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UNESCO Mainstreaming - The culture of peace

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Abstract

The United Nations and UNESCO were founded to bring about a world at peace. Peace is more than an absence of war. It means justice and equity for all as the basis for living together in harmony and free from violence, now, but even more so for our children and succeeding generations. The General Assembly has designated 2001–2010 as the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World. This decade will provide a unique opportunity to translate solemn declarations and good intentions into reality. We always must renew our shared pledge to attain this goal: a world at peace with itself in a new century and a new millennium. By focusing on our children, we implicitly pledge ourselves to education for all, a concept that combines formal and non-formal education and seeks to promote quality basic education that is grounded upon the universal values – and practice – of a culture of peace and non-violence. Such a task must engage every one of our fellow citizens in all dimensions of life: in schools, workplaces, the home; at the national and at the community levels; in the public, private and voluntary sectors. Above all, children themselves must be empowered to become actors, not mere spectators, in shaping their own visions and futures.. .. A global movement in the finest sense is emerging: a marshalling of all existing forces for social improvement arising from the world's civil societies and a mobilization of their energies, ideas and commitments. Such a movement must enjoy full support from both the United Nations family and all Member States. It will be one avenue for harnessing the forces of globalization for the common good and for a better and more humane world.
UNESCO-mainstreaming
the culture
of peace
The United Nations and UNESCO were founded to bring about a world at
peace. Peace is more than an absence of war. It means justice and equity
for all as the basis for living together in harmony and free from violence,
now, but even more so for our children and succeeding generations. The
General Assembly has designated 2001–2010 as the International Decade
for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World.
This decade will provide a unique opportunity to translate solemn
declarations and good intentions into reality. We always must renew our
shared pledge to attain this goal: a world at peace with itself in a new
century and a new millennium.
By focusing on our children, we implicitly pledge ourselves to education
for all, a concept that combines formal and non-formal education and
seeks to promote quality basic education that is grounded upon the
universal values – and practice – of a culture of peace and non-violence.
Such a task must engage every one of our fellow citizens in all
dimensions of life: in schools, workplaces, the home; at the national and
at the community levels; in the public, private and voluntary sectors.
Above all, children themselves must be empowered to become actors,
not mere spectators, in shaping their own visions and futures. . . .
A global movement in the finest sense is emerging: a marshalling of all
existing forces for social improvement arising from the world’s civil
societies and a mobilization of their energies, ideas and commitments.
Such a movement must enjoy full support from both the United Nations
family and all Member States. It will be one avenue for harnessing the
forces of globalization for the common good and for a better and more
humane world.
Peace can be at hand; it is in our hands.
Koïchiro Matsuura
Today, more than ever,
a culture of peace
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1989 The concept of a ‘culture of peace’ was formulated at the International Congress on
Peace in the Minds of Men, held in Côte d’Ivoire. The congress recommended that
UNESCO ‘help construct a new vision of peace by developing a peace culture based
on the universal values of respect for life, liberty, justice, solidarity, tolerance, human
rights and equality between men and women’. This initiative took root in an
international context influenced by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the disappearance
of Cold War tensions.
1992 UNESCO’s Executive Board requests a specific programme for a Culture of Peace as
a contribution to United Nations peacekeeping efforts. UNESCO offers its services in
post-conflict peace-building. National programmes are undertaken in a number of
countries of Central America (El Salvador) and Africa (Mozambique, Burundi), and in
the Philippines.
1994 The first International Forum on the Culture of Peace is held in San Salvador
(El Salvador).
1995 The 28th General Conference of UNESCO introduces the concept of ‘Culture of Peace’
in the Medium-Term Strategy for 1996–2001 (28 C/4).
1996–2001
The transdisciplinary project Towards a Culture of Peace is implemented in accordance
with the 28 C/4 document. NGOs, associations, young people and adults, media
networks, community radios and religious leaders working for peace, non-violence
and tolerance become actively involved in fostering a culture of peace worldwide.
1997 Recognizing the importance of UNESCO’s experience with a Culture of Peace, the
United Nations General Assembly at its 52nd session establishes a separate agenda
item entitled ‘Towards a Culture of Peace’. The General Assembly also responds to
the recommendation of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), proclaiming 2000
as the International Year for the Culture of Peace.
The purpose of the Organization is to contribute to peace and security by
promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and
culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law
and for human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the
peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion.
Constitution of UNESCO, 1945, Article 1
The evolution of a new concept:
the culture of peace
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1998 At its 53rd session, the United Nations General Assembly (resolution A/53/25) decides
to proclaim the decade of 2001–2010 ‘International Decade for a Culture of Peace and
Non-Violence for the Children of the World’, based on a proposal made by Nobel Peace
Prize laureates. The UNESCO Executive Board, meeting in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, at its
155th session in November 1998, adopts the Tashkent Declaration on the culture of
peace and UNESCO’s action in Member States.
1999 The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Declaration and Programme of Action
on a Culture of Peace (resolution A/53/243) defining eight action areas (see p. 5) to be
linked through the concept of a culture of peace and non-violence into a single coherent
approach.
2000 Observation of the International Year for the Culture of Peace as decided by the United
Nations General Assembly, with UNESCO designated as Focal Point:
A public awareness campaign was launched, based on Manifesto 2000, a personal
commitment drafted by a group of Nobel Peace Prize laureates. This common pledge
to observe and put into practice in daily life the universal principles of a culture of
peace and non-violence was signed by over 75 million people (more than one per cent
of world population) during the year.
Actions for a culture of peace in the eight action areas defined by the United Nations
were promoted through a variety of events and long-term projects.
Communication and information tools were developed for better interaction, such as
the establishment of the interactive culture of peace website, guidelines for Focal
Points for the implementation of the International Year, along with a logo,
communications tools and materials, and other products.
The result of the International Year for the Culture of Peace was the emergence of a global
movement involving thousands of national and local organizations and more than 75 million
individuals, along with the National Commissions for UNESCO, UNESCO’s Field Offices and
some 200 international NGOs.
The idea to use the term culture of peace was inspired by an educational initiative called
Cultura de paz developed in Peru (1986), and by the Seville Statement on Violence (1986)
adopted by scientists from around the world, which stated that war is not a fatality determined
by genes, violent brains, human nature or instincts, but is rather a social invention.
Therefore, ‘the same species that invented war is capable of inventing peace’.
