ArticlePDF Available

ANTI-FUNGAL PROPERTIES OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AND GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON SMOKED CAT FISH MYCOFLORA

Authors:

Abstract

Studies on anti-fungal properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) on mycoflora of smoked cat fishes were carried out in the Plant Pathology Laboratory in the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology. Ten grams from twenty freshly roasted cat fishes purchased from the creek road market in Borokiri were incubated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) for mould growth. Three fungi with varying degrees of incidence namely Aspergillus tamarii (80%), Rhizopus stolonifer (100%) and Fusarium oxysporum (20%) were found to be associated with the spoilage of all the smoked cat fish samples causing general soft rot. Further studies of the inhibitory activities of fresh and dry samples of ginger and garlic revealed that the fungi isolates were greatly inhibited by the plant samples. In general, it was observed that the fresh samples of both ginger and garlic recorded (100%) inhibition on all the fungal isolates.
Niger. J. Mycol. Vol.6 , 48 - 57
ANTI-FUNGAL PROPERTIES OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AND
GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON SMOKED CAT FISH MYCOFLORA.
Chuku, E .C
Department of Applied and Environmental Biology. Rivers State
University of Science and Technology, PortHarcourt..
ABSTRACT
Studies on anti-fungal properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) on
mycoflora of smoked cat fishes were carried out in the Plant Pathology Laboratory in the
Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and
Technology. Ten grams from twenty freshly roasted cat fishes purchased from the creek road
market in Borokiri were incubated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) for mould growth. Three
fungi with varying degrees of incidence namely Aspergillus tamarii (80%), Rhizopus stolonifer
(100%) and Fusarium oxysporum (20%) were found to be associated with the spoilage of all the
smoked cat fish samples causing general soft rot. Further studies of the inhibitory activities of fresh
and dry samples of ginger and garlic revealed that the fungi isolates were greatly inhibited by the
plant samples. In general, it was observed that the fresh samples of both ginger and garlic recorded
(100%) inhibition on all the fungal isolates.
Key words: Antifungal properties, Ginger, Garlic, smoked cat fishes.
INTRODUCTION
Garlic (A. sativum) belong to the family Alliaceae. It has been used for both medicinal and
culinary purposes. The garlic bulb is divided into sections called cloves. Garlic is one of
the most valuable and versatile foods belonging to the Allium family of vegetables which
also includes onions and chives (George, 1998). It is a widely used food supplement that
promotes heart health and provides immunity for the system with anti-oxidant properties
that helps in maintaining blood circulation. One of the most potent and active component
in garlic is the sulphur compound called allicin which is a chemical compound produced
when garlic is chopped, chewed or bruised. It is a powerful antibiotic and an agent that
helps the body to inhibit the growth and development of dangerous microbes (George,
1998, Chuku et al, 2010).
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) was originally cultivated in India and has spread all over the
world. It is often regarded as a spice because of the distinct flavour that can
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 48
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
increase saliva production. The part that is used as the spice is the rhizome (George, 1998).
Ginger was widely used by the ancient Roman Empire and was very expensive but was
almost lost after the fall of the Roman Empire, but was later rediscovered in Europe
(Chuku et al, 2010). Ginger greatly influenced the history of man in Ancient China as wars
were waged as the entire dynasties rose and fell with the objective of seizing it. The sales
of such spices were the root of the world economy for centuries. Garlic and ginger share a
common relationship in that they reduce cholesterol, regulate blood pressure and blood
sugar, prevent artiosclerosis thereby reducing the risk of heart attack or stroke (George,
1998, Chuku et al, 2010).
The economic importance of fishes all over the world and that of Niger Delta in particular
cannot be overemphasized in that they are sources of food for human and feed for animals
as well as providing gainful employment for the populace (Earl, 1983). These fishes are
prone to spoilage after a very short time of storage except if smoked or frozen (Umo-Udofa
et al., 2014). The mentality that frozen fishes are tasteless still beclouds the Niger Deltans
who would prefer to consume the fishes fresh, roasted or dried. However, for commercial
purposes the fishes are smoked and sold to consumers on a large or small scale. It has
been observed that the smoked fishes are prone to fungal deterioration which brings about
their reduction in quality. One of such fishes that are easily spoilt by fungi is the cat fish
which is usually reared both in the natural water body and in fish pond with a high growth
rate. This work therefore investigated.
a The fungi responsible for the spoilage of cat fishes in the Niger Delta
b The anti-fungal properties of garlic and ginger for prolonged storage of this fish
species.
