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Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemia Effects of Intragastric Administration of Dried Red Chili Pepper (Capsicum Annum) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rats Fed with High-Fat-Diet

  • Faculty of Agriculture - Cairo University

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This study investigated the effect of different drying methods, such as solar drying at 45°C and conventional drying at 60°C on the quality of red chili pepper for two varieties Serrano and Fresno. The conventional drying method had the highest capsaicin content (2.74 and 1.28%) for Serrano and Fresno varieties respectively. The effect of dried red chili pepper at 1 and 2% and the pure capsaicin at 0.015% were studied in experiments using male albino rats containing 20% high fat diet (HFD) rendered diabetic with alloxan injection for 4 weeks. The lowest value of blood serum glucose was with G4 " diabetic group fed HFD + 0.015% capsaicin " that recorded 160 mg/dl. Moreover, serum cholesterol as well as serum triglycerides for the diabetic groups G4 and also G6 that " fed HFD + 2% Serrano red dried chili pepper " were significantly low. The HDL concentration for the groups G4 and G6 were significantly higher than the G3 " diabetic rats fed with HFD ". Feeding the groups of diabetic rats with HFD + 1 or 2% dried red chili pepper or 0.015% capsaicin, the LDL and VLDL levels as well as total lipids were significantly low as compared with control diabetic HFD " G3 " .
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 11, 850-856
Available online at
© Science and Education Publishing
Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemia Effects of
Intragastric Administration of Dried Red Chili Pepper
(Capsicum Annum) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male
Albino Rats Fed with High-Fat-Diet
Mona Mohamed Abdel Magied*, Nadia Abdel Rahman Salama, Marwa Rashad Ali
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
*Corresponding author:
Received October 17, 2014; Revised October 25, 2014; Accepted October 29, 2014
Abstract This study investigated the effect of different drying methods, such as solar drying at 45°C and
conventional drying at 60°C on the quality of red chili pepper for two varieties Serrano and Fresno. The
conventional drying method had the highest capsaicin content (2.74 and 1.28%) for Serrano and Fresno varieties
respectively. The effect of dried red chili pepper at 1 and 2% and the pure capsaicin at 0.015% were studied in
experiments using male albino rats containing 20% high fat diet (HFD) rendered diabetic with alloxan injection for 4
weeks. The lowest value of blood serum glucose was with G4 “diabetic group fed HFD + 0.015% capsaicin” that
recorded 160 mg/dl. Moreover, serum cholesterol as well as serum triglycerides for the diabetic groups G4 and also
G6 that “fed HFD + 2% Serrano red dried chili pepper” were significantly low. The HDL concentration for the
groups G4 and G6 were significantly higher than the G3 “diabetic rats fed with HFD”. Feeding the groups of
diabetic rats with HFD + 1 or 2% dried red chili pepper or 0.015% capsaicin, the LDL and VLDL levels as well as
total lipids were significantly low as compared with control diabetic HFD “G3”.
Keywords: red chili, Capsicum annum, drying, type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, high fat diet, rats
Cite This Article: Mona Mohamed Abdel Magied, Nadia Abdel Rahman Salama, and Marwa Rashad Ali,
Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemia Effects of Intragastric Administration of Dried Red Chili Pepper
(Capsicum Annum) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rats Fed with High-Fat-Diet.” Journal of Food
and Nutrition Research, vol. 2, no. 11 (2014): 850-856. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-11-15.
1. Introduction
The word pepper describes two different kinds of plants
from two unlike species mainly used as spices and
seasoning in foods. Thus the genus Piper Nigrumwhich is
a flowering vine of the Piperaceae family and Capsicum
which is a genus of plants of the Solanaceae family native
to Mexico but currently cultivated in Asia, Africa and
countries along the Mediterranean (Yao et al., 1994; In-
Kyung et al., 2007). The genus capsicum includes five
main species: C. annuum (Containing Jalapeno, Serrano,
Bell and annuum varieties), C. Frutescens (Containing the
Tabasco variety), C. chinense (Containing the Habanero
and Scotch Bonnet varieties). C. baccatum (Containing
Aji variety) and C. pubescens (Containing the Rocoto and
Manzano varieties) (Pino et al., 2006). The Fresno chili
pepper is a Jalapeño style chili, but hotter than most
Jalapeños. The peppers ripen from green to red. The plants
do well in warm to hot temperatures and dry climates with
long sunny summer days and cool nights. They are very
cold-sensitive, but disease resistant reaching a height of 24
to 30 inches (Bonnie Plants, 2014). The Serrano pepper is
a type of chili pepper that originated in the mountainous
regions of the Mexican. The name of the pepper is a
reference to the mountains (sierras) of these regions
(Dave et al., 2009). The fruit can be harvested while they
are green or ripe. Unripe Serrano peppers are green, but
the color at maturity varies. Common colors are green, red,
brown, orange, or yellow. Serrano peppers do better in
soils with a pH between 7.0 and 8.5 and in warm
temperatures above 75°F (24°C); they are not frost
tolerant (Kurt 2012).
Traditionally, fresh chilies are preserved by drying
immediately after harvest under the sun without any
special treatment, and this remains the most widely
practiced method throughout the producing countries. In
this method, drying cannot be controlled and a relatively
low quality dried product is obtained. Drying rate is very
slow and takes 715 days, depending on the weather
conditions (Hossain, 2003). Currently, conventional
drying is popular for drying chili due to a relatively short
drying time, uniform heating, more hygienic
characteristics and improves some of the quality factors of
the dried product (Kostaropoulos and Saravacos 1995;
Maskan et al. 2002). The temperature ranges from 45 to
70°C and this reduces drying time to less than 20 hrs
(Toontom., et al 2012). However, using high temperatures
for drying produces a low quality of chili, with losses of
851 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
volatile compounds, nutrients and color (Di Scala and
Crapiste, 2008; Kaleemullah and Kailappan, 2006).
Avery unique characteristics of chili is the spiciness
which comes from the chemical substance called capsaicin.
Chili can be grown all year round. The conventional
method to preserve the chili is dried up under the sun by
spreading the chili in the large open area (Kaleemallah
and Kailappan 2005). As an alternative to conventional
sun drying, solar drying is a promising alternative for
drying chili, because mechanical drying is mainly used in
industrial countries and is not applicable to small farms in
developing countries due to high investment and operating
costs (Hossain and bala 2007).
