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Being and Becoming Native: A Methodological Enquiry into Doing Anthropology at Home

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Abstract

In this article, I discuss the fact that doing “anthropology at home” involves the same core anthropological methodology as undertaking research abroad. This implies that while doing anthropology at home may have some advantages concerning field practicalities but is equally challenging. There are certain ethical and methodological essentials involved in every anthropological research undertaking. Through my personal experiences of conducting ethnography in Pakistan, I explain that doing anthropology at home does not make exceptions for the researcher in terms of these ethical and methodological aspects.

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... Exchange relations involving gifts or other forms of reciprocities act as part of a social fabric to maintain patterns of social interaction in Pakistani society (Alvi, 2010;Donnan, 1988). I have discussed elsewhere how in rural areas of Pakistan, particularly in Southern Punjab, the population growth of recent decades has spearheaded certain social changes due to inadequate supply of land available for agriculture (Mughal, 2014). This has resulted in urbanisation and industrialisation at an accelerated pace, generating social and economic transformations at various levels. ...
... This article is based on a large ethnographic project for which the fieldwork was carried out through 2010 in Jhokwala village, Lodhran District in Pakistan. The information provided here mainly comes from participant observation, interviews and oral traditions (Mughal, 2015a). Pseudonyms of most respondents have been used in this article for the sake of privacy. ...
... The village's location at this road and its closeness to the highway junction have induced a relatively high pace of urbanisation, especially when compared to other villages in the area with less access to transport networks. Like in many Pakistani villages, over the past few decades, there has been a gradual shift from an agricultural seasonal to the market economy in Jhokwala (Mughal, 2014). Consequently, farm as well as non-farm labourers, linked to the seasonal agricultural economy, started working in cities and even overseas. ...
Article
In recent decades, the nature of exchange relations in rural Pakistan appears to have undergone significant transformations due to the gradual shift from seasonal agriculture to a market-based economy, rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Change and continuity in exchange relations are particularly manifested in rituals and ceremonies associated with childbirth, marriage and death, with socioeconomic transformations in the rural economy triggering shifts in ways of conducting such rituals and ceremonies. This article seeks to highlight such change but argues that the continuing centrality of religion, kinship and economic inter-dependencies, marked by rural social organisation, remains evident in how these rituals and ceremonies are conducted. After discussing the social meanings of such rituals and ceremonies in rural Pakistan, the article demonstrates through detailed ethnographic study certain modifications in exchange relations as a consequence of recent socioeconomic change.
... The site of my fieldwork is Pune, India, and as a person of Indian origin (though having lived abroad for many years), I wondered if my study might be regarded as anthropology at home (Forster, 2012;Jackson, 1987;Mughal, 2015), indigenous anthropology (Fahim, 1982), insider anthropology (Madan, 1982), or native anthropology (Kuper, 1994;Narayan, 1993). "There are many meanings to the expression 'anthropology at home,' the most obvious of which refers to the kind of inquiry developed in the study of one's own society, ...
Thesis
This research is an examination of the materiality of copper in the context of a design and craft community in a place called tambat ali (which in the local language Marathi translates to coppersmith alley) located in the heart of the city of Pune in Western India. For centuries, several generations of coppersmiths (tambats) have been shaping this malleable, sensorial material into a variety of objects for domestic use. Copper (tamba), in an expression of transformational materiality, has in turn, shaped the tambats into who they are as persons. In addition, the materiality of copper has engendered a unique set of skills and techniques, and it has moulded their bodies and gestures. The tambats make a variety of objects that are described as vastu in Marathi, a word that also refers to narratives that arc over the life of the material, the people, and the things themselves. For the past few years, the tambats have been collaborating with architects and industrial designers to create a variety of new copper products that are sold nationally and internationally. While industrial design practice typically tends to focus on form, user needs, or the market, in tambat ali, it starts with an emphasis on the properties of the material. Here, design unfolds in a new social context created by the presence of copper. This thesis, with its focus on materiality, design, and craft, will attempt to show how copper has produced a materially inspired sociability, which has shaped the stories of objects, the nature of place, the practices of design and craft, and the lives of the people of tambat ali.