Download the Seville Statement: www.unesco.org/cpp/uk/declarations/seville.pdf
This symbol, used for the International Year for
Culture of Peace, created by Barbara Blickle
and designed by Luis Sarda, graphically
illustrates the culture of peace. Two interlaced
hands, perhaps representing exchange and
agreement, combine with two undefined points
or spots to create four elements that overlap
and intermingle, producing a rhythmic interplay
and a mixture of colours. The observer is free
to interpret the elements as continents,
individuals, groups, cities, hemispheres . . .
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2001–2010
Launch of the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the
Children of the World, with UNESCO as lead agency, involving the United Nations system,
Member States and civil society through partnerships and information exchange. Each of
the ten years of the Decade will be marked with a different priority theme; the first five
have already been defined in the context of a particular United Nations event:
2001: understanding, tolerance and solidarity, in the context of the Year of Dialogue
among Civilizations
2002: sustainable economic and social development, in the context of the World
Summit on Sustainable Development, the International Year of Ecotourism and the
United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage
2003: participatory communication and the free flow of information and knowledge,
in the context of the World Summit on the Information Society
2004: respect for human rights, in the context of the conclusion of the United Nations
Decade for Human Rights Education
2005: equality between women and men, in the context of the Fourth World Conference
on Women (Beijing, 1995)
In many regions of the world, peace remains fragile and tenuous. To help preserve peace
in all its dimensions thus remains an abiding challenge for the international community in
general and UNESCO in particular. It is a vision embedded in the Organization’s Constitution.
This entails building trust and understanding among and between different cultures and
civilizations, as well as nations, communities and individuals, especially in situations of acute
conflict and in post-conflict conditions. The defence of peace starts in the minds of men and
women who should be imbued with hope for the future, especially for succeeding generations.
UNESCO’s commitment to fostering a culture of peace in all its fields of competence is as
relevant as ever in the face of ongoing and newly flaring conflicts among and within States
and newly emerging types of societal risks, which are taking a heavy toll on civilian populations
and aggravating the vulnerability of many societies.
UNESCO, Medium-Term Strategy for 2002–2007 (31 C/4), paras. 1, 2
©D. Roger/UNESCO
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Following a proposal made by UNESCO, the United Nations General Assembly
in 1998 (resolution A/52/13) defined the Culture of Peace as consisting of
values, attitudes and behaviours that reject violence and endeavour to prevent
conflicts by addressing their root causes with a view to solving problems
through dialogue and negotiation among individuals, groups and nations. The 1999
United Nations Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace (resolution
A/53/243) called for everyone – governments, civil society, the media, parents, teachers,
politicians, scientists, artists, NGOs and the entire United Nations system – to assume
responsibility in this respect. It staked out eight action areas for actors at national,
regional and international levels:
Culture of peace: eight action areas . . .
. . . peace in our hands
Fostering a culture of peace through education by promoting education for all, focusing
especially on girls; revising curricula to promote the qualitative values, attitudes and behaviour
inherent in a culture of peace; training for conflict prevention and resolution, dialogue,
consensus-building and active non-violence . . .
Promoting sustainable economic and social development by targeting the eradication of
poverty; focusing on the special needs of children and women; working towards environmental
sustainability; fostering national and international co-operation to reduce economic and social
inequalities . . .
Promoting respect for all human rights by distributing the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights at all levels and fully implementing international instruments on human rights . . .
Ensuring equality between women and men by integrating a gender perspective and
promoting equality in economic, social and political decision-making; eliminating all forms of
discrimination and violence against women; supporting and aiding women in crisis situations
resulting from war and all other forms of violence . . .
Fostering democratic participation by educating responsible citizens; reinforcing actions to
promote democratic principles and practices; establishing and strengthening national institutions
and processes that promote and sustain democracy . . .
Advancing understanding, tolerance and solidarity by promoting a dialogue among
civilizations; actions in favour of vulnerable groups, migrants, refugees and displaced persons,
indigenous people and traditional groups; respect for difference and cultural diversity . . .
Supporting participatory communication and the free flow of information and knowledge by
means of such actions as support for independent media in the promotion of a culture of peace;
effective use of media and mass communications; measures to address the issue of violence in
the media; knowledge and information sharing through new technologies . . .
Promoting international peace and security through action such as the promotion of general
and complete disarmament; greater involvement of women in prevention and resolution of
conflicts and in promoting a culture of peace in post-conflict situations; initiatives in conflict
situations; encouraging confidence-building measures and efforts for negotiating peaceful
settlements . . .
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Education at the centre
The United Nations has stressed the need
for Member States to support the
International Decade for the benefit of every
child in the world. Member States must
ensure that the practice of peace and
non-violence be taught at all levels in their
respective societies, including in educational
institutions. The specific actions undertaken
during the Decade should include the
aspects that most directly affect children,
particularly in terms of education.
Education needs to be understood in its
broadest sense – not only formal education
in schools, but also out-of-school and
informal education, and what is learned in
one’s family and from various media sources.
In terms of formal and non-formal
education, action for promoting a culture
of peace and non-violence includes:
training decision-makers and educators
(teacher trainers, facilitators and youth
leaders) in the skills needed to promote peace
and non-violence;
revising curriculum materials, particularly
history textbooks, to promote mutual
understanding and remove bias or
stereotypes;
creating new curriculum materials addressing
peace, non-violence and human rights;
producing and disseminating educational
materials and textbooks on education for a
culture of peace and human rights;
promoting linguistic pluralism and
encouragement of multilingualism;
promoting networking among national
institutions, non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) and civics education specialists; and
developing new methods of non-violent
conflict resolution that include traditional
peaceful approaches.
In addition, educating children for a culture
of peace often takes place outside of the
classroom and other educative environments.
When children participate actively in sports,
dance, theatre and artistic activities, they
learn the rules of fair play and the values of
sharing – and these are some of the
attitudes and behaviours that constitute a
culture of peace. In addition, they also learn
as they read, use, or observe the wide range
of communication and artistic products that
surround them daily: books, films, paintings,
sporting events, music, games and so on.
‘Informal education’ action includes:
developing public-awareness campaigns
targeting children in the family and the local
community;
promoting multicultural and multi-ethnic
events in arts and sports to promote mutual
understanding (festivals, artistic exchanges,
competitions);
creating support for parents, teachers and
local associations with an aim to protect
children from violence in the media (television,
press, cinema, video games and the Internet);
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The International Decade for a Culture
of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children
of the World (2001–2010)
The United Nations Secretary-General in a report to the United Nations
General Assembly in September 2001 (A/56/349) emphasized two main
aspects to which Member States must commit themselves during the
Decade, namely, education for a culture of peace with children at the
centre, and an organizational strategy sustaining a global movement
– begun during the International Year 2000 – emphasizing partnerships and new
information technologies.
working with local authorities, governments
and international organizations to adopt
specific measures to monitor and regulate
violence in the media; and
organizing advocacy for a culture of peace that
reaches the designers, producers and
enterprises that are creating and selling media.