The knowledge of these will help fish farmers to know how to better handle these
fishes in storage for an increase profit. It will also enable the farmers to make use
of a cheaper biotechnological approach for effective preservation of their product.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection and preparation of ginger, garlic and catfish samples
One medium sized basket each of ginger and garlic bulbs was purchased from the fruit
garden market D/line in Port Harcourt and transported to the Plant Pathology Unit in the
Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. The samples were
sorted and decayed ones separated from the apparently healthy ones. The sorted samples
of ginger were washed in tap water and rinsed. One kilogram of the ginger sample was
shared into two equal halves (1/2kg) one part was sun dried for 7days after cutting into thin slices.
Similarly garlic bulbs were treated as done for ginger to obtain dry and fresh samples. The dry
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 49
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
and fresh samples of ginger and garlic were crushed separately in sterile electric blender
(Philips blender, 350W, 1.5 L) and stored in sterile bottles and labelled accordingly for
further studies.
Thirty pieces of freshly harvested and roasted cat fishes were obtained from a fish farmer
from Rumuokoro in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area in Rivers State Nigeria, and
carried in a fish tray wrapped with cellophane bag to the Plant Pathology laboratory in
Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt for fungal isolation and
studies.
Determination of proximate composition of ginger and garlic.
Fresh samples of ginger and garlic were taken to the Food Science and Technology
Laboratory in Rivers State University of Science and Technology for proximate analysis.
The parameters analysed were done according to the Association of Official Analytical
Chemists methods, (1990).
Mycological studies
Preparation of test materials, glass wares and other equipment.
The major operations performed for the isolation of fungi from dry catfish samples were
the sterilization of Petri dishes, conical flasks, slides and glass plates previously washed
with soap and rinsed with distilled water. All the glass wares were sterilized in the oven for
2 hours at a temperature of 160oC. Conical flasks containing culture media were tightly
plugged with non-absorbent cotton wool and covered with aluminium foil and autoclaved
at 120oC and 1.5kg cm-2 for 15 minutes. Inoculating loops were sterilized by dipping for 1
minute in 70% ethanol and heated to red hot in a bunsen blue flame.
Preparation of mycological media.
Sabauraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) medium was prepared according to the manufacturer’s
guideline by weighing 32.8 g into a conical flask. Exactly 500 mls of distilled water was
added into the flask and the entire content was stirred with a stirring rod and vigorously
shaken to homogenize the mixture. The mouth of the flask was plugged with none
absorbent cotton wool and wrapped with aluminium foil. The conical flask with its content
was autoclaved for 15 minutes at 120oC and 1.1kg cm-2. The SDA was dispensed into
sterile Petri dishes and allowed to solidify.
Isolation of fungi from catfishes.
One kilogram of dry catfish was purchased from a fish farmer to ascertain the freshness of
the fish. Some of the dry fishes were tied in a polythene bag and allowed to stand for some
days for moulds to grow. The mould infected fishes were washed in warm water and rinsed
in distilled water. The fishes were further surface sterilized with 70% ethanol and some
pieces plated onto SDA in Petri dishes in triplicate and incubated for seven days.
Pure cultures were obtained by aseptically picking hyphae from Petri dishes containing
fungi in combination. These fungi hyphae
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 50
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
were picked with flamed inoculating loop and transferred into Petri dishes containing
freshly prepared SDA and incubated for seven days. Pure cultures were obtained after
series of subculturing.
Identification of fungi.
Wet mounts of fungi on cotton blue placed in Lactophenol were examined microscopically
and the fungi identified based on their spore morphology, nature of the mycelia using the
keys of Samson et al. (1981), Cheesebrough, (1991) and Olds, (1983)
Pathogenicity studies.
Pathogenicity test was carried out on apparently healthy and uninfected dry catfishes to
check if the fungal isolates are capable of causing the spoilage of the fish. Five grams of
uninfected smoked catfish was weighed and surface sterilized in 70% ethanol and plated
onto SDA in Petri dishes in triplicate and incubated for seven days. The extent of rot was
assessed using the method of Kassim (1998).
