (FHP) measurement based on O2
consumption, CO2 production, and urine output. Pigs
were brought into the calorimetric chambers within 1 h
of consuming their daily ration, and HP was measured
continuously for 24 h (fed state) followed by 12 h (fast-
ing state) of FHP measurement. The following sets of 2
pigs were moved to the indirect calorimetry chambers
every 2 d (d 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26). Fresh water was
available in the chambers at all times, and urine voided
during the 24- and 12-h periods was collected sepa-
rately, weighed, subsampled, and stored at −20°C until
required for nitrogen analysis. During collection the
chambers were approached through the back side so as
to avoid disturbance to the pig. Temperature within the
chamber was maintained at 22°C ± 1°C, and personnel
movement in the chamber room was limited to avoid
distressing pigs during HP and FHP measurements.
Table 2. Ingredients and analyzed compositions of the
experimental diets, Exp. 21
Item Basal
Constant
corn:SBM
without
MC2
Constant
corn:SBM
with 0.05%
MC
Constant
corn:SBM
with 0.1%
MC
Ingredients, % of diet
Corn 67.40 53.31 53.31 53.31
S oybean meal
(44%) 28.20 23.30 23.30 23.30
DESBM30.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Vegetable oil 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
Limestone 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
M onocalcium
phosphate
0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
V itamin-mineral
premix41.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Lys-HCl 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00
l-Trp 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.05
Titanium oxide 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Analyzed composition
DM, % 89.0 90.0 90.0 90.0
CP, % 17.3 22.0 22.5 22.4
GE, kcal/kg 3,899 4,027 4,037 4,027
Ash, % 4.5 5.3 5.2 5.1
NDF, % 10.9 10.8 9.9 10.7
ADF, % 3.2 4.4 4.3 4.4
Starch, % 42.1 35.7 35.5 33.6
Ether extract, % 4.3 5.1 5.1 5.2
Total NSP,5 % 9.5 10.8 10.5 10.2
1As-fed basis.
2Enzyme complex supplied 1,700 units of cellulase, 1,100 units of pectin-
ase, 240 units of mannanase, 30 units of galactanase, 1,200 units of xylanase,
360 units of glucanase, 1,500 units of amylase, 120 units of protease.
3DESBM = dry extruded-expelled soybean meal. Analyzed composi-
tion of DESBM: CP = 40.0%, GE = 4,703 kcal/kg, DM = 93.0%, ash =
5.7%, NDF = 14.9%, ADF = 9.2%, starch = 1.7%, and EE = 9.9%.
4Supplied the following per kilogram of nished feed: vitamin A, 2,000
IU; vitamin D, 200 IU; vitamin E, 40 IU; vitamin K, 2 mg; choline, 350
mg; pantothenic acid, 14 mg; riboavin, 7 mg; folic acid, 1 mg; niacin, 21
mg; thiamin, 1.5 mg; vitamin B6, 2.5 mg; biotin, 70 mg; vitamin B12, 20
mg; Cu, 25 mg; Zn, 150 mg; Fe, 100 mg; Mn, 50 mg; I, 0.4 mg; Se, 0.3 mg.
5NSP = nonstarch polysaccharides
NE of dry extruded-expelled SBM for pigs 3405
Sample Preparation and Analysis
Fecal samples were oven-dried at 50°C over a 5-d
period and were nely ground before chemical analy-
sis. Urine samples from metabolism crates and calo-
rimetry chambers were thawed and pooled separately
for each pig, sieved through cotton gauze, and ltered
with glass wool.
Diet and fecal DM was determined according to
the AOAC (1990; method 925.09) by oven-drying 5
g of sample at 102°C overnight. The GE content of
DESBM, diets, feces, and urine was measured using an
adiabatic bomb calorimeter (model 6400, Parr Instru-
ment, Moline, IL) that had been calibrated using ben-
zoic acid as a standard. Nitrogen content in diets, feces,
and urine was determined using the combustion meth-
od (method 990.03; AOAC, 1990) using the LECO N
analyzer (model CNS-2000; LECO Corp., St. Joseph,
MI), and CP was calculated as nitrogen × 6.25. Crude
fat in diet and ingredient samples was determined after
hexane extraction (method 920.39; AOAC, 1990) in an
extraction apparatus. Starch content in the diets was
measured using an assay kit (Megazyme Total Starch
assay kit; Megazyme International Ltd., Wicklow, Ire-
land). The ADF and NDF contents in diets were de-
termined according to the method of Goering and Van
Soest (1970), and ash content was determined accord-
ing to AOAC (1990; method 942.05).
To determine the GE of urine, 0.5 g of cellulose
was dried at 100°C for 24 h, 2 mL of urine sample
were added over it, and the weight of the resulting mix-
ture was recorded. The urine-cellulose mixture along
with a sample of pure cellulose was again dried in an
oven at 50°C for 24 h and then weighed for estima-
tion of urine DM. The GE of the dried urine-cellulose
mixture and pure cellulose were determined using an
adiabatic bomb calorimeter as described above, from
which the GE of urine samples were calculated by the
difference method (Fleischer et al., 1981).
Calculations
Heat production (Brouwer, 1965), FHP (Brouwer,
1965), retained energy (RE; Noblet et al., 1994), DMI,
and NE values (Noblet et al., 1994) were calculated
using the following equations:
HP = 3.87 × O2 + 1.20 × CO2
− 1.43 × urinary nitrogen, [1]
where HP is in kilocalories, O2 = oxygen consumption
in liters, and CO2 = carbon dioxide production in liters.
FHP = 3.87 × O2 + 1.20 × CO2
− 1.43 × urinary nitrogen, [2]
where FHP is in kilocalories, O2 = oxygen consumption
in liters, and CO2 = carbon dioxide production in liters.
RE = ME − HP, [3]
where RE is in kilocalories per day, ME is in kilocalo-
ries per day, and HP is in kilocalories per day.
DMI = feed intake × feed DM, [4]
where DMI is in kilograms, feed intake is in kilograms,
and feed DM is a percentage.
NE = (RE + FHP)/DMI, [5]
where NE is in kilocalories per kilogram DM, RE is
in kilocalories per day, FHP is in kilocalories per day,
and DMI is in kilograms. Digestible energy (Noblet
and Perez, 1993), ME (May and Bell, 1971), and NE
were also calculated according to the following pre-
diction equations. The average calculated NE from Eq.
[8] to [13] (Noblet et al., 1994) was used in the study:
DE = 949 + (0.789 × GE)
− (43 × % Ash) − (41 × % NDF), [6]
ME = DE × [1.012 − (0.0019 × % CP)], [7]
NE = 0.843 × DE − 463, [8]
NE = 0.700 × DE + 1.61 × EE + 0.48
× ST– 0.91 × CP − 0.87 × ADF, [9]
NE = 0.870 × ME − 442, [10]
NE = 0.726 × ME + 1.33 × EE + 0.39
× ST − 0.62 × CP − 0.83 × ADF, [11]
NE = 2,790 + 4.12 × EE + 0.81 × ST
− 6.65 × Ash − 4.72 × ADF, [12]
NE = 2875 + 4.38 × EE + 0.67 × ST
− 5.50 × Ash– 2.01 × (NDF − ADF)
− 4.02 × ADF, [13]
where NE is in kilocalories per kilogram DM, ME is
in kilocalories per kilogram DM, DE is in kilocalories
per kilogram DM, EE = ether extract in % DM, ST =
Velayudhan et al.
3406
starch in % DM, CF = crude ber in % DM, and ADF
is in % DM.
