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Antimicrobial activity of chamomile acetone extract against some experimentally-induced skin infections in mice


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The aim of the study was to find out the antimicrobial activity of chamomile flower acetone extract on mice skin infection and to compare the results with some traditional medicaments. Methods: A total of 2 isolates (1bacterial & 1fungi) isolated from skin lesions of infected patients. Acetonic flower extract of chamomile was investigated for their antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains, one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), and one fungal strains (Candida albicans1). In this study the antibacterial activity of chamomile acetonic extracts showed highest inhibition zone (27mm) against tested bacteria isolates Staphylococcus aureus also it gave the high antifungal activity (18mm) against Candida albicas1 at concentrations 400μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of chamomile acetone flowers extracts were detected. Vivo trials were performed on mice to determine the effectiveness of herbal plant extracts on skin. Conclusions: The study revealed that the chamomile flowers acetone extract has a higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans1 than the traditional drugs on experimentally-induced skin infection in mice. The study recommends further studies on other microorganisms and on human beings. German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) is a daisy-like flower that blooms from late spring through late summer.
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Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
Antimicrobial activity of chamomile acetone extract against some
experimentally-induced skin infections in mice
Fattah -, Maha Abd El
Zaher-Eman H.F. Abd El,
Shouny-lWagih Abd ElFattah E 1
Salam-Abd El , Olaa
1Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
2Present address of M.A. Khalil: Biology Department, Faculty of Science,
Taif University, Taif, KSA
Abstract: The aim of the study was to find out the antimicrobial activity of chamomile
flower acetone extract on mice skin infection and to compare the results with some
traditional medicaments. Methods: A total of 2 isolates (1bacterial & 1fungi) isolated
from skin lesions of infected patients. Acetonic flower extract of chamomile was
investigated for their antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains, one Gram positive
(Staphylococcus aureus), and one fungal strains (Candida albicans1). In this study the
antibacterial activity of chamomile acetonic extracts showed highest inhibition zone
(27mm) against tested bacteria isolates Staphylococcus aureus also it gave the high
antifungal activity (18mm) against Candida albicas1 at concentrations 400μg/ml. Gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of chamomile acetone flowers
extracts were detected. Vivo trials were performed on mice to determine the effectiveness
of herbal plant extracts on skin. Conclusions: The study revealed that the chamomile
flowers acetone extract has a higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus
and Candida albicans1 than the traditional drugs on experimentally-induced skin
infection in mice. The study recommends further studies on other micro-organisms and on
human beings.
Key words: Chamomile, Antimicrobial, Skin infections, GC-MS, Topical cream
German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) is a daisy-like flower that blooms from late
spring through late summer.
It is an annual plant of the composite family Asteraceae (Appelt, 1985). An infusion of
the flowers is taken internally as an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic,
carminative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, sedative, stomachic, tonic and vasodilator (Chiej,
Plant use in treating diseases is as old as human civilization and traditional medicines are
still a major part of regular treatments of different maladies (Alviano, 2009). Plants are no
doubt one of the main sources of biologically active materials. According to a recent
report medicinal herbs are used by 80% of world population living in rural areas for their
primary health-care (Sakarkar and Deshmukh, 2011).
Skin infections are common and may be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Breaks in
the skin integrity, particularly those that inoculate pathogens into the dermis, frequently
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
cause or stimulate skin infections .Drugs used for skin infections are fucidic acid which
has an in vitro activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative
microorganisms. It inhibits bacterial replication and does not kill the bacteria and is
therefore termed "bacteriostatic"( Howden et al., 2006).
Nystatine was also used for treatment of susceptible fungal infections including,
cutaneous candidiasis .(Duhm et al., 1974). The in vivo study of possible therapeutic
effect of chamomile flowers acetone extracts on bacterial and fungal infections was
performed on mice skin. The chamomile extracts were prepared and applied locally on the
skin of experimentally infected mice described by (Kugelberg, 2005).
Collection and extraction of plant materials
The fresh leaves of herbal plants; Matricaria recutita L, were purchased from the
local market of Tanta, Egypt. Fresh plants (500g) were dried in the shade at room
temperature then grinded into powder (Ogunjobi and Ogunjobi, 2011).About 20 g of
dried powdered leaves were extracted with acetone (100%) concentration ,chamomile
flowers were soaked for 24 h at room temperature (Ogunjobi and Nnadozie, 2004 ;
Ogunjobi et al., 2007). The resultant mixture was filtered with Whatman's No. 1 filter
paper and muslin sieve to remove particles of plant sample. The clear supernatant was
collected in sterile pre-weighed plate, evaporated to dryness in a rotatory evaporator at 35
ºC. The weighted crude extract was stored at 18ºC to avoid decomposition.
