Article

A Theory of Marital Dissolution and Stability

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Abstract

Research is presented on the prospective longitudinal prediction of marital dissolution. First, a cascade toward marital dissolution is described. Second, the cascade is predicted with variables from a balance theory of marriage. Third, there are process and perception (the distance and isolation cascades) cascades related to the cascade toward dissolution. The importance of "flooding" is discussed, as well as a mechanism through which negative perceptions (which are 2 dimensional) become global and stable and through which the entire history of the marriage is recast negatively. The role of physiology is outlined. A theory is presented in which a "core triad of balance" is formulated in terms of 3 weakly related thermostats (connected by catastrophe theory) and related to the distance and isolation cascade. Implications for a minimal marital therapy are discussed.

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... Several existing theories and numerous empirical findings have found a link between effective interpersonal emotional processes and relationship quality (Bloch, Haase, & Levenson, 2014;Gable, Reis, Impett, & Asher, 2004;Gottman, 1993;Gottman & Levenson, 1992 influence, and respond to one another's emotions during interactions and as a result, their emotions become interdependent over time; this is a process that is often referred to as either between-person or interpersonal emotional processes (Butler, 2011). Most studies suggest that couples who promote and reciprocate effective interpersonal emotional exchanges in various settings also report greater intimacy, trust, satisfaction, and commitment in the long-run (Gottman, 1993;Gottman & Levenson, 1992;Levenson, Carstensen, & Gottman, 1994;Rosand, Slinning, Roysamb, & Tambs, 2014). ...
... Several existing theories and numerous empirical findings have found a link between effective interpersonal emotional processes and relationship quality (Bloch, Haase, & Levenson, 2014;Gable, Reis, Impett, & Asher, 2004;Gottman, 1993;Gottman & Levenson, 1992 influence, and respond to one another's emotions during interactions and as a result, their emotions become interdependent over time; this is a process that is often referred to as either between-person or interpersonal emotional processes (Butler, 2011). Most studies suggest that couples who promote and reciprocate effective interpersonal emotional exchanges in various settings also report greater intimacy, trust, satisfaction, and commitment in the long-run (Gottman, 1993;Gottman & Levenson, 1992;Levenson, Carstensen, & Gottman, 1994;Rosand, Slinning, Roysamb, & Tambs, 2014). ...
... Numerous researchers argue that healthy relationships transpire when partners are able to effectively respond to each other's emotional needs (e.g., expression of emotions, disclosure) particularly, when a person feels understood, validated, and cared for by another (Bloch et al., 2014;Gottman, 1993;Gottman & Levenson, 1992;Laurenceau, Barrett, & Pietromonaco, 1998;Levenson et al., 1994;Vater & Schröder-Abé, 2015). For example, greater relationship satisfaction and stability have been reported when partners constructively respond to each other during both positive and negative events (Donato, Pagani, Parise, Bertoni, & Iafrate, 2014;Fletcher et al., 2000;Hendrick & Hendrick, 1987). ...
Article
Intercultural romantic relationships have increased worldwide. Yet, there is a lack of empirical knowledge about intercultural couples. The studies that do suggest that intercultural couples have higher rates of conflict and long‐term instability, but most studies have measured intercultural couples using categorical responses of race/ethnicity, which limits theoretical insight to the interpersonal characteristics that make up high‐quality intimate relationships. This review integrates findings from several research fields into a new model, called the culturally based romantic relationship (CBR²) model, to understand how similarities/differences in within‐person emotional processes and relationship norms relate to between‐person emotional functioning, and in turn relationship quality. Theoretical models of this nature are essential because they can impact therapy and counseling programs developed for diverse groups of people, but also advance research fields that are related to culture, emotions, and interpersonal relationships.
... Gottman identified four conflict messages that can predict whether couples stay together over time (Gottman, 1993;Gottman andLevenson, 1992, 2000). Given their connections to relational termination, Gottman labeled these predictors the Four Horsemen (of the Apocalypse). ...
... Gottman identified four conflict messages that can predict whether couples stay together over time (Gottman, 1993;Gottman andLevenson, 1992, 2000). Given their connections to relational termination, Gottman labeled these predictors the Four Horsemen (of the Apocalypse). ...
... The results of this study indicate tentative perspectives of the interwoven nature of couple conflict and music utilisation. The developed model provides positive articulation of biopsychosocial (Engel, 1977) and ANS theories (Porges, 2011), both of which have prior linkages to couples' dynamics (Gottman 1993). Insight from prior grounded theory research (Whiting, 2008) suggests that while relationships between themes and theoretical domains exist (e.g., relational conflict and social domain), these relationships do not imply causal connections or directions. ...
... Current evidence indicates that both social and emotional regulation in a relationship are important (Baucom et al., 2012;Dovala et al., 2018); however, the process of looking at couples' musical experience seems to fuse those domains effortlessly. Music utilisation supports couple functioning when in conflict by fitting to the needs of a couple, whether it is through relational distance during times of cognitive-emotional 'shut-down' (i.e., flooding; Gottman, 1993) or through realisation of what is good about the other partner setting up a possible repair attempt. Similar to the overlapping and interconnected conceptualisation of the biopsychosocial model, our model suggests that the couple conflict process looks unique to previous conceptualisations when addressing it with musical utilisation. ...
Article
It is believed that conflict exists on a spectrum, which holds interest for many relationship researchers. However, it is not well understood how music is utilised within couples when they engage in conflict, considering music has been known to assist in reducing physiological, emotional, and social regulation. The proposed study explored how music was utilised in times of conflict for couples through a grounded theory approach. The main themes that emerged were: variability of choice, knowledge of partner's habits, communication, similarity of style, relational distance, repair attempt, music utilisation as relational engagement, emotional regulation, and hopeful togetherness. These themes are presented in a theoretical model of how couples utilise music to regulate social, emotional, and biological domains of their relationship.
... Also, individuals who are feeling defensive will often become hyper-vigilant [69], and typically either attack or withdraw [23]. Additionally, Gottman [70] found that 85% of males will resort to stonewalling, which is a known withdrawal approach. In contrast, females are typically known for raising issues in the relationship [70]. ...
... Additionally, Gottman [70] found that 85% of males will resort to stonewalling, which is a known withdrawal approach. In contrast, females are typically known for raising issues in the relationship [70]. Overall, it is agreed that defensiveness is an all-encompassing construct that can take many forms. ...
Article
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Background Some individuals are no longer entering romantic relationships, others move through relationships too quickly searching for “the one” and making quick assessments of their romantic partners, while others stay in their relationships but “check out” or do not work on their issues. These are conclusions from two studies: (1) an interview with psychologists who specialise in relationship therapy, and (2) an analysis of individuals’ lived experiences of relationships. The concept of relationship sabotage can explain these phenomena. However, presently, there is no instrument to conceptualise and empirically measure how people continue to employ self-defeating attitudes and behaviors in (and out) of relationships to impede success, or withdraw effort, and justify failure. Methods and Results A series of three studies (involving a total of 1365 English speaking individuals of diverse gender orientation, sexual orientation, and cultural background, with relationship sabotage experience) were conceptualized for the current project to fill the need for scale development and to build empirical evidence on the topic of self-sabotage in romantic relationships. The scale was developed over two studies using exploratory factor analysis and one-congeneric model analyses. The third study, using confirmatory factor analysis, confirmed the final structure for the Relationship Sabotage Scale (RSS), which contains 12 items and three factors: defensiveness, trust difficulty, and lack of relationship skills. Constructive validity analyses were also conducted. Conclusion The RSS is a brief scale that provides conclusive information about individual patterns in relationships. Findings using this scale can offer explanations regarding the reasons that individuals engage in destructive behaviours from one relationship to the next. Investigations should continue to test a model for sabotage in romantic relationships using the developed scale and other factors such as relationship diferences and insecure attachment. More specifically, this measure can be used to understand mediator constructs of relational outcomes within the attachment framework to explain relationship dissolution and work towards relationship maintenance.
