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Abstract

Throughout our evolutionary history, our cognitive systems have been altered by the advent of technological inventions such as primitive tools, spoken language, writing, and arithmetic systems. Thirty years ago, the Internet surfaced as the latest technological invention poised to deeply reshape human cognition. With its multifaceted affordances, the Internet environment has profoundly transformed our thoughts and behaviors. Growing up with Internet technologies, "Digital Natives" gravitate toward "shallow" information processing behaviors characterized by rapid attention shifting and reduced deliberations. They engage in increased multitasking behaviors that are linked to increased distractibility and poor executive control abilities. Digital natives also exhibit higher prevalence of Internet-related addictive behaviors that reflect altered reward-processing and self-control mechanisms. Recent neuroimaging investigations have suggested associations between these Internet-related cognitive impacts and structural changes in the brain. Against mounting apprehension over the Internet's consequences on our cognitive systems, several researchers have lamented that these concerns were often exaggerated beyond existing scientific evidence. In the present review, we aim to provide an objective overview of the Internet's impacts on our cognitive systems. We critically discuss current empirical evidence about how the Internet environment has altered the cognitive behaviors and structures involved in information processing, executive control, and reward-processing. © The Author(s) 2015.
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... The changes taking place in the human brain suggest that the Internet is also reshaping cognition in the brain (Loh and Kanai, 2015). The focus of the research is on digital natives, younger professionals who have lived with Internet search capabilities most of their liveswith the Internet only as far away as their smart phone. ...
... These effects are exacerbated by multitasking and performance pressure (e.g. time pressure) (Loh and Kanai, 2015). ...
... Novices feel satisfaction from "having made the decision" and in the process become mis-calibrated in assessing their own knowledge, developing overconfidence in their abilities (Fisher et al., 2015). This "react fast, make a decision, and move on" unconsciously promotes shallow decision-making that does not trigger deep-thinking or the encoding of deep knowledge structures into long-term memory (Loh and Kanai, 2015). This setting provides little motivation or desire to enhance knowledge acquisition, resulting in a failure to facilitate active learning and a lack of expertise development over time. ...
Preprint
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The Theory of Technology Dominance (TTD) provides a theoretical foundation for understanding how intelligent systems impact human decision-making. The theory has three phases with propositions related to (1) the foundations of reliance, (2) short-term effects on novice versus expert decision-making, and (3) long-term epistemological effects related to individual deskilling and profession-wide stagnation. In this theory paper, we propose an extension of TTD, that we refer to as TTD2, primarily to increase our theoretical understanding of how, why, and when the short-term and long-term effects on decision-making occur and why advances in technology design have exacerbated some weaknesses and eroded some benefits. Recently, researchers have called for reconsideration of how we design intelligent systems to mitigate the detrimental effects of technology; in TTD2 we provide a theory-based understanding for reimagining how such systems are designed.
... The internet has profound effects on human attention, memory, navigation, and social cognition (Firth et al., 2019;Loh & Kanai, 2016;Marsh & Rajaram, 2019). Nowadays, most of our interactions with information are directly or indirectly centred around the internet and the remarkable shift towards the almost instantaneous access to information has significantly shaped how information is obtained and processed (Greene, Cartiff & Duke, 2018;Ward, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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Previous research indicates that using the internet in knowledge related tasks increases overestimation. We attempted to replicate this finding and extended previous research by explicitly manipulating the standards that participants used for the explanatory knowledge task in order to reduce the metacognitive bias. We conducted a 2x2 within-subject experiment with N = 166 participants. Replicating previous findings, the results show significantly more overestimation in Internet than in No-Internet conditions. However, with an alignment to external standards participants elicited more accurate metacognitive judgments. We conclude that explicit standards may be an important factor in knowledge-related activities involving the internet because of their effect on metacognitive judgments. On a theoretical level, this has implications for determining the basis of overestimation in knowledge tasks with the internet. On a practical level, providing external standards could be a feasible aid for buffering against this bias, for example in the educational context.
... Considering the change in reading behaviour, reading interest can no longer be assessed by how many books have been read, but also by how many online reading materials have been clicked on, read, shared or downloaded (UNESCO, 2014). However, we need to keep in mind that online reading sometimes involves different processes to paper-based reading, which most of the time invokes immersed and/or deep reading (Loh & Kanai, 2016). ...