Collection of clinical specimens
A total of two clinical specimens were randomly collected in screw-capped
container from two patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Dermatology and
Venereology of Tanta University Hospitals, Egypt during May to August 2013. These
include one swab from wound for bacteria and one swab from leg for fungi. For isolation
of bacteria from specimens were immediately placed in 2 ml phosphatebuffered saline
(PBS; NaCl, 8 g/l; KCl, 0.2 g/l; Na2HPO4, 1.15 g/l; KH2PO4, 0.2 g/l) and for isolation of
fungi specimens was placed in sterile saline (0.9% Nacl) (Dion and Kapical, 1975;
Eman et al., 2009) then transferred to Laboratory of Bacteriology and Mycology in
Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt. Each specimen for
bacterial isolates was cultured on Nutrient Agar (NA). The resultant colonies in the
medium were sub cultured on, Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) for 24 h at 37 °C. The
recovered isolates were subjected to different morphological and biochemical tests for the
identification to the species level as described by Bergy’s Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology (Kloos and Schleifer, 1975). The isolates were identified as Staphylococcus
aureus, identification of tested isolates was confirmed by ApiStaph and API 20E
(bioMérieux) identification kit (Palleroni, 1984).
For fungi each sample was cultured on Sabrouaud's dextrose agar (SDA) with
adding 0.5mg/ml cyclaheximide and 0.4 g/ml chloramphincol as antibacterial agent (Dion
and Kapical, 1975; Eman et al., 2009). SDA were incubated for 2 days at 37 °C for
yeast species. The obtained colonies were examined and identified microscopically under
light microscope according to (Moubasher 1993; Clyton and Midgley1985). The
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
resultant yeast colonies were biochemically identified as
Candida albicans 1,
using API 20
C AUX (bioMérieux) identification kit (Buesching et al., 1979; Ahmed et al., 2008).
Gas chromatography Mass Spectroscopy for chamomile flower extract:
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to determine
chemical composition of acetonic chamomile extracts by GC-MS by gas chromatography,
Masse Spectroscopy in Claurs 580/560S. Work was done with column 30.0m x 250μm,
Rtx5MS (crossbond 5% diphenyl 95% dimethylpolysiloxane), Perkin Elmer Company in
Central lab, Tanta University, equipped with heated FID, Egypt.
The antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined against target
microorganisms (S. aureus, and C. albicans1) in vitro by using modified agar diffusion
method describe by (Nathan, 1978).The extract was prepared at four concentrations100,
200, 300 and 400µg/ml to determine the antimicrobial activity for each concentration. The
dried acetonic extract was redissolved with acetone (100%) concentration.
Five evenly spaced wells, 6mm in diameter were made in the agar of each plate with
sterile cork borer. To identify the intrinsic extracts activity, one control well was filled
with (50μl) acetone.
Equal volumes of the four concentrations 100, 200, 300or 400 µg /ml of the extracts were
dispensed into each well (three replica plates were prepared for each agent). Test plates
were then incubated at 37°C for 24 hrs for bacteria and yeast isolates, the zones of
inhibition were measured using a ruler. A clear zone indicated that the extract showed its
antibacterial or antifungal activity. This method was repeated three times for each test.
(The values were averaged for the three experiments).
Preparation for cream:
Topical creams were prepared from the chamomile flower acetone extract .Preparation of
topical creams was carried out according to (Purushothamrao et al., 2010) at the
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University.
Formulation of 50 g containing 0.5% of active ingredients was com-posed of two phases
(oil phase: cetostearyl alcohol, 4.0 g; vaseline 7.5g; liquid paraffin 3.75 ml; and aqueous
phase: deionized water, 35 ml; sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), 425 mg; active ingredient
250 mg). Ingredients of oil phase were mixed together by melting in China dish on
constant stirring. Components of aqueous phase were mixed together and warmed to
about same temperature of oil phase. Aqueous phase was added to oil phase drop by drop
on constant stirring until solidification. The preservative propyl paraben and methyl
paraben were added after cooling.
Experiment Treatment
Mice were divided into two groups: group A (infected with S. aureus) and group B
(infected with C. albicans1). Then each group is subdivided into four subgroups (n=3) as
follows: (G1): negative control, not injected not treated (G2): treated with placebo cream,
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
(G3): Treated with topical chamomile flower extract cream (G4): Positive control, treated
with fucidic acid or nystatine for each group.
For bacterial infection, the back hair of all mice were shaved and their skin was sterilized
with iodine and wiped sterile water .The sublethal dose premeasured (2x107 CFU /mouse)
of the selected S.aureus isolate was injected subcutaneously into group G2 G4 (Leedy,
For fungal infection, the back hairs of all mice were shaved and their skin was sterilized. Mice
were swapped with the selected fungal isolates ((106CFU/ml) of C. albicans 1 on the center of
the mice's back (Back et al., 1985). Followed by adding of 0.1 ml olive oil, the infected area
was covered with plastic film using leucoplast tap, after 3 days of skin infection, tested creams
were loaded separately on the infected lesion twice daily. All treated and control group were
observed for 17days. Inspecting of the healing lesions, the repairing to the normal skin are
observed through the topical treatment of wounds and the growing hairs upon the repaired
skin were recorded.
