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COMMENT ARY & COUNTERPOINT 
Toward a Non
Euclidian Mode
of Planning
John Friedmann
   
 



  


        


  
 
         
        
     
  

Rethinking Planning
       


      
      

    
      
    

 

   

    
  
  
 


 
     



  


         
      

          


      
     


      


      
 
       
  

 
   


 
         
 
    
        

       
    


      
   

   



   
 
   


     

         
     

 
   
        
  482  

 

 
      
      
  


      
 
  
r
  


   
 
       
     
       

    
 
      


   
    

     

         
      


      
  

       
 
Planning Should Be Normative
       


 

      
         

    
    
   

  

      
      

    
      

       
 
     
        
          


  
 
      
        

Planning Should Be Innovative
     


     
 

   

   
        
     

 
       


 
Planning Should Be Political
  
        
       
  

       

      
  
  





 


   

r 
  
  483  
COMMENT ARY AND COUNTERPOINT
         
    

Planning Should Be Transactive
      

  


          
      


 

   
        



       
 

      



 

     
 



         


     

      
 
 

     
      
   
      

    
         
 
 


          
  
   
       

  
  

         
       

The New Urban Professional

       

        
 
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 

     


    




      
Planning Should Be Based on Social Learning       
   
           
  
      
        
                
      
    
       
     
       
           
         
  484  
COMMENTARY AND COUNTERPOINT


NOTE
 
   
   
     

   

    
       

 
    





 

© 

A Quantum
Response to
Non-Euclidian
Planning
Sam Casella




 
 
        

  


    

    
         
    
 


      
       



        
     


  

    
      
      

  
         
      
 
 
  
 
       
  


  


 
  

       
       
       
  



Casella, AICP, president of the APA, is a principal of
Casella and Associates, a planning rm in Clearwater,
Florida.
 
© 

APA JOURNAL 485 AUTUMN 1993
  



Daniel Lauber


  
       
 

    
     
    


  

 


 

        
  
   
  


      
   
        
       

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
       
 
  
 
        

   
    
      
  
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      
     
     
         
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
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        

       
 
       
 
 
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      
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       
     
  


       

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
   
  

   

         

    
   
   
   

 