Article
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This paper focuses on adolescents’ reading habits during the protracted lockdown (March 2020 - May 2021) due to COVID-19. Drawing on evidence from an online survey, several focus groups and semi-structured interviews with adolescents in Greece and Cyprus during the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper explores the extent to which reading books is still highly valued in adolescents’ lives and the degree to which this activity is related to adolescents’ advantageous familial and socio-economic background. Moreover, the paper examines whether reading should still be considered an activity that contributes to cultural reproduction in the digital era. This paper contributes to the examination of the often invisible mechanisms that originate from the family and produce socially stratified school underachievement that sustains social inequalities in contemporary Greek and Cypriot societies.
... EPC is a cognitive system for the affirmation of environmental protection-related behaviors. In today's digital economy era, with the growth of internet technology, managers of "digital natives" tend to "shallow" information processing behaviors characterized by rapid attention shifts and engage in more multitasking behaviors [27]. ...
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The increase in the world's population and the significant changes in climate have put huge pressure on agricultural production land. Digital technologies have the potential to help improve this problem, however, there is currently a lack of commensurate attention from both academia and business. From the perspective of a knowledge-based view, this study establishes a theoretical framework to examine the influence of digital transformation on pro-land behavior, the mediating role of environmental protection cognition, and the moderating role of cross-border search. To test the theoretical model, the authors conduct empirical assessments based on survey data from a large number of Chinese agricultural companies. The results show that (1) digital transformation positively enhances enterprises' pro-land behavior; (2) environmental protection cognition partially mediates the positive relationship between digital transformation and pro-land behavior; (3) cross-border search positively moderates the relationship between digital transformation and environmental protection cognition; (4) cross-border search positively moderates the mediating role of environmental protection cognition in the relationship between digital transformation and pro-land behavior. The research expands the theoretical application of digital transformation and knowledge-based view in the field of land protection, and creatively constructs measurement indicators of related variables, which can provide decision-making references for related academic research and policymaking.
... However, evidence from educational and developmental psychology showed that digital natives, despite technical readiness, lack critical literacy and struggle with seeking, selecting, and evaluating information, and are not by default skilled or critical consumers of information (Valenza, 2006;Harris, 2008;Wineburg et al., 2016). Digital natives typically prioritize most accessible information sources and effortless processing (Shenton and Dixon, 2004;van Deursen et al., 2014;Loh and Kanai, 2015), and show age-specific difficulties in deploying attention to relevant information. Younger children (at 8-10 years) struggle with inhibiting irrelevant yet salient and engaging information (Eastin et al., 2006) and typically do not question its accuracy (Hirsh, 1999); older children lack sufficient knowledge base and analytical skills to contextualize and analyze the information, and often prioritize the form of the information over its content (Watson, 1998;Agosto, 2002;Sundar, 2008). ...
Article
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Open access to information is now a universal phenomenon thanks to rapid technological developments across the globe. This open and universal access to information is a key value of democratic societies because, in principle, it supports well-informed decision-making on individual, local, and global matters. In practice, however, without appropriate readiness for navigation in a dynamic information landscape, such access to information can become a threat to public health, safety, and economy, as the COVID-19 pandemic has shown. In the past, this readiness was often conceptualized in terms of adequate literacy levels, but the contemporarily observed highest-ever literacy levels have not immunized our societies against the risks of misinformation. Therefore, in this Perspective, we argue that democratization of access to information endows citizens with new responsibilities, and second, these responsibilities demand readiness that cannot be reduced to mere literacy levels. In fact, this readiness builds on individual adequate literacy skills, but also requires rational thinking and awareness of own information processing. We gather evidence from developmental, educational, and cognitive psychology to show how these aspects of readiness could be improved through education interventions, and how they may be related to healthy work-home balance and self-efficacy. All these components of education are critical to responsible global citizenship and will determine the future direction of our societies.
... What is the reason for such levels of boredom? Decreased interest and increased susceptibility to distractions may be due to constantly switching between different devices and programs (Loh & Kanai, 2016;Sampasa-Kanyinga & Lewis, 2015). Laptop computers allow such switching of programs. ...