Furthering a culture of peace
through a global movement
During the International Year for the Culture
of Peace, a global movement emerged that
represents an alliance of various actors
working together for a culture of peace.
A further strengthening of this global
movement has been called for by the United
Nations General Assembly, based on
partnerships between and among actors,
including Member States, civil society, the
United Nations system and individuals. An
interactive website, maintained by UNESCO
as lead agency for the International Decade,
which has been operational since 2000,
serves as a public rallying point for Decade
activities and allows all actors and partners
to network and interact by exchanging and
sharing information and resources; it also
serves as a tool for advocacy (see
www.unesco.org/cp).
The core data available (information about
events, long-term projects, articles,
signatures for Manifesto 2000) are being
updated by the Culture of Peace actors
themselves, worldwide, on a private website
(www.unesco.org/cptec) that is accessed by
means of a code (personal Internet Account
Number, or IAN) available from a network of
Focal Points (National Commissions for
UNESCO and Field Offices for local and
national organizations), and International
Focal Points (for international NGOs).
The role of UNESCO
As lead agency for the Decade and in
addition to its substantial contribution
through its programmes and activities,
UNESCO has the following responsibilities:
Mobilizing efforts at national level (already
active in more than 160 Member States)
through National Commissions, National
Committees and UNESCO Field Offices as
focal points; this also entails capacity-building
to facilitate use of the website;
Mobilizing international NGOs including
through co-operation with the NGO-UNESCO
Liaison Committee. A Plan of Action for the
Decade was adopted in 2001 by the
international conference of NGOs maintaining
official relations with UNESCO (visit
www.unesco.org/cp/uk/uk_refdoc.htm);
Maintaining interactive Culture of Peace
Websites (www.unesco.org/cp);
Soliciting contributions from United Nations
agencies and programmes as regards their
adherence to and implementation of the
Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace
and presenting them in a systematic and
consolidated manner in official United Nations
documents.
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www.unesco.org/cp
This central website provides information on:
253 Focal points in 196 countries
1,976 Actors within the global movement:
233 international organizations
1,743 national/local organizations
3,837 Messengers for Manifesto 2000 (individuals)
75,222,315 Signatures collected for Manifesto 2000
811 Actions for a culture of peace
From www.unesco.org/cp, 5 May 2002
Non-violence education activities
UNESCO’s
Non-Violence
Education
programme is a follow-up to
the Interregional Project for a
Culture of Peace and Non-Violence
in Educational Institutions
launched by the Sintra Plan of
Action in 1996, and it is a vital
component of the
Internation Decade.
Activities include a
series of training
courses in
mediation and
non-violent conflict
resolution in and out of school and
preparatory meetings and contacts with
national authorities in various regions
(Central Europe, Middle East, Africa), as
well as numerous activities aimed at
children and youth and posted on our
website, including games and building a
‘peace kite’. Best Practices on Conflict
Resolution In and Out of School has been
published with contributions from UNESCO’s
partners (associations, peace educators,
teachers) along with other reference books,
and is being included in a non-violence
education kit for teachers and trainers.
Education Sector, Division for the Promotion of Quality
Education (ED/PEQ/VAL)
www.unesco.org/education/nved/index.html
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Culture of Peace in
1
Fostering a culture of peace through education . . .
. . . by promoting education for all,
focusing especially on girls; revising
curricula to promote the qualitative
values, attitudes and behaviour inherent
in a culture of peace; training for conflict
prevention and resolution, dialogue,
consensus-building and active
non-violence . . .
Framework for action on early
childhood and values education
A framework for action on early childhood
and values education was developed at an
international workshop on Integrating
Values in Early Childhood in November
2000 in Paris. It aimed at enabling policy
makers, community leaders, trainers,
caregivers, parents and children to build a
‘flexible, creative, communicative and
supportive’ learning environment for young
children, and to implement values-based
early childhood approaches for better
social, emotional, academic and spiritual
development of young children. The
framework, organized by UNESCO and the
Living Values Educational Programme,
serves as a an international reference
document with a view to adapt learning
materials, information campaigns and
advocacy tools.
Education Sector, Section for Early Childhood and
Family Education (ED/BAS/ECF)
www.unesco.org/education/educprog/ecf/
html/eng.htm
For information on other programme activities in this action area:
UNESCO Prize for Peace
Education
This annual prize rewards a particularly
outstanding individual, organization or
group promoting an exceptional and
internationally recognized action extending
over several years in favour of the
promotion of peace, and especially peace
education. It was established in 1981 with a
grant from the Japan Shipbuilding Industry
Foundation, now the Nippon Foundation.
Candidates are proposed by UNESCO’s
Member States or by NGOs or organizations
maintaining official relations with UNESCO.
Prize winners have included Mother Teresa
in 1992; the Association of the Mothers of
the Plaza de Mayo (Argentina) in 1999); the
Jewish-Arab Centre for Peace at Givat
Haviva (Israel) and Ugandan Bishop Nelson
Onono Onweg in 2001; and in 2002, the City
Montessori School in India.
Social and Human Sciences Sector, Division of
Foresight, Philosophy and Human Sciences (SHS/FPH)
www.unesco.org/human_rights/peaceint.html
UNESCO ASPnet Peace Pillar
Award Initiative (PPAI)
During the International Year for the
Culture of Peace (2000), the Associated
Schools Project Network (ASPnet) was
invited to participate in the special activity
entitled ‘Peace Pillar Award Initiative
(PPAI)’. The objective was to encourage
Associated Schools worldwide to conduct
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UNESCO’s programmes
innovative and effective projects on a
theme closely related to culture of peace:
non-violent conflict resolution; human
rights and democracy; intercultural
learning; solidarity; or eventually a topic
corresponding to local needs. The schools
were also to take into account the ‘four
pillars’ advocated by the International
Commission on Education for the Twenty-
first Century: learning to know, learning to
do, learning to be and learning to live
together.
The PPAI was designed to have a multiplier
effect. Peace Pillar Awards, in the form of
beautiful glass sculptures symbolizing
‘Peace is in our hands’ produced by Finnish
design students, were granted to some
seventy schools in recognition of their
contributions towards educating for a
culture of peace. At the national level,
the Peace Pillar Award was presented to
ASPnet schools in April 2002 by high
officials, for example in France at a special
ceremony by the President of the French
National Commission for UNESCO, and in
Cuba by the Minister of Education. Activities
conducted in various regions of the world
have been selected by UNESCO for
publication and presentation in a special
document to be distributed in 2002 as the
‘best practices’ of the Associated Schools
around the world.