The energy content of DESBM was calculated us-
ing the difference method (Woyengo et al., 2010b) by
subtracting the NE contribution of the basal diet from
the NE of the diets containing 20% DESBM. The NE
of test DESBM was calculated as follow:
NEDESBM
(kcal/kg DM) = NEBasal diet
− [(NEBasal diet
− NEDiet containing DESBM)
/0.2]. [14]
Statistical Analysis
All data for both experiments were subjected to
the mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary,
NC). Effects of diet and period were included in the
model for statistical analysis. The effect of period was
not statistically signicant in either study; therefore, it
was not included in the nal model. The individual pig
was considered as the experimental unit, and probabil-
ity of P < 0.05 was considered signicant.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Experiment 1: Net Energy Content of DESBM
in Growing Pigs
Practical diet formulations need to be adequately
exible to accommodate price and feedstuffs available
while maintaining the required nutritive balance and
adequacy (van Heugten et al., 2000). This signies the
importance of formulation of swine rations utilizing
the most precise nutrient composition values for in-
gredients. The DESBM sample used for the current
study was locally obtained from Jordan Mills, Mani-
toba, Canada. A comparison of the analyzed nutrient
composition of DESBM (Tables 1 and 2) used in the
current experiment with studies by Woodworth et
al. (2001) in which the DESBM used was produced
and provided by Insta-Pro International (Des Moines,
IA) showed similar values for DM, GE, and ash, but
with a high CP and low EE in the latter. This varia-
tion could be attributed to the various factors involved
during the meal processing, namely, the temperature,
time, or moisture content. Similar variations for CP
and EE, but with comparable concentrations of NDF
and ADF, were seen in studies by Baker and Stein
(2009). In studies by Opapeju et al. (2006), in which
2 batches of DESBM from the same source were used,
DESBM showed similar EE content but slightly high-
er CP. This higher CP (40% vs. 43%) content may be
due to lower moisture content when compared with
that of the present study (93% vs. 97% DM).
The average energy contents of diets determined
using the total collection method (Table 3) were 3,472
kcal/kg DM for DE and 3,386 kcal/kg DM for ME.
The ME:DE ratio in the current study (0.98; average
value for the 4 diets) is in accordance with previous
studies. Noblet and van Milgen (2004) reported that
in most circumstances for complete feed, the ME:DE
ratio would be approximately 0.96.
The DE value of DESBM obtained in the present
study ranged from 3,384 to 3,443 kcal/kg DM. Baker
and Stein (2009) reported a higher DE value of 3,827
kcal/kg DM for extruded-expelled SBM from conven-
tional soybeans. The probable reason for this observa-
tion could be the variation in BW of pigs used for the
studies and also lower CP content for DESBM used
Table 3. Energy balance in growing pigs and energy
values of diets and DESBM determined by the indirect
calorimetry method, Exp. 11
Item
Dietary treatment2
SEM P-valueA B C D
Energy value of diets, kcal/kg DM
DE 3,481 3,462 3,472 3,473 9.4 0.586
ME 3,392 3,378 3,386 3,386 6.2 0.431
HP32,007 1,930 2,038 2,000 53.0 0.637
FHP41,547 1,424 1,508 1,468 54.0 0.513
RE51,385 1,448 1,348 1,386 52.9 0.686
NE62,932a2,872b2,855b2,853b5.7 0.001
Efciencies of NE
NE/ME 0.87a0.85b0.84b0.84b0.003 0.002
NE/DE 0.84a0.83a,b 0.82b0.82b0.004 0.002
Energy value of DESBM, kcal/kg DM:
DE 3,384b3,438a3,443a10.6 0.011
ME 3,324 3,363 3,361 12.7 0.097
NE7— 2,632a2,548b2,540b7.2 0.001
a,bMeans not sharing a common superscript are signicantly different
(P < 0.05).
1n = 6.
2Diet A = corn–soybean meal basal diet; Diet B = a diet containing Diet
A and dry extruded-expelled soybean meal (DESBM) in 80:20 ratio with a
constant CP; Diet C = a diet with 80:20 ratio of Diet A and DESBM with a
constant corn:soybean meal ratio; Diet D = a diet with simple substitution
of Diet A with DESBM in 80:20 ratio.
3Heat production = (3.87 × O2 + 1.20 × CO2 − 1.43 × urinary N)/DMI.
4Fasting heat production = (3.87 × O2 + 1.20 × CO21.43 × urinary
N)/DMI.
5Retained energy = (ME intake − HP)/DMI.
6Net energy = (RE + FHP)/DMI.
7NE of DESBM was calculated using the difference method by
subtracting the NE contribution of the basal diet from the NE of the diets
containing 20% DESBM (Woyengo et al., 2010b).
NE of dry extruded-expelled SBM for pigs 3407
in the present study compared with the latter. In the
current study, pigs with an initial BW = 19.6 ± 0.51
kg were used, whereas pigs with an initial BW = 38.6
± 3.46 kg were used in the study by Baker and Stein
(2009). In growing pigs, the digestibility coefcient
of energy or DE:GE ratio increases with increasing
BW (Noblet and Shi, 1994). Also, Woodworth et al.
(2001) reported similar results wherein the DE content
for DESBM in growing pigs (initial BW 41 kg) was
4,120 and 4,210 kcal/kg (as-fed basis) for hulled and
dehulled meals, respectively.
In the present study, HP values among treatments
(i.e., A, B, C, and D) were, on average, 1,994 kcal/kg
DM. Noblet et al. (1994) reported a similar HP value
of 2,062 kcal/kg DM for growing pigs. The average
FHP obtained in the present study was 1,487 kcal/kg
DM, which is comparable to that obtained by Noblet
et al. (1994): 179 kcal/kg BW0.6 for 35 kg pigs (equiv-
alent to 1,517 kcal/kg DM of feed).
The NE content of DESBM obtained with pub-
lished equations was 2,624, 2,530, and 2,436 kcal/kg
DM in diets B, C, and D, respectively. Even though
published prediction equations for estimating NE
content in swine diets have been supported by some
recent studies (Ayoade et al., 2012), others have re-
ported contradictory results (Kil et al., 2011). In the
current study, the discrepancy for higher NE values for
the IC method compared with those from the predic-
tion equations could be due to not taking into account
the physical activity of the animals while measuring
FHP. Physical activity could be dened as standing
up, standing, eating, walking, lying down, and sitting
(Rijnen et al., 2003). About 8% of ME intake may be
dissipated by physical activity in growing pigs (Ren-
audeau et al., 2013). A similar variation for NE values
has been reported by Heo et al. (2014), wherein the
NE content of canola meal determined using the IC
method was approximately 5.9% higher than the val-
ues obtained using the published prediction equations.
The results from the present study show that the
NE values of DESBM obtained with the IC method
were higher than those obtained with prediction equa-
tions. The discrepancy between the determination
technique used and values from prediction equations
was 0.3%, 0.7%, and 4.1% when diets were formu-
lated with constant protein, a constant corn:soybean
meal ratio, and the simple substitution technique, re-
spectively. The NE values obtained from the 2 diet
formulation techniques, namely, the constant protein
content or the constant corn:soybean meal ratio, were
different (P < 0.001). Also, the NE values of DESBM
obtained when diets were formulated with a constant
corn:soybean meal ratio and the simple substitution
technique were similar. Hence, the average NE value
of DESBM evaluated was 2,544 kcal/kg DM. How-
ever, for routine NE determination in which the dif-
ference method is used to obtain the NE value for
ingredients, diets should be formulated to contain a
constant ration of other energy-yielding components.