Chamomile flowers acetone extracts exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity against
staphylococcus aureus and candida albicans1. The antibacterial activity was shown at
different concentration (100,200,300 and 400 µg /ml). (table1)
At regards Candida albicans1 chamomile flowers acetone extracts showed no inhibition
zones at concentration 100 and 200µg /ml and gave14mm at concentration 300 µg /ml.
Table 1: Mean diameter of inhibition zones caused by chamomile flower acetone extract at
various concentrations on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans1.
Mean of inhibition Zone (mm)
Concentration of acetonic extract (µg/ml)
0± 0.00
0± 0.00
0± 0.00
0± 0.00
Staphylococcus aureus
15± 0.18
21± 0.8
25± 0.06
27± 0.145
Candida albicans1
0± 0.00
0± 0.00
14± 0.02
18± 0.22
Control = Acetone solvent, control =0, 0 = No zone of inhibition, no antimicrobial activity
Values are mean of three replicates ± S.D.
Table (2) show four subgroups of mice (each group contain three mice) were
subcutaneously injected with sublethal dose (2x107 CFU/ml/mouse) of Staphylococcus
aureus. First group of mice let it healthy to make comparison, second group was treated
with placebo cream, third group was treated with chamomile flower extract cream on the
wounded area and the fourth was treated with fucidic acid cream. The diameter of
wounded area of each treated mice was measured every three days after sprayed with each
tested treatment (chamomile flower extract, fucidic and placebo) until recovery. There
was decrease in the wound area throughout the experimental period in all groups.
However, the reduction in the wound area in the placebo treated group was less dramatic
when compared to the flower of chamomile plant extract and fucidic treated groups. After
one week, the treated lesions with chamomile flower extract cream were reduced
effectively and the treatment was very effective after two weeks illustrating complete
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
lesion disappearance without any inflammation as in photo (D) while in case of fucidic
cream treatment small lesion were observed with inflammation as in photo (C), while in
photo (B) the treatment with placebo large lesion appear with inflammation and redness.
Table 2: Effect of different treatments on S. aureus skin infection of mice:
Mice group A
Healthy mice
1st day
Group (G1)
2nd- 17th days
Still redness and inflammation on the
skin after 17 days
1st day
2nd- 17th days
1st day
Complete cure after 14 days
2nd- 17th days
1st day
Group (G4)
Less redness and inflammation
2nd- 17th days
Fig (1): Induced healthy mice as Control (without infection)
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
Fig (2): Treatment of the skin infected by Staphylococcus aureus Fig A.Induced wound of mice before
treatment process. Fig B. Induced wound of mice after treated with placebo Fig C. Induced wound of mice
after treatment with fucidic Fig D. Induced wound of mice after treatment with chamomile flower extract
Table (3 )Show four subgroups of mice(each group contain three mice) the first one was
for healthy mice's skin tissues the second was for infected mice 's skin tissues with
Candida albicans1 and treated with placebo ,the third was for treated mice's skin tissues
with chamomile plant extract cream and the last one was for treated mice's skin with
nystatine cream .
After one week, the treated lesions with plant cream were reduced effectively and the
treatment was very effective after two weeks illustrating complete lesion disappearance
without any inflammation and the lesion covered with hairs as in photo (D) while in case
of nystatine treatments small lesion were observed with inflammation as in photo(C)
while in photo (B) the treatment with placebo large lesion appear with inflammation and
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
Table 3: Effect of different treatments C. albicans1 skin infection of mice
group B
Healthy mice
Not infected
1st day
No topical application
2nd- 17th days
Still redness and
inflammation on the skin
after 17 days
Infected with 106CFU/ml of tested
fungal isolates
1st -3rd day
Topical application of formulated
cream placebo (twice daily )
4th - 17th days
Complete cure after 14 days
Infected with 106 CFU/ml of
tested fungal isolates
1st - 3rd day
Topical application chamomile
plant extract cream (twice daily )
4th - 17th days
Less redness and
Infected with 106CFU/ml
1st - 3rd day
Group (G4)
Topical application of anti fungal
cream Nystatine (twice daily )
4th - 17th days
Fig (3): Induced healthy mice as Control (without infection)
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
Fig (4): Treatment of the skin infected by C. albicans1 Fig A. Induced wound of mice before treatment
process. Fig B. Induced wound of mice after Treatment with placebo Fig C. Induced wound of mice after
Treatment with nystatine Fig D. Induced wound of mice after Treatment with chamomile plant extract
Start of infection
Placebo treatment
Nystatine treatment
Chamomile treatment
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
GC-MS for Chamomile flowers acetone extracts:
Fig.3: GC-MS chromatogram of chamomile flower acetone extracts
Fig (5): GC-MS chromatogram of chamomile flower acetone extracts
Table 4: GC-MS analysis of different compounds of chamomile acetone extracts
Name of compound
Rt (min)
Ethylbenzene, m-Xylene, p-Xylene
m-Xylene , Benzene, 1,3-dimethyl-
o-Xylene , Benzene, 1,3-dimethyl-
Ethanol, 2-butoxy.