Pungency is the main feature of chili peppers and
depends on the presence of a group of alkaloids belong to
the family of capsaicinoids. Those molecules are
synthesized in the interlocular septum and consequently
the portion of the fruit richer in capsaicicinoids is the
placental tissue (Prasad et al, 2006). Capsaicin and
deyhydrocapsicin are the predominant molecules,
representing about the 90% of the total capsaicinoids, and
usually their amount is determined for pungency
characterization (Giuffrida et al., 2013). The amount of
capsaicin in a given variety can vary depending on the
light intensity and temperature at which the plant is grown,
the age of the fruit, and the position of the fruit on the
plant. The first test developed to measure pungency was
the Scoville test, first developed in 1912 by Wilbur
Scoville (Scoville 1912). There are five levels of
pungency classified using Scoville heat units (SHU): non-
pungent (0700 SHU), mildly pungent (7003,000 SHU),
moderately pungent (3,00025,000 SHU), highly pungent
(25,00070,000 SHU) and very highly pungent (>80,000
SHU) (Weiss 2002).
Capsaicinoids confer to the barriers the well known
characteristic of spicy flavor that make chili peppers
highly consumed all over the world as flavoring and
additive to many kind of foods. Many biological effects
and in the late years important pharmaceutical properties,
including antioxidant, anticarcinogenics, ant-inflammatory
effects have been recognized to those alkaloids (Reyes-
Escogido et al., 2011). The determination of the pungency
degree is very important for consumers and for industrial
purposes, since a defined value is required to be employed
as ingredient for food production. The perception of
pungency is variable between different individuals and
seems to be also affected by the habit (Rozin et al 1981).
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized
by hyperglycemia and alterations in carbohydrate, lipid
and protein metabolism, associated with absolute or
relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and / or insulin
action (Tundis et al 2012). The world health organization
(WHO) estimates that more than 220 million people
worldwide have diabetes and this number is likely to more
than double by 2030 (WHO, 2009). Several works
demonstrated the ability of pepper and their constituents to
influence the blood glucose level (Chaiyasit et al 2009;
Oboh et al 2011and Tundis et al 2011). Moreover, the
capsaicin of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) had
significant hypolipidemic influence in a variety of
experimental animal system (Srinivsan et al 2004).
Manjunatha and Srinivsan (2006) reported the beneficial
influences of dietary capsaicin on the susceptibility of low
density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation.
The objective of this work was to study the effect of
different methods of drying on the chemical composition
and capsaicin content of two varieties of red chili pepper
and to examine the effect of red chili pepper powder on
serum blood glucose and the LDL of diabetes and
hypercholesterolemic rats
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials
Two varieties of fresh red chili pepper (Capsicum
annum, L.) "Serrano and Fresno" were harvested from a
green house in the Gaara farm, located in Masr Ismalia,
Egypt, in June 2013 at their full maturity and were
packaged in perforated plastic bags stored in the
refrigerator at 5°C until analysis. The samples were
authenticated by Prof. Hassan Ali, Vegetable Crop
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University,
Egypt. Analytical-grade ethyl alcohol (99.8%) was
purchased from El Nasr Pharmaceutical chemical
Company. Capsaicin (>95%) was purchased from Sigma
Aldrich company. Forty eight male Albino rats weighing
160175 g were purchased from the Research Institute of
Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt. Diagnostic kits were
purchased from Bio-Diagnostics Company, Giza, Egypt.
Alloxan monohydrate was purchased from Kemet Medical
Company, Cairo, Egypt.
2.2. Preparation of Dried Red Chili Pepper
Drying of red chili pepper was conducted either by
solar drying at 45°C for 75 hours or by conventional
drying in a cabinet dryer (DRTH) pilot plant, Engineering
86 Equipment GmbH, 6072 Dreieich West Germany at
60°C for 27 hour. The dried samples were packed into
plastic bags and stored at room temperature (25°C) until
2.3. Determination of Chemical Composition
of Fresh and Dried Chili Samples
All the Analyses were performed in duplicate to
determine the moisture content, ash, total carbohydrate,
protein, crude fiber and fat as described by the (AOAC,
2.4. Extraction of Capsaicin
Soxhlet extraction [995.03] was used as exhaustive
extraction as described in AOAC (2005). Approximately
500mg of dry pepper (powder) and 5g of fresh red chili
pepper were weighted and placed in a soxhlet apparatus
with 50mL of ethanol. The solution was gently refluxed
for 3 h and allowed to cool, then filtered the solution
through Whatman No. 4 filter paper; evaporating to
dryness in a rotary evaporator system then transferred to 5
ml volumetric flask. Capsaicin was analyzed by HPLC
technique as described by Juangsamoot, et al, (2012) using
standard capsaicin.
2.5. Scoville Heat Unit Conversions
Chili pungency is measured in Scoville Heat Units
(SHU) corresponding to the concentration of capsaicinoids.
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 852
The pungency level in SHU was calculated by using the
content of capsaicin (%dry weight) x 150,000
(Govindarajan, 1986).
2.6. Biological Experimental
Forty eight male Albino rats weighing 160175 g were
obtained from Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza,
Egypt. The animals were housed individually in well
aerated cages with screen bottom and fed on basal diet as
described in A. O.A.C (2000) for 12 days as an adaptation
period. Salt mixture and vitamin mixture were prepared as
described in A.O.A.C (1995 and 2000) respectively.
Temperature and humidity were maintained at 25°C and
60% respectively, food and water were given ad libitum.
Table 1. Composition of basal and HF diets (g/100g diet)
HFD diabetic
+ 0.015%
HFD diabetic
+ 1% Serrano
HFD diabetic
+ 2% Serrano
HFD diabetic
+ 1% Fresno
HFD diabetic
+ 2% Fresno
Starch 62 39.62 39.62 39.61 38.62 37.62 38.62 37.62
Casein* 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18
Sucrose - 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Beef Tallow - 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Corn oil 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Cellulose 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Vit- Mix 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Salt-Mix 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Cholin bitartarate - 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Cholic acid - 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
Red Chili pepper - - - - 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0
* Casein contained 83.33% protein.
2.6.1. Experimental Design
The rats (48 rats) were divided into 8 groups, each
contain 6 rats, namely: (G1) Control basal diet, the rest of
the groups were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for two
weeks. The previous mentioned groups were named as
(G2) control fed HFD, (G3) control fed HFD of the
diabetic rats, (G4) HFD of diabetic rats and administrated
orally (by stomach tube) 0.015% of capsaicin pure. The
groups of rats G5, G6, G7 and G8 were fed with HFD +
1% or 2% of dried Serrano or dried Fresno chili red
pepper respectively as described by Islam and Choi,
(2008). The groups of experimental rats are shown in
Table 1. After 2 weeks feeding of HFD, diabetes was
induced in overnight fasted animals by a single
intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate dissolved
in 5% w/v normal saline at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW. The
dose of alloxan was injected per periodically for 3 days.