Education Sector, Division for the Promotion of Quality
Education (ED/PEQ)
www.unesco.org//education/asp/index.shtml
THE UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme, www.unesco.org/education/educprog/unitwin/index.html
International Mother Language Day, www.unesco.org/education/imld_2002
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Culture of Peace in
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Promoting sustainable economic
and social development . . .
. . . by targeting the eradication of
poverty; focusing on the special needs of
children and women; working towards
environmental sustainability; fostering
national and international co-operation
to reduce economic and social
inequalities . . .
The biosphere reserves:
a negotiation tool for diverging
interests
The Boucle de Baoulé Management Plan
serves as a model for resolving conflicts
between pastoralists and farmers by
setting up transhumance corridors and
creating a system of common management
of pasturelands. The basic premise was to
define biosphere reserve zoning which
would best meet the needs of all the local
actors (sedentary populations, transhumant
pastoralists) with a view to conserving and
sustainably managing the natural
resources, wildlife and the archaeological
heritage. The Boucle de Baoulé
Management Plan was officially approved
by the Government of Mali in November
1999, which gave the Opération
Aménagement du Parc national de la Boucle
de Baoulé et des Réserves adjacentes
(OPNPB) [Boucle de Baoulé National Park
and Adjacent Reserves Unit] a negotiation
tool in contacts with donors to secure the
$3 million required to implement the Plan
for a period of five years.
The first management plan for the Boucle
de Baoulé Biosphere Reserve in Mali was
published (in French) in 2000 with the
support of UNESCO-MAB, UNDP and the
MAB-National Committee of Mali, to
indicate the potential for ecotourism and
the main human pressures on the
biosphere reserve. This plan is the result of
a study that began over ten years ago under
several UNDP/UNESCO projects which
were implemented by OPNPB.
Natural Sciences Sector, Division of Ecological Sciences
(SC/ECO)
www.unesco.org/mab/
For information on other programme activities in this action area:
©D. Roger/UNESCO
11
UNESCO’s programmes
Crafts for sustainable developmentHolistic and interdisciplinary
environmental education
The goal of South East Mediterranean Sea
Project (SEMEP) is to foster knowledge,
awareness and understanding of the South
East Mediterranean. To carry out this goal,
it promotes a culture of peace between
countries by developing holistic and
interdisciplinary teaching/learning actions
for teachers and students, and by reaching
out to communities through science and
environmental education. Currently twelve
countries are active in SEMEP: Albania,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Israel, Italy,
Jordan, Malta, the Palestinian Autonomous
Territories, Romania, Slovenia and Turkey.
One specific activity of SEMEP directly
related to the building of a culture of peace
is a biennial summer school, a typical
intercultural exchange activity through
which tolerance, dialogue and mutual
understanding between teachers and
students from the different countries are
promoted.
Education Sector, Division of Secondary, Technical and
Vocational Education (ED/STV)
www.unesco.org/education/ste/projects/
semep/semep.shtml
Artisanal crafts, the expression of age-old
tradition, are full-time sources of
employment and thus vital sources of
income. Indeed, they are excellent entry
points for development and the
empowerment of women. The importance
of women’s crafts in the fight to alleviate
poverty led UNESCO to launch a series of
creative workshops for craftswomen
working in the same sphere of activity and
geographical region (textiles in Central
America, Western Africa and Central Asia;
pottery and basketry in Southern Africa), in
order to encourage the development of
small craft businesses and develop more
self-confidence and reliance on their
talents. At these workshops, problems,
concerns and solutions can be compared
and common strategies elaborated in a
spirit of exchange and solidarity.
International Craft Trade Fairs: A Practical
Guide, was published in English, French
and Spanish by UNESCO Publishing in
2001. Participation in international trade
fairs is an efficient means of exposure to
export markets, offering customer
concentration, face-to-face communication,
competition-watch and acquaintance with
new business partners. Artisans in
numerous fields of activity will be able to
find support, general information and
advice, methodology guidelines, checklists
and directories in this essential guide.
Culture Sector, Crafts and Design Section
(CLT/ACE/CDS)
www.unesco.org/culture/crafts
Teaching and learning for a sustainable future, www.unesco.org/education/tlsf
Environment and sustainable development, www.unesco.org/science/activities_env.htm
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Culture of Peace in
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Promoting respect
for all human rights . . .
. . . by distributing the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights at all levels
and fully implementing international
instruments on human rights . . .
For information on other programme activities in this action area:
The International Clearinghouse
on Children and Violence on the
Screen
The International Clearinghouse on
Children and Violence on the Screen aims
to increase awareness and knowledge
about children and media violence,
particularly in the context of channels of
communication like satellite television
and Internet. Another goal is to point out
initiatives aiming to enhance children’s
competence as users of the media.
Finally, the work of the Clearinghouse
seeks to stimulate further research on
children and media.
The Clearinghouse, established in 1997
through the efforts of Nordicom (the Nordic
Information Centre for Media and
Communication Research) at Göteborg
University (Sweden) and financed by the
Swedish government and UNESCO, informs
users – researchers, policy-makers, media
professionals, teachers, voluntary
organizations and interested individuals –
about research on children, young people
and media violence; children’s access to
mass media and their media use; media
literacy and children’s participation in the
media; and regulatory and voluntary
measures and activities in the area.
Fundamental to the work of the
Clearinghouse is the creation of a global
network. A yearbook, newsletter, several
bibliographies and a worldwide register of
organizations that work with issues relating
to children and the media have been
published.
Communication and Information Sector, Communication
Development Division (CI/COM)
www.nordicom.gu.se/unesco.html
©D. Roger/UNESCO
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UNESCO’s programmes
Education for human rights,
peace and democracy in Southern
Africa (Mozambique, Namibia and
Zimbabwe)
Schools are the focal point for this project
given the significant role that education,
and human rights education in particular,
play in the long-term development and
transformation of societies. The project,
financed by DANIDA and executed by
UNESCO, was launched in September 1997
with the aim of mainstreaming human
rights, democracy and related issues into
the formal curriculum. The long-term
objective of the project was to contribute
to the development of a culture of peace,
characterized by respect for human rights,
diversity and tolerance in the sub-region,
especially among youth. The main focus
was on developing instructional materials
for integrating human rights and
democracy into the school curriculum,
on integrating the new materials and
teaching practices into existing curricula
and on the training of key personnel both at
national and at sub-regional levels. The
project has contributed to building national
capacities, and training sessions are now
conducted by local staff.