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
  r  
   

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


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



    
... Se trata de incidir también en las conductas y los comportamientos morales de las personas. La incorporación de la ética significa considerar que la formación de doctores, desde el modelo WWP, no tiene un carácter "neutral", sino que se basa en un ideal de servicio y es guiado por unos valores (Friedmann, 2001). En el caso de la UPS estos valores son muy relevantes según el ideario salesiano. ...
... Cualquier proyecto, desde el modelo WWP, se convierte en un "laboratorio de innovación y aprendizaje", adoptando una "función empresarial" (Friedmann, 1993(Friedmann, , 2001) como instrumento movilizador de recursos humanos, económicos, públicos y privados, que conlleva a la concertación y a la negociación entre los distintos protagonistas para asumir compromisos conjuntos. ...
... Cualquier proyecto, desde el modelo WWP, se convierte en un "laboratorio de innovación y aprendizaje", adoptando una "función empresarial" (Friedmann, 1993(Friedmann, , 2001) como instrumento movilizador de recursos humanos, económicos, públicos y privados, que conlleva a la concertación y a la negociación entre los distintos protagonistas para asumir compromisos conjuntos. ...
Book
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Con el título “Incidencia de los proyectos de Vinculación con la Sociedad de la Universidad Politécnica Salesiana”, apareció en diciembre del 2021 la publicación impulsada por el Grupo de Investigación en Desarrollo Local – GIDLO y coordinada por Blas Garzón Vera y Juan Cárdenas Tapia, sdb. La intensión fue sistematizar algunos Proyectos de Vinculación que habían logrado impactos sociales en términos cualitativos y de innovación educativa. En esa oportunidad se presentó una obra con diez capítulos de reflexión, sistematización, análisis y descripción de la trascendental importancia que implica para la Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, la Vinculación con la Sociedad
... Systems planning failed to recognise that reconciling or choosing among different values for society is a political task which passes through a treacherous realm of compromises and decision-making. Hence, new planning paradigms calls for a view that went beyond mere engineering (Friedmann, 1994(Friedmann, , 1993 and involves communities started to emerge (Hall, 2012;Lane, 2005). ...
Thesis
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The current thesis presents research about new methods of citizen participation based on digital technologies. The focus on the research lies on decentralized methods of participation where citizens take the role of co-creators. The research project first conducted a review of the literature on citizen participation, its origins and the different paradigms that have emerged over the years. The literature review also looked at the influence of technologies on participation processes and the theoretical frameworks that have emerged to understand the introduction of technologies in the context of urban development. The literature review generated the conceptual basis for the further development of the thesis. The research begins with a survey of technology enabled participation applications that examined the roles and structures emerging due to the introduction of technology. The results showed that cities use technology mostly to control and monitor urban infrastructure and are rather reluctant to give citizens the role of co-creators. Based on these findings, three case studies were developed. Digital tools for citizen participation were conceived and introduced for each case study. The adoption and reaction of the citizens were observed using three data collection methods. The results of the case studies showed consistently that previous participation and engagement with informal citizen participation are a determinining factor in the potential adoption of digital tools for decentralized engagement. Based on these results, the case studies proposed methods and frameworks that can be used for the conception and introduction of technologies for decentralized citizen participation.
... To address these goals, it was long considered that regional planning ought to work through fixed plans (sometimes termed blueprints) with long-term implementation horizons. However, such a linear and inflexible approach to regional planning (and planning in general) is considered unfit to address the challenges of the twenty-first century (Friedmann 1993). ...
Chapter
Regional planning typically refers to various activities aimed at steering spatial development at the subnational level, for example, through regional land-use plans, economic development programs, or the coordination of infrastructure investments. However, the scope and style of regional planning are subject to change and reform, as can be observed in many countries around the globe. While formal regional planning remains a consolidated element in some planning systems, it has been abolished in others and sometimes been replaced by new informal or strategic governance arrangements. In addition to subnational regions, new spatial delineations such as metropolitan regions or megaregions have gained importance as planning scales. To some extent, regional planning has also transformed from a policy focused on the reduction of socio-spatial disparities to a growth-oriented policy favoring innovation and competitiveness. This chapter discusses the challenging task of defining regions and introduces regional planning as a policy field. It also highlights how regional planning and regional perspectives more generally can play a crucial role in the strive for ecological, social, and economic sustainability.
Article