Five days later, blood samples were collected from the eye
plexuser by a fin capillary glass tube. The samples were
centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 rpm and the serum was
collected, blood glucose level was measured. The rats with
blood glucose level ≥300 mg/dL were considered to be
diabetic as recommended by Islam and Choi, (2008).
Serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL - cholesterol,
triglycerides (TG), and total lipids. All the analyses were
determined photometrically by using the diagnostic kits.
At the end of the experiment (4 weeks), the blood was
sampled for the previous mentioned analysis.
3. Statistical Analysis
Results were statistically analyzed by the least
significant differences (L.S.D) at the level of probability
procedure according to Snedecor and Cochran, (1980).
4. Result and Discussion
4.1. Effect of Drying Methods on Vhemical
Properties of Red Chili Pepper
The chemical composition of fresh as well as dried red
chili pepper is shown in Table 2. Results show that the
moisture content of the two varieties of fresh red chili
pepper “Serrano and Fresno” was 84.3% and 86.06%
respectively. The moisture content of the solar dried red
chili pepper of the two different varieties Serrano or
Fresno 8.46 and 7.71% respectively. However, the
moisture content of the conventional dried red chili pepper
for Serrano and Fresno were 8.24 and 7.20% respectively.
There results are in accordance with the results of Wall
and Bosland (1993) who found that moisture content of
red chili pepper at 8% is ideal. They also added that,
moisture content above 11% allows mould to grow and
moisture content below 4% causes an excessive color loss.
Moreover, Yaldiz et al (2010) reported that, the moisture
content of dried chili pepper by solar drying was in the
average of 8.22%, meanwhile it reached up to 7.27% for
the conventional drying method at 60°C.
Results in Table 2 also show the ash content of different
tested samples. So, the application of drying significantly
increased the dry matter and ash values due to the removal
of water from the peppers. Our results are in agreement
with the results of Ozgur, et al., (2011). Results in Table 2
also show the carbohydrate content of different tested
samples. No significant different could be shown between
the two different dried methods (solar or conventional
drying) for the two varieties of red dried chili pepper
either for Serrano or Fresno. These results are in
agreement with the results of Esayas et al., (2011) and
Sarker et al., (2012). Moreover, results in Table 2 show
853 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
that the protein content for Serrano variety either dried
with solar or conventional drying method were 12.31 and
12.35% respectively, they were in nonsignificant
difference. The same results were also showed for the
Fresno variety; they were recorded 13.40 and 13.66% for
solar conventional drying methods respectively. Our
results are in accordance with the results of Tunde
Akintude (2010).
Table 2. Chemical composition of the two varieties (Serrano and Fresno) of (Capsicum annuum L.) on dry weight basis
Varieties of red chili pepper
Fresh (on dry
weight) Solar drying
(45°C) Conventional
drying (60°C)
Fresh (on
dry weight) Solar drying
(45°C) Conventional
drying (60°C)
67.44±0.108a 61.52±0.002b 61.55±0.002b 0.008 68.73±.063a 63.29±0.031b 63.20±0.004 b 0.770
Crude Protein
4.50 ±0.007 a
4.15 ±0.001b
4.21 ±0.035b
3.55±0.004 b
7.90 ±0.064 a
7.44 ± 0.184a
5. 33±0.005 a
Crude Fiber
6.37 ±0.003a
6.12± 0.001a
6.15±0.007 a
8.46 0.004b
7.71± 0.002 b
The fat content of the different tested samples of red
chili pepper is shown in Table 2 results show that the fat
content for the Serrano or Fresno varieties were in non
significant difference for solar or conventional drying
methods as well as for the fresh sample (on dry weight
basis). Famurewa et al., (2006) found that the fat content
of dried red chili pepper was in the range of 11.38 to
11.60%. The crude fiber content of red chili pepper is
shown in Table 2. No significant difference was their
between the different tested samples either for Serrano or
Fresno varieties. So, different treatments of drying did not
affect on the crude fiber comparing with the corresponded
fresh sample (on dry weight basis), they were in the range
of 6.37 to 6.98%. Our results were not accomplished with
the results of Famurewa et al., (2006) who found that, the
amount of crude fiber in red chili pepper was only 0.67%.
4.2. Effect of Drying Method on Capsaicin
Content and Scoville Heat Units of Red Chili
The capsaicin content and the scoville heat units of
fresh as well as the dried red chili pepper for the two
varieties Serrano and Fresno are shown in Table 3. Results
show that the capsaicin content of fresh samples was
recorded 0.23 and 0.17 (g/100g) for the two varieties
Serrano and Fresno respectively. Meanwhile, the dried
samples recorded 1.64, 0.40% capsaicin of solar drying
method at 45°C for Serrano and Fresno varieties
respectively. Moreover, the capsaicin content of dried red
chili pepper by conventional drying at 60°C was recorded
2.74 and 1.28% respectively. Yaldiz et al., (2010) reported
that the capsaicin content of red chili (Capsicum
frutescens) varied between 0.50 and 4.20% they attributed
this due to temperature, time and drying methods. Topuz
and Ozdemir (2004) reported that sun-dried Turkish
paprika chili that was processed for 5-7 days lost 24.6% of
the capsaicin content. They also added that, oven dried
Turkish paprika chili that was dehydrated at 70°C for 90
min, lost 21.5% of the capsaicin content.
Table 3. Effect of drying method on capsaicin content and scoville heat units of red chili pepper
Samples of red chili pepper
0.23 c
0.17 c
34500 c
25500 c
Solar drying (45°C)
1.64 b
0.40 b
24600 b
60000 b
Conventional drying (60°C)
2.74 a
1.28 a
411000 a
192000 a
LSD at 5%
a SHU = The content of capsaicin (% dry weight) x 150,000
It could be show also from the results in Table 3 the
hotness “SHU” of the red chili pepper for the two varieties
Serrano and Fresno either fresh or dried were varied
according to the variety and also to the used drying
method. These values of SHU were in the range of 34500
to 411000 and 25500 to 192000 for Serrano and Fresno
varieties respectively. These results are in accordance with
the results of Toontom et al (2012), who found that the
hotness (SHU) of fresh and dried red chili pepper was in
the range of 14000 to 314000 SHU depending of the
variety and the drying method. Moreover, Topuz (2002)
found that the pungent components of red pepper flakes
were higher in oven dried samples compared to sun
dried samples. Giuffrida et al (2013) found that Serrano
variety of fresh red chili pepper had 22000 SHU.