Determination of extent of rot caused by the fungal isolates.
To determine the extent of rot caused by the various fungal isolates of cat fish, ten freshly
dried cat fishes to constant weight were purchased from the Creek road market in Borokiri,
Port Harcourt. The different fungal isolates were inoculated in duplicates into the cat
fishes and labelled accordingly. The cat fish samples were placed in a plastic container
with damped Scottie tissue paper and incubated for fourteen days in laboratory. The loss
in weight of fish samples was used to assess the extent of rot caused by each of the fungus
(Onuegbu, 2002).
% Rot = W-w x 100
W
Where W= Initial weight of fish
w = Final weight of fish.
Determination of antifungal properties of garlic and ginger.
To assess the antifungal properties of garlic and ginger on smoked catfish mycoflora, two
approaches were used. Firstly, the antifungal properties of dried ground ginger and garlic
were estimated and secondly that of fresh garlic and ginger were also carried out. Twelve
Petri dishes were sterilized in the oven for 2 hours at temperature of 160oC and Scottie
tissue papers dampened in distilled water and placed in each of the Petri dishes.
Five grams of the smoked catfish was placed in each Petri dish and the three fungal
isolates were inoculated onto the fishes in the Petri dishes in duplicate and labelled
accordingly. Five grams of the ground ginger and garlic were placed on the fishes and
monitored for growth. In a similar experiment, the fresh samples of garlic and ginger
were also applied on five grams of fishes in Petri dishes. Control experiments with
fishes inoculated with the various fungi without treatment with fresh and dry ginger
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 51
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
and garlic samples were also set up and monitored for mould growth.
RESULTS
The results of the proximate composition of ginger and garlic are presented in Table 1. Ginger and
garlic recorded highest values for moisture, higher values for vitamin C, moderate values for
carbohydrate and protein, and low values for fibre. The lipid value for garlic (6.62) was higher than
that of ginger (0.51). In general, ginger recorded higher value for moisture only while garlic
recorded higher values for ash, lipid, fibre, carbohydrate, protein and vitamin C. The implication is
that garlic has higher nutrient values when compared to that of ginger (Table 1).
Table 1: Proximate composition of ginger and garlic.
Parameters Samples
Ginger Garlic
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Moisture (%) 80.5 ± 0.003 62.5 ± 0.003
Ash (%) 3.25 ± 0.003 3.81 ± 0.001
Lipid (%) 0.51 ± 0.002 6.62 ± 0.002
Fibre (%) 2.37 ± 0.001 3.05 ± 0.001
Carbohydrate (%) 5.75 ± 0.003 8.02 ± 0.003
Protein (%) 7.62 ± 0.001 15.30 ± 0.001
Vitamin C (mg) 23.4 ± 0.002 42.3 ± 0.002
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mycological Studies
Results of the fungi associated with smoked catfish are presented in Table 2. Three fungi with
varying incidence were isolated from smoked catfishes used for the study. They were Rhizopus
stolonifer (100%,), Aspergillus tamarii (80%) and Fusarium oxysporum (20%). These fungi are
frequently occurring on most stored produce. These isolation from smoked catfish is in line with
the findings of other workers (Umo-Udofia et al., 2014). These fungi were also found to be
saprophytic to freshly smoked cat fish samples. The fungi isolated at the end of the pathogenicity
test were the same as the ones inoculated into the smoked cat fishes.
Results on the extent of rot caused by the different fungus on cat fish are shown in Table 3.
Rhizopus stolonifer caused the highest rot (30%) followed by A. tamarii (20%) and least by F.
oxysporum (5%).
Inhibitory ability of dry and fresh samples of ginger and garlic.
The results of the inhibitory ability of both dry and fresh samples of garlic and ginger are
presented in Table 4. The results showed that dry ginger inhibited the three fungi
differently. Dry garlic had 10%
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 52
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
Table 2: Fungal isolates from smoked cat fish and percentage incidence.