Experiment 2: Effect of Enzyme on NE Content
of DESBM in Growing Pigs
Nonstarch polysaccharides are partially hydro-
lyzed by supplementing NSP-degrading carbohy-
drases (Parkkonen et al., 1997; Nortey et al., 2007),
and therefore, the nutrients entrapped by ber get re-
leased. Supplementation with a carbohydrase mixture
has been shown to improve energy and nutrient digest-
ibility in various feedstuffs fed to pigs (Omogbenigun
et al., 2004; Emiola et al., 2009). In an in vitro incuba-
tion study, Slominski et al. (2006) established that a
carbohydrase mixture containing cellulase, pectinase,
mannanase, xylanase, and glucanase is effective in de-
grading cell wall polysaccharides and improving ener-
gy digestibility in axseed. Nonstarch polysaccharides
degrading enzymes in swine diets help in dietary ber
degradation, thereby increasing the digestibility of
nutrients (i.e., CP, crude fat, and/or starch), resulting
in higher energy digestibility (Bedford and Schulze,
1998). In the present study, the carbohydrase complex
used contained enzymes that can target several NSP in
the diet, including arabinoxylans, β-glucans, arabino-
galactans, mannans, galactomannans, and pectic poly-
saccharides. The multicarbohydrase complex used
in the current study has been shown to improve the
nutrient digestibility in broilers (Meng and Slomin-
ski, 2005; Meng et al., 2006; Woyengo et al., 2010a).
As for swine, reports of improvement in nutrient uti-
lization following carbohydrase supplementation are
variable (Adeola and Cowieson, 2011; Cozannet et al.,
2012). In the current study, enzyme supplementation
(Table 4) increased the DE content of the diet by 1.2%
and 0.6%, ME by 1.5% and 1.2%, and NE by 0.9%
and 0.7% for 0.05% and 0.1% enzyme, respectively.
Cozannet et al. (2012) reported comparable results
wherein multienzyme preparation (xylanase and glu-
canase) improved the DE of diets even though it was
quantitatively low (0.09 MJ/kg DM). In the same study
by Cozannet et al. (2012), the ME and NE value of di-
ets were also improved (0.7% and 0.9%, respectively),
although not statistically analyzed. The enzyme effect
is also consistent with the observations of Cowieson
and Ravindran (2008), wherein supplementation with
an enzyme cocktail of xylanase, amylase, and prote-
ase in broiler diets improved apparent metabolizable
energy (AME) by an average of 3%. Similar results
were reported in broiler chickens fed corn soybean
Velayudhan et al.
3408
diets where a multicarbohydrase enzyme cocktail sig-
nicantly improved the AMEn content (Meng and Slo-
minski, 2005). The FHP values obtained in the present
trials were not affected by dietary treatment and were
close to those obtained by Noblet et al. (1994; 0.750
MJ·d−1·kg−0.60).
An effect of enzyme supplementation on the en-
ergy content of DESBM was observed in the current
study. Enzyme addition increased the NE value of
the test ingredient by 110 kcal/kg DM, on average. A
similar NE value for DESBM was obtained in Exp. 1
(Diet B). The CP content for Diet B (Exp. 1) was about
18% lower than that in Diets C and D in the current
experiment. Lower dietary CP reduces deamination of
excess AA and the consecutive production and excre-
tion of urea in urine and lowers body protein turnover
and HP of the animals (Le Bellego et al., 2001). In
addition, the energy costs associated with synthe-
sis, excretion, and urea metabolism of excess dietary
N represent a measurable energy loss to the animal.
Consequently, at a given DE or ME intake, NE supply
and therefore energy gain are greater for low-CP diets
(Noblet et al., 2001). Overall, supplementation with
MC at 0.05% and 0.1% of the diet improved NE val-
ues of DESBM by 4.9% and 3.7%, respectively. How-
ever, we are unable to explain why pigs fed a greater
(i.e., 0.1%) level of MC had signicantly lower energy
content of DESBM (i.e., DE, ME, and NE) compared
with those fed 0.05% MC in the diets.
In summary, when the NE content of DESBM
determined using IC was compared with the values
from prediction equations, the discrepancy between
the determination techniques used was 0.3%, 0.7%,
and 4.1% when diets were formulated with constant
protein, a constant corn:soybean meal ratio, and a sim-
ple substitution technique, respectively. The NE val-
ues obtained from the 2 diet formulation techniques,
namely, constant protein content and the constant
corn:soybean meal ratio, were not similar, whereas
those obtained from diets formulated with a constant
corn:soybean meal ratio and the simple substitution
technique were similar. Hence, the average NE value
of DESBM evaluated was 2,544 kcal/kg DM. Also,
supplementation of diets with enzyme improved the
energy content of DESBM. For the DESBM, enzyme
supplementation at 0.05% and 0.1% of the diet im-
proved NE content by 4.9% and 3.7%, respectively.
LITERATURE CITED
Adeola, O., and A. J. Cowieson. 2011. Opportunities and chal-
lenges in using exogenous enzymes to improve non-ruminant
animal production. J. Anim. Sci. 89:3189–3218. doi:10.2527/
jas.2010-3715
AOAC. 1990. Ofcial methods of analysis. 15th ed. Assoc. Ofc.
Anal. Chem., Arlington, VA.
Ayoade, D. I., E. Kiarie, and C. M. Nyachoti. 2012. Net energy of di-
ets containing wheat- corn distillers dried grains with solubles
as determined by indirect calorimetry, comparative slaughter,
and chemical composition methods. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4373–
4379. doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4858
Baker, K. M., and H. H. Stein. 2009. Amino acid digestibility and
concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soy-
bean meal produced from high protein or low oligosaccharide
varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.
87:2282–2290. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1414
Bedford, M. R., and H. Schulze. 1998. Exogenous enzymes for
pig and poultry. Nutr. Res. Rev. 11:91–114. doi:10.1079/
NRR19980007
Brouwer, E. 1965. Report of subcommittee on constants and factors.
In: Proc. 3rd EAAP Symp. Energy Metab. Troonn Publ. No. 11.
Academic, London. p. 441–443.
Canadian Council on Animal Care. 2009. Guide to the care and use
of experimental animals. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Can. Counc. Anim.
Care, Ottawa.
Table 4. Energy balance of pigs and energy values of
diets and DESBM determined by the indirect calorim-
etry method, Exp. 21
Item
Dietary treatment
SEM P-valueBasal
Constant
corn:
SBM
without
MC2
Constant
corn:
SBM
with
0.05% MC
Constant
corn:
SBM
with
0.1% MC
Energy value of diets, kcal/kg DM
DE 3,365b3,361b3,401a3,381a,b 11.0 0.011
ME 3,260bc 3,245c3,295a3,283a,b 5.4 0.001
HP31,595 1,606 1,620 1,594 352.9 0.990
FHP41,231 1,184 1,173 1,154 349.1 0.820
RE51,665 1,639 1,675 1,688 353.5 0.951
NE62,897a2,823b2,848b2,842b8.1 0.001
Efciencies of NE
NE/ME 0.89a0.87b0.87b0.87b0.003 0.001
NE/DE 0.86a0.84b0.84b0.84b0.002 0.001
Energy value of DESBM, kcal/kg DM:
DE — 3,345c3,548a3,445b14.9 0.001
ME 3,184c3,434a3,375b12.7 0.001
NE7— 2,527c2,652a2,621b6.9 0.001
a–cMeans not sharing a common superscript are signicantly different
(P < 0.05).
1n = 6.
2MC = multienzyme carbohydrase.
3Heat production = (3.87 × O2 + 1.20 × CO2 − 1.43 × urinary N)/DMI.
4Fasting heat production = (3.87 × O2 + 1.20 × CO21.43 × urinary
N)/DMI.
5Retained energy = (ME intake − HP)/DMI.
6Net energy = (RE + FHP)/DMI.
7NE of dry extruded-expelled soybean meal (DESBM) was calculated us-
ing the difference method by subtracting the NE contribution of the basal diet
from the NE of the diets containing 20% DESBM (Woyengo et al., 2010b).
NE of dry extruded-expelled SBM for pigs 3409
Cowieson, A. J., and V. Ravindran. 2008. Effect of exogenous
enzymes in maize-based diets varying in nutrient density for
young broilers: Growth performance and digestibility of en-
ergy, minerals and amino acids. Br. Poult. Sci. 49:37–44.
doi:10.1080/00071660701812989
Cozannet, P., A. Preynat, and J. Noblet. 2012. Digestible energy
values of feed ingredients with or without addition of en-
zymes complex in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:209–211.
doi:10.2527/jas.53938
Emiola, I. A., F. O. Opapeju, B. A. Slominski, and C. M. Nyachoti.