Benzene, 1-ethyl-2-methyl-
6.6 74
Benzene, 1-ethyl-3-methyl
6 .77
Benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl-
1,6,10-Dodecatriene, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene
Anthracene, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1-methyl
1-Phenyl-1-nonyne ,
Palmitic acid , Pentadecanoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid,
Rt, Retention time
The GC-MS chromatograms show many compound present in chamomile acetone extract. Name
of these compound and their amounts are listed in table (4).
In the chamomile acetone extract the major component o-Xylene , m-Xylene ,
Benzene, 1,3-dimethyl(15.3 %) which have antimicrobial and antifungal activity .The
extract also contain Ethanol, butoxy (19.29%) which have 2-alkoxy derivative for
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
antifungal agent so it has anti fungal activity, the extract also contain many antimicrobial
fatty acid such as palmitic acid , pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid (3.0905%),
benzene, 1-ethyl-3-methyl( 5.5%)1-phenyl-1-nonyne (1.217).Most of components were
alkaloids , terpenoids and phenolic compound .
In the present study, the inhibitory effect of chamomile flower acetone extract on Staphylococcus
aureus and Candida albicans were in agreement with (AL-naymi , 2005) who reported that
acetone extracts of chamomile flowers have higher activity against Staphylococcus
aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Micrococcuse ssp.and C. albicans.
Crotteau et al., 2006 showed antimicrobial activity of chamomile against candida
albicans also (Ghaly et al., 2010) illustrated that chamomile showed antimicrobial
activity against B. subtilis and C.albicans that may be due to the nutrients in these herbs.
Discussing the results of GC-MS analysis of the chamomile extract conclude that the
potential antimicrobial activity is attributed to different compounds belonging to a diverse
range of chemical classes (Ozdemir et al., 2004). These compound could be linked to
synergic effects, leading to disruption of the cellular membrane of fungi and bacteria
because they can penetrate the extensive meshwork of peptideglycan in the cell wall
without visible changes and reach the bacterial or fungal membrane leading to its
disintegration (Benkendorff et al., 2005 ; Bergsson, 2005; Mendiola et al., 2007;
Kumar et al., 2011).
Santhamari et al., 2011 illustrated that antimicrobial activity of chamomile acetone
extract which had inhibitory activity against gram negative and gram positive bacteria is
due to the presence of active ingredients that inhibit bacterial and fungal growth.
Antimicrobial activi1ty may be due to numerous free hydroxyl ions that have the
capability to combine with the carbohydrates and proteins in the bacterial and fungal cell
wall they may get attached to enzyme sites rendering them inactive.
In present study the artificial wound were healed (100%) after 14 days in case of
chamomile extracts cream and after 17 days with nystatine cream and fucidic cream
(Chah et al., 2006) It appears that the presence of the most active compounds of
chamomile, penetrates into deeper skin layers when applied topically which supports the
use of chamomile as atopical anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent (Merfort et al.,
1994). Conclusion The study revealed that the chamomile flowers acetone extract has a
higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans1 than
the traditional drugs on experimentally-induced skin infection in mice. GC/MS analysis
found that plants have active compounds like fatty acid; ester, alkaloids, hydroxyl group
and phenolic that might give these plants the antimicrobial activity.
Authors thank Dr. Shereen F.Gheida, Department of Dermatology and
Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt, Who have helped in
collecting samples from patient.
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER; 2014, Vol. 2: 58-70
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... For example, M chamomilla acetone extract has displayed antimicrobial activity against S aureus in both the agar well diffusion method and in vivo infected mice wounds. 7 In contrast, another study using microplate wells showed that an extract of M chamomilla powder that had been bathed in 40 C deionized water for 24 h displayed no antimicrobial activity against S aureus. 8 Finally, studies involving the antimicrobial properties of aqueous extracts of Q alba are rare; however, 1 study involving an aqueous extract of Q alba catkins demonstrated activity against Staphylococcus epidermis. ...
... M chamomilla extract did not exhibit antibacterial properties in this investigation, a result that is inconsistent with 2 previous studies that have assessed its antistaphylococcal properties in vivo and in vitro. 7,15 This disparity is likely because other studies included organic solvents such as acetone or methanol extracts or essential oils. No other published studies have assessed the antibacterial properties of aqueous M chamomilla flower extracts against S aureus under simulated resource scarcity. ...