... Th e fi eldwork was undertaken in 2010 for about ten months. 36 Th e project analyzed the cultural perceptions of time and space in relation to social change. Th e information provided in this article is based on participation observation, semi-structured interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, transect walks, and focus group discussions. ...
Article
This article discusses the relationship between women’s education and their everyday mobility in the rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Based on an ethnographic case study from a village in Southern Punjab, information from semi-structured interviews and observations is used to demonstrate an enhanced access to education has altered women’s everyday mobility trends. However, questions regarding women’s empowerment remain unresolved. Although some rural women have always been engaged in agricultural activities, there have been limitations on their mobility due to cultural sensitivities. I conclude the nature of social and socio-spatial relationships is being negotiated in some cultural contexts of rural Punjab through the changing facets of women’s mobility associated with modern education.
... We followed the principle that each data collection technique must be context-sensitive (Czarniawska, 2004, p. 44), remaining aware of all of the advantages and deficiencies of our research being carried out locally (cf. Mughal, 2015). ...
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Članek prinaša ugotovitve o značilnostih skupnosti prakse pri izobraževanju za trajnostni razvoj v povezavi z ohranjanjem naravne in kulturne dediščine. Raziskava se je opirala na poststrukturalistično teorijo prakse in koncepte socialnega učenja. Izhajajoč iz Freirove teorije učenja, je bila postavljena teza, da je za inovacije v trajnostnem razvoju potrebno kritično ozaveščanje. Empirični del raziskave sloni na etnografskem zbiranju podatkov v treh okoljih. Analizirani so primeri povezovanja učenja in delovanja, ki izhajajo iz lokalne skupnosti in potreb udeležencev. V vseh treh primerih se učenje povezuje z inovativnimi praksami, ki razvijajo družbeno in okoljsko blagostanje. Rezultati kažejo, da se inovativne prakse razvijajo v povezavi s transformativnim učenjem, dialoškim povezovanjem znanstvenega in lokalnega vedenja ter identitete vključenih.
... Per tentare d'identificare tali elementi, la ricerca etnografica si è finora svolta in particolar modo attraverso interviste semi-strutturate e conversazioni informali con imprenditori, rappresentanti istituzionali, famiglie di ex-malati oncologici, altri cittadini, esperti di storia locale, ricercatori in campo agronomico e naturalistico, dipendenti delle imprese tabacchicole e membri di associazioni locali di volontariato, oltre alla consultazione dei materiali riguardanti la tabacchicoltura negli archivi storici locali 2 . Le questioni relazionali, etiche e metodologico-strategiche derivanti dal condurre una ricerca etnografica nel contesto di provenienza del ricercatore stesso hanno contribuito a conformare l'approccio metodologico qualitativo di questo lavoro (Peirano 1998, Mughal 2015. ...
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L'Alta Valle del Tevere, oltre ad essere una delle zone d'Europa a più alta concentrazione di coltivazioni di tabacco, è anche una delle zone in cui l'in-cidenza e la mortalità per tumore allo stomaco sono costantemente e ab-bondantemente superiori alla media regionale e nazionale. Molti cittadini attribuiscono questa doppia caratteristica dell'area alla presunta nocività dei prodotti chimici utilizzati per la coltivazione del tabacco. Questo articolo si concentra su genealogia, gestione politica e conseguenze sociali di tale " ru-more di fondo ". Nel considerare le scelte imprenditoriali, insieme alle poli-tiche sanitarie delle istituzioni territoriali, particolare attenzione è rivolta a quegli elementi che hanno determinato, e determinano ancora, l'economia morale della soglia di tolleranza rispetto al supposto nesso fra coltivazione del tabacco e incidenza oncologica. Parole chiave: Tabacco, Alta Valle del Tevere, tumore, stomaco, pesticidi Introduzione L'Alta Valle del Tevere – bacino che si estende fra Toscana e Umbria del nord (e, in piccola parte, Emilia Romagna) e in cui attualmente vivono circa 109.000 persone 1 – è una delle zone d'Italia e d'Europa in cui la coltivazione del tabacco è più consistente. Ma è anche una delle zone con la maggiore incidenza di tumori allo stomaco, rispetto a standard sia italiani che inter-nazionali. Questi due dati vengono spesso, e da molto tempo, messi in re-lazione attraverso l'argomentazione di un rapporto di causalità fra l'effetto ambientale dei prodotti fitosanitari utilizzati per la pianta di tabacco e una simile incidenza patologica: tale nesso è, per gli abitanti dell'Alta Valle del 1 La denominazione geografica formale della zona è Alta Valle del Tevere, composta da Altotevere umbro e Valtiberina toscana. Questo articolo si concentrerà in particolare sul territo-rio del Comune di Città di Castello, di circa 387 km² di estensione e circa 40.000 abitanti. *
... Some anthropologists emphasize the term "native anthropologist", usually in specifi c cases where non-Western researchers studying at Western universities study their home countries. However, other researchers use the term "at home" in the same situation (Jahan 2014, Mughal 2015). British-Polish anthropologist Kempny defi ned herself as a Polish native when she conducted research in a Polish community in Northern Ireland (Kempny 2012). ...