... Relational satisfaction or the degree of positive and negative affect experienced in a relationship (Rusbult et al., 1998) is one of the most common outcomes studied in couple conflict (Whitton et al., 2018). Longitudinal data demonstrate that couples with more relational satisfaction are less likely to consider ending their marriage, to separate, or to divorce than couples with less relational satisfaction (Gottman, 1993;Gottman and Levenson, 1992). A meta-analysis shows that relational satisfaction is negatively associated with distress, withdrawal, and hostility in couple conflict management and positively associated with intimacy and problem solving (Woodin, 2011). ...
... Conflict resolution, or whether or not a conflict has ended, is the end goal in couple conflict. Couples who resolve conflict tend to have happier, more stable marriages (Gottman, 1993) and report that their relationships are going well (Driver and Gottman, 2004). ...
Article
This 5-day daily diary study examined the influence of media use on the spillover and crossover effect of couple conflict among married and dating couples. Couples aged 18–38 years recorded their daily overload, negative mood, couple conflict, media use, flooding, and satisfaction. The results showed negative spillover and crossover effects: individuals reported more negative moods and couple conflict in response to their own and their partners’ increase in daily overload. Following media synchronicity theory, the more synchronous media couples used in conflict, the more they resolved the conflict. In addition, the more couples segmented their channels, the less they flooded and the more they resolved the conflict. The results suggest that dating and married couples might benefit from managing conflict associated with spillover and crossover effects using synchronous channels that are segmented.
... Alternatively, men and women may express their feelings of closeness and annoyance similarly but vary in their reactions to, or interpretations of, their partners' feelings. Past research with married couples found that husbands are more accurate than wives at "decoding" their partner's positive messages [43] and that men are more likely to feel flooded (i.e., overwhelmed) by their partner's negative affect [44]. Thus, men may be especially attuned to even subtle expressions of their female partners' feelings. ...
Article
Background Although past longitudinal research demonstrates that romantic partners affect one another’s health outcomes, considerably less is known about how romantic experiences “get under the skin” in everyday life. Purpose The current study investigated whether young couples’ naturally occurring feelings of closeness to and annoyance with each other during waking hours were associated with their overnight cardiovascular activity. Methods Participants were 63 heterosexual young adult dating couples (Mage = 23.07). Using ecological momentary assessments, couples reported their hourly feelings of closeness to and annoyance with their partners across 1 day; subsequent overnight heart rate was captured through wearable electrocardiogram biosensors. Actor–partner interdependence models tested whether individuals’ overnight heart rate varied as a function of (a) their own daytime feelings of closeness and annoyance (actor effects) and (b) their partner’s daytime feelings of closeness and annoyance (partner effects) while controlling for daytime heart rate. Results Although young adults’ feelings of romantic closeness and annoyance were unrelated to their own overnight heart rate (i.e., no actor effects), gender-specific partner effects emerged. Young men’s nocturnal heart rate was uniquely predicted by their female partner’s daytime relationship feelings. When women felt closer to their partners during the day, men exhibited lower overnight heart rate. When women felt more annoyed with their partners during the day, men exhibited heightened overnight heart rate. Conclusions The findings illustrate gender-specific links between couple functioning and physiological arousal in the everyday lives of young dating couples, implicating physiological sensitivity to partner experiences as one potential pathway through which relationships affect health.
... A modell szerint a párok interperszonális képességei (kiemelten a konfliktuskezelés) meghatározzák a párkapcsolat minőségének alakulását. Ahogy a pár tagjai életük során egyre több problémával néznek szembe, a konfliktuskezelés esetleges hiányosságai miatt egymástól elzárkózhatnak, defenzívek, lenézők és kritikusak lehetnek, ami negatív hatást fejt ki a párkapcsolat minőségére (Gottman, 1993). 1 A csökkenést feltételező elméletek közül a harmadik az ún. nászút vége (honeymoon is over), más néven nászút utáni egyhangúság (honeymoon followed by blandness) hatást emeli ki. ...
Article
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Abstract: The present paper examines the relationship satisfaction trajectories and their possible determinants in the case of Hungarian women and men. A group-based trajectory analysis was conducted, using data from four waves (2001/2002– 2012/2013) of the Hungarian Generations and Gender Survey, called Életünk fordulópontjai. The group-based approach identifies distinct trajectory groups of relationship quality, therefore uncovering the underlying heterogeneity behind women’s and men’s mean satisfaction change over time. A high (57%) and low (43%) satisfaction group were discovered amongst women, while men had a high (54%) and an average (46%) group, but a general decline in the first years of the relationship was observed in all four distinct trajectories. For women, a lower level of relationship satisfaction was linked with parental divorce, living in a cohabitation instead of being married, non-peaceful conflict resolution methods, economic hardships and being the only breadwinner, while children and a traditional or homogamous relative status compared to their partners was found to increase satisfaction. Men had similar effects regarding parental divorce, relationship type and conflict resolution, but economic and status related variables were not significant. Absztrakt: Jelen tanulmány a magyar nők és férfiak párkapcsolattal való elégedettségének időbeli változását, valamint az arra potenciálisan befolyással bíró tényezők hatását vizsgálja. A kutatás csoportalapú pályaelemzést alkalmaz, az Életünk fordulópontjai panelkutatás 1–4. hullámának (2001/2002–2012/2013) felhasználásával. A pályaelemzés során a párkapcsolati minőség időbeli alakulásában mutatkozó, egymástól elkülönülő csoportok azonosíthatók, rámutatva a nemek átlagos trendjei mögötti heterogenitásra. A párkapcsolattal való elégedettség tekintetében a nők esetében egy magas (57%) és egy alacsony (43%) pályával rendelkező csoport, míg a férfiak tekintetében szintén egy magas (54%), valamint egy közepes (46%) pálya azonosítható, ugyanakkor mind a négy csoportra jellemző az elégedettség kezdeti csökkenése. A nők esetében az alacsony csoporthoz tartozást valószínűsítette a szülők válása, az élettársi kapcsolatban élés, a vitás konfliktuskezelési szokások, az anyagi nélkülözés gyakorisága és az egyedüli kenyérkeresői szerep, viszont csökkentette az élve született gyermekek száma, valamint a tradicionális vagy homogám relatív státuszhelyzet a kapcsolatban. A férfiak párkapcsolattal való elégedettségét a nőkkel egyező irányban határozta meg a szülők válása, a kapcsolat típusa, valamint a konfliktuskezelés módja, ugyanakkor az anyagi helyzethez és a státuszhoz kötődő változók egyike sem volt szignifikáns hatással.