4.3. Biological Evaluation of Red Chili
Peppers and Capsaicin
4.3.1. Food intake and Gain in Body Weight
Food intake (g/rat/day) and body weight gain (%) of the
different tested groups of rats fed without or with red chili
pepper as well as capsaicin are shown in Table 4. Results
show the significant difference through out the
experiments, the highest food intake was recorded for the
control group of rats fed with HFD (G2). In contrast the
lowest food intake was with the G3 that recorded 14.43 g
/rat /day. Moreover, the diabetic groups of rat fed with
HFD with 2% Serrano or Fresno had less food intake than
the corresponded groups fed with 1% only, they were in
significant difference. Results also show the significancy
of body weight gain (%) among the different tested groups
of rats. The highest body weight gain was with the G2
“HFD control”, the lowest value was with groups G3
“HFD diabetic rats”. Among the group of rats, G4, G5, G6,
G7 AND G8 recorded low values of body weight gain
comparing with G2, however, G4 had the lowest value
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 854
(26.97%) among these groups. These results are in
agreement with the results of Liang et al (2013) and Islam
and Choi (2008) and Anthony et al (2013) who found
some decrease in body weight of the Wister rats in the
treated groups (diabetic control). They also added that, on
increase in body weight was observed when the treated
groups were compared to the diabetic control groups. In
addition, Yoshioka et al (2010) reported that, the red
pepper has been found to aid the rate of burning; however,
in a diabetic state it can actually reduce the rate of loss of
the body protein (muscles). All these authors reported that,
capsaicin is the chemical in chili peppers that contributes
to their spiciness, capsaicin stimulates a receptor found in
sensory neurons, creating the heat sensation and
subsequent reaction like redness and sweating.
Table 4. Food intake and body weight gain of rats fed with different levels of red chili pepper “Serrano and Fresno”
Experimental groups of rats
Food intake g/rat/day
Body weight gain%
G1: Basal diet control
17.70 ± 0.0707 e
25.87 ± 0.0072 g
G2: HFD control
20.58 ± 0.0014 a
38.25 ± 0.0072 a
G3: HFD diabetic rats
14.43 ± 0.0014 f
11.03 ± 0.0049 h
G4: HFD diabetic + 0.015% capsaicin
18.16 ± 0.0014 de
26.97 ± 0.0707 f
G5: HFD diabetic + 1% Serrano pepper
19.29 ± 0.078 c
35.37± 0.0072 c
G6: HFD diabetic + 2% Serrano pepper
18.29 ± 0.078 d
27.44 ± 0.0072 e
G7: HFD diabetic + 1% Fresno Pepper
19.93 ± 0.0156 b
37.51± 0.0061 b
G8: HFD diabetic + 2% Fresno Pepper
19.17 ± 0.0014 c
34.72 ± 0.0056 d
LSD at 5%
4.3.2. Influence of Dietary Red Chili Pepper and
Capsaicin on Serum and Lipid Profile
The results of the serum biochemical parameters for
different groups of experimental rats are shown in Table 5.
Serum glucose (mg/dl) after four weeks for all the tested
rats was in significant difference, the lowest value was
with G1 “control basal diet”, group 4 “G4” of rats that had
HFD that submit to diabetic case and also had 0.015%
capsaicin was recorded less serum glucose than G3 that
hadn’t capsaicin, also G6 of rats which had HFD under
diabetic condition + 2% Serrano chili pepper was in non
significant difference with G4 and G3. results also show
that G5 and G8 were in non significant difference, this
indicate that the powerful of 1% Serrano pepper was
higher than 2% Fresno pepper as lowering serum glucose.
Serum cholesterol (mg/dl) of experimental groups of
rats after four weeks significantly low as a results of fed
0.015% capsaicin “G4” that contain HFD for the diabetic
rats, the decreasment was also observed for the “G6” of
diabetic rats which fed HFD + 2% Serrano red chili
pepper companying with G2 and G3. Obviously, the
lowest value of serum cholesterol was with “G1” group of
rats fed control basal diet. No significant difference could
be shown among the group of rats named as G5, G7 and
G8. the serum triglycerides (mg/dl) level for the groups of
rats after four weeks was significantly lowered for G4, G5,
G6 and G8 of the rats which fed HFD + 0.015% capsaicin,
HFD + 1% Serrano, HFD + 2% Serrano and HFD + 2%
Fresno red chili pepper respectively.
At the end of the experiment (4 weeks), the HDL
concentrations mg/dl for the groups of diabetic rats fed
with HFD + 0.015% capsaicin “G4” and “G6” fed HFD
+2% Serrano pepper were significantly higher than the
“G3” diabetic rats fed with HFD. However, no significant
difference could be shown between “G2” HFD control and
all the other groups of diabetic rats either fed with red
chili pepper or 0.015% capsaicin. The serum LDL (mg/dl)
and VLDL (mg/dl) levels for the “G1” control basal diet
after four week was recorded the lowest value. In contrast,
the highest value was with “G3” the group of diabetic rats
fed with HFD. As a result of feeding the other group of
diabetic rats with HFD + 1 or 2% red chili pepper for the
two varieties Serrano and Fresno, the LDL and VLDL
levels were significantly lowered as compared with “G3”.
So, this shows the effect of red chili pepper as well as
capsaicin on lowering LDL and VLDL. The dietary
capsaicin treatment “G4” of diabetic groups of rats and
also all the other diabetic groups of rats fed with HFD + 1
or2% Serrano or Fresno red chili pepper for four weeks
recorded low serum total lipids (mg/dl) compared with
“G3” diabetic rats fed with HFD.
The administered Capsicum frutescence in the diet at 1
g and 2 g doses significantly reduced the blood glucose
level, total cholesterol compared with diabetic control
(Anthony et al 2013) they also attributed this significant
reduction in blood glucose level to the presence of
hypoglycemic agents in red chili pepper. Moreover,
pharmacokinetic and effect of capsaicin in red chili pepper
on decreasing plasma glucose level in a study of 12
healthy volunteers by receiving 5g of capsicum had been
documented (Kamon et al 2009). In addition, Anthony, et
al (2013), concluded that, the increase in serum total
cholesterol, serum blood glucose and reduction in serum
high density lipoprotein (HDL) associated with alloxan
induced diabetes mellitus were reversed after treatment
with 1g and 2g Capsicum frutescence supplemented diet.
So, they recommended that red chili pepper be added as
spices to the food of obese individual as well as diabetic
patients for its hypoglycemic properties, including of
increase energy utilization as well as being Cardio-
protective by its effect on plasma lipids. Manjunatha and
Srinivasan (2007) show that dietary capsaicin significantly
countered hypercholesterolemic brought about by high
cholesterol feeding. The reduction in blood cholesterol
brought about by dietary spice principles was mainly in
the LDL, VLDL fractions.