2009. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs
fed wheat distillers dried grains with solubles-based diets sup-
plemented with a multi-carbohydrase enzyme. J. Anim. Sci.
87:2315–2322. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1195
Fleischer, J. E., Y. Tomita, K. Hayashi, and T. Hashizume. 1981. A
modied method for determining energy of fresh faeces and
urine of pig. Mem. Fac. Agric. Kogoshima Univ. 17:235–241.
Goering, H. K., and P. J. van Soest. 1970. Forage ber analyses
(apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). Agric.
Handbook No. 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC.
Heo, J. M., D. Ayoade, and C. M. Nyachoti. 2014. Determination
of the net energy content of canola meal from Brassica napus
yellow and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs using
indirect calorimetry. Anim. Sci. J. 85:751–756. doi:10.1111/
asj.12196
Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, L. L. Stewart, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L.
Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2011.
Net energy of soybean oil and choice white grease in diets
fed to growing and nishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:448–459.
doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3233
Le Bellego, L., J. van Milgen, S. Dubois, and J. Noblet. 2001. En-
ergy utilization of low-protein diets in growing pigs. J. Anim.
Sci. 79:1259–1271.
May, R. W., and J. M. Bell. 1971. Digestible and metabolizable en-
ergy values of some feeds for the growing pig. Can. J. Anim.
Sci. 51:271–278. doi:10.4141/cjas71-040
Meng, X. F., F. O. Omogbenigun, C. M. Nyachoti, and B. A. Slo-
minski. 2005. Degradation of cell wall polysaccharides by
combinations of carbohydrase enzymes and their effect on nu-
trient utilization and broiler chicken performance. Poult. Sci.
84:37–47. doi:10.1093/ps/84.1.37
Meng, X., and B. A. Slominski. 2005. Nutritive values of corn, soy-
bean meal, canola meal, and peas for broiler chickens as affect-
ed by a multicarbohydrase preparation of cell wall degrading
enzymes. Poult. Sci. 84:1242–1251. doi:10.1093/ps/84.8.1242
Meng, X., B. A. Slominski, L. D. Campbell, W. Guenter, and O.
Jones. 2006. The use of enzyme technology for improved ener-
gy utilization from full-fat oilseeds. Part I. Canola seed. Poult.
Sci. 85:1025–1030. doi:10.1093/ps/85.6.1025
Noblet, J. 2007. Net energy evaluation of feeds and determination
of net energy requirements for pigs. R. Bras. Zootec. 36(sup-
pl.):277–284. doi:10.1590/S1516-35982007001000025
Noblet, J., H. Fortune, X. S. Shi, and S. Dubois. 1994. Prediction of
net energy of feeds for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:344–354.
Noblet, J., and J. M. Perez. 1993. Prediction of digestibility of nu-
trients and energy values of pig diets from chemical analysis. J.
Anim. Sci. 71:3389–3398.
Noblet, J., and J. van Milgen. 2004. Energy value of pig feeds: Ef-
fect of pig body weight and energy evaluation system. J. Anim.
Sci. 82(E. Suppl.):E229–E238.
Noblet, J., and X. S. Shi. 1994. Effect of body weight on diges-
tive utilization of energy and nutrients of ingredients and di-
ets in pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 37:323–338. doi:10.1016/0301-
6226(94)90126-0
Noblet, J., L. Le Bellego, J. van Milgen, and S. Dubois. 2001. Ef-
fects of reduced dietary protein level and fat addition on heat
production and N and energy balance in growing pigs. Anim.
Res. 50:227–238. doi:10.1051/animres:2001129
Nortey, T. N., J. F. Patience, P. H. Simmins, N. L. Trottier, and R.
T. Zijlstra. 2007. Effects of individual or combined xylanase
and phytase supplementation on energy, amino acid, and phos-
phorus digestibility and growth performance of grower pigs
fed wheat-based diets containing wheat millrun. J. Anim. Sci.
85:1432–1443. doi:10.2527/jas.2006-613
NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th ed. Natl. Acad.
Press, Washington, DC.
Omogbenigun, F. O., C. M. Nyachoti, and B. A. Slominski. 2004.
Dietary supplementation with multienzyme preparations im-
proves nutrient utilization and growth performance in weaned
pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1053–1061.
Opapeju, F. O., A. Golian, C. M. Nyachoti, and L. D. Campbell.
2006. Amino acid digestibility in dry extruded-expelled soy-
bean meal fed to pigs and poultry. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1130–1137.
Parkkonen, T., A. Tervilä-Wilo, M. Hopeakoski-Nurminen, A. Mor-
gan, K. Poutanen, and K. Autio. 1997. Changes in wheat mi-
crostructure following in vitro digestion. Acta Agric. Scand.
Sect. B Soil Plant Sci. 47:43–47.
Perilla, N. S., M. P. Cruz, F. de Belalcazar, and G. J. Diaz. 1997. Ef-
fect of temperature on wet extrusion on nutritional value of full
fat soybean for broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 38(4):412–416.
doi:10.1080/00071669708418011
Renaudeau, D., G. Frances, S. Dubois, H. Gilbert, and J. Noblet.
2013. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two
lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake. J.
Anim. Sci. 91:1162–1175.
Rijnen, M. M. J. A., M. W. A. Verstegen, M. J. W. Heetkamp, J.
Haaksma, and J. W. Schrama. 2003. Effects of dietary ferment-
able carbohydrates on behavior and heat production in group-
housed sows. J. Anim. Sci. 81:182–190.
Slominski, B. A., X. Meng, L. D. Campbell, W. Guenter, and O.
Jones. 2006. The use of enzyme technology for improved en-
ergy utilization from full-fat oilseeds. Part II: Flaxseed. Poult.
Sci. 85:1031–1037. doi:10.1093/ps/85.6.1031
van Heugten, E., T. C. Schell, and J. R. Jones. 2000. Principles of
balancing swine rations. Pork Ind. Handb. Fact Sheet No. 7.
Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN. p. 1–8.
Woodworth, J. C., M. D. Tokach, J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband, J.
L. Nelssen, P. R. O’Quinn, D. A. Knabe, and N. W. Said. 2001.
Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the digestible
and metabolizable energy content of dry extruded-expelled
soybean meal and its effects on growth performance of pigs. J.
Anim. Sci. 79:1280–1287.
Woyengo, T. A., E. Kiarie, and C. M. Nyachoti. 2010b. Energy and
amino acid utilization in expeller-extracted canola meal fed
to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1433–1441. doi:10.2527/
jas.2009-2223
Woyengo, T. A., B. A. Slominski, and R. O. Jones. 2010a. Growth
performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed di-
ets supplemented with phytase alone or in combination with
citric acid and multicarbohydrase. Poult. Sci. 89:2221–2229.
doi:10.3382/ps.2010-00832
... Net energy (NE) is the energy used in the feed for the animal to maintain life and produce products, that is, the metabolizable energy of the feed minus the heat increment in the body of the feed [2]. Compared with digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) systems, theoretically, the NE system can provide a more accurate estimate of the dietary energy available to the animal [3,4]. Approximately 782 million tons of paddy rice are produced annually in the world [5], with most entering the human food market. ...