... Acknowledging one's role in an offense can elicit emotional distress (e.g., guilt, shame). This is particularly true because people often feel defensive when they admit to blame (Gottman, 1993). Forgiving oneself is one of many ways people may cope with offense-related distress and reduce defensiveness of shameful or guilty acts (Woodyatt & Wenzel, 2013). ...
Article
Research on the forgiveness of self has largely focused on less severe, more common types of offenses among samples within developed, westernized nations. In this brief report of a study within a developing nation in Africa, applications of self-forgiveness are extended to incarcerated people. The sample comprised N = 310 males (83.87%) and females (16.13%) who were incarcerated in a medium-security Ghanaian prison (Mage = 39.35, SDage = 13.28). Participants completed measures of self-forgiveness, shame-proneness, and guilt-proneness. Prison records were examined for criminal history details. We hypothesized that self-forgiveness would correlate negatively with shame-proneness and positively with guilt-proneness. We tentatively hypothesized that this association would be moderated by offense type. Self-forgiveness correlated with both shame- and guilt-proneness in the hypothesized direction. However, neither relationship was moderated by type of offense. The findings offer further evidence on the salience of self-conscious emotions in forgiving oneself, particularly among incarcerated offender populations. We discuss the implications of the findings for enhancing offender rehabilitation initiatives.
... One of the most significant causes for divorce is problematic communication between spouses. When examining research on this issue, spouses' conflict resolution skills and relation patterns can be seen to be important predictors of marital adjustment (Gottman, 1993a(Gottman, , 1993bKarney & Bradbury, 1995;Levenson, Carstensen, & Gottman, 1993;Malkoç, 2001;Prado & Markman, 1999). ...
Article
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This study aims to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles that cause early maladaptive schemas and divorce indicators of married and divorce people. While parenting styles are based on schema therapy, divorce predictors are based on the Gottman approach to couples therapy. Data have been obtained from 600 participants (316 male, 284 female) from 51 out of the 81 cities in Turkey. Of all the participants, 511 (85.3%) are married while 89 (14.7%) are divorced. Parenting styles have been measure using the Young Parenting Inventory, and divorce indicators have been measured using the Divorce Predictors Scale. The data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0. Correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses have been used to examine the research questions. The correlation analysis shows divorce indicators to be significantly associated with all parenting styles from both mothers and fathers. According to the results from the hierarchical multiple regression analysis, however, overly permissive/boundary-less, normative, emotionally depriving, and punitive parenting styles from both mothers and fathers significantly predict divorce indicators. The analyses have also revealed punitive and overly permissive/ boundary-less parenting styles to be suppressor variables. The findings indicate that overly permissive/boundary-less, normative, emotionally depriving, and punitive parenting styles significantly predict divorce indicators. These findings show that parents should be neither too dominant nor too permissive while raising children and should enforce boundaries with their children for the children's adjustment to marriage in the future.
... The second was Cascade theory of marital dissolution. According to this theory, "lasting marriage results from a couple's ability to resolve the conflicts that are inevitable in any relationship" [5].The third was the vulnerabilities -stress adaptation model, which said that, enduring vulnerabilities, adaptive process and stressful life event influences marital quality, that in turn influence marital stability of the married couples [6]. ...
Article
Marital Stability is interpreted as whether a couple in a marriage remains together, instead of separating or getting divorced. It is also called as marital longevity or duration of marriage. The aim of the study is to find the relationship between different psychosocial factor (marital adjustment, love, personal intimacy personality, dyadic coping, and spirituality) and marital stability. For the purpose of sampling, thirty married couples were randomly selected using stratified random sampling. The measuring tools used were Locke-Wallace marital adjustment questionnaire (Marital adjustment), Love scale (Love), Personal assessment of intimacy in relationship (Personal intimacy), Big five inventory (personality), Dyadic coping inventory (Dyadic coping) and the daily spiritual experience scale (Spirituality).Six null hypotheses were raised and tested using descriptive and inferential statistics (Percentage, mean, standard deviation and correlation). The research finding shows that there is a significant negative correlation between sexual intimacy and marital stability(r= -.44 and p<.01). All other variables (Marital adjustment, love, personal intimacy, personality, dyadic coping and spirituality) are not shown to be contributing to marital stability.
... Satir (2000) regards dysfunctional interactions with features such as indirect, unclear, vague, dishonest, distorted, and incomplete messages as indicators of a dysfunctional family; she considers transparent and clear communication as a guarantor of adaptive family interactions (Hajhosseini et al., 2017;Goldenberg & Goldenberg;translated by Shahi-Baravati et al., 2015). Gottman (1993), in his study in the field of interactive patterns, considers two interactive patterns for couples: stable and unstable. Stable marriages are classified into three categories: "validating couples", "volatile couples", and "conflict-avoider couples". ...
Article
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The outbreak of COVID-19 has profoundly affected people's daily lives, and caused various challenges. Interactions of spouses have been one of the most important dimensions of life affected by these changes. The aim of this study was to identify the dimensions of women's experience of couple interactions during the restrictions imposed during COVID-19 pandemic. This research was conducted with a qualitative approach and a phenomenological method. The participants included 11 married women in Tehran who, during the restrictions caused by COVID-19, spent most of their time at home with their husbands. Data were collected using semi-structured and in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the interviews were coded and analyzed using the Colaizzi's method. The data were categorized into 18 sub-themes and three main themes. The findings showed that the potential of a couple relationships in crises can be such that individuals spontaneously do things to reduce the tensions in a way that this not only reduces the amount of stress, but also enriches their relationship. Women who had such an experience saw the forced situation of being together as a good opportunity to fix their relationship. But the spouses who did not have a normal couple relationship and did not have the necessary skills to repair the gaps and there has been tension, disconnection or overlapping roles and transgression of boundaries in their relationship, would make the gap in the relationship deeper with inappropriate reactions; therefore, this period has led to more conflicts for them. Given the changes multiple crises may cause in spouses' interactions, it seems that studying the crisis-creating situations may contribute to development of an effective model for couples' lives in critical times.
... Alternatively, men and women may express their feelings of closeness and annoyance similarly but vary in their reactions to, or interpretations of, their partners' feelings. Past research with married couples found that husbands are more accurate than wives at "decoding" their partner's positive messages [43] and that men are more likely to feel flooded (i.e., overwhelmed) by their partner's negative affect [44]. Thus, men may be especially attuned to even subtle expressions of their female partners' feelings. ...
... 3 Social, legal, personal, and psychological factors as well as irrational beliefs were considered as the couples' causes of indecisiveness in applying for a divorce. 4 The divorce endangers the structure of family as the most fundamental part of society. Undoubtedly, divorce has different causes and affects couples, or even those who are in contact with them. ...
Article
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Background: Today, couples applying for divorce need more self-efficacy in their divorce management. Self-efficacy in divorce management helps divorcing couples make the right decision; to continue their married life or leave. The present study aimed to determine the effect of divorce counseling based on Gottman's approach on self-efficacy in divorce management within couples who applied for divorce in Yazd. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was based on pre-test, post-test, and follow-up method in which the case-control group design was applied. The study population included all couples who applied for divorce in Yazd in 2017. We selected 32 participants using purposive sampling, who were then divided into experimental and control groups. In order to collect the study data, we used Zareei's self-efficacy questionnaire in divorce management. To analyze the data, we run multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), two-way analysis of variance, and repeated measurement tests. Results: The results of MANOVA analysis indicated that the experimental group used self-efficacy more frequently than the control group in divorce management and its subscales. Moreover, analysis of two-way variance showed that gender did not have a significant correlation with the training results. In other words, the effect of education was the same for both genders. Moreover, the results of repeated measurement analysis indicated significant differences between the levels (pre test with post test and follow up). Conclusion: Gottman-based divorce counseling affected self-efficacy in divorce management of couples applying for divorce in Yazd. The effectiveness of this training was the same for both males and females. As a result, for those couples who want to divorce, such training seems to be extremely necessary.