Reduction in serum cholesterol levels in rats on a
normal 10% fat diet incorporated with 1.5, 3 and 15 mg%
capsaicin as reported by Sambaiah et al (1978). Moreover,
lowered liver cholesterol in induced hypercholesterolemic
by Sambaiah and Satyanarayana (1980). Fecal excretion
of cholesterol and bile acids was enhanced in animals fed
capsaicin in these studies. In a subchronic toxicity study in
rats administered, 50 mg/kg per day of capaicin for 60
days, plasma cholesterol levels were significantly reduced
a long with triglycerides and phospholipids
(Monsereenusorn, 1983). Negulesco et al. (1987) have
observed that administration of 8 mg capsaicin/day for 35
days to rabbits on a 0.5% cholesterol diet produced a
beneficial lowering of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides.
855 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Young turkeys on a 23 mg capsaicin/kg feed for 9 days
along with 0.5% cholesterol had lower total serum
cholesterol than controls (Negulesco and Murnane 1982).
Recently, the anti-hypercholesterolemic efficacy of dietary
capsaicin has been shown in rats fed an atherogenic high
cholesterol diet which resulted in countering of the
changes in the membrane lipid profile in the erythrocytes
(Kempaiah and Srinivasan 2002).
5. Conclusions
In conclusion, study on health benefits of red chili
pepper bioactive constituent has attracted the interest of
scientists seeking to prevent disease and promote health.
In this context the present study evaluated the effect of
different drying methods on chemical composition and
capsaicin content, as well as hypoglycemic and
hypocholesterolemic properties of two different varieties
of dried red chili pepper “Serrano and Fresno”. The
conventional drying had high content of capsaicin for
Serrano and Fresno varieties than solar drying. Serum
level of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in rats fed
HFD associated with alloaxn induced diabetes mellitus
were reversed after treatment with 2g of Serrano and
0.015% capsaicin. Therefore it could be recommended
that red chili pepper could be used for diabetic patients.
6. Competing Interests
Authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Table 5. Influence of dietary red chili pepper and capsaicin on serum and lipid profile
groups of rats
Biochemical parameters
Serum glucose
Serum cholesterol
Serum TG (mg/dl)
Serum HDL
Serum LDL
Serum VLDL
Serum Total lipids
G8 337.00
0.707a 228.00±
0.707b 122.00±
2.828a 112.00
0.707cd 15.83±
0.163c 12.88±
0.008cde 82.37±
2.383a 79.05±
0.317b 23.47±
0.375a 20.40±
0.006c 432.00±
2.828a 401.17
G1: Basal diet control, G2: HFD control, G3: HFD diabetic rats, G4: HFD diabetic + 0.015% capsaicin, G5: HFD diabetic + 1% Serrano pepper, G6:
HFD diabetic + 2%
Serrano pepper, G7: HFD diabetic + 1% Fresno Pepper and G8: HFD diabetic + 2% Fresno
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... In addition, the plasma insulin level was 29% lower in the RPSE group than in the control (p < 0.001). Similar to these findings, the anti-diabetes effect of red peppers has been reported by several preclinical and clinical intervention studies, in which its potency was identified mostly by the efficacy of capsaicin [32,33]. For instance, capsaicin treatment notably decreased fasting glucose levels in pancreatectomized diabetic rats, which is a moderate diabetic animal model [34]. ...
... For instance, capsaicin treatment notably decreased fasting glucose levels in pancreatectomized diabetic rats, which is a moderate diabetic animal model [34]. Fasting glucose levels were recovered by 0.015% capsaicin for 4 weeks in alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a HFD [33]. Treatment with 5 mg/dL capsaicin for 4 weeks improved postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in a randomized double-blind trial on gestational diabetes mellitus subjects [35]. ...
Full-text available
Obesity is a notable risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, augmenting the concern of obese diabetes (ObD). Anti-obesity and antioxidant effects of red pepper seeds extract (RPSE) have increased our expectations that RPSE would also improve the pathological phenotypes of obese diabetes. Therefore, we hypothesized that RPSE would have an anti-diabetic effect in ObD mice. Animals were assigned either as follows: (1) db/+, (2) db/db control, (3) RPSE (200 mg/kg bw), or (4) a comparative control (metformin 150 mg/kg bw). RPSE was orally administered daily for 8 weeks. As a result, RPSE supplementation improved diabetic phenotypes, including fasting glucose, hemoglobin (HbA1c), and insulin levels. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and triglycerides were reduced in RPSE-treated mice. RPSE supplementation also diminished the rate-limiting enzymes of gluconeogenesis, including glucose 6-phosphatas (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), in the liver. RPSE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which underlined the mechanism of the anti-diabetic effects of RPSE. Taken together, RPSE has the potential to improve glycemic control by repressing hepatic gluconeogenesis via the phosphorylation of FOXO1 and AMPK in ObD mice.
... The authors highlighted Indian dried chillies have a moisture content of around 16% (d.b.) and for the export purposes, moisture content is limited between 10% to 11%. Mona et al. (2014) [78] studied different drying techniques and evaluated moisture content in Serrano and Fresno type chillies. Before drying, the moisture content was reported as 84.3 and 86.06% and after drying the value decreased to 7.2 and 8.46% for Serrano and Frenso chillies, respectively. ...
... The authors highlighted Indian dried chillies have a moisture content of around 16% (d.b.) and for the export purposes, moisture content is limited between 10% to 11%. Mona et al. (2014) [78] studied different drying techniques and evaluated moisture content in Serrano and Fresno type chillies. Before drying, the moisture content was reported as 84.3 and 86.06% and after drying the value decreased to 7.2 and 8.46% for Serrano and Frenso chillies, respectively. ...
Full-text available
Dried chilli is one of the highly traded spices globally and is well-known for its natural flavour, colour, and unique pungent taste. It is rich in nutrients and has medicinal benefits. During the dehydration and storage process, the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms in dried chilli is unavoidable. Recently, the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and faecal coliforms has been widespread that can cause severe illness and even death. Therefore, sanitation treatment is highly required to decontaminate undesirable microorganisms. Among the common sanitation treatments applied, food irradiation is gaining attention worldwide because of concern for post-harvest loss, foodborne disease, and more stringent regulation in dried chilli trading. Irradiation can successfully preserve dried chilli from pathogenic bacteria with minimal disturbance to critical physical properties, such as pungency and colour. It can also save dried chilli from secondary pollution by storing it into final packing before radiation which helps in distribution to market promptly after treatment. Furthermore, radiation does not leave any chemical residues after the treatment, ensuring the quality and safety of the dried chilli. The efficiency of radiation depends mainly on the initial level of contamination and the persistence of the harmful microorganism. A low irradiation dose is sufficient for dried chili to reduce microbial load to an acceptable level and eliminate pathogens even though a minimum radiation dose of 10 kGy is required for complete sterilization. However, high dosage may affect the colour properties. Gamma radiation, X-ray, and electron beam radiation are the three approved radiation sources for dried chilli in most countries and proven effective for dried chilli preservation. Thus, this review paper highlights the microbial and physical quality properties in gamma radiated dried chillies.