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This paper considers methodological questions regarding cultural/social anthropological research in multiethnic fields. Specifically, I attempt to reconsider the possibility of anthropological research by a “stranger” based on a research that I—a Japanese anthropologist—conducted in southern Slovakia. Anthropology originally developed as the study of other cultures; in some European countries, however, most anthropological research is conducted by anthropologists who are “at home”. For Slovak and Hungarian researchers, the Hungarian minority has been a common research target; therefore, many inhabitants, both ethnic Hungarians and Slovaks, have already experienced social research as subjects. Some interviewees get use to present a narrative expressing how they think about a certain topic. This research condition points to a fundamental question in the interviews of anthropological research. In this paper, therefore, my research experience is described to analyze reflexively my research position in the field. In fact, it is difficult to theoretically define the boundary between “at home” and “stranger”; the difference depends on the context of each study. Anthropologists need to interpret their narratives by considering the results of participant observation and reflexivity in the research. “Stranger” anthropologists might have the advantage of noticing informants’ reflexivity in their narratives. This discussion can, in turn, become part of an ongoing process by which inhabitants’ interactions with researchers create new master narratives in the field.
... This paper is based on an ethnographic case study for which the fieldwork was carried out in a village in Lodhran District in 2010 for about 10 months (Mughal 2015b). The information mainly comes through participant observation and semi-structured interviews with local residents. ...
Article
Rural urbanization is taking place rapidly in most areas of Pakistani Punjab. Although agriculture remains the backbone of Pakistan’s economy, many rural people have abandoned agriculture to adopt different occupations as a consequence of rural urbanization. This paper discusses the changing use of, and attitude toward, land in the rural areas of Pakistani Punjab in the context of rural urbanization. It offers a case study from Southern Punjab as an evidence of the effects of rural urbanization on rural social organization with regard to land and agriculture.
... Para a autora, surge, então, a necessidade de se refletir sobre [...] as novas exigências que todos nós devemos ter em relação a uma formação universitária e sua futura possibilidade de ação na vida e em uma profissão como professor e/ou pesquisador, frente a outras realidades de convivência social entre grupos e trocas de conhecimentos dos mesmos. (Lühning, 2003, p. 130) O termo "antropologia em casa" é bastante citado, seja através do livro de Anthony Jackson (1987) intitulado "Anthropology at home", ou artigos (Peirano, 1998;Munthali, 2001;Edward, 2014;Mughal, 2015). Como a maioria dos conceitos antropológicos, esse também não tem uma definição muito específica e aceita por todos, sendo referida, genericamente, como "[...] one's own culture, usually by conducting fieldwork in one's own country." ...
Article
Neste artigo aborda-se o desafio da endoetnografia como metodologia de pesquisa tanto apartir da literatura quanto a partir da experiência pessoal do autor. Por meio da problematização e da revisão dos conceitos relacionados ao termo “antropologia em casa” e da proposição de uma definição mais específica e restrita para o termo “endoetnografia”, serão discutidos os problemas e as vantagens de seu uso como metodologia de pesquisa, propondo formas de contornar alguns problemas já levantados pela literatura.