... The state of the clinical science regarding marriage and long-germ relationships in 1993 could be summarized simply. The field was enamored with the Gottman ratio (Gottman 1993). Gottman advanced a radical idea. ...
Article
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Theologians, pastors, and psychological help-providers have not always worked harmoniously. This can be especially true with couples. Theological and pastoral help-providers value marriage as sacred and are reluctant to entertain ending it. Most psychotherapists have more training and experience in individual psychotherapy than in couple therapy. Drawing on the parable of the Good Samaritan, we appeal to theologians, pastors, and psychological help-givers to work together. We examine ways that psychological findings might inform theology and pastoral practice. As an example, we use forgiveness in committed romantic relationships. What causes strong couple relationships are the formation, strengthening, maintenance, and (when damaged) repair of ruptures in the emotional bond. Thus, forgiveness is one major cause of good marriage. Forgiveness requires being oriented toward the other person’s welfare, and in humility responding to wrongdoing mercifully. Forgiving in committed relationships seeks a net positive emotional valence toward the partner built on empathy, humility, and responsibility. Good relationships also involve self-forgiveness when one feels self-condemnation over one’s own misdeeds. For help-givers, humility is a key to promoting relational experiences of virtue. We show that forgiveness is related to health. Religiously oriented help-providers can promote better relationships and better health by fostering forgiveness.
... Alanyazında boşanmanın tahmin edilmesi üzerine bazı ölçme araçlarının geliştirildiği görülmektedir. Örneğin Gottman her bir boşanma göstergesini ölçümleyen anket formaları geliştirmiştir (Gottman, 1994a, Gottman, 1994b. Ancak geliştirilen formanlarda faktörleştirme çalışması yapılmamıştır. ...
... Because people are often motivated to feel good about themselves, they may put down other individuals or groups in order to feel better about themselves by comparison [20], or react defensively when they encounter potential threats to positive self-views [21]. Defensive communication in a relationship can damage the ability to admit and discuss one's potential shortcomings [22] and over time, may herald the end of close relationships [23,24]. ...
Article
Distinct types of meditation practice addressed in this review can help cultivate skills people may bring to later social interactions. We examine self-transcendence, or the drive to benefit others beyond the self, as a key mechanism through which meditation may promote positive social outcomes. Self-transcendence cultivated through various styles of meditation can impact social outcomes through two main pathways: First, self-transcendence can turn rigid, defensive self-focus into flexible and receptive self-construals. Second, it can increase positive other-focus by integrating reward and social signals in the brain. These accounts offer one practical solution of positively transforming social relations and highlight potential usefulness of considering self-transcendence in researching social effects of meditation.
... Many expressed being at the "end of their emotional ropes" due to fall out from extra-marital relationships, a long history of conflict, or prolonged distancing and emotional cut-offs. A theme of "recreating history" seemed to be present as divorcing individuals recalled that there were unsure if they were ever "in love," which demonstrates a process similar to John Gottman's "Distance and Isolation Cascade" (Gottman, 1993 ...
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Recent data from Minnesota family courts revealed that approximately ten percent of couples filing for divorce may still be open to reconciliation. This data, coupled with a burgeoning body of literature concluding that children experience better outcomes if raised in two-parent, intact homes, was the impetus for this interdisciplinary study. A literature review covering U.S. divorce law history and policy construction as well as a systems theory framework supported the research goal: To discover multi-systemic constraints to help seeking prior to finalizing a divorce. A grounded theory approach was used to collect data from: 1) a selection of Oklahoma family law statutes specifically covering divorce; 2) focus groups with family court judges in Oklahoma and Tulsa counties; 3) semi-structured interviews with fourteen family law attorneys; and, 4) semi-structured interviews with 39 divorcing persons who had children under the age of 18 and who had filed for divorce but not yet completed the process. A content analysis was conducted on each data set and four major findings were identified: 1) Oklahoma family law statutes are written so as to maximize child well-being yet minimize divorcing person well-being or divorcing person opportunities for reconciliation; 2) family court judges believe that opportunities for reconciliation are rare by the time they see a couple in their courtroom, and they are more concerned with the safety and well-being of children or a vulnerable spouse than adding “social work” to their already overloaded duties which includes pressure to close cases; 3) family law attorneys have widely differing views about their professional duty to raise the topic of reconciliation, and they believe that the variance in the opposing practitioner’s views or actions negates opportunities to work together toward this goal; and, 4) action and emotion that led to a divorce between marital partners, coupled with a divisive momentum that builds after filing and is propitiated by statutes, attorneys, friends, family members, and/or strains on psychosocial resources (e.g., finances, time, personal energy, or well-being), leave little, if any, possibility for reconciliation. Major and minor themes supporting each finding are provided and potential policy-related solutions are discussed.
... The kind of work we do may tease out exceptions, and complexities in the way conlict is done. I showed this by re-analyzing one of the conlicts Gottman used to make claims about the onset of emotional displays [Gottman, 1993;Sanders, 1995b]. It may detect something Gottman missed. ...
Article
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In this interview, Anita Pomerantz and Robert E. Sanders, professors emeriti at the University at Albany, SUNY’s department of communication, discuss their views on conducting language and social interaction (LSI) research. They share their understanding of the connection between LSI research and the discipline of communication, and explain what we may gain from focusing on social action instead of solely studying messages. The relationship between an interaction and its context, and the way the latter may be relied on to analyze the former, is also discussed. To offer their insights, Pomerantz and Sanders draw from their active engagement, since the 1970s, as prominent voices of the language and social interaction community, and more particularly as figureheads of conversation analysis (CA).
... The kind of work we do may tease out exceptions, and complexities in the way conlict is done. I showed this by re-analyzing one of the conlicts Gottman used to make claims about the onset of emotional displays [Gottman, 1993;Sanders, 1995b]. It may detect something Gottman missed. ...
... Markman wraz z zespołem (2010) "czterech jeźdźców Apokalipsy" w sytuacji konfliktu między partnerami pozostającymi w związkach romantycznych (Horan, Guinn, Banghart, 2015). Mechanizmy składające się na "czterech jeźdźców Apokalipsy" to: lekceważenie/pogarda (contempt), krytycyzm (criticism), blokowanie się/budowanie muru milczenia (stonewalling) oraz postawa obronna (defensiveness; Gottman, 1993 Przedstawione wyżej hipotezy zostaną zweryfikowanie w badaniach empirycznych przy użyciu technik pomiaru opisanych w paragrafie 2.3. ...
... However, there has been less research attention directed toward emotion coregulation and its effects on interpersonal processes for adults (Butler & Randall 2013, 1). In the limited work, the way romantic relationships contribute to emotion regulation (e.g., Beckes & Coan 2011;Zaki & Williams 2013) and implications of emotional experiences for intimate relationships (e.g., Reis & Shaver 1988;Gottman 1993;Bradbury et al. 2000) were the most widely studied topics (Schoebi & Randall 2015, 1-2). Recently, dyadic patterns of emotion regulation in romantic relationships were more a topic of inquiry. ...