Education Sector, Division for the Promotion of Quality
Education (ED/PEQ/VAL)
www.unesco.org/education/ecp/index.htm
Regional conference on human
rights education
A series of regional conferences was
convened within the framework of the Plan
of Action for the United Nations Decade for
Human Rights Education (1995–2004) with
the aim of sensitizing decision-makers and
the general public on the need to promote
human rights education and contribute to
the elaboration and implementation of
national plans for human rights education.
The last edition was the Regional
Conference on Human Rights Education in
Latin America and the Caribbean (Mexico
City, Mexico, 28 November–1 December
2001), organized by UNESCO in
co-operation with the Office of the United
Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights (OHCHR). The regional conference
resulted in the Mexico Declaration.
Social and Human Sciences Sector, Human Rights and
Development (SHS/HRS/HRD)
www.unesco.org/human_rights/index.htm
International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People (1995-2004), www.unesco.org/culture/indigenous
Human Rights, Democracy, Peace and Tolerance, www.unesco.org/human_rights/index.htm
14
the CEDAW and Optional Protocol, an
explanation of these texts and the list of
States Parties to the Convention, was
created by UNESCO to help promote the
Convention. In order to disseminate it
throughout the world, the Passport is
available free of charge in several
languages, such as Arabic, Chinese,
English, French, Hindi, Portuguese,
Russian, Spanish, Swahili, Urdu, in nine
languages of Guinea, etc. It can be
downloaded from
www.unesco.org/women/index_en.htm
Women and a culture of peace
Supporting women’s peace initiatives
The Asian Women for a Culture of Peace
Conference (2000) produced the Hanoi
Declaration and the Asian Women’s Plan of
Action for a Culture of Peace and
Sustainable Development. A case study on
Vietnamese women’s best practices in
conflict resolution and peace building is
being undertaken. In the Mediterranean
region, activities include promoting peace
and democracy through networking of
women in the Balkan region; an advocacy
campaign on human rights in
Bosnia/Herzegovina; and support to a
Forum of Women Artists from the
Mediterranean for a Culture of Peace.
Culture of Peace in
4
Ensuring equality between women and men . . .
. . . by integrating a gender perspective
and promoting equality in economic,
social and political decision-making;
eliminating all forms of discrimination
and violence against women; supporting
and aiding women in crisis situations
resulting from war and all other forms
of violence . . .
Passport to Equality
The Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination Against Women
(CEDAW) was adopted by the General
Assembly of the United Nations in 1979. As
of March 2002, 168 States had ratified or
acceded to it. An Optional Protocol to the
Convention, adopted in 1999 by the General
Assembly, gives women the right to submit
individual complaints concerning violations
of the Convention by their governments to
the United Nations Committee responsible
for CEDAW. UNESCO is particularly
committed to implementing Article 10 on
women’s right to equal education and the
elimination of stereotyped
concepts of the roles of
men and women at all
levels and in all forms of
education. The Passport
to Equality, a pocket-
sized document that
contains the full text of
For information on other programme activities in this action area:
15
Socialization for egalitarian partnerships –
notably of boys and young men
Violence among men, political and practical
strategies for reducing men’s violence, and
the possibilities for raising boys in ways
that emphasize qualities such as emotional
response, caring, and the communication
skills vital to a culture of peace were topics
discussed at a UNESCO expert group
meeting held in Norway in 1997, whose
outcomes were disseminated in several
languages, along with the book Male Roles
and Masculinities and Violence (see below).
University programmes and courses,
discussion groups and other activities and
programmes have been developed for
reducing men’s violence and strengthening
groups of gender-sensitive young men
working against violence, including violence
against women. A research project called
Gender, Peace and Development in the
Caribbean was undertaken in 2001.
Training manuals and reference books
To provide gender-sensitive education and
training, a manual entitled Promoting
Women’s Participation in Conflict Resolution
to Build a Culture of Peace has been
developed, tested and finalized in
collaboration with the Forum for African
Women’s Educationalists (FAWE).
Translation into several languages and
training of women trainers to strengthen
their roles as peace promoters has begun.
A second training manual, Education for a
Culture of Peace in a Gender Perspective
(prototype study unit for teacher education),
was published by UNESCO in 2001. This
UNESCO’s programmes
manual is conceived as a teacher’s guide
for use at different levels within the school
system, primarily at the secondary level.
Women Say ‘No’ to War (1999), Towards a
Women’s Agenda for a Culture of Peace
(1999) and Male Roles, Masculinities and
Violence: A Culture of Peace Perspective
(2000), are being used as reference texts
and in university courses. An inter-agency
document, Best Practices in Peace Building
and Non-violent Conflict Resolution: Some
Documented African Women’s Peace
Initiatives is also available.
Social and Human Sciences Sector, Division of Human
Rights, Gender equality and development
(SHS/HRS/GED)
www.unesco.org/cpp/wcp
For publications at UNESCO Publishing Office:
http://upo.unesco.org
Women and Gender Equality, www.unesco.org/women
Women, Science, Technology, www.unesco.org/science/women/eng/index.html
UNESCO poster image created in 1989 by
Mélois for the adoption of the United Nations
Convention on the Rights of the Child
(www.unesco.org/education/educprog/ecf/
html/rights.htm)
16
Culture of Peace in
5
Fostering democratic participation . . .
. . . by educating responsible citizens;
reinforcing actions to promote democratic
principles and practices; establishing
and strengthening national institutions
and processes that promote and sustain
democracy . . .
Educational kit
The Practice of Citizenship, published in 1998
in English, French and Spanish, contains
basic learning materials and promotes a
broad concept of civics education to include
the dimension of peace, human rights,
democracy, tolerance and international
understanding. Some materials can be
used by teachers, others provide impetus to
the development of specific teaching aids
and programmes at the national and local
levels. The kit has been distributed to all
Member States, and it has been requested
by numerous NGOs, institutes and
individuals. A number of publications in
the kit have been
translated into various
other languages (Finish,
Lithuanian, Turkish,
Albanian, Bosnian,
Bengali, Hindi,
Bahasa Indonesian)
and/or adapted for
national and local environments.
Education Sector, Division for the Promotion
of Quality Education (ED/PEQ/VAL)
www.unesco.org/education
For information on other programme activities in this action area:
UNESCO Cities for Peace Prize
This prize pays tribute to the initiatives of
cities that have succeeded in strengthening
social cohesion, improving living conditions in
disadvantaged neighbourhoods and
developing a constructive intercultural
dialogue, all indispensable elements in
developing a peaceful and harmonious urban
environment. The candidate cities for the
prize may also participate in the ‘UNESCO
Cities for Peace Network’ consisting of
municipalities and other local actors and
relevant partners. This Network serves to
identify, validate and disseminate information
on best practices, funding institutions,
training courses, research and so on.