Fungi Percentage incidence
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rhizopus stolonifer. 100
Aspergillus tamarii 80
Fusarium oxysporum 20
inhibitioneon Aspergillus tamarii, 20% each on Fusarium oxysporum and
Rhizopus stolonifer respectively as indicated from the rate of growth of these organisms
after their treatment with garlic. However, dry ginger had 100% inhibition on the three
fungal isolates indicating its effectiveness in the preservation of smoked
Table 3. Percentage rot of fungal isolates of cat fish.
Fungi % rot of cat fishes after 14 days
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
R. stolonifer 30%
A. tamarii 10%
F. oxysporum 5%
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
catfishes. Fresh garlic and ginger had 100% inhibition on A. tamarii, F. oxysporum and R.
stolonifer (Table 4). The implication is that fresh ginger and garlic possessed fungicidal
attributes on all the fungal isolates from smoked catfishes.
DISCUSSION
Smoked fishes are generally preserved by placing them in racks over very low heat to
avoid quality losses (Okaka, 1997). This is because if these fishes are not well smoked,
they are prone to deterioration by moulds and other spoilage micro organisms like bacteria
transmitted by flies. The result from this work implicated R. stolonifer, A. tamarii and F.
oxysporum to be associated with the spoilage of smoked catfishes. So many workers have
reported the association of R. stolonifer, Aspergillus spp, and F. oxysporum as stored
products fungi causing serious quality reduction of most agricultural produce. (Onuegbu,
2002, Chuku et al, 2007, Chuku and Adeleke, 2008, Chuku, 2009, Chuku, et al, 2010,
Chuku, 2011, 2012 and Chuku and Chuku, 2013). Similarly, Rhizopus spp,
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 53
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
Table 4: % inhibition of fresh and dry ginger and garlic samples on smoked catfishes.
Fungal isolates Fresh Garlic Dry Garlic Fresh Ginger Dry Ginger
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rhizopus stolonifer 100 10 100 100
Aspergillus tamarii 100 10 100 100
Fusarium oxysporum 100 20 100 100
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp and Saccharomyces cerevisae have
been isolated from smoked Crayfish (Ogunleye and Yisa, 2012). Most of these moulds are
transmitted by flies. Chuku (2007) reported that flies are the major carriers of the
sporangiospores of Rhizopus spp. Smoked fishes are always attracted to flies and other
insects like the red ants which crawl over these products and deposit several diseases on
them making them unfit for human consumption. R. stolonifer was found to cause the
highest severity of rot on the smoked cat fish. Other researchers have reported the high
severity of rot on most agricultural produce by R. stolonifer (Chuku et al., 2008, Chuku et
al., 2010). The processes of handling, processing and preservation of products greatly
affect the rate of microbial contamination (Okaka, 1997, Chuku et al, 2010). It was also
reported that the tropical environment favours the growth of most food spoilage organisms
(Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). The deleterious effects of moulds on quality losses of
stored products have also been reported (Ann and Susan, 1988). Further reports on the
antimicrobial activities of garlic and ginger are well documented (Dania et al., 2014,
Tijjani et al., 2014, Ofuya et al., 2014). Garlic was reported to have greatly inhibited the
methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Ojo and Ajayi, 2008). The antimicrobial
activities of some spices extracts comprising ginger have been reported (Shamsudeen et
al., 2008).
CONCLUSION
Fungi are amongst the most important groups of micro organisms on earth whose activities
on most agricultural products are enormous. However, they have been found to be
responsible for the spoilage of smoked fish and other foods. This study have revealed that
fresh garlic and ginger are capable of inhibiting the growth of the fungai associated with
smoked catfishes and are therefore recommended for better preservation of smoked fishes.
This is due to the fact that these plant materials are very cheap and readily available in our
local markets and also are spices that are not harmful for human consumption.
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 54
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
REFERENCES.
Ann, P and Susan, M. (1988). Mc Milian Tropical and Sub-Tropical Foods, Mcmilian
Publishers London, 291pp.
Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant Pathology, 5th Edition. Elsevier Academic Press USA 383-557.
AOAC (1990). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C . 122-210.
Cheesebrough, M.J. (1991). Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Health Technology
and Butter-worth Scientific Publication, Boston. 167-214.
Chuku, E.C (2007). Flies as carriers of the sporangiospores of Rhizopus species in Port
Harcourt. Journal of Research in Bioscience, 3 (1) 88-92.