... The language proficiency is a definite advantage. Establishing rapport and trust with potential informants takes lesser time (Mughal 2015;Permunta 2009) and the cultural intimacy within the field which developed over the years while growing up position an insider in a vantage point as a field researcher (Narayan 1993). This insider status afforded us to extend beyond "field gazing" as we were able to figure out things when we encountered stillness and vague articulations in some field sites. ...
... 41 Notes 1 For a detailed description of earlier fieldwork and analyses describing these communities in English, see Kürti (2002Kürti ( , 2015bKürti ( , 2018, and Hann & Kürti (2015). Interviews with informants were conducted in Csepel (Budapest) and Lajosmizse and two neighboring settlements (Ladánybene, Kerekegyháza) in early 2010s, with follow-up interviews in 2018 and 2019. 2 For a classic treatment of anthropology at home, see Jackson (1987); for a criticism of the concept, see Mughal (2015). 3 As one informant expressed: "Like the flood, they just came, nobody wanted them, nobody invited them" (Elárasztottak mintket, mint az özönvíz, senki sem várta, senki sem hívta őket). ...
... It is their responsibility to maintain a space between their presumptions and the events happening. One event may have different meanings for different people and cultures, and an ethnographer is supposed not to ignore even minor events in the field (Jahan, 2014;Mughal, 2015). It also suggests the multiple identities of a native researcher that keep him "close" and "away" during the whole research process (Narayan, 1993). ...
Article
Purpose In last few decades, the native anthropology has been highlighted for its potential to immediately grasping cultural familiarity, contextual sensitivity, and rapport building. Nevertheless, detachment from the native context is also seen as a challenge for the native researcher. This paper aims to provide invaluable information about the fieldwork experience of the author as a native researcher in rural Punjab Pakistan. The author presents and reflects the fieldwork challenges faced and the strategies used to overcome the challenges. The primary objective of this paper is to discuss the methodological strategies to face the challenges of doing at-home ethnography. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in native context. Findings Dealing with contextual complexity and sensitivity with the author’s native learning, the author used native knowledge as a useful resource to investigate insider’s perspective on infant care belief practices. Furthermore, the author addressed the challenges related to building rapport, gaining friendly access to the families and children, and setting aside presumptions. The author discusses the strategies opted, such as selecting a research assistant, gaining access to the field, planning fieldwork and bracketing native presumptions. Practical implications This paper provides important insight of at-home ethnography and technical understanding to conduct fieldwork in native contexts. Originality/value Based on my ethnographic fieldwork, this article contributes in contemporary debates on the challenges in doing at-home ethnography.
... This study is based on a doctoral project (see Acknowledgements). The fieldwork was carried out in 2010 for about 10 months (Mughal, 2015b). Participant observation was used to develop the researcher's understanding of social boundaries constructed around biraderi networks. ...
Article
This study explores how children perceive social boundaries in rural Pakistan. It discusses that children develop and navigate their social relationships through their perception of social boundaries, which are shaped by kinship and sociospatial organisation in rural areas. Children's perception of social boundaries is also mediated through the intersectionality of their age and social group affiliation. An ethnographic case study of a village in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, is presented here. It uses a quantifiable photo‐elicitation technique and social mapping to analyse children's everyday mobilities and intersectionality in the cultural context of rural Pakistan to illustrate their perception of social boundaries.
... In my doctoral thesis (2010) I focused on Jewish revival in Israel, my home country. The dilemmas and challenges I encountered during fieldwork were in line with what is encountered by anthropologists doing what is known as 'anthropology at home' (Alcalde, 2007;Mughal, 2015;Peirano, 1998). After completing my doctorate I wanted to research religious life in a different country, so I chose India as my destination, and in 2013 I undertook an ethnographic study in the Western Himalayas, a study in which I am intermittently engaged to this day. ...