... On consuming chilli, D-glucose absorption in the intestine is lowered, which could further be utilized in post-prandial rise of glucose and carbohydrate degradation [95]. Studies demonstrated that capsaicin has an effect in carbohydrate metabolism [202][203][204][205][206][207][208][209]. Research on mouse models by Kang et al. [210] revealed that capsaicin on altering gene expression can lessen hyperglycemia. ...
Full-text available
Worldwide, since ages and nowadays, traditional medicine is well known, owing to its biodiversity, which immensely contributed to the advancement and development of complementary and alternative medicines. There is a wide range of spices, herbs, and trees known for their medicinal uses. Chilli peppers, a vegetable cum spice crop, are bestowed with natural bioactive compounds, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, phytochemicals, phytonutrients, and pharmacologically active compounds with potential health benefits. Such compounds manifest their functionality over solo-treatment by operating in synergy and consortium. Co-action of these compounds and nutrients make them potentially effective against coagulation, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, dreadful diseases, such as cancer, and microbial diseases, alongside having good anti-oxidants with scavenging ability to free radicals and oxygen. In recent times, capsaicinoids especially capsaicin can ameliorate important viral diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2. In addition, capsaicin provides an ability to chilli peppers to ramify as topical agents in pain-relief and also benefitting man as a potential effective anesthetic agent. Such phytochemicals involved not only make them useful and a much economical substitute to wonder/artificial drugs but can be exploited as obscene drugs for the production of novel stuffs. The responsibility of the TRPV1 receptor in association with capsaicin in mitigating chronic diseases has also been justified in this study. Nonetheless, medicinal studies pertaining to consumption of chilli peppers are limited and demand confirmation of the findings from animal studies. In this artifact, an effort has been made to address in an accessible format the nutritional and biomedical perspectives of chilli pepper, which could precisely upgrade and enrich our pharmaceutical industries towards human well-being.
... The mechanism behind the therapeutic potential of chili pepper has been apprised in several hefty pieces of literature. Chili is effective against a great number of ailments such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, macular degeneration, anemia, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, sinus infection, migraine, neurological disorders, menopausal problems, and digestive complications [19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. Figure 4 displays the pharmacological activities of chili pepper. Herein, the immense potential of chili in battling severe illnesses, as well as the mechanisms associated with health-promoting actions, have been illustrated in detail. ...
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Since the start of history, natural medicine has been of great interest and attention to humankind. A heap of empirical research indicates that spices have undoubtedly made our lives more interesting and may also make them longer. Capsicum is a highly regarded indispensable spice all over the globe for its umpteen culinary and medicinal facets. It has been used for more than 7000 years in Mexico and is believed to have originated in tropical Central America. Mainly, this botanical contains a good source of vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B5, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, phosphorus, and carotenoids. Interestingly, capsicum phenolic compounds are helpful in preventing and treating many ailments. So, it intends as a beneficial milestone in the pharmaceutical industry and a boon to humanity. This chapter highlights the tremendous pharmacological uses and health benefits of capsicum species and its active compounds in multifarious aspects.
... LSD 0.00 showed no effect of temperature on the pungency of hot pepper. The appearance of hot pepper powder as observed in (Magied et al., 2014). Naturally convective dried paprika samples have retained more carotenoid pigments than the samples subjected to hot air oven, refractive window and freeze drying (Topuz et al., 2011;Topuz et al., 2009). ...
Full-text available
Quality characteristics of hot pepper powder in relation to drying temperatures and milling regimes was determined using hot air oven at temperatures (80°C, 85°C, 90°C and 95°C) and milled using attrition mill for 5 and 10 minutes. The quality parameters determined are particle size distribution using sieve method, bulk density using pack and loose method, colour using spectrophotometry and CIELab method, pungency using spectrophotometric method, reconstitution index using soaking method and sensory attributes using seven hedonic scale. The percentage particle size distribution was as follows: 1.40 mm aperture size ranging from 1.39-0.31, 0.425 mm size ranging from 2.55-36, 0.210 mm size ranging from 50.25-79.87, 0.150 size ranging from 2-27, and for 0.090 mm size ranging from 0.016-9.8. The pack bulk density (g m-3) of hot pepper powder was dried and milled and ranged from 0.62-0.57 for (80°C: 5 minutes and 95°C:5 minutes) and 0.58, 0.52 (80°C:10 minutes and 95°C:10 minutes). The loose bulk density (g m-3) ranged from 0.45-0.44 for (80°C:5 minutes and 90°C:5 minutes) and 0.49-0.39, (90°C:10 minutes and 85°C:10 minutes). The chemical or extractable colour content in ASTA unit the colour is ranged from 2594.90 (80°C: 10minutes) to 2357.83 (90°C :5 minutes).The visual colour of the surface colour is ranged from, L* for brightness, 13.56 (90°C:5 minutes) to 23.43 (95°C:10 minutes); a* for redness, 17.45, to 36.80, for 80°C:10 minutes and 85°C:5 minutes respectively; b* for yellowness, 21.53 (80°C:5 minutes) to 61.36 (85°C:5 minutes). The pungency(capsaicin) content (SHU) of hot pepper powder ranged from 32595 (85°C:5minutes) to 40745 (90°C:10 minutes); reconstitution index ranged from 7.00 for 85°C:5 minute to 9.40 for 90°C:10 minutes of the hot pepper. Hot pepper dried at 90°C and milled for 5 minutes was generally accepted. It
... It is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the Western world. With the rising incidence of diabetes, capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillylnonanamide), a phytochemical present in chili peppers, has attracted much attention due to its hypoglycemic effects (4,5). Studies have shown that capsaicin can reduce fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice and improve glucose tolerance by increasing the insulin content (6). ...