Chuku, E.C, Azuonwu, O, Munonye, I.N.C, Jaja, E.T, and Ojugo, A.A. (2007). Degrading
effects of Fungi on the bio-chemical components of Bread fruit (Artocarpus artilis
L) In Rivers State. Acta Agronomica Nigeriana. 7 (2) 20-25.
Chuku, E.C, and Adeleke, M.T.V. (2008). Preliminary studies on Snake gourd
(Trichosanthes Curcumerina Linn) in the Niger Delta. Journal of Research in
Bioscience, 4 (2) 28-31.
Chuku, E.C. (2009). Fungi responsible for the spoilage of plantain ( Musa paradisiaca). At
various Ripening stages.Acta Agronomica Nigeriana. 9 (1&2)35-44.
www.agricolanig.org.
Chuku, E.C. Osakwe, J.A, and Daddy-West C. (2010). Fungal spoilage of tomato
(Lycopersicone esculentum Mill) and control using ginger and garlic. Scientia
Africana, 9 (2) 41-49. www.scientia-africana.uniport-journal.info.
Chuku, E.C. (2011). Fungal spoilage of groundnut paste. International journal of
biological science 3 (1)26-31.
Chuku, E.C (2012). Effects of wrapping materials on mould growth and proximate
composition of Pentaclethra mycrophylla Benth. Niger. J. Mycol. 4, 57-64.
Chuku, E.C and Chuku, S.O. (2013). Fungal spoilage rot of carrot (Daucus carrota) and
heavy metal Assessment. African journal of Bioscience. 6 (1) 106-111.
Earl, S. Herald (1983). Living fishes of the world: Curator of the Steinhart aquarium
California Academy of Science 201 223.
George, D. Pamplona-Roger (1998). Encyclopedia of medicinal herbs 1.Education and
Health Library, Editorial Safeliz, S.L. Aravaca, 8/28040 Madrid (Spain) 230-377.
Ihekoronye, A.L and Ngoddy, P.O (1985). Intergrated Food Science and Technology in
Tropics. Mc Millian Publishers London 258- 286.
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 55
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
Kassim, M.Y (1986). Chemical control of Post- Harvest diseases Potato and Tomato.
Indian Phytopathol.3, 343-344.
Ofuya, T.I., Aladesanwa, R.D. and Benson, G.A.S. (2014). Phytochemical Screening and
Evaluation of Azadirachta indica, Piper guinensis and Allium sativum for
insecticidal properties and control of insect pests on Okra. (Abelmoschus
esculentus). Nigerian Society of Plant Protection, (NSPP) 39th Annual conference
book of Abstracts and programme. Page 39.
Ogunleye, A.O and Yisa, A.A.I (2012). Studies of some isolated Mycoflora of dried
Crayfish (Pinaeus sp) Conference booklet and book of abstract, 5th Annual conf.
Mycological Society of Nigeria, University of Calabar international conference
centre, 23rd- 27th, Sept. 2012. Page 18.
Ojo, O.O and Ajayi, A.O. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and
Otoney on Methicillin resistant Staphyloco-ccus aureus (MRSDA). Journal of
Research in Bioscience 4 (2) 1-5.
Okaka, J.C. (1997). Tropical plant perishables, handling, storage and
processing. 158pp.
Olds, R.J (1983). A colour Atlas of Microbiology, 5th Edition. Wolf Medical Publication
Ltd. London. Page 102.
Onuegbu, B.A (2002). Fundamentals of Crop Protection, Agro services and extension unit.
Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu PortHarcourt.190-191.
Opara, E.U. and Onuoha, O. (2014). Control of post harvest rot of sweet potato (Ipomoea
batatas Lam) tuber invitro and invivo. Nigerian Society for Plant Protection
(NSPP) 39th Annual conference LAUTECH 2014. 24th 27th March 2014. Page 16.
Salihu, M.D, Junaidu, A.U, Gulumbe, M.L and Odunola O.R. (2006). Some fungi of
smoked fish in the North Western Nigeria. Journal of Research in Bioscience, 2 (2)
14-16.
Shamsuddeen, U, Dahiru, M and Ahmed, I. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of some spice
extracts on some clinical Bacterial isolates. International journal of Bioscience 3
99-102.