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This research note focuses on the sexual harassment experienced by the author during ethnographic fieldwork in India. Analysis of the event indicates that the fact that he is a man influenced his response to the sexual overtures made by his male informant and heightened his sense of fear. Thus while being of the masculine gender can be an advantage for the male ethnographer, it can also be a source of anxiety and carries some tangible risks. This study concludes that power relations in fieldwork are complex, and we must take into consideration our identity and position when assessing the risks inherent in fieldwork.
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Conducting ethnographic fieldwork “at home” is often undermined by the colonial foundations of anthropology, which still permeate understandings of value and legitimacy in academic research. Scholars often present hometown ethnography as providing automatic insider status or as a threat to objectivity. In this paper, I offer a self‐reflexive account of my fieldwork with working holidaymakers in the small rural Australian town where I spent my teenage years. Adjusting to conflicting roles of researcher and returning resident revealed feelings of discomfort and a heightened, uncertain sense of self at odds with the familiarity and belonging associated with localness. I argue that conducting ethnography in familiar research sites is an exercise in understanding the uncomfortable complexities of shifting researcher positionality. By sharing some internal conflicts and crises, I examine the process of conducting research in a familiar space and consider the broader methodological implications and transformative potential of doing ethnography at home.
Chapter
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Ethnography requires careful planning and honed analytic skills. The ethnographer’s necessary tool, the measurement instrument predicating all others, is the skillful ethnographer. The ethnographer’s subjectivity acts as the device necessary to plumb the depths of social interaction. No device, other than the skilled ethnographer, can accurately describe the intricacies of social life. Interviews, social network models, and the objective metrics for testing hypotheses cannot be fashioned without the ethnographer at the vanguard. Ethnographers’ participant observation uses a wide range of specialized research tools to open a path to, in Geertz’s terminology, thick description. Thick description captures the threshold of subjective cultural understanding. The ethnographer collects the data that recognize the difference between a twitching eye and a meaningful blink. The cultural information transmitted in a blink unveils complexities of an individual’s worldview. Worldview analysis requires analytic competency in ethnolinguistics and sociolinguistics as language cuts closer to the mind than other evidence. Participant observation and supplementary data analysis uncover the semantics and pragmatics that expose individual and cultural worldview. Only then, when ethnographers have exhausted their research toolkit, can anthropologists call their research ethnography.
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The mosque occupies a central position in the social as well as religious life of Muslims. It is not only a place of worship where rituals are performed, but also serves as a social space where Muslims take part in welfare activities. The design and architecture of the mosque have local as well as global influences, representing religious, economic, and esthetic dimensions of Muslim social organization. Therefore, Muslims' association with the mosque has much significance from social, political, and economic perspectives. Based on an ethnographic example, this report aims to highlight the use of mosque space in the cultural context of rural Pakistan. In addition to discussing the sociospatial relationships around the mosque, I discuss how Muslims' beliefs about the world and the afterlife shape these relationships.
Article
This article explores the changing use and management of domestic space and socio-spatial relationships constructed in a Pakistani rural setting. It offers a case study which highlights the central position of domestic space as a residential and social unit in rural Pakistan. It discusses how domestic space is appropriated in multiple ways into a social unit through social practice. Given that changes in the physical structure of any place lead to negotiation of social relationships, it is shown how recent modifications in design and structure of houses are indicative of, and to some extent facilitate, social change in rural Pakistan.