Full-text available
Our previous research showed that capsaicin exhibits hypoglycemic effects by activating the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in diabetic rats. Interestingly, capsiate was also able to activate the TRPV1 channel, but with a non-significant hypoglycemic effect. This study aimed to investigate the effect of capsaicin on the glycometabolism of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by blocking the TRPV1 channel. After a 4-week capsaicin treatment (6 mg/kg·bw), the serum insulin level of STZ-induced diabetic rats increased from 15.2 to 22.1 mIU/L, the content of hepatic glycogen and muscle glycogen increased by 81.2 and 20.2%, respectively, and the blood glucose level decreased significantly from 19.3 to 14.7 mmol/L. When the TRPV1 channel was blocked, capsaicin lost the above-mentioned effects, and the hypoglycemic effect was no longer significant. It was concluded that a combined up-regulation of both TRPV1 receptors and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) led to the hypoglycemic effect of capsaicin, which partially explains our previous observation: capsiate activating TRPV1 without showing a significant hypoglycemic effect was due to the lack of a significant up-regulation of PDX-1. Based on the experimental results, we speculated that two signaling pathways [TRPV1-(PDX1)-(GLUT2/GK) and TRPV1-(PDX-1)-(IRS1/2)] exist in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats.
... Kim et al. (2018) reported that the extract of C. annum seed decreases gluconeogenesis in the liver, while it increased the usage of glucose by muscles in vitro. Magied et al. (2014) reported hypoglycemic activity of C. annum in alloxaninduced diabetic rats, which were also subjected to a high-fat diet. Their investigation revealed that capsaicin was responsible for this activity. ...
Full-text available
It is a chronic metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism, which is associated with an elevated level of glucose (hyperglycemia) in the blood. The unhealthy eating habit of people and irregular use of diabetes prescribed medications are one of the factors that have increased the prevalence of diabetes worldwide. However, the high cost of managing diabetes and adverse effects associated with the use of synthetic drugs has impelled the quest to search for cost-effective and safer alternative antidiabetic agents. Conversely, spices are added to food to improve their taste, color, flavor, and shelf-life; they also possess some therapeutic values including antidiabetic activity due to the presence of bioactive components. As a result, the present review focuses on some commonly used spices in Africa that have demonstrated antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies, thereafter, we highlighted some bioactive compounds in these spices and their possible mechanism of action.
... For some herbs and spices, individual bioactive compounds have also been identified and include piperine for black pepper [50,54], cinnamaldehyde and cinnamatannin B1 for cinnamon [66], dehydrodieugenol, dehydrodieugenol B, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid for clove [74,77], cuminaldehyde for cumin [82], diosmin, [6]-gingerol, carvacrol and thymol for ginger [107,112], 3 -geranylchalconaringenin, xanthohumol, isohumulone and isocohumulone for hops [114,117,118], citronellol for lemongrass [127], glycyrrhizin, 18b-glycyrrhetinic acid, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glabridin and licochlacone A for liquorice [131,[133][134][135]137,138,143], 6-hydroxyapigenin for marjoram [145], macelignan, licarin B, tetrahydrofuroguaiacin B, nectandrin B, nectandrin A and dihydroguaiaretic acid for nutmeg [149,151,153,154], rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B for oregano [159], capsaicin for paprika [164], rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, luteolin, 7-O-methylrosmanol, hispidulin, and cirsimaritin for rosemary [144], safranal and crocin for saffron [180], and ar-turmerone, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and tumerin for turmeric [194,195,198]. Considering that herbs and spices are complex mixtures of diverse compounds, it is likely that the anti-diabetic activity of a given plant is dependent on multiple compounds regulating the activity of several anti-diabetic drug targets. ...
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Culinary herbs and spices are widely used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes and its complications, and there are several scientific studies in the literature supporting the use of these medicinal plants. However, there is often a lack of knowledge on the bioactive compounds of these herbs and spices and their mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to use inverse virtual screening to provide insights into the bioactive compounds of common herbs and spices, and their potential molecular mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, a library of over 2300 compounds derived from 30 common herbs and spices were screened in silico with the DIA-DB web server against 18 known diabetes drug targets. Over 900 compounds from the herbs and spices library were observed to have potential anti-diabetic activity and liquorice, hops, fennel, rosemary, and fenugreek were observed to be particularly enriched with potential anti-diabetic compounds. A large percentage of the compounds were observed to be potential polypharmacological agents regulating three or more anti-diabetic drug targets and included compounds such as achillin B from yarrow, asparasaponin I from fenugreek, bisdemethoxycurcumin from turmeric, carlinoside from lemongrass, cinnamtannin B1 from cinnamon, crocin from saffron and glabridin from liquorice. The major targets identified for the herbs and spices compounds were dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5A2), pancreatic alpha-amylase (AM2A), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (PTPN9), and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) with over 250 compounds observed to be potential inhibitors of these particular protein targets. Only bay leaves, liquorice and thyme were found to contain compounds that could potentially regulate all 18 protein targets followed by black pepper, cumin, dill, hops and marjoram with 17 protein targets. In most cases more than one compound within a given plant could potentially regulate a particular protein target. It was observed that through this multi-compound-multi target regulation of these specific protein targets that the major anti-diabetic effects of reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia of the herbs and spices could be explained. The results of this study, taken together with the known scientific literature, indicated that the anti-diabetic potential of common culinary herbs and spices was the result of the collective action of more than one bioactive compound regulating and restoring several dysregulated and interconnected diabetic biological processes.
The optimization of methanol extraction was performed to maximize antioxidant activity and phytochemical properties of dried pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) samples by using the surface response method (RSM) in this study. Box Behnken design model was used to investigate the influences of three independent variables, extraction temperature (25-60ºC), extraction time (30-60 min), and dried pepper concentration (500-1000 mg/20 mL). The effect of the dried pepper concentration variable on all the responses was statistically significant, except reducing capacity data. DPPH radical scavenging, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activity increased with rising extraction temperature and dried pepper concentration variables. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) yields were also observed to enhance with an increase in dried pepper concentration. TPC and TFC in samples ranged from 2.32 to 3.92 mg GAE/g and 0.063 to 0.210 mg RE/g. The highest antioxidant potential for all employed tests was recorded in 2 experimental runs (25°C, 45 min. and 1000 mg/20 mL). The coefficients of determination (R2) for antioxidant analysis were determined as 0.9235-0.9238. These values for TPC and TFC were 0.9364-0.9925, respectively.
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Diets rich in phenolic compounds have been associated to reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and its derived disorders. Fruits are healthy components of the human diet because of their vitamin, mineral, fiber and phenolic profile. However, they have a short shelf-life which is limited by microbiological growth and enzymatic activity. Innovative preservation methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, microwave, cold plasma and ultraviolet light have become popular for the processing of fruits because they can preserve nutritional quality. In this review, the phenolic profile and health potential of 38 Mesoamerican fruits were assessed. Phenolic compounds were classified based on their contribution to the diet as flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannin, lignins and stilbenoids. Due to this composition, fruits showed a wide range of bioactivities which included anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-obesity activities, among others. Phenolic content in fruits submitted to innovative food processing technologies depended on parameters such as enzymatic activity, antioxidant capacity, microstructure integrity and cell viability. Innovative technologies could increase phenolic content while assuring microbiological safety by (i) promoting the release of bound phenolic compounds during processing and (ii) inducing the synthesis of phenolic compounds by activation of phenylpropanoid pathway during storage.