Tijjani, A., Adebitan, S.A., Gurama, A.U., Aliyu, M., Dawakiji, A.Y., Haruna, S.G.,
Mohammad, G.U. and Mus’ab, I. (2014). In vitro and in vivo efficacy of some
plant extracts for the control of tomato fruit rot caused by Aspergillus flavus.
Nigerian Society of Plant Protection, (NSPP) 39th Annual conference book of
Abstracts and programme. Page 35.
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 56
Antifungal properties of ginger and garlic on smoked cat fish mycoflora Chuku
Umo Udofia, S.J., Edem, V.E. and Elijah, A.I. (2014). Effect of smoking time and
storage period on the moisture content of smoked Bonga fish (Ethmalosa
fimbriata). Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology book of extended
abstracts for the 1st NIFST South-East Chapter Food Summit (Uyo, 2014) 12th
13th June, University of Uyo Akwa Ibom State. 40 43.
Nigerian Journal of Mycology Vol.6 (2014) 57
... This research also confirms with Omojowo et al. [26,27] that garlic extract can be substituted for other synthetic antimicrobial agent like citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium metabisulphate. In addition, the antifungi property agrees with Chuku [28], who reported that the fresh and dry samples of garlic recorded 100 percent inhibition on smoked catfish mycoflora. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was carried out to determine the effect of garlic extract on the proximate composition and microbial activity of cold and hot smoked Clupea harangus (Atlantic herring fish). In the study, fresh atlantic herring was thawed, eviscerated, weighed, washed properly and folded. Garlic extract was prepared at 100 ml, 75 ml, 50 ml and control with no garlic extract, each treatments were prepared in duplicates and in three batches. The folded atlantic herring was dipped into the garlic extract at the different concentration, the first batch of treatments was oven dried for 40°C for 6 hours (cold smoked), the second batch was oven dried for 65°C for 12 hours (cold smoked) and the third batch was oven dried for 75°C for 18 hours (hot smoked). After oven drying, it was allowed to cool for 20 minutes, samples for microbial analysis was immediately taken in a foil paper and stored in the Original Research Article Fashagba et al.; IJBCRR, 29(9): 32-39, 2020; Article no.IJBCRR.61352 33 fridge for a month while the remaining sample was immediately used for proximate analysis. At all hours of drying period, the moisture content decreases and protein content increases with increasing concentration of garlic extract, the lipid content was highest at 75 ml garlic extract and the ash content was highest at 50 ml garlic extract. Total bacteria count decreases with increasing concentration of garlic, increasing temperature and increasing hour of drying. No fungi growth was recorded at all hours of drying period.
... Aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of A. sativum has been reported to possess antimicrobial effect against drug resistant organisms such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi [14][15][16]. A. sativum is primarily a bacteriostatic agent that destroys sulfhydryl groups necessary for bacterial growth [17]. ...
Article
Abstract: The actual aim of this review article is to get a thoroughly search on different in vitro studies on bactericidal effect of staphylococcus on various extracts of garlic and ginger. Microbial pathogenecity and other infectious diseases have been controlled by use of commercially accessible antimicrobial drugs since last many years. In recent years, in sight of their valuable effects, utilize of spices or herbs is gradually increasing not only in developing countries but also in developed countries. Garlic (Allium sativum) that belongs to the family of Alliaceae is widely used in culinary and medicine. In new researches, it is reported that garlic extract has been proved to be proficient toward Streptococcus mutans, garlic extract mouth wash may be utilized as a recent line in inhibiting dental caries formation. Garlic is highly documented in exhibiting dominant antimicrobial activities. Garlic can provide proper management for bacterial growth ranging from disinfectant, antiseptic, bacteriostatic and even bactericidal characteristics. Zingiber officinale plays role as powerful food maintenance. In limited studies, ginger was found to have better usefulness than placebo in relieving disgust produced by sea dizziness, morning dizziness, despite ginger is not reported to be preferred on placebo in relieving surgical sickness. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-oxidant, antiprotozoal, anti-fungal, anti-emetic, anti-rhinoviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-insecticidal activity. Staphylococcus aureus is the most medically important member in terms of pathogenicity of the group, two other less important members are Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Article