Article
The bulk of anthropological theory grew out of western anthropologists studying “exotic” cultures. The end of colonialism, the reduction of funding for academic institutions, the increase in student enrolment and difficulties in accessing the field are some of the factors that contributed to the practice of anthropology at home in the west by western anthropologists. However, most anthropologists from Third World countries have in most cases conducted fieldwork in their own countries and among their own people during training and professional work. In this paper I examine the problems of working at home, where being a native, studying fellow natives, I was branded as a foolish person asking silly questions because I was expected to know the answers. My extended stay at home was interpreted differently by my own people and different identities were given to me: a member of the CID, a physician, a person who had been sacked from his place of work (and who hence had nowhere to go apart from home) and someone who was after “their” women. Since my home village is only 15 km away from the research site, my relatives did not understand why I had to stay in my research site, claiming that it must be that I did not like my own village. Before I began fieldwork, the idea that while I would be trying to study the behaviour of my fellows, they would at the same time be trying to understand me never occurred to me. The major conclusion in this paper is that though I was at home doing research, I was in essence not really at home because my long absence from home and the choice of my research topic had somehow de-familiarised me from what was supposed to be familiar. JOURNAL OF THE PAN AFRICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION Number 2 Volume VIII October 2001, pp. 114-136
Book
In order to understand the Pakistani state and government’s treatment of non-dominant ethnic groups after the failure of the military operation in East Pakistan and the independence of Bangladesh, this book looks at the ethnic movements that were subject to a military operation after 1971: the Baloch in the 1970s, the Sindhis in the 1980s and Mohajirs in the 1990s. The book critically evaluates the literature on ethnicity and nationalism by taking nationalist ideology and the political divisions which it generates within ethnic groups as essential in estimating ethnic movements. It goes on to challenge the modernist argument that nationalism is only relevant to modern-industrialised socio-economic settings. The available evidence from Pakistan makes clear that ethnic movements emanate from three distinct socio-economic realms: tribal (Baloch), rural (Sindh) and urban (Mohajir), and the book looks at the implications that this has, as well as how further arguments could be advanced about the relevance of ethnic movements and politics in the Third World. It provides academics and researchers with background knowledge of how the Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir ethnic conflict in Pakistan took shape in a historical context as well as probable future scenarios of the relationship between the Pakistani state and government, and ethnic groups and movements.
Article
PART ONE: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN THE USE OF QUALITATIVE METHODS The Nature of Qualitative Inquiry Strategic Themes in Qualitative Methods Variety in Qualitative Inquiry Theoretical Orientations Particularly Appropriate Qualitative Applications PART TWO: QUALITATIVE DESIGNS AND DATA COLLECTION Designing Qualitative Studies Fieldwork Strategies and Observation Methods Qualitative Interviewing PART THREE: ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION, AND REPORTING Qualitative Analysis and Interpretation Enhancing the Quality and Credibility of Qualitative Analysis
Article
The Royal Anthropological Institute’s first annual one-day postgraduate conference was hosted by the Department of Anthropology at Durham University on 20 September 2011. In their opening remarks, Bob Simpson, and Stephen M Lyon referred to the RAI’s vision for this annual conference, where 30 postgraduate students from more than 17 universities and institutes presented their research. Stephen Lyon then introduced the use of the Anthropological Index Online in anthropological research. RAI’s Film Officer, Susanne Hammacher and Education and Communication Officer, Nafisa Fera introduced the range of RAI’s activities, inviting participants to take an active role. Both sessions showed how the RAI can help to increase the visibility of students’ research in the discipline. In an interactive session with journal editors (Stephen M. Lyon of History and Anthropology, Claudia Merli of Durham Anthropology Journal, and Simone Gritter and Ely Rosenblum of the online multimedia journal ART/E/FACT), students gained information about getting published in anthropological journals.
Article
Time is an important element of social organization. The temporal models such as the calendar provide social rhythm by regulating various activities. The changing ways of managing time are indicative of social change. This paper presents the changing use of different calendars in Jhokwala Village, Lodhran District, Pakistan. Three calendars are used in most parts of the Punjab to varying degrees for various purposes. These are Bikrami, Islamic Hijri and Gregorian calendars. Each of these calendars has a specific history of use. This paper highlights that people choose between various alternatives in the course of history and the changing use of calendars tells the story of change and continuity in culture and people's attitude towards modern technology and social change.
Article
This year’s Pakistan Workshop provided an intellectually vibrant space in which to reflect on margins and marginalities in Pakistan and Pakistani communities. Scholars presented papers on a variety of topics, ranging from whether Pakistan is or might become a ‘failed state’ as a result of the legal crisis of 2007, to Musharraf’s controversial National Reconciliation Ordinance, to the US drone attacks.
Article
This year’s Pakistan Workshop, organized by Stephen M. Lyon and assisted by Fiaz Ahmed and Muhammad Aurang Zeb Mughal, focused on the theme of ‘nation, province and region’. Scholars and postgraduate students at the workshop discussed the current political situation, contested ethnic and religious identities, and Pakistani diaspora.