The UNESCO Cities for Peace prizes for
2000–2001 were presented in Marrakech on
18 March 2002 to
Bukhara (Uzbekistan),
Sharm el Sheikh (Egypt),
Cotacachi (Ecuador),
Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic
of the Congo) and
Vilnius (Lithuania).
UNESCO gives international visibility to
innovative practices submitted by the
candidate cities by including them in the
database of best practices: ‘The city:
network of cultures’, available at
http://citiesforpeace.unesco.org/
Culture Sector, Division of Cultural Policies (CLT/CP)
www.unesco.org/culture/citiesforpeace/
html_eng/winners.shtml
17
Community radio
UNESCO supports the development
of local-level, community media
particularly to give isolated or
disadvantaged social groups a
chance to participate in the
development of strategies and
projects that promote dialogue
and pooling experiences at local
levels. A handbook on principles,
policies and materials relevant to
the development of community
media is currently being prepared
and will be made available to
Member States.
The UNESCO Community Media
Programme seeks to strengthen the role of
civil society in promoting, building and
maintaining democratic processes within
countries. UNESCO is now experimenting
the use of community radio as an effective
informational interface at the local level by
combining it with community Internet
access, developing community databases
and community libraries, thus extending
the reach of new technologies to rural
populations. The main functions of
community radio include:
enhancing democratic processes at a
local level by giving a real voice to the
marginalized and the poor;
increasing diversity of content and
pluralism of information at the local level
in order to promote and reflect local
identity, character and culture;
assisting in creating a diversity of voices
and opinions and encouraging individual
expression;
UNESCO’s programmes
encouraging participation, information
sharing and innovation.
Community Radio focuses on the use of
appropriate communication and
information tools to support decision-
making and encourage dialogue between
citizens and public authorities to enhance
democratic governance.
Concerning small-island States, support is
being provided for pilot projects combining
traditional and new technologies (including
access to Internet) to help local populations
gain access to international programmes
and services. Special attention goes to
initiatives being developed and carried out
by women. Assistance has also been
provided for setting up low-cost equipment
production units and appropriate
maintenance services.
Communication and Information Sector, Communication
Development Division (CI/COM/MSD)
www.unesco.org/webworld/com/
broadcasting/broad03.shtml
UNESCO’s actions to promote indigenous audio-visual productions, www.unesco.org/webworld/com/index.shtml
Management of Social Transformation Programme (MOST), www.unesco.org/most/projects.htm
©D. Roger/UNESCO
18
Tolerance, an active approach to
dialogue and peace
Tolerance is a key dimension in the
prevention of violence, the emergence of a
spirit of peace and the strengthening of
cultural pluralism. It is an active principle
of peace and democracy and is
indissociable from the enjoyment of human
rights. To put the new concept of tolerance
into practice, in line with the Declaration of
Principles on Tolerance (1995) and the
Follow-up to the United Nations Year for
Tolerance (1995), actions are being
undertaken, such as the annual
commemoration of International Tolerance
Day, 16 November, which seeks to raise
awareness through events organized each
year in schools and in the media; and the
‘UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the
Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence’,
which will be awarded for the fourth time in
2002. The laureates who have already
received the prize are Pope Shenouda III,
leader of the Coptic Church of Egypt, Pope
of Alexandria and Patriarch of Saint Mark’s
See in 2000; the anti-nuclear activists Joint
Action Committee for Peoples’ Rights of
Pakistan and Narayan Desai of India in
1998, and Pro Femmes Twese Hamwe of
Rwanda, presided by Veneranda
Nzambazamariya, in 1997.
Social and Human Sciences Sector, Discrimination
and Racism (SHS/HRS/RAC)
www.unesco.org/tolerance/index.htm
Culture of Peace in
6
Advancing understanding, tolerance and solidarity . . .
. . . by promoting a dialogue among
civilizations; actions in favour of
vulnerable groups, migrants, refugees
and displaced persons, indigenous people
and traditional groups; respect for
difference and cultural diversity . . .
Intercultural dialogue projects
Intercultural projects promote the concept
of a common cultural heritage and a plural
identity. They include the campaign
Breaking the Silence jointly launched by the
Slave Route Project and the Associated
Schools; the revision of school textbooks
in order to reduce stereotyping and
discrimination (Slave Route Project and
the Mediterranean Programme); producing
pedagogical tools in order to promote
reciprocal knowledge
among different
religious communities
(Interreligious
Dialogue Programme);
and stimulating
intercultural
understanding through
the UNESCO Chairs of Interreligious and
Intercultural Dialogue and the International
Institutes in Central Asia and Mongolia.
Culture Sector, Division of Cultural Policies and
Pluralism (CLT/CP)
www.unesco.org/culture/dialogue/html_eng/
index_en.shtml and
www.unesco.org/dialogue2001
For information on other programme activities in this action area: UNESCO Universal Declaration
Dialogue among Civilizations, www.unesco.org/dialogue2001 International Decade of the World’s
19
Reconciliation through cultural
heritage projects
Bosnia and Herzegovina:
The Old Bridge of Mostar (Stari Most)
The Old Bridge of Mostar, dating from the
Ottoman period in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
was destroyed during the Balkan War in
1993. UNESCO plans to rebuild the bridge
in a joint effort of all communities –
namely, the former belligerents
themselves. A funding agreement was
signed with the World Bank, in which
UNESCO provides scientific and technical
expertise in the project, to be financed from
a loan and from voluntary contributions for
a total amount of US$5 million granted by
the Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, France,
Slovenia and the European Union, among
others. UNESCO has set up an
International Committee of Experts from
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia
and Turkey, and from other countries. The
ceremony for launching the reconstruction,
in 1999, was the first occasion in many
years at which the two Mayors of Mostar
– East and West – met and shook hands.
Angkor: a symbol of national unity
Cambodian monuments and archaeological
sites suffered from neglect and pillage and
faced destruction. After 1991, national
authorities recognized the importance of
cultural heritage for shaping Cambodians
identity, strengthening social cohesion and
contributing to economic development.