... Le genre de travail que nous faisons peut identiier des exceptions et des complexités quant à la façon dont le conlit est accompli. J'ai montré cela en réanalysant un des conlits que Gottman a utilisés pour faire des airmations concernant l'apparition de manifestations émotionnelles [Gottman, 1993 ;Sanders, 1995b]. Cela pourrait détecter quelque chose que Gottman a manqué. ...
... Participants responded on a scale of 0 "never" to 4 "a lot." Scores were reverse coded, such that higher scores were considered indicative of fewer considerations to dissolve one's relationship, which have been demonstrated to be key determinants of actual relationship dissolution (Gottman, 1993). ...
Article
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Closeness is often considered synonymous with better quality romantic relationships. However, individual differences exist in the degree of closeness people desire in their relationships. This study examined the implications that discrepancies between actual and ideal closeness have for relationship quality in romantic couples. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 103 cohabiting couples ( N = 206) in the United States, who were randomly selected from a nationally representative survey panel. Dyadic analysis using actor–partner interdependence models with latent outcomes revealed that internal discrepancies between actual and idealized closeness were associated with poorer relationship quality for both individuals and their partners. These associations persisted above and beyond the effects of actual closeness and dyad-level differences in actual and ideal closeness. The association between closeness and relationship quality may be more individual than dyadic in nature, warranting renewed attention to the idiographic experience of closeness and its association with relational well-being.
... However, in drawing from family process models (Cox et al., 1999;Katz & Woodin, 2002), these findings suggest that interparental conflict and withdrawal may have distinct meanings and implications for the child and family system. For example, marital theorists have posited that forms of disengagement signify apathy, hopelessness, and indifference and, as a result, reflect particularly dire prognoses for the long-term stability of the marriage and family (Gottman, 1993). In keeping with this interpretation, spousal disengagement has predicted greater family discord and child psychological problems even after accounting for interparental hostility (Katz & Woodin, 2002). ...
... In sum, evidence for the so-called "balance theory" of relationships appears robust. Balance theory assumes that positive feelings are beneficial and negative feelings potentially hazardous (Gottman, 1993a(Gottman, , 1993b, and that couples need sufficient positive feelings to offset the consequences of negative feelings. Or as Gottman et al. (1998, p. 8) phrase it: Couples maintain " [. . ...
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Satisfied couples in European-American cultural contexts experience higher ratios of positive to negative affect during interactions than their less satisfied counterparts. The current research tests the possibility that this finding is culture-bound. It compares proportions of positive to negative affect during couple interactions in two different cultural contexts: Belgium and Japan. Whereas Belgian relationship goals (e.g., mutual affirmation and self-esteem) call for the experience of positive affect, Japanese relationship goals (e.g., harmony and self-adjustment) call for the avoidance of negative affect. We propose that these differences result in different affect ratios in close relationships. To test this idea, we tracked positive and negative feelings during couple interactions. Fifty-eight Belgian and 80 Japanese romantic couples took part in a lab interaction study, in which they discussed a topic of disagreement. Using a video-mediated recall, participants rated their positive and negative feelings during the interaction; relationship satisfaction was assessed before the interaction. As expected, Belgian couples’ positive-to-negative affect ratios were more positive than those of Japanese couples. Furthermore, in both cultures relationship satisfaction was positively associated with more positive affect ratios, but this effect was significantly stronger for Belgian than Japanese couples. Finally, mediation analyses showed that higher affect ratios were achieved in culturally different and meaningful ways: satisfied Belgian couples showed higher ratios primarily through higher levels of positive feelings, whereas satisfied Japanese couples showed higher ratios primarily through lower levels of negative feelings.
... Adverse interpersonal events have an overall emotional impact on people. In a study conducted by Gottman (1993), the psychological assessment of couples in conflict with their partners has three types of emotional responses. First is the general positive feeling, which is characterized by familiar behavior, affection, and relationship constructive. ...
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One custom of Indonesian Muslims during Eid al-Fitr is to celebrate Ramadhan's end by requesting and giving forgiveness amongst Muslims. This celebration is the symbol of the triumph of the Muslims after a month of fasting and going back to being sinless like a newborn child. While mutual forgiveness has become an adhering religious practice, there is still limited analysis of how individuals deal with themselves about the observed offensive event with other people, and the spiritual practice of forgiving each other. Ten participants who participated in this research to address this issue. To evaluate the gathered data, the researcher conducted a content analysis. Results indicate that pardoning criminals during the Eid al-Fitr can be attainable. Not all the participants could forgive, however, simply because it was during a religious practice. Other causal factors to forgive are the degree of damage, anger, and recognition of the traumatic encounter.Keywords: Offense, Forgiveness, Eid al-Fitr, Resentment, Indonesia
... In work contexts, receiving contemptuous feedback has been associated with decreased self-esteem and increased interpersonal aggressiveness toward colleagues [55]. Likewise, feelings of contempt are one of the primary predictors of marital breakdown [56,57]. As such, women seeking plastic surgery (and, by extension, inducing contempt) may face implications both interpersonally and professionally. ...
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Plastic surgery is growing in popularity. Despite this, there has been little exploration to date regarding the psychosocial consequences of seeking plastic surgery. Our study investigated how women seeking plastic surgery are perceived by others. We presented a random sample of 985 adults (men = 54%, M age = 35.84 years, SD age = 10.59) recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk with a series of experimental stimuli consisting of a photographed woman (attractive versus unattractive) and a vignette describing an activity she plans to engage in (plastic surgery versus control activity). Participants rated stimuli on perceived warmth, competence, morality, and humanness. We ran linear mixed-effect models to assess all study hypotheses. There was a negative plastic surgery effect; that is, women seeking plastic surgery were perceived less favorably than those planning to complete control activities across all outcome variables (warmth, competence, morality, and humanness). These relationships were moderated by physical attractiveness; while attractive women planning to undergo plastic surgery were perceived less favorably than attractive women planning to engage in control activities, perceptions of unattractive individuals remained unchanged by plastic surgery status. We theorized that empathy toward unattractive women seeking plastic surgery mitigated the negative plastic surgery effect for these women. In sum, our results suggest that perceptions of attractive women are worsened when these women decide to seek cosmetic surgery. Perceptions of warmth and competence have implications for an individual’s self-esteem and interpersonal relationships, while perceptions of morality and humanness can impact an individual’s ability to fulfil their psychological needs. As such, we concluded that attractive women seeking plastic surgery are potentially subject to experience negative psychosocial outcomes. Future research ought to examine whether perceptions and outcomes differ for women seeking reconstructive plastic surgery (versus cosmetic plastic surgery) and whether they differ across different types of surgeries (i.e. face versus body).
... En este contexto existen elementos afectivos como el amor, la comunicación verbal y no verbal manifestados en la relación de pareja; que juegan un papel determinante en la interacción, además de influir en la calidad del matrimonio (Gottman, 1993). Asimismo, estas áreas o factores a los que se enfrentan determinan la dinámica y calidad de su relación, de manera tal que al existir acuerdo entre éstas, la relación se ve fortalecida. ...