... FHP (750 kJ/kg BW 0.6 /day) was then calculated by regression of HP on ME intake and extrapolation to zero feed intake. The FHP in the current study was lower than the value (787 kJ/kg BW 0.6 /day) of a previous study using the same method [13], but both were not affected by dietary treatment, which is consistent with the results reported by previous studies [4,41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to determine and compare the net energy (NE) of defatted rice bran (DFRB) from different sources and different processing technology fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry. Thirty-six growing barrows (30.7 ± 3.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5 test diets containing 30% DFRB, respectively. These five samples come from 4 different provinces (i.e., Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Jilin, and Liaoning province within China) and two of them with the same origin but different processing technologies (i.e., extruded or pelleted). During each period, pigs were kept individually in metabolism crates for 21 days, including 14 days to adapt to the diets. On day 15, pigs were transferred to the open-circuit respiration chambers for adaptation, and the next day were ready to determine daily total heat production (HP) and were fed 1 of the 6 diets at 2.3 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/kg body weight (BW)0.6/day. Total feces and urine were collected for the determination of digestible energy (DE) and ME and daily total HP was measured from day 16 to day 20 and fasted on day 21 for the measurement of fasting heat production (FHP). The NE contents of extruded DFRB from different provinces were within the range of values (8.24 to 10.22 MJ/kg DM). There is a discrepancy of approximately 10.01% in the NE content between the DFRB origins. The NE contents of extruded DFRB and pelleted DFRB from the same province were 8.24 vs. 6.56 MJ/kg DM. Retained energy (RE) and FHP of diets containing extruded DFRB and pelleted DFRB were 1105 vs. 892 kJ/kg BW0.6/day and 746 vs. 726 kJ/kg BW0.6/day respectively, and those in extruded DFRB from different origins were within the range of values (947 to 1105 kJ/kg BW0.6/day and 726 to 755 kJ/kg BW0.6/day, respectively). In conclusion, NE values are affected by origin and processing technology of DFRB.
... The difference method has often been used to determine energy contents of feed ingredients (Velayudhan et al., 2015;Kim et al., , 2018 because some ingredients cannot be fed alone due to low palatability and anti-nutritional factors (Kong and Adeola, 2014). This method requires a basal diet and a test diet in which a portion of the basal diet is replaced with the test ingredient to calculate energy contents of the test ingredient. ...
... The average FHP estimate of 1,299 kcal/kg DM (154 kcal/ BW 0.6 ) observed in the current study was within the range (from 143 to 252 kcal/BW 0.6 ) observed in similar studies conducted in the same facility and with similar experimental procedures (Ayoade et al., 2012;Heo et al., 2014;Velayudhan et al., 2015;. ...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was carried out to determine energy values of high-protein sunflower meal (HP-SFM) and to compare the energy values of HP-SFM determined using either a phosphorus (P)-deficient basal diet or a P-adequate basal diet. Twenty-four growing barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. Four experimental diets including 2 basal diets containing 2 levels of standardized total tract digestible P (i.e., P-deficient and P-adequate) and the other 2 diets containing 30% HP-SFM with each basal diet (i.e., HP-SFM 1 diet and HP-SFM 2 diet) were formulated to determine the energy values of HP-SFM and to compare energy values of HP-SFM determined by the difference method using 2 basal diets. Pigs were fed diets for 15 d including 10 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collections. Pigs were then moved to indirect calorimetry chambers to determine total heat production (THP) and fasting heat production (FHP). A reduced (P < 0.01) amount of nitrogen was retained in pigs fed the P-deficient basal diet compared with those fed the other diets. The THP of pigs fed the HP-SFM 1 and 2 diets was greater (P < 0.01) than those fed the P-deficient basal diet with the intermediate value for pigs fed the P-adequate basal diet. The retained energy (RE) as protein of pigs fed the P-deficient basal diet was less (P < 0.01) but RE as lipid was greater (P < 0.01) than those fed the P-adequate basal, or HP-SFM 1 and 2 diets. However, there was no difference in FHP of pigs among the dietary treatments. The NE of HP-SFM determined using the P-deficient basal diet was 2,062 kcal/kg, as-fed basis, whereas the value determined using the P-adequate basal diet was 2,151 kcal/kg. Although no differences were observed in energy values, the amount of P in basal diet might affect energy balance by modifying N utilization, thus, a diet containing adequate amount of P is a more suitable basal diet when the difference method is used for calculation of NE in a feed ingredient.
... Noteworthy, the AME values measured in our study were lower than that from Goebel and Stein (2011) values 3,980 Kcal/kg. Velayudhan et al. (2015) reported a higher ME value of 3,827 Kcal/kg DM for extruded-expelled soybean meal. The inconsistencies could be explained by the variations in animals, ingredients and changes during feed mixing and detection procedure. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study measured the metabolizable energy of soybean meal (SBM) and evaluated effects of soybean meal specific enzymes supplementation in corn-soybean diets on growth performance, intestinal digestion properties and energy values of 28-day-old broilers. A total of 336 1-day-old male AA broiler chickens were distributed to 7 groups in a completely random design. The birds were given 7 diets containing 6 diets with different combined soybean meals and a fasting treatment, 8 replicates per treatment and 6 birds per replicate (Trial 1). A total of 672 1-day-old male AA broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 7 dietary treatments including a control diet and 6 diets supplemented with 300mg/kg α-galactosidase, 200 mg/kg β-mannanase and 300mg/kg protease individually or in combination (Trial 2). Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of broilers was measured from d 25 to 27 in both trial 1 and trial 2. The results showed that AME values of combined soybean meals averaged 2,894 kcal/kg. Dietary β-mannanase and protease supplementation increased body weight gain (P<0.05) during d 0-14, whereas did not affect the growth performance (P>0.05) during d 14-28. Addition of β-mannanase in combination with other enzymes significantly increased lipase and trypsin content (P<0.05) in ileum. In addition, dietary β-mannanase and protease supplementation individually or in combination enhanced trypsin enzyme content in jejunum(P<0.05). The β-mannanase enzyme enhanced villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (P<0.05) of ileum compared with control diet. Moreover, supplementation of enzyme except for protease enhanced raffinose and stachyose degradation ratio(P<0.05). Dietary β-mannanase supplementation individually or in combination enhanced AME and AMEn values (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that dietary enzyme supplementation especially β-mannanase improved intestinal digestion properties and contributed to high energy values.
... Calculating the NE content of the MSBM based on CE, estimates that MSBM (2,566 kcal/kg) reported herein is 479 kcal/kg greater than the NRC NE value of SSBM (2,087 kcal/kg). This is similar to results observed by Velayudhan et al (2015) who found that dry extruded-expelled soybean meal had an average NE of Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/tas/advance-article/doi/10.1093/tas/txac003/6508824 by guest on 16 January 2022 A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t 8 2,544 kcal/kg. Interestingly, this value is more similar to the NRC (2012) reported value for dehulled, expelled soybean meal (2,598 kcal/kg) than the expelled soybean meal (2,344 kcal/kg). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to estimate the net energy (NE) value of expelled, extruded soybean meal (MSBM) relative to dehulled, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM) and determine its effects on growth performance of late nursery pigs. A total of 297 pigs (DNA 241 x 600) were weaned (BW 5.10 kg) and placed into 60 pens (2 rooms of 30 pens) with 5 pigs per pen balanced by gender and weaning weight. Pigs were fed a common diet for 21 days. Then, pens of pigs (BW 9.3 kg) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments to provide 12 replications per treatment. Treatments consisted of increasing amounts of MSBM replacing SSBM in the diet (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%). All diets were fed for 28 days and were formulated to 1.30% standardized ileal digestible lysine and met or exceeded NRC (2012) recommendations for amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus. The SSBM diet was formulated to 2,421 kcal/kg and NE was not balanced between diets. Analyzed values for CP, EE, CF, and total lysine for the SSBM were 47.28%, 0.47%, 3.80%, and 3.00% while the MSBM contained 47.41%, 6.88%, 5.32%, and 2.99% respectively. The MSBM had increased values for KOH solubility and trypsin inhibitor (83.62% and 7,026 TIU/g) compared to the SSBM (73.05% and 3,011 TIU/g) while urease activity was similar between the two (0.03 and 0.02 Δ pH, respectively). Data were analyzed using Proc GLIMMIX (SAS 9.4; Cary, NC) with pen as the experimental unit and room as the blocking factor. There was no evidence of differences in ADG and ADFI in pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of MSBM. Pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of MSBM had improved (linear, P < 0.001) G:F and caloric efficiency on an NE basis. Using caloric efficiency to estimate NE of the MSBM relative to SSBM, MSBM was estimated to have a value of 2,566 kcal/kg. In conclusion, MSBM contains approximately 123% of the energy of SSBM, which improved feed efficiency when fed to nursery pigs.