UNESCO manages the Secretariat of the
International Co-ordinating Committee for
the Safeguarding and Development of
Angkor, a mechanism to monitor
UNESCO’s programmes
international
assistance for
safeguarding the
site and guarantee
the relevance of
projects as well as
their conformity
with international
standards in
conservation. One
of the main
objectives of UNESCO’s projects in Angkor
is the training of a new generation of
archaeologists and architects.
www.unesco.org/culture/japan-fit/
html_eng/angkor.shtml
A peacebuilding process in Korea
UNESCO has been able to establish
co-operation between the Democratic
People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the
Republic of Korea through the ROK/UNESCO
Funds-in-Trust for the preservation of
cultural heritage, notably of the Kokuryo
Tombs in the DPRK. Technical assistance
including provision of urgently needed
equipment has been provided for the
Yaksuri Tomb, damaged by water infiltration
and undergoing further deterioration due to
the construction of a canal. Additional
co-operation in capacity-building for the
conservation of Kokuryo Mural Painting
Tomb is being established. It is hoped that
this co-operation will contribute to the
building of mutual understanding and trust
between the two countries.
Culture Sector, Division of Cultural Heritage (CLT/CH)
www.unesco.org/culture/heritage/
on Cultural Diversity, www.unesco.org/culture/pluralism/diversity/html_eng/index_en.shtml
Indigenous People, 1995–2004, www.unesco.org/culture/indigenous
©M. Spier-Donati/UNESCO
20
UNESCO SOS MEDIA
in countries of the former Yugoslavia
This programme provided three years of
emergency aid during the war in Bosnia-
Herzegovina, and it continues to aid
independent media in all the countries of
the former Yugoslavia, each of which is a
Member State of UNESCO. Projects include
printing news in Yugoslavia; maintaining a
bank of TV programmes in Sarajevo and
Belgrade; supporting a regional network
for local TV and radio production; producing
and distributing documentaries in Croatia;
and developing and expanding the
independent newspaper distribution
network in Yugoslavia.
The Organization contributes to creating
the conditions for press freedom in these
countries in transition. UNESCO has sent
international experts to help the
governments draft laws about media and
about public TV/radio broadcasting.
Culture of Peace in
7
Supporting participatory communication and
the free flow of information and knowledge . . .
. . . by means of such actions as support for independent
media in the promotion of a culture of peace; effective use
of media and mass communications; measures to address
the issue of violence in the media; knowledge and
information sharing through new technologies . . .
Freedom of expression and
media for peace projects
Afghan Independent Media Project
Begun in December 2001, this project aims
to create a media centre in Kabul to
support local independent media initiatives
and the emergence of free and democratic
expression, create a pole of activity (being
eventually one among many such poles in
Afghanistan) and develop local professional
skills to facilitate media development. The
Afghan Independent Media Project has
been divided into five sections to create
media facilities and a community of ideas
in the centre of Kabul and includes the
following:
Afghan Media & Culture Centre: core
team and common facilities for journalists
Media Incubator: support for a selection
of independent media projects
Training Centre: training in computers,
languages, journalism, and photography
with several international partners (IFJ,
IWPR, Media Action International,
IMPACS, Internews, etc.)
TV Production unit: facilities for individual
projects
Printing facilities: printers and photocopiers
For information on other programme activities in this action area:
21
The Great Lakes Region in Africa:
Countering rumours and propaganda
This project aims to create the right
conditions for providing the public with
impartial news in an area where rumours
have too often replaced accurate
information, and where biased media have
had a dramatic effect on the inhabitants.
UNESCO’s strategy is to promote diversity
by training a new generation of journalists;
encouraging the exchange of news among
media and among independent journalists
in the region through appropriate
structures; and providing material help to
see that existing independent media
survive. UNESCO helps independent media
that provide impartial news. The SOS
MEDIA programme also offers expertise
to governments so they strengthen,
whenever possible, the existence of
independent media. In addition, it
intervenes when press freedom is
threatened. Since 1994, aid to independent
media has been classified by the United
Nations Inter-Agency Appeal as one of the
urgent needs of the Great Lakes region.
Communication and Information Sector, Division for
Freedom of Expression, Democracy and Peace (CI/FED)
www.unesco.org/webworld/com_media/
peace.html
UNESCO’s programmes
Tackling the digital divide
The Community Multimedia Centre (CMC)
programme offers a global strategy for
tackling the digital divide in the poorest
communities of the developing world and
also in countries in transition. It provides a
gateway to participation in the global
knowledge society, seeking to ensure that
information, communication and knowledge
become tools of the poor for improving
their own lives.
A CMC combines community radio by local
people in local languages with community
telecentre facilities such as computers with
Internet and e-mail access, phone, fax and
photocopying services. Radio is low-cost
and easy to operate, and not only informs,
educates and entertains, but also
empowers the community by giving a
strong public voice to the voiceless. With
training, communities can locally access,
manage, produce and communicate
information for development. The first pilot
CMC project was developed in the
Kothmale region in Sri Lanka. The success
of the CMC strategy in the Kothmale
Internet Project has inspired a series of
projects now underway in Asia, Africa and
Latin America and the Caribbean.
Communication and Information Sector, Communication
Development Division (CI/COM/MSD)
www.unesco.org/webworld/com/broadcasting/
broad04.shtml
Cultural industries as Culture of Peace vectors, www.unesco.org/culture/industries
University-Industry-Science Partnership Programme, www.unesco.org/unispar
22
Two follow-up meetings for the same
regions are foreseen for the biennium
2002–2003 that will involve all actors and
partners dealing with human security.
Social and Human Sciences Sector, Division of
Foresight, Philosophy and Human Sciences (SHS/FPH)
www.unesco.org/securipax
Intercultural mediation
Mediation can repair the social fabric by
teaching how to manage and overcome
conflict. In this way, diverse forms of
mediation follow the lines of education for
a culture of peace, by encouraging a
positive attitude towards cultural difference.
Art, used as a formal and informal
pedagogical tool, makes exchanges
possible and serves as an instrument for
intercultural mediation. This approach is
currently being applied in two projects in
the Balkans, Towards a Plural Cultural
Identity in a Region of Inter-Communitarian
Tension, and the establishment of the ARS
AEVI Museum/Centre for Contemporary Art
and Associated Programmes.
Culture Sector, Division of Cultural Policies (CLT/CP)
www.unesco.org/culture/pluralism/balkan/
html_fr/index_fr.shtml
Culture of Peace in
8
Promoting international peace and security . . .
. . . through action such as the promotion of general and complete
disarmament; greater involvement of women in prevention and resolution
of conflicts and in promoting a culture of peace in post-conflict situations;
initiatives in conflict situations; encouraging confidence-building measures
and efforts for negotiating peaceful settlements . . .