Article
This introductory essay takes ‘anthropology at home’ to refer to the conduct of fieldwork and other kinds of anthropological research in or about communities which Australian anthropologists regard as culturally familiar. In that sense, anthropology at home raises two interrelated questions: 1) ‘What is an appropriate anthropological object?’ and 2) ‘What are the appropriate methods for studying that object?’ I argue that anthropology remains overdetermined by its colonial heritage and that it is still overly concerned with the study of ‘the other’ through long-term fieldwork. My feeling is that we should displace the idea of ‘the other’ in favour of an anthropological object construed in terms of self-other relationships. This not only implies that anthropology at home should cease to appear as an oxymoron, but also suggests that a more comprehensive employment of various study methods should displace long-term fieldwork as metonymic of the discipline.
Article
For a long time anthropology was defined by the exoticism of its subject mat-ter and by the distance, conceived as both cultural and geographic, that sepa-rated the researcher from the researched group. This situation has changed. In a few years we may assess the twentieth century as characterized by a long and complex movement, with theoretical and political implications, that re-placed the ideal of the radical encounter with alterity with research at home. But "home" will, as always, incorporate many meanings, and anthropology will maintain, in its paradigmatic assumption, a socio-genetic aim toward an appreciation for, and an understanding of, difference. In some cases, differ-ence will be the route to theoretical universalism via comparison; in others, it will surface as a denunciation of exoticism or a denial of its appeal. This re-view examines different moments and contexts in which an attempt at devel-oping anthropology "at home" became an appropriate quest.
Article
Asymmetrical power relationships are found throughout Pakistan’s Punjabi and Pukhtun communities. These relationships must be examined as manifestations of cultural continuity rather than as separate structures. The various cultures of Pakistan display certain common cultural features which suggest a re-examination of past analytical divisions of tribe and peasant societies. This book looks at the ways power is expressed, accumulated and maintained in three social contexts: kinship, caste, and political relationships. These are embedded within a collection of ‘hybridising’ cultures. Socialisation within kin groups provides the building blocks for Pakistani asymmetrical relationships, which may be understood as a form of patronage. As these social building blocks are transferred to non-kin contexts, the patron/client aspects are more easily identified and studied. State politics and religion are examined for the ways in which these patron/client roles are enacted on much larger scales but remain embedded within the cultural values underpinning those roles.
London and Pakistan link-up to break stereotypes. BBC News
  • Tom & Bousfield
  • Catrin Nye
Bousfield, Tom & Catrin Nye. 2013. London and Pakistan link-up to break stereotypes. BBC News. http://www. bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-22107965. Accessed on 20 March 2015.
Village on the Border: A Social Study of Religion, Politics and Football in a North Wales Community
  • Ronald Frankenberg
Frankenberg, Ronald. 1957. Village on the Border: A Social Study of Religion, Politics and Football in a North Wales Community. Chicago: Waveland Press, Inc.
Are we wrong about Pakistan? The TelegraphAre-we-wrong-about-Pakistan
  • Peter Oborne
Oborne, Peter. 2012. Are we wrong about Pakistan? The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destina- tions/asia/pakistan/9100507/Are-we-wrong-about-Pakistan.html. Accessed on 20 March 2015.
Time, Space and Social Change in Rural Pakistan: An Ethnographic Study of Jhokwala Village, Lodhran District
  • Muhammad Aurang Mughal
  • Zeb
Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2014a. Time, Space and Social Change in Rural Pakistan: An Ethnographic Study of Jhokwala Village, Lodhran District. Unpublished PhD thesis. Durham: University of Durham.
Are we wrong about Pakistan? The Telegraph
  • Peter Oborne
Oborne, Peter. 2012. Are we wrong about Pakistan? The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/asia/pakistan/9100507/Are-we-wrong-about-Pakistan.html. Accessed on 20 March 2015.
Culture Change. Dubuque: WM. C
  • Clyde M Woods
Woods, Clyde M. 1975. Culture Change. Dubuque: WM. C. Brown Company Publishers.