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Introduction: Skin and subcutaneous infections are dangerous sequelae of soft tissue injuries, especially in austere situations where medical technology is not available. Numerous plant species endemic to North America have been described as having antibacterial properties. Of these, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), and white oak (Quercus alba) were selected for testing against Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to assess the suitability of all 3 plants as potential antiseptic agents using methods easily replicated in a resource-scarce environment. Methods: Water-soluble natural products were extracted from different concentrations of each plant part using either mechanical agitation at ambient temperature or boiling in unsterilized tap water. Antibacterial activity of each extract against S aureus was assessed using a conventional agar well diffusion bioassay. Zones of inhibition were measured using electronic calipers and were compared to tap water as the negative control. Results: Aqueous extracts of St. John's wort and white oak bark displayed antibacterial effects against S aureus, with St. John's wort being more potent. Chamomile displayed no inhibitory properties at the concentrations examined. Conclusions: These data suggest that both St. John's wort and white oak are potential candidates for infection prophylaxis and therapy in austere wilderness scenarios, with St. John's wort being the more potent agent. White oak may be more logistically feasible because the larger surface area of a white oak tree allows for harvesting a larger quantity of bark compared to the smaller surface area of the St. John's wort plant.
... A circular lesion around 20 mm in diameter was made on the disinfected skin. Mice were injected subcutaneously with 1 mL of fungi suspension (10 6 cfu/mL) into the wounded area [62]. ...
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This research evaluated the antifungal effectiveness of Arthrospira platensis ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts against the tested pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans, Trichophy-ton rubrum and Malassezia furfur). Antioxidant and cytotoxicity effectiveness of A. platensis extracts against four distinct cell lines were also assessed. Methanol extract of A. platensis exhibited the highest inhibition zones against Candida albicans as measured by the well diffusion method. A transmission electron micrograph of the treated group of Candida cells with A. platensis methanolic extract showed mild lysis and vacuolation of the cytoplasmic organelles. In vivo, after induced infection of mice by C. albicans and treatment with A. platensis methanolic extract cream, the skin layer emerged with the removal of Candida spherical plastopores. The extract of A. platensis recorded the highest antioxidant activity using the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging method (IC 50 28 mg/mL). A cytotoxicity test using a MTT assay showed that the A. platensis extract had strong cytotoxic activity against the HepG2 cell line (IC 50 20.56 ± 1.7 µg/mL) and moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF7 and the Hela cell (IC 50 27.99 ± 2.1 µg/mL). Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) results revealed that the effective activity of A. platensis extract could be linked to a synergistic impact between their prominent composition as alkaloids, phytol, fatty acids hydrocarbons, phenolics and phthalates. A. platensis extract contains active metabolites that constitute a promising source of antifungal, antioxidant and anti-proliferative compounds for the pharmaceutical drug industry.
... Upon testing synergistic activities, the additive effect was found with amoxicillin and doxycycline against S. aureus, and a synergistic effect was observed with penicillin V against P. aeruginosa. Similarly, another study reported that chamomile acetone extracts showed improved antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans compared to traditional antibiotics [40]. The zone of inhibition was observed to be 27 ± 0.145 mm and 18 ± 0.22 mm against S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively, at a concentration of 400 µg/mL. ...
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Chamomile has a long history of traditional medicinal uses. The two commonly used varieties with therapeutic applications are German chamomile known as Matricaria chamomilla L. and Roman chamomile or Chamaemelum nobile L. The plant contains many components, namely, flavonoids, terpenoids, and coumarins, which are responsible for its medicinal properties. The review discusses recent developments that help in establishing its role as a therapeutic agent in various areas as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anticancer, and anti-hypertensive agent. Not much is known about its role in the treatment of CNS disorders and metabolic syndromes, which are also discussed. The chemical components responsible for the therapeutic activity and the respective mechanism of action are also elaborated.
... Cream preparation Two topical creams were formulated using the acetonic rosemary and licorice extracts according to Purushothamrao et al. (2010) in the Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt, as previously described by El-Shouny et al. (2014). The cream formulation was evaluated on the skin of diseased and injured mice. ...