For information on other programme activities in this action area:
Education in crisis and post-conflict situation, www.unesco.org/education/emergency
Reinforcing human security
The programme Violence, War and Peace
focuses on the need to prevent conflicts at
the source and to strengthen human
security through a global network of peace
research and training institutions. It
provides a framework for discussing
human security from ethical, normative and
educational perspectives through expert
meetings, broad reflection on the subject
and awareness raising at the political
decision-making level. In November 2000,
the First International Meeting of Directors
of Peace Research and Training Institutions
was held in Paris on the theme: ‘What
Agenda for Human Security in the Twenty-
first Century?’ One result
was to create the
International SecuriPax
Network for the
Promotion of Human
Security and Peace.
Another was the
organization in 2001
of regional expert
meetings on Peace,
Human Security and
Conflict Prevention in
Africa and in Latin
America and the
Caribbean.
23
Regional programme for
education in emergencies
The UNESCO Regional Programme for
Education in Emergencies (PEER)
organized peace education workshops for
Somali teachers in Somalia in 2000.
Training trainer programmes in the Djibouti
refugee camps involved over eighty
Ethiopian and Somali refugee teachers,
along with Somali teachers in camps in
Aden and Yemen. These workshops, using
the Peace Education Package (PEP) and in
co-operation with other stakeholders, are
contributing to establishing a culture of
peace education at three levels: school,
community and nation. The refugee school
in Aden run by Radda Barnen (Sweden’s
Save the Children programme), a model for
best practice, has been instrumental in
raising awareness in both schools and the
communities.
Other related initiatives since 2000 have
been launched in the Horn of Africa and the
Great Lakes region, in Cambodia in the
former Khmer Rouge population of Koh Sla
in Kampot Province, and in Algeria, among
which a sports for peace project, a culture
of peace and childhood protection
awareness campaign, basic education,
community development and other conflict
prevention and peace-building approaches.
Education Sector, Emergency Educational Assistance,
Support to Countries in Situations of Conflict and
Reconstruction (ED/EPS/CCR)
www.unesco.org/education/emergency/
unesco/projects.shtml
www.unesco.org/education/emergency/
unesco/case_studies.shtml
UNESCO’s programmes
Protection of the Afghan heritage, www.unesco.org/whc
Ethics at UNESCO, www.unesco.org/ethics
Sharing water wisely
UNESCO’s contribution to the United
Nations’ World Water Assessment
Programme is entitled From Potential
Conflict to Co-operation Potential (PC>CP).
In collaboration with Green Cross
International, the project addresses the
obstacles, identifies the incentives and
promotes the means to achieving the
integrated, equitable and sustainable
sharing of water resources worldwide.
Although shared water resources can be a
source of conflict, their joint management
should be strengthened and facilitated as a
means of co-operation between various
water users.
The primary objective of PC>CP is to foster
co-operation between stakeholders in the
management of shared water resources
and to mitigate the risk of potential
conflicts. It analyses historical experiences
and reviews legal, negotiation and systems
analysis tools and their ability to contribute
towards solving water-related conflicts.
Case studies of successful co-operation
will provide stakeholders with educational
material. The priority target groups of
PC>CP are institutions and individuals that
manage shared water resources, including
governments, donor and funding agencies,
educators at all levels and professionals of
water management institutions and
decision-makers.
Natural Sciences Sector, Division of Water Sciences
(SC/HYD)
www.unesco.org/water/wwap/pccp
24
Key United Nations resolutions and other reference documents
United Nations Resolutions and Reports
Document code Title
A/56/5, 13 November 2001 International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence
for the Children of the World, 2001–2010
A/55/282, 28 September 2001 International Day of Peace
A/56/349, 13 September 2001 Report of the Secretary-General: International Decade for a
Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the
World, 2001–2010
A/55/47, 29 November 2000 International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence
for the Children of the World, 2001–2010
A/55/377, 12 September 2000 Report of the Secretary-General: International Decade for a
Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the
World, 2001–2010
A/53/243, 6 October 1999 Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace
A/52/13, 15 January 1998 Culture of Peace
A/53/25, 19 November 1998 International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence
for the Children of the World, 2001–2010
Other reference documents
Message by the United Nations Secretary-General: Message on the opening of the International
Decade for the Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World, 2001
Message by the UNESCO Director-General: Message marking the beginning of the International
Decade for the Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World, 2001
Action Plan for the International Decade adopted by the International Conference of NGOs
maintaining official relations with UNESCO, 12–15 December 2001
Report on the International NGO Symposium, 24–25 November 2001: ‘The Culture of Peace:
An Idea in Action’
Report on the progress made by UNESCO in the implementation of the programme of action on
a culture of peace and on co-operation with the United Nations system in this field (161 EX/17,
item 3.1.1, document presented at the 161st session of UNESCO’s Executive Board, April 2001)
All documents are available on http://www3.unesco.org/iycp/uk/uk_sum_refdoc.htm
For the list of titles on Culture of Peace available from UNESCO Publishing, go to
http://upo.unesco.org and enter ‘Culture of Peace’ in the ‘Search’ box.
Published by the Culture of Peace Co-ordination
of the Bureau of Strategic Planning
United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization,
7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 PARIS 07 SP
tel: 33 (0)1 45 68 15 89 • fax: 33 (0)1 45 68 55 57
e-mail: cp@unesco.org
www.unesco.org/cp
Project management: Judith Crews
Graphic design: Sylvaine Baeyens
Cover photo: Rock art, ©Ediciones San Marcos
Printed in the workshops of UNESCO
©UNESCO 2002 • Printed in France
(BSP-2002/WS/3)
The designations employed and the presentation of material
throughout this publication do not imply the expression of
any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning
the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries.
Credits:
p. 8, Barefoot College, Tilonia, Rajasthan (India).
p. 9, The ‘Kites’ logo for the programme on Non-violence
Education at UNESCO was created by A. Kurtycz.
pp.11, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, A. Kurtycz.
Culture of Peace Co-ordination
Bureau of Strategic Planning
UNESCO
7, place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 07 SP
tel: +33 (0)1 45 68 15 89
fax: +33 (0)1 45 68 55 57
e-mail: cp@unesco.org
www.unesco.org/cp
Since wars begin
in the minds of men,
it is in the minds of men
that the defences of peace
must be constructed.
Constitution of UNESCO, 1945, Preamble
Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace A
A/53/243, 6 October 1999 Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace A/52/13, 15 January 1998 Culture of Peace
International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the
A/53/25, 19 November 1998 International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World, 2001-2010
Report of the Secretary-General: International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the
A/55/377, 12 September 2000 Report of the Secretary-General: International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World, 2001-2010