Article
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Classroom response systems (i.e., clickers) have become increasingly popular to facilitate student learning. Unfortunately, the common practice of pausing a lecture to ask questions takes up precious time to cover content. Asking questions “on the fly” without pausing is a possible solution. But can students both attend to lecture and answer questions simultaneously? Is this multitasking detrimental to student learning? In three experiments, we examined the effects of relevant and irrelevant “on-the-fly” questions and note taking on lecture retention. Undergraduates watched a video of a classroom lecture while either taking notes or not and receiving 0, 6, 18, or 36 questions that were either relevant or irrelevant to the lecture and then took a test. Students performed better on the test when receiving relevant rather than irrelevant questions. As for an optimal number of questions or whether note taking should also be allowed, there were no obvious advantages. Thus, when considering using “on the fly” clicker questions during a lecture vs. having no such questions, our evidence indicates no clear interference. Rather, such activities such as clickers may counter lecture boredom by allowing students to multitask with relevant activities.
... Firth et al. (2019) opine that e-learning negatively influences the social cognitive abilities of the learners. Takeuchi et al. (2018), and Loh and Kanai (2016) indicate that those changes in the brain -such as a reduction of volume of the cortex and a decrease of grey matter in the individual's prefrontal areas -lead to the impediment of the information processing speed of learners when they search, locate, and read the online content. Johnson (2020) argued that the e-learning mode that was conducted throughout a pandemic imposed stress on the students. ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of the study was to identify what neuropsychological effect online learning had on psychology students and how it could be moderated. The study was descriptive and combined qualitative and quantitative methods to address the research questions. The study relied on three phases such as baseline study, experiment, and reporting. The experiment utilised neuropsychology tests adopted from the NeurOn platform. It was found that the Psychology students’ perceptions of e-learning and their emotional reaction to them were found not to be appreciative. The practices in breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga were proved to be able to moderate the impact of online learning on the experimental group students’ attentional capacities, memory processes, and cognition abilities. The above findings were supported by the results obtained for the neuropsychology tests and the experimental group students’ self-reflections yielded from the use of the MovisensXS App. The students confirmed that breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga reduced study stress and burnout caused by e-learning and improved their academic performance. The focus group online discussion also showed that integration of breathing exercises, meditation, and yoga helped the experimental group students keep emotional balance, concentrate on their studies easier, remember more information, and meet deadlines in completing assignments. The education scientists are suggested to study how the e-learning curriculum could be reshaped so that it used relaxation practices on regular basis.</p
Chapter
The chapter summarizes the authors' development on the concept of “at-home lab” (AHL). The concept employs the methods of artificial intelligence (AI), smart internet of things (IoT) technologies, and data mining techniques. The aim is at support for patients with Parkinson's disease and aged people to continuously monitor and evaluate their motor and cognitive status using own smartphone (in particular, IMU as wearable sensor, apps for testing cognitive status, camera for motor tracking). In addition, other devices in the IoT environment can participate in creating the information assistance support for people. This chapter presents and discuss the AHL concept as a further development step of AI in respect with human evolution (NeoNeoCortex). The focus is on evolutionary, environmental, and biological aspects of AI.
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Adolescent behavior now occurs offline and online. Frequently studied and treated independently, the relationship between offline problem behaviors and online risk taking is not well understood. This study asked whether there are any problematic behaviors predictive of online risk taking by high school students. Using a 2009 dataset of 2,077 high school students grades 9-12, five areas of offline problematic behaviors were examined: Academic problems, anxiety, behavioral wrongdoing, bullying, and social-emotional. Nine binary results were classified as online risk: Sexting, online harassment (perpetrating and experiencing), visiting sex sites, talking about sex, receiving sexual pictures, meeting offline, anything sexual happened, feeling nervous or uncomfortable. Behavioral wrongdoing (fighting, school suspension, trouble with police, theft), emerged as a significant predictor appearing in all nine models, followed by bullying experience (bully or victim) in six models. Identifying common problem behaviors that predict online risk taking are key components in developing strategies to promote adolescent health and well-being.