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As one of the most important and influential urban planning approaches, comprehensive plans can be considered from the different and relevant dimensions and aspects such as the planning system, the content of plans, preparation-approval process, and execution procedure. Hence, this research focuses on the reasons for the inefficiency of comprehensive plans, especially concerning the nature and the substance of this urban planning approach. To this end, in addition to reviewing relevant theories and views, objective instances of the mentioned reasons have been pursued. Therefore, Nowshahr’s Comprehensive Plan was assayed for the ex-post evaluation of plan implementation to assess its efficiency and feasibility in certain aspects, including social and physical dimensions. Following a linear and one-way procedure, inflexibility and lack of realism, single vision and mostly physical solutions, providing too many details based on static and solid frameworks, and the impossibility of accurate predictions are the substantial critical reasons for the inefficiency of urban planning based on comprehensive plans approach. These factors are the challenges that Nowshahr’s Comprehensive Plan also suffers from them identically. The unrealistic approach in determining the city limit, an incorrect policy of using open spaces and increasing density in contradiction with the ecological, touristic, and port nature of the city, failure to realize most of the proposed land uses, and consequently, a severe shortage of service spaces, are among the most apparent objective instances regarding the inefficiency of Nowshahr’s Comprehensive Plan according to the mentioned substantial reasons. Considering the reasons for inefficiency and analysis of the objective instances are an essential strategy that can differentiate the substance of urban plans, especially ones prepared based on the evolution in urban planning and substitution of new approaches, from the old and traditional cases and make them successful more than before.
Article
This article presents an innovative methodological approach for the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT) based on the model ‘Working with People’ (WWP). This WWPmodel is proposed for the application of the VGGT in Colombia and Guatemala, based on four phases. The results show that the WWPmodel turned out to be a useful tool for implementation of the VGGT. The generation of trust and dialogue through multi-stakeholder platforms proposed a new look on how to resolve the issue of land tenure in areas affected by armed conflicts.
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Las áreas urbanas articuladas por ciudades medias han experimentado los crecimientos más intensos del sistema urbano español durante las últimas cuatro décadas. La expansión de estas ciudades hacia sus periferias se ha intensificado en una etapa de fuertes cambios, con el máximo exponente de los crecimientos acontecidos durante la década prodigiosa del boom inmobiliario, entre 1997 y 2007. Como norma general, durante este período las ciudades medias han incrementado leve o moderadamente su población, pero han multiplicado exponencialmente su parque inmobiliario y su superficie urbanizada. Ello ha supuesto la alteración de sus tradicionales estructuras, en general relativamente compactas y densas hasta el momento, abriendo el debate sobre la configuración de espacios urbanos dispersos y fragmentados. En la última década, los crecimientos se han ralentizado y se ha planteado la aparición de un urbanismo más contenido, que reconsidere la pauta de la clasificación masiva de nuevos suelos urbanizables. Sin embargo, el análisis del planeamiento municipal reciente plantea una contradicción en el modelo, ya que parece persistir la expectativa urbanizadora. De hecho, la estrategia urbanística en ciudades medias parece seguir centrada en propuestas de extensión.
Book
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This handbook focuses on the practices, initiatives, and innovations of urban planning in response to the rapid urbanisation in Indonesian cities. The book provides rigorous evidence of planning Indonesian cities of different sizes. Indonesia, the world’s fourth most populous country, is increasingly urbanising. Through the lens of the Sustainable Development Goals, chapters examine specific policies and projects and analyse 19 cities, ranging from a megacity of over ten million residents to metropolitan cities, large cities, medium cities, and small cities in Indonesia. The handbook provides a diverse view of urban conditions in the country. Discussing current trends and challenges in urban planning and development in Indonesia, it covers a wide range of topics organised into five main themes: Indonesian planning context; informality, insurgency, and social inclusion; design, spatial, and economic practices; creative and innovative practices; and urban sustainability and resilience. Written by 64 established and emerging scholars from Indonesia and overseas, this handbook is an invaluable resource to academics working on Urban Studies, Development Studies, Asian and Southeast Studies as well as to policy-makers in Indonesia and in other cities of the Global South. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/edit/10.4324/9781003318170/routledge-handbook-urban-indonesia-sonia-roitman-deden-rukmana
Article
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More than 70 years after official initiation of planning in Iran, the term and the profession of “Planning”, still premised as absolute, abstract, disciplinary, positive, undiscussable, needless of deliberation and reflectivity, while reviewing the intellectual changes of the issue, especially in US and Europe implies to the End of Positivistic- Technocratic Paradigm of planning and emergence of the new field of “theory of planning” in recent 50 years. Through qualitative meta analysis of the most important recently-published books and essays about planning and near fields like development and policy in Persian, this article shows that the blast of the collapse of rational-technocratic planning and emergence of “theory of planning” didn’t reach to Iranian knowledge of planning yet. The only exception is discipline of “Urban Planning” which misunderstands the deep paradigm shift in “theory of planning” with new narrow changes in “theories in urban planning area”. In conclusion after sketching the overall horizon of alternative Non-Euclidian Mode of Planning and discussing some causes and contexts of this theoretical-historical lag from sociology of planning perspective, various strategic recommendations to compensate the regression is being presented.
Article
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Municipalities across the globe require good planning instruments to address the need for medium- to long-term planning. In South Africa, the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) and the Spatial Development Framework (SDF) could be regarded as the two main instruments in the system of forward planning, as mandated by the national government. The system, however, is over two decades old and is not without its detractors and, as such, fresh reviews are warranted. In investigating the instruments, it is the purpose of this review article, as a first step, to identify, compare and analyse several terms or phrases used in global literature in connection with forward planning, in particular blueprint or master planning, comprehensive planning, integrated planning, strategic planning, strategic spatial planning, and community planning. Finally, the article explores the IDP and SDF against the insights gained from this process.
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