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Open wounds are easily susceptible to infection by multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. The emergence of MDR super bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida spp, has been identified to significantly increase the incidence rate. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a suitable barrier to prevent infection and enhance wound healing. On the other hand, medicinal plants could represent a significant source of new antimicrobial drugs for combating MDR pathogens. Out of 60 clinical skin burn cases, 51 patients (85%) had polymicrobial infections, while the remaining had monomicrobial infections. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia were identified as the most common bacterial isolates based on morphological and biochemical tests. However, Candida albicans, Candida parasitosis, Candida glabrata, Candida famata, Aspergillus niger, and Exophilia spinifera were the most common fungal isolates found in skin burn cases. MDR classification was reported in 21 of the 39 bacterial isolates and 8 of the 27 fungal isolates. The antimicrobial activity of tested acetonic plant extracts rosemary, henna, and licorice against MDR isolates was compared to the commercial antibiotic agents. Acetonic rosemary extract outperformed henna and licorice extracts in antibacterial activity, while licorice extract outperformed henna and rosemary extracts on antifungal activity. As a result, rosemary and licorice extracts were chosen to prepare a topical cream for further in vivo wound healing and histopathology. Based on the antimicrobial potential of acetonic plant extracts against MDR isolates, BI-41 and FI-17 were chosen for in vivo wound healing. BI-41 stands for the molecularly identified species Pseudomonas aeruginosa SSM-15, while FI-17 stands for molecularly identified species Aspergillus niger SSM-27. In vivo testing showed that both cream formulas had excellent healing properties when administered topically. In vivo histopathological examination revealed that acetonic rosemary and licorice extract could be promising for wound healing, combating MDR pathogens of burn wound infections.
... Apart from the anti-inflammatory properties of chamomile, its antibacterial and antioxidant activity are also promising in terms of its potential use. The effect of the chamomile flowers on mouse skin infection was also investigated by El-Shouny et al. [12]. In this work, the chamomile extract was analyzed in terms of its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) and the strain of Candida albicans. ...
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Matricaria chamomilla L. extract is well-known for its therapeutic properties; thus, it shows potential to be used to modify materials designed for biomedical purposes. In this paper, acrylic hydrogels modified with this extract were prepared. The other modifier was starch introduced into the hydrogel matrix in two forms: room-temperature solution and elevated-temperature solution. Such hydrogels were synthesized via UV radiation, while two types of photoinitiator were used: 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone or phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide. The main task of performed research was to verify the impact of particular modifiers and photoinitiator on physicochemical properties of hydrogels. Studies involved determining their swelling ability, elasticity, chemical structure via FTIR spectroscopy and surface morphology via the SEM technique. Incubation of hydrogels in simulated physiological liquids, studies on the release of chamomile extract from their matrix and their biological analysis via MTT assay were also performed. It was demonstrated that all investigated variables affected the physicochemical properties of hydrogels. The modification of hydrogels with chamomile extract reduced their absorbency, decreased their thermal stability and increased the cell viability incubated with this material by 15%. Next, hydrogels obtained by using phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide as a photoinitiator showed lower absorbency, more compact structure, better stability in SBF and a more effective release of chamomile extract compared to the materials prepared by using 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone. It was proved that, by applying adequate reagents, including both photoinitiator and modifiers, it is possible to obtain hydrogels with variable properties that will positively affect their application potential.
... Titanium dioxide dan silica bersifat sebagai desinfektan yang menurunkan pertumbuhan mikroba pada Streptococcus mutan (Haugen, 2016).. Chamomile extract bersifat bakteriostatik dengan jalan merusak peptidoglikan dinding sel bakteri dan bekerja saat bakteri melakukan replikasi. Chamomile dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenous, Streptococcus pneumonia, Candida albicans (El-shouny, 2014). EDTA dapat merusak outer membrane sel dengan membuat lipopolisakarida menjadi hydrofobik sehingga MG2+ dan CA2+ keluar dari dinding sel (Finnegan, 2015). ...
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A proper handwashing practice in Indonesia is around 49, 8%. A report from Basic Health Research 2018 recorded that Indonesians did not practice proper handwashing. This article aims to determine level of knowledge, number, and type of bacteria on hands. This community service program was conducted to 20 participants of the Regional Office of ‘Aisyiyah Malang through handwashing promotion using cleaners (such as soap, wet tissue, and hand sanitizer) to be applied to media called Nutrients Agar Plate (NAP). Then, the participants were to do gram staining to count number, type, and morphology of bacteria. The method implemented was desciptive data analysis. Finding shows that in the aspect of knowledge level, 75% of the participants were able to answer all questions correctly after the handwashing promotion program. On the count, there were 154 colonies of bacteria growing on unwashed fingers; 8 colonies on the fingers using hand sanitizer; 36 colonies on the fingers washed with soap, and 29 colonies with wet tissue. Handwashing habits provides knowledge to individuals of healthy living behaviour to prevent bacterial growth. It is concluded that hands washed with soap and running water, hand sanitizer, and wet tissue can actually reduce number of bacterial colonies as they contain bactericidal or bacteriostatic chemicals. Types of bacteria from coccus and Gram-positive rods are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus or Corynebacterium.
... We have concluded that other volatile compounds, identified in an active fraction of this strain, were responsible for this early effect. For example, antibacterial, antiviral, or antifungal activities were previously reported for 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (Rameshthangam & Ramasamy, 2007;Maruthupandian & Mohan, 2011) and 1,3-dimethyl-benzene (El-Shouny et al., 2014). Some compounds (ethylbenzene, p-xylene) were previously identified in mixtures of bacterial volatiles (Tenorio-Salgado et al., 2013), while others (cyclohexanone) -in plant extracts (Kim et al., 2011) possessing antimicrobial activity. ...