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Adaptive navigation support is a specific group of technologies that support user navigation in "virtual spaces" adapting to the goals, preferences and knowledge of the individual user. These technologies, originally developed in the field of adaptive hypermedia, are becoming increasingly important in several adaptive Web applications from Web-based adaptive hypermedia to adaptive virtual reality. This paper provides a brief introduction to adaptive navigation support, reviews major adaptive navigation support technologies, and presents a sequence of projects performed by our group to study adaptive navigation support in different contexts.
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Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been investigated by many behavioral and neuroimaging studies, for it has became one of the main behavior disorders among adolescents. However, few studies focused on the relationship between alteration of gray matter volume (GMV) and cognitive control feature in IGD adolescents. Twenty-eight participants with IAD and twenty-eight healthy age and gender matched controls participated in the study. Brain morphology of adolescents with IGD and healthy controls was investigated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technique. Cognitive control performances were measured by Stroop task, and correlation analysis was performed between brain structural change and behavioral performance in IGD group. The results showed that GMV of the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus, supplementary motor area (SMA), superior parietal cortex, left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left insula, and bilateral cerebellum decreased in the IGD participants compared with healthy controls. Moreover, GMV of the ACC was negatively correlated with the incongruent response errors of Stroop task in IGD group. Our results suggest that the alteration of GMV is associated with the performance change of cognitive control in adolescents with IGD, which indicating substantial brain image effects induced by IGD.
Book
Where does the mind begin and end? Robert Wilson establishes the foundations for the view that the mind extends beyond the boundary of the individual. He blends traditional philosophical analysis, cognitive science, and the history of psychology and the human sciences. Wilson then develops novel accounts of mental representation and consciousness, discussing a range of other issues, such as nativism and the idea of group minds. Boundaries of the Mind re-evaluates the place of the individual in the cognitive, biological and social sciences (what Wilson calls the fragile sciences) with an emphasis on cognition. The book will appeal to a broad range of professionals and students in philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and the history of the behavioral and human sciences. Robert A. Wilson is professor of philosophy at the University of Alberta. He is author or editor of five other books, including the award-winning The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MIT Press, 1999).
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with the thinking processes of the intimate dyad. So, although we will focus from time to time on the thinking processes of the individual—as they influence and are influenced by the relationship with another person—our prime interest is in thinking as it occurs at the dyadic level. This may be dangerous territory for inquiry. After all, this topic resembles one that has, for many years now, represented something of a “black hole” in the social sciences—the study of the group mind. For good reasons, the early practice of drawing an analogy between the mind of the individual and the cognitive operations of the group has long been avoided, and references to the group mind in contemporary literature have dwindled to a smattering of wisecracks.
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One of the challenges to functional neuroimaging is to understand how the component processes of reading comprehension emerge from the neural activity in a network of brain regions. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine lexical and syntactic processing in reading comprehension by independently manipulating the cognitive demand on each of the two processes of interest. After establishing a consistency with earlier research showing the involvement of the left perisylvian language areas in both lexical access and syntactic processing, the study produced new findings that are surprising in two ways: (i) the lexical and syntactic factors each impact not just individual areas, but they affect the activation in a network of left-hemisphere areas, suggesting that changing the computational load imposed by a given process produces a cascade of effects in a number of collaborating areas; and (ii) the lexical and syntactic factors usually interact in determining the amount of activation in each affected area, suggesting that comprehension processes that operate on different levels of language may nevertheless draw on a shared infrastructure of cortical resources. The results suggest that many processes in sentence comprehension involve multiple brain regions, and that many brain regions contribute to more than one comprehension process. The implication is that the language network consists of brain areas which each have multiple relative specializations and which engage in extensive interarea collaborations.
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As the Internet has become a nearly ubiquitous resource for acquiring knowledge about the world, questions have arisen about its potential effects on cognition. Here we show that searching the Internet for explanatory knowledge creates an illusion whereby people mistake access to information for their own personal understanding of the information. Evidence from 9 experiments shows that searching for information online leads to an increase in self-assessed knowledge as people mistakenly think they have more knowledge "in the head," even seeing their own brains as more active as depicted by functional MRI (fMRI) images. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).