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Con el propósito de establecer si el conflicto y la culpa intervienen en el proceso de la satisfacción marital, 622 participantes de la Ciudad de México, con un rango de edad de 17-60 años (M = 40, SD = 10.73), respondieron de manera voluntaria la escala de conflicto (Rivera-Aragón, Cruz, Arnaldo & Díaz-Loving, 2004), el inventario multidimensional de culpa (Alvarez-Ramírez, García-Méndez & Rivera-Aragón, en prensa) y el inventario multidimensional de satisfacción marital (Cortés, Reyes, Díaz-Loving, Rivera-Aragón & Monjaraz, 1994). Resultado de una regresión lineal múltiple paso a paso, la satisfacción con la interacción marital es predicha por la reparación del daño (β = 0.334**), conflicto por actividades de la pareja (β = -0.203**), chantaje/manipulación (β = -0.199**), compensación (β = 0.134), conflicto por la personalidad (β = -0.125**), conflicto por adicciones (β = -0.117*) y conflicto por organización/responsabilidad (β = -0.115*).
... Such biases may lead to emotional flooding, which occurs when one relationship partner perceives the other's negative affect to be increasingly unpredictable and overwhelming. This is thought to lead to emotional (escape) conditioning involving hypervigilance to others' negative affect [101]. The flooded individual then appraises ambiguous cues as threatening or frustrating, in turn, making the individual more prone to arousal. ...
Chapter
Child and adolescent mental health is understood to be highly embedded in the family system, particularly the parent-child relationship. Indeed, models of risk pathways to psychopathology emphasise interactions and transactions between the family environment and individual differences at the child-level, including gene-environment interplay. Therapist knowledge regarding the role of the family in these pathways is central to the clinical competencies involved in the evidence-based treatment of children and adolescents. This chapter provides an overview of current theory regarding family contributions to the major forms psychopathology seen among children and adolescents. Attention is given to key family and parenting variables as they are conceptualised in the current literature, the mechanisms by which these variables contribute to the emergence and maintenance of psychopathology, and the origins and determinants of parenting.
... Rumination, generally, leads to that "emotional cascades" [27], in which distress is amplified and discharged in impulsive attempts to escape emotions. Hence, rumination resonates with anger [28], shame [29], lower levels of engaging in present-focused awareness [30], and difficulties with handling intense emotional arousal [31]. ...
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This article describes the mereological constitution of contents in the intentional acts of people affected by borderline personality disorder (BPD) or emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD) in order to shed light on the origin of the emotional instability characterizing this disorder. The article will first discuss the emotional cycle of people affected by this disorder; second, it will focus on the mereological aspect of the meaning-making 1 experience in the intentional act; third, it will show how this meaning-making experience usually interacts with axiological 2 qualities that affect the continuity of their sense of reality. From the investigation, it emerges that the mereological constitution of contents occurs in a way that is disruptive of the continuity of BPD/EUPDs’ interaffective lifeworld as it generates intersubjective disturbances on the axiological, logical, and ontological levels. On this basis, as a concluding suggestion, the paper will propose an alternative way to approach the problem, soothe the disturbance, and encourage integration.
... For instance, a systematic literature review on marriage in the general population conducted by Karimi et al 32 identified factors such as spirituality and religion, commitment, sexual relationship, communication, children, love, attachment, intimacy, and conflict resolution approach as protective factors associated with marital stability. Alternatively, Gottman 33 found negative behaviors such as criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling to be highly predictive of marital dissolution. Data on such potentially protective and negative factors are not available in the current study but should be taken into consideration in future studies, including those investigating marital interventions. ...
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Objective: To examine the stability of marriage from the time of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to 10 years postinjury. Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: TBI Model Systems centers. Participants: In total, 1423 participants in the TBI Model Systems National Database who experienced TBI 10 years prior and were married at the time of injury. Interventions: Not applicable. Main outcome measure: Remaining married to the same partner from the time of injury to 10-year follow-up. Results: At 10 years, 66% (938) remained married to the same person. Significant associations were found with age at injury (P < .0001), sex (P = .0028), and preinjury problematic substance use (P = .0092). Marital stability over the 10-year period was higher for those who were older, were female, and had no problematic substance use history. Marital instability was greatest in the first year postinjury. Conclusions: Most married adults who received inpatient rehabilitation for TBI remained married to the same individual 10 years later. Those who were younger, were male, and had a history of problematic substance use were at a highest risk for relationship dissolution. Findings have implications for content, timing, and delivery of marital interventions. Substance use education and prevention appear to be important aspects of marital support.
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Research
‬Targeted current research know the degree of emotional divorce among married staff at the University of Baghdad, according to a variable sex (male, female), and know the degree of self-deception among unmarried staff at the University of Baghdad, according to a variable sex (male, female), and the significance of the relationship between the variables of emotional divorce and self-delusion among married staff at the University of Baghdad, according to a variable sex (males, females). To achieve the research objectives adopted researchers emotional divorce prepared to married employees scale before (the fulfillment Kazem Jabbar 2011), and the measure of self-prepared to deceive the university students before (Karim Hussein Hamad al-Jumaili, 2010), and after checking the validity and reliability of the two scales the researchers applied the two scales on the eye basic research, amounting to 200 employees and an employee of married couples equally (males and females) at Baghdad University. They were chosen stratified random way. After statistical treatment of the data obtained from the sample using a statistical program (spss).
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تعهد يکي از پيش بيني کننده هاي مهم تمايل افراد براي ماندن در ازدواج و عاملي تعيين کننده در طول مدت و کيفيت آن است. با توجه به اهميت عوامل فرهنگي در اين زمينه، هدف پژوهش حاضر، تعيين نقش الگوهاي تعاملي و رفتارهاي مراقبتي افراد متاهل در پيش بيني تعهد زناشويي آنان بود. براي اين منظور، 120 نفر از افراد متاهل شهر تهران به صورت دردسترس از هر يک از 5 منطقه تهران (شمال، جنوب، شرق، غرب و مرکز) انتخاب و از نظر تعهد زناشويي، تعامل زوجين و رفتارهاي مراقبتي مورد ارزيابي قرار گرفتند. نتايج تحليل نشان داد که الگوي ارتباطي مثبت و منفي بين همسران، توانايي پيش بيني تعهد اخلاقي و شخصي را دارد. همچنين رفتار مراقبتي حفظ نزديکي و حساس، توانايي پيش بيني تعهد اخلاقي، و رفتار مراقبتي حساس و وسواس گونه، توانايي پيش بيني تعهد شخصي را دارند. به علاوه، الگوي ارتباطي مثبت و منفي، رفتار مراقبتي حساس و رفتار مراقبتي کنترل کننده، توان پيش بيني تعهد اخلاقي را دارند، و رفتار مراقبتي حفظ نزديکي و الگوي ارتباطي مثبت، توان پيش بيني تعهد شخصي را دارند. نتايج پژوهش نشان داد که الگوهاي ارتباطي و سبک مراقبتي افراد متاهل که بر مبناي سبک دلبستگي آنها شکل مي گيرد، نقش مهمي در ميزان تعهد زناشويي آنان دارند. بنابراين مي توان با تقويت الگوهاي ارتباطي و رفتارهاي مراقبتي مثبت در روابط زوج به تقويت تعهد شخصي و اخلاقي آنها کمک کرد.