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The effects of drying on chemical composition and functional compounds, including ascorbic acid, phenolics and carotenoids of hot-air-dried green and red peppers, were investigated. Drying significantly affected the dry matter, ash, pH, titritable acidity and chlorophyll values (p < 0.01). The rehydration ratios of the dried green and red peppers at 45°C were 5.57 and 4.27, respectively, and the coefficients of rehydration for the dried green and red peppers were calculated to be 0.65 and 0.82, respectively. Drying caused a more pronounced lightening of the vegetable surfaces with a loss of green color. The rehydrated pepper samples had a high total color difference (∆E) indicating an obvious color change when the fresh peppers were dried. Although hot air-drying caused a more pronounced increase in the ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents of the green and red peppers there was a decrease in the total phenols and antioxidant capacities.
Reversed phase-HPLC separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in some hot chilli varieties was achieved using photodiode array (PDA) detector. Under optimum conditions, their analytical figures of merit for the HPLC method were validated. The linearity range of calibration curve was 1.0-25μg/mL with multiple determination coefficients higher than 0.995. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.5 and 1.0μg/mL, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of both retention time and peak area for these compounds were in good precision with their relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 1% and 4%, respectively. Solvent extraction using methanol for both compounds were conducted by magnetic stirring extraction (MSE) method and then cleaned up with C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by HPLC. Recoveries of SPE of all sample extracts spiked with 16μg of each capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were ranged from 90.0-95.0% and 87.8-95.7%, respectively. The optimized conditions were applied for the determination of both capsaicinoids in ten varieties of the chilli samples. Total contents of the capsaicinoids were found in the range of 1,758.2-7068.9μg/g DW with corresponding to their Scoville heat unit (SHU) obtained in the range of 26,400-106,000. Additionally, the contents of capsaicinoids determined by external calibration method comparing with those of standard addition were not significantly different, indicating less matrix effect. Mostly, the average amounts of capsaicin (62%) found in these real samples were rather higher than those of dihydrocapsaicin (38%).
The effects of drying methods, such as sun drying at 37oC, hot air drying at 60oC and freeze drying, on the quality of dried Chee fah chilli (Capsicum annuum Linn. var. acuminatum Fingarh.) were investigated. The quality parameters were moisture content, colour (L*, a*, b* values), ascorbic acid content, capsaicin content, volatile flavour and sensorial description. The freeze-dried (FD) sample gave more bright-red colour and contained higher ascorbic acid content than the sun-dried (SD) and hot air-dried (HD) samples (P<0.05). Meanwhile, moisture content (11%) and capsaicin content (1 ppm) were not significantly different among the three drying methods (P>0.05). Types and concentrations of volatile flavour compounds were monitored using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The groups of volatile flavour compounds were acids, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, furan and hydrocarbons. This was in agreement with the panelists who described the pungent odour as the most abundant one. In addition, the unique flavour attributes in the FD, HD and SD samples were green, sweet and alcohol-linked, respectively.
This study was conducted to generate baseline information on the nutritional composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of three capsicum varieties (Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro) grown in Ethiopia. In relation to proximate composition, Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro contained 9.2, 9.0 and 8.8% moisture; 11.9, 8.8 and 9.2% crude protein; 27.3, 26.0 and 28.6% crude fiber and 11.2, 9.5 and 9.2% fat (oleoresin) on wet weight basis. They also contained 1.7, 1.6 and 1.8 mg/100 g potassium; 27.2, 38.2 and 54.6 mg/100 g calcium and 7.2, 6.9 and 9.6 mg/100 g iron on wet weight basis. Tannin was found to be 0.142, 0.164 and 0.148 mg/100 g, respectively, while phytate was not detected in any of the samples. Analysis of variance and LSD (least significant difference) test revealed that protein and oleoresin of Marako fana were significantly higher (p<0.05) than Bako local and Oda haro. Potassium, calcium and iron contents of Oda haro were significantly higher (p<0.05). Based on these results Marako fana is preferable for large scale production of oleoresin, while Oda haro is nutritionally preferable because it contains high amounts of potassium, calcium and iron.
An attempt was undertaken to investigate the effect of various common processing treatments, such as (a) without pedicle and cut longitudinally plus treated with 0.01% potassium metabisulphite (KMS), (b) without pedicle and sliced, (c) without pedicle as a whole, and (d) as a normal whole green chilli with pedicle, on the shelf life during storage in high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) packages at room temperature. The nutritional quality in terms of proximate compositions, Vitamin-C, beta-carotene and mineral contents of green chilli powder were also assessed. The chilli powder from the treatment (a) showed the highest stability up to 195 days in the HDPE pouches. In relation to proximate compositions and mineral contents, the processing treatments had a significant effect on them, except for Vitamin-C content at P<.0001. The results showed that the nutritional quality in all the samples of green chilli powder was better than that of the red chilli powder. Vitamin C content was reduced around 50% in all the samples due to the processing, while beta-carotene content was significantly increased as compared to the fresh green chilli. A simple calculation revealed the potential of green chilli powder as a value added and alternative spice.
A forced convection solar drier was designed, fabricated and tested for the drying copra under Indian climatic conditions. Drying copra in the drier reduced its moisture content from about 51.8% to 7.8% and 9.7% in 82 h for trays at the bottom and top, respectively. The copra obtained was graded as 76% milling grade copra (MCG1), 18% (MCG2) and 6% (MCG3) according to Bureau of Indian standards (BIS: 6220-1971). The thermal efficiency of the solar drier was estimated to be about 24%.
In the present study the total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and capsaicinoids content, the in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of extracts of air-dried fruits from two Capsicum annuum cultivars were investigated. A different composition between the two cultivars was evidenced. C. annuum var. acuminatum medium extract presented a major content of phenols, carotenoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin while C. annuum var. acuminatum big extract is characterized by the highest quercetin, luteolin and kaempferol content with 68.0, 87.6 and 29.7μg/g dried weight, respectively, analyzed by HPLC. Medium pepper showed the highest radical scavenging activity in DPPH assay (IC50 of 85.3μg/ml) while big pepper have an interesting activity in ABTS assay (IC50 of 16.4μg/ml) and the highest inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation with an IC50 value of 1.2μg/ml after 30min of incubation. A selective inhibitory activity against α-amylase was demonstrated for C. annuum var. acuminatum big lipophilic fraction (IC50 values of 8.7μg/ml). The obtained results suggest that C. annuum cultivars could be used as valuable flavor with functional properties for foods.