... However, ESBM in mass production encountered a bottleneck, which has been constrained by the immature extrusion processing technology for the past two decades. Until recently, the improvement of extrusion processing technology makes the mass production of the product possible (Velayudhan et al., 2015). Therefore, the use of ESBM worldwide in animal husbandry and aquaculture has entered a new era Zhang et al., 2015;Harper et al., 2019;Accoroni et al., 2020;Meng et al., 2020). ...
Article
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate whether extruded soybean meal (ESBM) replacing fish meal (FM) in the feed affect the growth performance, plasma components and intestinal barrier of Epinephelus coioides. Five isonitrogenous, isocaloric experimental diets were formulated using ESBM substitution for FM protein at incremental levels of 0, 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%. Each diet was randomly assigned to one of the five groups with triplicate tanks of 20 juvenile fish with an average initial weight of (52.97 ± 0.10) g, and hand-fed twice daily across the feeding trial. Weight gain rate, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed intake and the whole-body lipid had negative linear and/or quadratic responses to dietary ESBM inclusion levels. There are similar patterns for the plasma levels of HDL-C, LDL-C, TP, TC, TG, C3, and IgM, but the opposite trend was observed for plasma endotoxin and endothelin-1 levels. The trypsin activity in mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) and protease activity in DI showed negative linear and quadratic responses to increasing dietary ESBM inclusion levels. The muscle layer thickness of MI and the mucosal fold length and muscle layer thickness of DI showed negative linear and quadratic responses to increasing dietary ESBM inclusion levels. The mRNA levels for IL-8 in MI and DI, IL-10 in the three intestinal segments (proximal intestine (PI), MI, and DI), IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in PI showed positive linear and/or quadratic responses to increasing dietary ESBM inclusion levels, whereas negative linear and/or quadratic responses were observed for TGF-β1 mRNA levels in MI and DI. The above results indicate that dietary ESBM inclusion at above 45% FM protein could reduce the growth performance and immunity of grouper by reducing intestinal digestive capacity and plasma lipid levels, as well as inducing inflammatory reactions.
... Five experimental diets were created including (1) a corn-and soybean-meal-based diet (CON) or (2 and 3) diets containing DDGS or HiPro to replace 30% of corn and soybean meal with the test ingredient, whereas the corn:soybean meal ratio was kept constant (Velayudhan et al. 2015). One hundred grams of a multi-carbohydrase enzyme blend (1713 units xylanase, 363 units glucanase, 1339 units cellulose, 11546 units amylase, 818 units invertase, and 5922 units protease; analyzed activities per gram of enzyme blend; Canadian Bio-Systems Inc., Calgary, AB, Canada) was added per 200 kg of complete diet during diet manufacturing to create (4) DDGS+ and (5) Hipro+ (Table 2). ...
Article
The physiochemical properties and digestible, metabolizable, and predicted net energy contents in high-protein dried distillers’ grain (HiPro) were determined to assess the nutritive value for growing pigs. Twelve Yorkshire × Landrace barrows (initial body weight 25 ± 0.5 kg) were used in a partially replicated Latin square design over three periods (n = 7 or 8) and assigned to one of five experimental diets. In each period, pigs were adapted to diets for 7 d, followed by 5 d of total urine collection and fecal grab sampling. The experimental diets included a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet (CON) or diets containing dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) or HiPro to partially replace corn and soybean meal, without or with (i.e., DDGS+ and Hipro+) a multi-carbohydrase enzyme blend (0.05% inclusion). The HiPro ingredient contained half as much starch (2.6% vs. 5.2%; DM-basis), 20% more protein (32.5% vs. 27.1%), and had 14% greater water binding capacity versus DDGS. The digestible, metabolizable, and predicted net energy contents of the HiPro co-product were greater than DDGS for growing pigs (P < 0.05), but fibre-degrading enzymes were ineffective at improving energy values. The greater (available) energy and protein contents of HiPro make it a promising feed ingredient for inclusion in swine diets.
... The DE, ME, and NE in SBM were less than some reported values (NRC, 2012), which is likely because of the greater concentration of TDF in the SBM used in this experiment. In contrast, the DE, ME, and NE in the soybean expellers were in agreement with published data (Woodworth et al., 2001;Velayudhan et al., 2015;Stein et al., 2016). The observation that the concentrations of DE, ME, and NE in soybean expellers were greater than in SBM is likely a result of greater AEE concentration in soybean expellers. ...
Article
Soybean expellers may be produced by dry extrusion and mechanical oil pressing of soybeans, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of expellers produced via this procedure. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and total dietary fiber (TDF), and concentrations of digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy (NE) are greater in soybean expellers than in soybean meal (SBM) when fed to growing pigs. Pigs were the offspring of Line 359 boars mated to Camborough females (Pig Improvement Company, Hendersonville, TN). In Exp. 1, nine growing barrows (initial body weight: 55.98 kg ± 13.75 kg) with T-cannulas installed in the distal ileum were allotted to 1 of 3 diets using a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods. Two diets were formulated to contain 35% soybean expellers or 33% SBM as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of AA from the pigs. Ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each 7-d period. Results indicated that the SID of most indispensable and dispensable AA were greater (P < 0.05) or tended (P < 0.10) to be greater in soybean expellers than in SBM. In Exp. 2, a corn-based diet and 2 diets based on corn and each of the 2 soybean products were formulated. Twenty-four growing barrows (initial body weight: 44.88 kg ± 2.17 kg) were allotted to 1 of the 3 diets with 8 pigs per diet. Urine and fecal samples were collected for 4 d after 5 d of adaptation. Results indicated that the ATTD of energy and TDF was not different between soybean expeller and SBM, but the ATTD of TDF in the 2 soybean products was greater (P < 0.05) than in corn. Concentrations of DE and ME in soybean expellers were greater (P < 0.05) compared with corn or SBM. Soybean expellers had greater (P < 0.05) calculated NE compared with SBM, but there was no difference in NE between corn and soybean expellers. In conclusion, values for SID of most AA and DE, ME, and NE in soybean expellers were greater than in SBM.
... The net energy (NE) value of the various experimental diets was measured by indirect calorimetry ( Li et al., 2015Li et al., , 2018Velayudhan, Heo & Nyachoti, 2015;Liu et al., 2014Liu et al., , 2015Heo, Adewole & Nyachoti, 2014). The NE value of feedstuffs reflects the true availability of energy to the insect and remains the most accurate and unbiased way to date of characterizing the energy content of feed (Moehn, Atakora & Ball, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background In recent years, there has been a rapidly growing demand for readily accessible substrates for mass production of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens Linnaeus. Beer production results in various by-products that typically end up in uncontrolled dumpsites constituting pollution problems, which merits urgent attention. The present study investigated whether the 12 formulated diets composed of brewers’ spent grains (BSGs), brewers’ yeast and cane molasses can serve as substrate for H. illucens production. Methods Four different BSGs were selected and formulated into 12 diets, aiming at varying protein and net energy levels. The diets were offered to newly hatched (∼1 h old) H. illucens larvae and the influence on developmental duration, survival, wet weight, pre-oviposition time, fecundity, and longevity were compared. Results Developmental duration of the larvae (16–21 days) and pre-pupae (8–11 days) differed significantly across the different diets. The developmental duration of the pupae (8.7–9.1 days) was not affected by diet. The larval (86–99.2%), pre-pupal (71–95%), and pupal (65–91%) survival rates varied significantly between flies reared on the different diets. The pre-oviposition time was similar for flies provided with water (7–11 days) and 10% sugar solution (8–14 days) or across the different diets. The mean fecundity per female ranged from 324–787 eggs and did not differ between females provided with water or sugar solution. However, the number of eggs laid per female varied significantly across the different diets when provided with water. The longevity of starved H. illucens adults was significantly lower (5 days) compared to those provided with water (11–14 days) or sugar solution (14–15 days). Discussion The implications of these findings as part of a quality control procedure for commercial production of high-quality H. illucens larvae as an alternative protein ingredient in livestock and aquaculture feed are discussed.