Given the extension of the shelf lives of various vegetables, individuals store their food for a long period by freezing it with a fast-pact lifstyle. A total of 17 Escherichia coli serovars were recovered from 200 meat samples in Egypt’s Qena governorate. The characterization of the isolates was performed by biochemical and serological tests, antibiotic susceptibility, and detection of virulence genes by PCR. The antibacterial properties of fresh and/or frozen garlic and lemon extract were tested against all E. coli isolates over 6 months, along with their antibiofilm activities. hly, stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes were detected in 12, 4, 3, and 2 serovars, respectively. Although 100% of E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant, they were susceptible to fresh and frozen garlic and lemon extract. Owing to botanical storage for 6 months, a dual decrese was reported in some antibacterial activities of botanical extract and their phytochemical contents. Furthermore, the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis confirmed that both allicin and citric acid content (in garlic and lemon, respectively) are the most elevated compounds that were diminished following storage time. Fresh and frozen garlic extracts have reduced bacterial biofilm substantially throughout the 6 months of storage, ranging from 19.3 to 45% and 22.3–30.5%, respectively. While fresh and frozen lemon juice significantly decreased the biofilm of E. coli O1:H7 by 52.9 and 26.8% at zero time of storage only. Finally, prolonged storage affects both garlic and lemon extracts’ antimicrobial behavior and encourages fresh intake rather than frozen veggies.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Research on the degrading abilities of fungal isolates of A. artilis and the best method of preservation of the fruits was carried out in Rivers State. Results implicated six fungi namely Rhizopus artocarpi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Penicillium italicum, Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus niger and Neurosporra crassa with varying degree of incidence to be associated with the spoilage rot of the fruits. These fungi were also found to be pathogenic causing general dry rot of the fruits. All the fungi gained 100% penetration into the fruits. Ground fruits preserved with palm oil stored for 12 months without major deterioration of the biochemical component of the fruits. All the fungal isolates adversely degraded the biochemical components of the fruits.
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the effects of wrapping materials on mould growth and the proximate composition of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth (oil bean) were carried out in the Plant Pathology and Food Science and Technology Laboratories in Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt respectively. The two different wrapping materials used were the leaves of Theumatococcus danielli (a local leave) and the synthetic cellophane. It was observed that processed oil bean seed wrapped with the local leaves harbored more moulds than those wrapped with the cellophane. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic to freshly processed oil bean seeds causing general soft rot. The assessed proximate values comprising the ash, protein, carbohydrate, lipids and fiber were higher in samples wrapped with the local leaves with the exception of moisture values which were higher in samples wrapped with cellophane.
Article
Full-text available
A study to determine the fungi associated with plantain spoilage at different ripening stages (Green, Hard ripe and Soft ripe) purchased from Rumuokoro market, Mile 111 and Mile 1 markets in Port Harcourt in Rivers State was investigated. The plantain fingers which were sorted out into various ripening stages were aseptically inoculated onto Potato dextrose agar in Petri dishes after sterilization and incubated for 7 days. The fungi were identified microscopically after series of isolation into pure culture. The fungal isolates identified to be associated with plantain fruits rot were Fusarium moniliforme (80%), Rhizopus stolonifer (60%), Penicillium frequentans (100%), and Aspergillus niger (50%). These fungi were associated with the spoilage of plantain fruits irrespective of the various ripening stages. They were also found to be pathogenic to the fruits causing general soft rot of the fruits. Aspergillus niger caused deep brown to black rot, Fusarium moniliforme caused thick whitish rot, Penicillium frequentans caused green rot while Rhizopus stolonifer caused pinkish white rot. However, Cryptococcus neoformans was found to be predominant when the plantain fruits were fully ripe with (100%) incidence due to high sugar level at that stage.
Article
This fifth edition of the classic textbook in plant pathology outlines how to recognize, treat, and prevent plant diseases. It provides extensice coverage of abiotic, fungal, viral, bacterial,nematode and other plant diseases and their associated epidemiology. It also covers the genetics of resistance and modern management on plant disease.Plant Pathology, 5th Edition, is the most comprehensive resource and textbook that professionals, faculty and students can consult for well-organized, essential information. This thoroughly revised edition is 45% larger, covering new discoveries and developments in plant pathology and enhanced by hundreds of new color photographs and illustrations.