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In the present study we aimed to perform the first analysis of antimicrobial activity of bacteria isolated from Krubera-Voronja Cave, with the main focus on their activity against Grampositive bacteria, including Gram-positive pathogens. Using five different media, in total 874 heterotrophic cultures were isolated from water and sediment samples collected in Krubera-Voronja Cave at a depth from 220 m to 1640 m. 14.0% of all isolates demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative test microorganisms. Our results show that this percentage was not uniform; it increased with the sampling depth and was the highest in the lower part of the cave. 24 isolates were active exclusively against Gram-positive test strains Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Two isolates, namely strains 1350R2-TSA30-6 and 1410WF1-TSA30-2, were chosen for the further work because of the high and comparable activity against both Gram-positive test microorganisms. It was determined that both strains belong to the family Bacillaceae in phylum Firmicutes. The detailed bioactivity analysis of these two Gram-positive strains revealed the different mixtures of volatile compounds with antibacterial activity. The main antibacterial compounds of the strain 1350R2-TSA30-6 are pyrrolopyrazines pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- 3-(2-methylpropyl)- and pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(phenylmethyl)-. The main antibacterial compound of the strain 1410WF1-TSA30-2 is 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester. Mixtures of the volatile antimicrobial compounds of both strains were antagonistic against Gram-positive strains isolated from Krubera-Voronja Cave, and their activity against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria substantially differed.
... The maximum inhibition zone by acetone extract was observed on isolates number 7 and 88 (18 mm). El-Shouny et al. (2014) stated that chamomile acetone extract showed highest inhibition zones of 27 mm against the tested staphylococcus aureus and 18 mm against candida albicans. < 0.001** < 0.001** < 0.001** Values are mean inhibition zone (mm) ± S.D of three replicates, *significant at P ≤ 0.05 **highly significant at P ≤ 0.001 using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), 0 = no zone of inhibition, control= 0, Sp. ...
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1. Abstract Twenty two bacterial isolates were collected from hundred peritoneal samples taken from patients that were admitted to Tanta university hospital, Egypt. All the investigated isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically. The twenty two isolates were subjected to in vitro evaluation for antibiotic sensitivity test using antibiotics from different classes. Rosa damascena and Terminalia chebula were extracted using different solvents (Methanol and acetone) and were investigated for antibacterial activity against the 22 bacterial isolates. The sensitivity was determined using agar well diffusion method and the inhibition zones were compared with the standard drug gentamicin. The extracts showed a wide spectrum of inhibition against the tested isolates. Acetone extracts of the two plants were proven to have the strongest antibacterial activity than the methanol extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts were determined. GC-MS and FT-IR analyses were carried out for the T. chebula acetone extract as the best antibacterial agent.
The antimicrobial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from three plants species including Matricaria chamomilla (AqMc, EtMc), Silybum marianum (AqSm, EtSm) and Melissa officinalis (AqMo, EtMo) and also the essential oil of M. chamomilla (EoMc) were investigated on 91 multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and also the inhibition zone diameter of the essential oil and extracts were determined by microdilution and agar well diffusion methods. Reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were applied for phytochemical analyses of extracts and essential oil ingredients especially flavonoids. The highest inhibitory activity was exhibited by EoMc (MIC = 0.11 µg/ml) and the lowest activity was for AqMc and AqSm (MIC = 1113 µg/ml). The highest bactericidal activity was attributed to EoMc and EtSm (MBC = 1.11 µg/ml) and the lowest activity was shown by AqMc (MBC = 1113 µg/ml). The EoMc can substitute 18 studied antibiotics except for meropenem and piperacillin (P < 0.01). In M. chamomilla and S. marianum, the ethanolic extracts exhibited more activity than the aqueous extracts, but in M. officinalis, the aqueous extract showed more antimicrobial effect than the ethanolic extract (P < 0.01). Antimicrobial compounds that were identified in the essential oil and extracts included flavonoids such as catechin, quercetin, and silymarin. The extracts or essential oil of these studied plants are good candidates to use in the treatment of UTI due to MDR E. coli; although they need more investigation.