Article
It is hypothesized that heat processing may increase P digestibility in different protein sources fed to growing pigs. A study was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in soybean expeller (SBE) produced from oil extraction using dry extrusion and expelling and to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the ATTD and STTD of P in SBE, canola meal (CM), and canola expeller (CE) fed to growing pigs. Thirty-six growing barrows with an initial body weight of 19.0 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to 1 of 6 experimental diets in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicates per diet. The experimental design was a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement including three oilseed meals with or without heat treatment. The diets were formulated to contain non-autoclaved or autoclaved (at 121°C for 60 min) SBE, CM, and CE as the sole source of P. Limestone was included in diets to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.3:1 across diets. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 12 days, including 7 days for adaptation and 5 days for total collection of feces. Pigs were offered their daily ration at 2.8 times their maintenance energy requirement. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS. Heat treatment increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of P. Pigs fed the SBE diets had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of P than pigs fed CM and CE diets. For the autoclaved ingredients, the values of STTD of P were 49.4, 23.2, and 25.8% for SBE, CM, and CE, respectively, whereas STTD of P in non-autoclaved SBE, CM, and CE were 48.5, 20.2, and 22.5%. Heat treatment increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD of Ca. In conclusion, heat treatment increased ATTD and STTD of P and ATTD of Ca in SBE, CM, and CE fed to growing pigs. The ATTD and STTD of P in SBE determined in the current study were 41.0 and 48.5%, respectively.
Article
An experiment was performed to evaluate the energy content of extruded-expelled soybean meal (EESBM) and the effects of heat treatment on energy utilization in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows (18.03 ± 0.61 kg initial body weight) were individually housed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (six replicates/treatment). The three experimental diets were: a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and two test diets with simple substitution of a basal diet with intact EESBM or heat-treated EESBM (heat-EESBM) at a 7:3 ratio. Intact EESBM was autoclaved at 121°C for 60 min to make heat-treated EESBM. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 16 d, including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were then moved into indirect calorimetry chambers to determine 24-h heat production and 12-h fasting heat production. The energy content of EESBM was calculated using the difference method. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure of SAS with the individual pig as the experimental unit. Pigs fed heat-EESBM diets showed lower (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy, and nitrogen than those fed intact EESBM. A trend (P ≤ 0.10) was observed for greater heat increments in pigs fed intact EESBM than those fed heat-EESBM. This resulted in intact EESBM having greater (P < 0.05) digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents than heat-EESBM. However, no difference was observed in net energy (NE) contents between intact EESBM and heat-EESBM, showing a tendency (P ≤ 0.10) toward an increase in NE/ME efficiency in heat-EESBM, but comparable NE contents between intact and heat-EESBM. In conclusion, respective values of DE, ME, and NE are 4,591 kcal/kg, 4,099 kcal/kg, and 3,189 kcal/kg in intact EESBM on a DM basis. It is recommended to use NE values of feedstuffs that are exposed to heat for accurate diet formulation.
Article
Full-text available
Two trials were conducted in order to quantify the effects of reduction of dietary crude protein (CP) level, with or without fat addition, on heat production and energy balance in growing pigs. In trial 1, extreme variations in diet composition were obtained by using purified ingredients; conventional ingredients were used in trial 2. In each trial, three diets were prepared. Diet 1 had a conventional CP level (18.9 and 17.4% in trials 1 and 2, respectively) while diet 2 had a reduced CP level (12.3% and 13.9% in trials 1 and 2, respectively); diet 3 also had a reduced CP level (13.6 and 14.9%, respectively) and 3.5% (trial 1) or 4% (trial 2) fat was added. In both trials, diets 2 and 3 were supplemented with industrial amino acids in order to ensure similar ratios between digestible essential amino acids and net energy (NE) between diets while exceeding requirements of animals. Each diet was measured in 6 (trial 1) or 5 (trial 2) individually caged 60-kg pigs for digestibility, components of heat production (indirect calorimetry) and energy, protein and fat balances. Energy supply was standardised between diets (1.9 MJ NE per kg BW0.60). A reduction of dietary CP level (diets 2 and 3 vs. diet 1) significantly reduced urinary nitrogen loss without impairing nitrogen gain in pigs. A reduction of dietary CP alone (diet 2 vs. diet 1) contributed to a significant reduction of total heat production and, more specifically, its component related to feed utilisation. This effect was accentuated when fat was added (diet 3 vs. diet 2). Fasting heat production (770 kJ per kg BW0.60) and activity heat production (8% of ME intake) were not affected by dietary treatment. These results emphasise the interest of using an NE concept for estimating the energy value of pig feeds.
Article
Full-text available
The DE values and digestible nutrients content of 6 diets were measured in 60-kg male growing pigs fed restricted amount of feed. Diets were prepared from 5 ingredients [wheat (Triticum aestivum), corn (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat bran, and soybean (Glycine max) meal; inclusion levels of ingredients were not correlated] with or without carbohydrose enzyme (Rovabio Excel AP; 3300 endo-beta- 1,4-xylanase visco units and 300 endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase units/kg of feed; 150 g/t of feed) according to a 6 x 2 factorial arrangement; dietary NDF ranged from 10.6 to 20.1% of DM. Pigs (5 per treatment) were placed in metabolism cages that allowed total collections of feces and urine for 10 d after a 11-d adaptation. Samples of feed, urine, and feces were analyzed for GE, ash, and N. Digestibility of GE, N, and OM were calculated. The effects of diet and enzyme (Enz) were evaluated by ANOVA. In addition, the DE and digestible nutrient contents of ingredients were calculated by regression of nutritive values of diets on level of ingredient inclusions. Apparent total tract digestibility of OM, N, and GE of diets were associated with dietary NDF content (r = -0.97; P < 0.001) and were increased (P < 0.05) by Enz addition by 0.4, 1.6, and 0.5%-units (a difference between two percentage values) for OM, N, and GE digestibility, respectively. Improvement in DE value due to Enz averaged 0.09 MJ/kg DM (15.11 vs. 15.02 MJ/kg DM; P < 0.05). The ADG (891 vs. 850 g/d; P < 0.05) was also increased by Enz addition. The calculated DE content without Enz addition averaged 16.3, 16.4, 14.9, 10.5, and 17.2 MJ/kg DM for wheat, corn, barley, wheat bran, and soybean meal, respectively. The Enz addition increased the DE value of ingredients similarly, but the best response was observed for wheat (0.33 MJ/kg DM).