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The chapter describes the Marital Stability Scale (Cubela Adoric & Jurevic, 2007), including the results of its validation in studies with participants from Croatian population.
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This paper provides an overview of current issues in integration in couple and family therapy. It summarizes the evolution of integration in couple and family therapy, the various traditions in integration, the strengths of integrative approach, and the possible pitfalls involved. It highlights the extent to which most couple and family therapy is now integrative practice. It concludes with a consideration of an emerging trend toward methods of practice centered on modules of intervention that have been identified as effective with certain presenting phenomena. The example of therapy for high conflict divorce is utilized to illustrate how various components can be brought together to create a maximally effective intervention. © 2019 Family Process Institute.
Article
We aimed at disentangling the role of ethnicity and of acculturation in relation to destructive conflict resolutionand relationship satisfaction among 600 individuals of different ethnicity living in the Netherlands. Ethnicgroup differences were obtained for destructive conflict resolution and similarities appeared for relationshipsatisfaction after controlling for age, education, and income. As for cultural differences, the Turkish-Moroccangroup was higher on destructive conflict management than the ethnic Dutch group. Turkish-Moroccans alsoindicated that they continue the argument without listening to their partners more than Antillean-Surinameseindividuals. As for relationship satisfaction, immigrants with an Indonesian background reported higher relationship satisfaction than Turkish-Moroccans. Regarding gender differences, females scored higher than males in relation to destructive conflict management and relationship satisfaction. Finally, groups were invariant in relation to the negative relationship between destructive conflict resolution and relationship satisfaction. Yet,cultural maintenance was more strongly and positively related to satisfaction among immigrants with Turkishand Moroccan backgrounds than with Antillean, Surinamese, and Indonesian origins. Nevertheless, culturaladoption was more strongly and positively related to satisfaction among immigrants with Antillean, Surinamese,and Indonesian origins compared to people with Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Cultural maintenancewas more salient than cultural adoption in relation to satisfaction.
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Čustvena izraznost družine, struktura družine in volja do bivanjskega smisla oseb iz nealkoholičnih in alkoholičnih družin Povzetek: Negativne posledice alkoholizma se kažejo v alkoholikovem celotnem socialnem okolju, najbolj pa v njegovi družini, v kateri je komunikacija pogosto negativna, več je izražanja agresivnosti, manj sprejemanja in razumevanja, več konfliktov, obtoževanja, žaljenja, prepiranja in pritoževanja. V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 98 merjencev, starih od 18 do 70 let, obeh spolov, članov zavoda Mitikas, ki zagotavlja pomoč ljudem v stiski. V prispevku ugotavljamo poveza-nost med čustveno izraznostjo, prilagodljivostjo in kohezivnostjo v družini, v kateri so udeleženci odraščali, ter razlike v merjenih konceptih in v volji do smi-sla odraslih otrok alkoholikov in odraslih otrok nealkoholikov. V raziskavi opredeljujemo tudi povezanost volje do smisla s posameznikovo duhovnostjo. Rezultati so pokazali pomembno nižjo voljo do smisla ter slabšo povezanost, prilagodljivost, komunikacijo in zadovoljstvo v primarni družini odraslih otrok alkoholikov kakor pri otrocih iz nealkoholnih družin. Ključne besede: odrasli otroci alkoholikov, čustvena izraznost družine, struktura družine, volja do smisla, eksistencialna kriza, duhovnost Abstract: Family Emotional Expressiveness, Family Structure and the Will of Existential Meaning of Persons from Non-alcoholic and Alcoholic Families The negative consequences of alcoholism are more far reaching than just problems with which the alcoholics themselves face. These problems can be seen in all social environments, but primarily within an alcoholic's own family. In alcoholic families, communication is mostly negative, there are more expressions of aggressiveness and less mutual understanding, more conflicts, accusations , insulting, arguing and complaining. With the help of a questionary, we will display the differences between adult children of alcoholics and adult children of non-alcoholics in the context of family emotional expressiveness, family structure and giving meaning to one's own life. We will also try to define the correlation between spirituality and will of meaning. The survey included 98 participants from 18 to 70 years old of both genders and all were members of the club Mitikas. The difference between groups has been statistically determined on the basis of the will of meaning of life and connectedness, adaptability , communication and general satisfaction in primary families.
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پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین رابطه سازگاری زناشویی بر اساس نگرش به صمیمت انجام شد. جامعه آماری شامل همه زوجین ساکن شهر اردبیل در سال 1395 بود که از بین این افراد 150 نفر به روش نمونه¬گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. برای جمع¬آوری داده¬ها از پرسشنامه سازگاری اسپاینر و نگرش به صمیمیت استفاده شد. داده¬ها با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بین سازگاری زناشویی و نگرش به صمیمیت (تمایل به صمیمیت، گریز از صمیمیت) رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین نگرش به صمیمیت پیش¬بینی کننده سازگاری زناشویی است. بنابراین پیشنهاد می¬شود با تقویت صمیمیت در بین زوجین، سازگاری زناشویی زوجین را افزایش داد. کلیدواژه¬ها: سازگاری زناشویی، نگرش به صمیمیت، زوجین
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Introduction: Unfavorable marital conditions can lead to depression and disrupt married family functions. The aim of this study was to compare the Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment therapy and Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy on depression and marital adjustment. Method: In this research, a single case experimental design of multiple asynchronous baseline was used. The statistical population of the study included 20 couples who referred to Sina Family Counseling Center in Dezful in 1397. First, subjects were screened using the entry and exit criteria. Then 6 couples (n=12) were purposefully selected. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of acceptance and commitment therapy and emotionally focused couple therapy .The protocols of the two couples therapy methods were performed separately in three stages of baseline and 12 sessions of 90 minutes and two-month follow-up. Subjects responded to the Spinner Pair Adjustment Scale and Beck Depression Second Edition. Data were analyzed by visual mapping, stable change index and recovery percentage formula.Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://jcp.semnan.ac.ir/article_4912.html?lang=en Findings: In the acceptance and commitment therapy group, the percentage of overall recovery after treatment in the variable of depression is 34.70% and in the variable of marital adjustment is 29.06%, In the couple of emotion therapy, the percentage of overall recovery after treatment was 39.39% in the variable of depression and 40.81% in the variable of marital adjustment. Conclusion: The percentage of recovery after treatment in both couples is in the category of low recovery, therefore, both approaches are effective in reducing depression and increasing marital adjustment of couples.
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The stability of marriage, as an indicator of sustainability and continuity of couple's relationship due to interdependence, trust and friendship, exhibits the predictability amount of more or less happy marriage. This research was done with the purpose of the studying the status of marital instability in families of Qazvin city. The research method is cross-sectional & the design was ex post facto. Participants were 384 married men & (192 males and 192 females) from five different regions across Qazvin City were selected randomly. For data collection, marital instability scale made by Edwards et al and questionnaire including demographic characteristics were used. Results showed that the probability of divorce in the next three years of their marriage was 22%. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of gender, education, number of children & the length of marriage in mean of marriage instability. Also, results showed that couples with different ethnicity & socio-economic class had higher scores in marital instability than couples with similar ethnicity & socio-economic class. It was seen significant difference in groups according to type of marriage (whether traditional marriage or friendship). So, Knowledge of the factors influencing marital instability could provide relative guarantee for marriage stability for couples. Key Words: marriage stability, background variables, Qazvin.