One handred seventy five (175) swabs were collected from patients ( 4- 50 ) years old infected with pharyngitis and tonsillitis from central children hospital, Al karama teaching hospital specific surgeries hospital and teaching laboratories of medical city in baghdad
A total 35 pressure sores samples were collected from males and females patients in El-Wafaa & El-Amel hospital, Cairo, by sterile swabs and isolated on nutrient, MacConkey's and blood media, a positive bacteria growth were detected on these media. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most predominant pathogen isolated from pressure sores (31.4%) followed by Proteus vulgaris (28.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.8%), E. coli (8.6%), K. pneumoniae (5.8%) and S. aureus (2.8%). Antibiotics sensitivity test for Gram-positive and negative bacteria showed that the antibiotic ofloxacin is the most effective against clinical bacterial isolates (68.6%) followed by norfloxacin (62.8%), chloramphenicol and amikacin (51.4%). Six types of disinfectants were used iodine, betadine, gawy stain, cetavlon, gentian and mercrychrome, where the most effective were iodine and betadine. The effect of plant extracts against highly resistant bacterial isolates showed that clove, rosemary, peppermint and thyme showed strong inhibitory action against tested isolates. The combination between ofloxacin and amikacin with clove plant extract showed that the clearly synergistic effect was obtained against tested clinical bacterial isolates. Antibacterial activity of honey bees showed that date honey is the most active against bacterial isolates followed by the pond grain honey, seder honey, citrus honey, albrdqoc and clover honey. The effect of volatile oils against resistant bacterial isolates showed that peppermint, thyme, garlic and marjoram given strong antibacterial activity against tested bacterial isolates where in peppermint give 50, 35, 30, 25, 25, 22 and 20 mm inhibition zones.
A comparative study of the antimicrobial activities of the bark and seed extracts of Garcinia kola and Carica papaya were tested using the Agar well diffusion method on eight bacterial strains - Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typhi B; Shigelladysenteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Serratiamarcescens; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Proteus vulgaris; and Bacillus subtillis. Phytochemical screening shows that both bark and seed of the two plants contain reducing sugars, phenols and alkaloids whereas the pawpaw extracts contained tannins which were absent in the bitter kola plant part. Garcinakola on the other hand has saponin that was not present in Caricapapaya. The Garcinia seed ethanol extract manifested the best inhibitory activities against the test bacteria, producing inhibition zones ranging from 12-23mm. There was no resistance from any of the test bacteria. The pawpaw seed extract was also effective against the test bacteria. The inhibition zone observed ranged from 11-16mm. The ethanol extract of both plants were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigelladysenteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens; and Salmonella typhi B. Pawpaw leaf ethanolic extract significantly inhibited Pseudomiasaeruginosa, while Garcinia seeds ethanolic extract also inhibited Bacillus substilis. The activity index of ethanol extract of Garcinia kola seed was higher than that of pawpaw seed when both gentamicin and tetracycline were used as a standard antibiotics. The aqueous extract of both plant parts were not as effective as the ethanol extract. The activities of these medicinal plants against the tested bacterial species in this study justified their common use in African traditional medicine in the treatment of various ailments.
Medicinal herbs have been on the forefront whenever we talk about anticancer remedies, Herbal medicines have a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. With advanced knowledge of molecular science and refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, various anticancer herbs has been identified, which execute their therapeutic effect by inhibiting cancer-activating enzymes and hormones, stimulating DNA repair mechanism, promoting production of protective enzymes, inducing antioxidant action and enhancing immunity of the body. Here we covered the plants used previously and recently identified for treatment of cancer and to reduce the pains during the treatment of cancer.
The study was carried out to verify the potential anticarcinogenic andantimutagenic activity of garlic and aloe-vera. The ability of aqueous garlicextract and Aloe-Vera gel to inhibit mutation in tester strain of Escherichiacoli WP2 uvrA was determined in this study. (The tester E. coli tryptophanauxotroph strain was obtained from Yale University U.S.A.). Thespontaneous mutation rate of E. coli WP 2 uvrA was determined in the Ames assay to be 2.2 x 10-7. The acridine mutagen showed 333.8% increase of spontaneously reverting colonies of the tester strain. Different concentrations of aqueous garlic extract and aloe-vera gel conferred varying degrees of antimutagenic activities on the tester E. coli WP2 uvrA. Aqueous garlic extract was found to have its highest antimutagenic activity at a concentration of 0.5g/cm3 (the highest concentration tested) with 81.02% reduction in revertant colonies were observed. 0.1g/cm-3 and 0.25g/cm-3 garlic extract produced 72.16% and 74.82% reduction of revertant colonies respectively. Aloe-Vera gel produced 43.6%, 37.2% and 33.68% reduction in revertant colonies at concentration of 0.5ml, 0.2ml and 0.1ml per plate of the E. coli respectively. From the result obtained in this study, garlic has tremendous potential antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic substances.. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 10: 275 – 278)
The concept of biological control for health maintenance has received widespread attention during the last few years. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to look for active substances that could be used as antibacterial agents. To achieve this target, two different extract (Methanol and Acetone) from Spirulina platensis was examined. The algal extracts were tested in vitro for their antibacterial effects against (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium) using Agar well diffusion method and Paper disc diffusion method and concentration from 250 ppm up to 7000 ppm was taken and observed all these bacteria showed inhibition in growth by these extracts. During gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis it was observed that mostly fatty acid compounds are present in crude extract which are associated with the antibacterial properties.