Article
Full-text available
Feeds for pigs can be attributed different energy values according to, first, the step considered in energy utilization (DE: digestible energy, ME: metabolizable energy and NE: net energy) and, second, the method used for estimation at each step. Reference methods for evaluating DE content are based on in vivo digestibility measurements; indirect estimates of DE values are obtained from in vitro methods or prediction equations based on chemical characteristics. Methods have also been proposed for estimating urinary energy (and gas energy to a smaller extent) in order to calculate ME content from DE value. The NE values originate from energy balance studies (slaughter methods or, more commonly, indirect calorimetry measurements in respiration chambers) and their compilation allows the calculation of NE prediction equations based on digestible nutrient contents or DE or ME contents. Such equations are applicable to both ingredients and compound feeds. They may differ between origins according to the fractionation method of organic matter or assumptions such as the NE requirement for maintenance (or fasting heat production). These measurements represent the bases for establishment of energy values in feeding tables. Results indicate that energy digestibility of feeds is negatively affected by dietary fibre content but this negative effect is attenuated with body weight increase, which suggests that feeds should be attributed DE values according to pig BW; in practice, at least two different DE values, one for growing-finishing pigs and one for mature pigs (reproductive sows), are recommended. The energy digestibility of pig feeds can also be affected by feed processing (pelletting, extrusion, etc.). Efficiency of ME utilization for NE averages 74-75% for conventional pig diets but it is directly dependent on diet chemical composition with efficiencies higher for ME from fat (90%) or starch (82%) than from protein or dietary fibre (60%). The hierarchy between feeds and results of least-cost formulation are then dependent on the energy system with overestimation of protein rich feeds and underestimation of starch and/or fat rich feeds in the DE or ME systems. The NE system provides an energy value which is the closest estimate of the "true" energy value of a feed; it predicts more accurately the performance of the pigs and allows implementing new feeding approaches such as the use of low protein and/or high fat diets. Energy requirements expressed as DE or ME can be transformed to NE requirements if we assume that the average efficiencies of DE or ME for NE are 71 and 74%, respectively. More sophisticated methods including modeling techniques can also be used for evaluating energy requirements.
Article
Full-text available
Two trials were conducted in order to quantify the effects of reduction of dietary crude protein (CP) level, with or without fat addition, on heat production and energy balance in growing pigs. In trial 1, extreme variations in diet composition were obtained by using purified ingredients; con- ventional ingredients were used in trial 2. In each trial, three diets were prepared. Diet 1 had a con- ventional CP level (18.9 and 17.4% in trials 1 and 2, respectively) while diet 2 had a reduced CP level (12.3% and 13.9% in trials 1 and 2, respectively); diet 3 also had a reduced CP level (13.6 and 14.9%, respectively) and 3.5% (trial 1) or 4% (trial 2) fat was added. In both trials, diets 2 and 3 were supplemented with industrial amino acids in order to ensure similar ratios between digestible essen- tial amino acids and net energy (NE) between diets while exceeding requirements of animals. Each diet was measured in 6 (trial 1) or 5 (trial 2) individually caged 60-kg pigs for digestibility, compo- nents of heat production (indirect calorimetry) and energy, protein and fat balances. Energy supply was standardised between diets (1.9 MJ NE per kg BW 0.60 ). A reduction of dietary CP level (diets 2 and 3 vs. diet 1) significantly reduced urinary nitrogen loss without impairing nitrogen gain in pigs. A reduction of dietary CP alone (diet 2 vs. diet 1) contributed to a significant reduction of total heat production and, more specifically, its component related to feed utilisation. This effect was accentuated when fat was added (diet 3 vs. diet 2). Fasting heat production (770 kJ per kg BW 0.60 ) and activity heat production (8% of ME intake) were not affected by dietary treatment. These results emphasise the inter- est of using an NE concept for estimating the energy value of pig feeds.
Article
The effect of carbohydrase enzyme supplementation on energy utilization from full-fat canola seed was investigated in a TMEn assay with adult roosters and in a nutrient digestibility and growth performance study with broiler chickens. In the TMEn assay, enzyme preparations C (cellulase, 340 U/g), XG (xylanase, 63,600 U/g and glucanase, 48,300 U/g), P (pectinase, 10,000 U/g), and MC (mannanase, 10,900 U/g and cellulase, 600 U/g), alone and in combination (C + P, C + XG, C + MC, P + XG, P + MC, XG + MC, C + P + XG, C + P + MC, and C + P + XG + MC), were evaluated at an inclusion level of 0.1%. On average, hammer-milled canola seed with a TMEn content of 3,642 kcal/kg showed an increase (P < 0.05) to 4,783 kcal/kg following supplementation with the enzyme blends C + P + XG, C + P + MC, and C + P + XG + MC. A similar pattern of increase (P < 0.05) in fat (80.4 vs. 63.5%) and nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP; 20.4 vs. 4.4%) digestibilities was observed. Enzyme combination C + P + XG was further evaluated in a 2-wk (5-to 18-d) trial with broiler chickens fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic corn and soybean meal-based diets containing canola seed (15%), the corresponding canola meal (8.85%) plus canola oil (6.15%) mixture, or canola seed (15%) supplemented with 3 different levels (0.002, 0.01, or 0.05%) of the enzyme. Poorer (P < 0.05) feed: gain (1.412 vs. 1.344), lower (P < 0.05) total tract DM (65.9 vs. 70.7%) and fat (69.6 vs. 88.0%) digestibilities, lower AME(n) content (2,963 vs. 3,200 kcal/kg), and lower ileal fat (65.6 vs. 85.6%) and protein (75.6 vs. 81.2%) digestibilities were observed for the canola seed diet compared with the canola meal plus canola oil diet. Enzyme supplementation of the canola seed diet resulted in an improvement (P < 0.05) in feed: gain; total tract DM, fat, and NSP digestibilities; AMEn content; and ileal fat digestibility. Although the enzyme effect on ileal and total tract fat digestibilities was significant at both high and medium inclusion levels, other parameters showed the significant improvement only when the highest inclusion rate of enzyme was used. These data support the need for carbohydrase enzyme supplements in poultry diets containing full-fat canola seed.
Article
The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n = 6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique.
Article
Digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and metabolizable energy corrected to nitrogen equilibrium (MEn) were determined for eight feeds. Effects of protein level in the basal ration and of level of feeding certain test feeds were also studied. Protein level of the test ration was found to be inversely correlated with the ratio ME/DE (r = −0.956; P < 0.01). It was postulated that conventional methods for estimating ME and MEn underestimate high protein feeds and that, based on a regression equation, the ME values for swine feeds can be determined most effectively by multiplying DE × 0.98). This provides a metabolizable energy value applicable within the protein levels used in practical swine production. ME values thus derived were: soybean meal 3620, rapeseed meal 3280, herring fishmeal 4550, wheat 3965, barley 3175, oats 2900 and wheat shorts 3040 kcal/kg dry matter.
Article
Castrated males from two lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance while the RFI(-) line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7-d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.05). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI(+) than in the RFI(-) line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation with an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P < 0.001). There was no line effect on nutrient and energy digestibility. Total HP tended to be higher in RFI(+) than in RFI(-) lines (1,279 vs. 1,137 kJ.kg BW(-0.60).d(-1); P = 0.065), which tended to retain more energy (968 vs. 798 kJ.kg BW(-0.60).d(-1); P = 0.050). The sensible heat loss was greater in RFI(+) compared to the RFI(-) line (644 vs. 560 kJ.kg BW(-0.60).d(-1); P = 0.020). The RFI(+) pigs consumed more water (+981 vs. 657 g.kg BW(-0.60).d(-1); P = 0.085) and produced more urine (589 vs. 292 g.kg BW(-0.60).d(-1); P <0.001) than RFI- pigs whereas water evaporation was similar for both lines. On average, ME intake and HP declined by about 38 and 20 %, respectively from P0 to P1 (P <0.001). In contrast to ME intake, HP gradually decreased (P < 0.05) from P1 to P3 in connection with a reduction of the activity related HP. The evaporative heat loss represented 30% on the total heat loss on P0 and this proportion significantly increased on P1 (61%; P < 0.001) and remained constant thereafter. In conclusion, our results suggest that thermal heat acclimation in pigs is mainly related to a biphasic reduction of HP rather than a change in the ability of losing heat and it not significantly differ between RFI(+) and RFI(-) lines despite a lower HP in the latter ones.