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Identity formation and its role in the intimate relationships of marriage are very important & require research and studying. The aim of this research was to compare the means of four interpersonal identity statuses of emotionally divorced men & women. The research method was descriptive and the design was ex post facto. The Participants were 200 married men & women that five years past from their marriage whom were selected by two stage random cluster sampling from five regions of Qazvin City. The participants completed two questionnaires consisted: Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity status-2nd version (EOM-EIS-2) and Gottman's emotional divorce scale were used. Data were analyzed by MANOVA & ANOVA. Results showed no significant difference in identity statuses between men & women. There were significant differences between two groups with & without syndromes of emotional divorce in identity statuses (moratorium & diffusion), that is, the group with syndromes of emotional divorce obtained higher scores in identity statuses like moratorium & diffusion. The couples that diffused in interpersonal relationship identity are more likely to have emotional divorce symptoms. So, considering similarity in identity statues as a mate selection criterion by spouses can grantee the marital success in their future life.
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Digitalisierung verändert viele Facetten unseres Alltagslebens. Auch Konfliktdynamiken verändern sich: Da wo früher Telefonate und Briefe jeweils zunächst nur den unmittelbaren Austausch von zwei Personen/Parteien ermöglichten, steigt heute durch E-Mail und Messenger-Dienste im Konfliktfall die Komplexität und damit die Wahrscheinlichkeit von Missverständnissen und einer möglichen Steigerung der Eskalation stark an. Zum einen ist es die Geschwindigkeit, mit der etwa E-Mails hin- und her gesendet werden, zum anderen lassen sich mit der CC- und BCC-Funktion die Zahl der angesprochenen (und dann ihrerseits reagierenden) Akteure beliebig steigern. Ausgehend von Gottmans „apokalyptischen Reitern“ bietet der Text ein erstes Analysewerkzeug an, mit dem Eskalatoren in elektronischen Nachrichten identifiziert werden können, und schlägt Möglichkeiten vor, wie die Wahrscheinlichkeit deeskalierender Reaktionen bei elektronischer Kommunikation erhöht werden kann.
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This study investigated the prevalence, causes and consequences of divorce in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Mixed methods design was employed for the study and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. For the quantitative data 361 randomly selected households and for the qualitative part 8 divorcees and 8 purposively selected community and religious leaders participated. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data while qualitative data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed quantitatively using percentage and mean while the qualitative data were narrated and paraphrased. The result of the study indicated that the prevalence of divorce in three consecutive years (2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16) were 24%, 26.28% and 49.72% respectively. Moreover, the data from questionnaire respondents indicate that 46.5% of households were divorced. The major causes of divorce fall under psychological, social and economical issues respectively. The conclusion of the study is that unless interventions are made the rate of divorce will continue resulting in the psychosocial and economic crises. Hence based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that short term training on marriage counseling need to be designed for elderly and religious leaders. Intervention and prevention programs need to be established where married people access professional family counseling services in their surroundings. Additionally, different community based and nongovernmental organizations are expected to give pre-marriage counseling and training for couples on child care responsibilities, communication and conflict management skills.
Article
Numerous theoretical models of relationship distress suggest that strong, negative reactions to conflict are directly associated with lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Consistent with this supposition, substantial evidence links higher levels of subjective negative emotion, more pronounced and frequent expressions of negative affect, and higher levels of negative communication behaviors to lower levels of relationship satisfaction (e.g., Bradbury, Fincham, & Beach, 2000, Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(4), 964). However, the evidence linking stress-related physiological responding during relationship conflict and relationship satisfaction is less compelling than would be anticipated based on theory. We propose that these theoretically unexpected but empirically well-replicated findings may be the result of different patterns in association between physiological reactivity and relationship satisfaction for couples with varying styles in how they typically perceive unwanted behavior in one another. The present study tests negative attributions for undesirable partner behaviors as a moderator of the association between heart rate reactivity (HRR) during relationship conflict and relationship satisfaction in a sample of 60 married couples. A significant interaction emerged between HRR and negative attributions of partner behavior in predicting relationship satisfaction such that higher levels of HRR were associated with lower levels of relationship satisfaction for individuals who typically made more negative attributions for undesirable partner behaviors, but with higher levels of relationship satisfaction for individuals who typically made fewer negative attributions for undesirable partner behaviors. Implications for conceptualizing reactivity during relationship conflict and couple interventions are discussed.
Article
This study investigated the prevalence, causes and consequences of divorce in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Mixed methods design was employed for the study and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. For the quantitative data 361 randomly selected households and for the qualitative part 8 divorcees and 8 purposively selected community and religious leaders participated. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data while qualitative data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed quantitatively using percentage and mean while the qualitative data were narrated and paraphrased. The result of the study indicated that the prevalence of divorce in three consecutive years (2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16) were 24%, 26.28% and 49.72% respectively. Moreover, the data from questionnaire respondents indicate that 46.5% of households were divorced. The major causes of divorce fall under psychological, social and economical issues respectively. The conclusion of the study is that unless interventions are made the rate of divorce will continue resulting in the psychosocial and economic crises. Hence based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that short term training on marriage counseling need to be designed for elderly and religious leaders. Intervention and prevention programs need to be established where married people access professional family counseling services in their surroundings. Additionally, different community based and nongovernmental organizations are expected to give pre-marriage counseling and training for couples on child care responsibilities, communication and conflict management skills.
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Divorce is considered distressing for many individuals (Sbarra et al., Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2015, 24, 109); however, individuals in poor-quality relationships may experience certain benefits of leaving an unstable union (Amato & Hohmann-Marriott, Journal of Marriage and Family, 2007, 69, 621). On-off relationship cycling, or the breakup and reconciliation of a relationship, is a salient indicator of poor relationship quality and a common form of relationship instability (Dailey et al., Personal Relationships, 2009, 16, 23) that is associated with distress (Monk et al., Family Relations, 2018, 67, 523). In line with divorce-stress-adjustment and relational turbulence theory perspectives, we hypothesized that those whose relationships were characterized by on-off instability would experience less distress during the separation and divorce process. Given gender inequality in marriage (e.g., Dempsey, Journal of Sociology, 2002, 38, 91; Monin & Clark, Sex Roles, 2011, 65, 320), we also hypothesized that this association would be more pronounced for women. Using data from 98 divorced or separating couples, we found that relationship cycling prior to the separation and divorce process was associated with fewer distress symptoms for women. Conversely, a history of relationship cycling was associated with more distress symptoms for men. Our study provides support and extends prior investigations illustrating that, for some, those in unions characterized by more turmoil, may experience relief following a termination.
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Foundations of thermodynamics are reviewed in terms of the elementary processes driving spontaneous evolution in physical systems. These processes lead to ergodic and mixing behavior as well as to conservation of macroscopic quantities such as total energy; finally a tendency towards order through instabilities results when the environment is cold enough. Instabilities are in turn considered as processes driving a spontaneous evolution in complex systems in their natural environment; again ergodic and mixing behavior is exhibited as well as new conserved quantities. As a result, a second thermodynamics is built which relates complexity to the corpuscular nature of matter. Thus, general properties of complex systems are pointed out, such as spontaneous and irreversible tendency towards complexity, development by stages and information flow between systems of different complexity.