Article

Face-to-Face Versus Threaded Discussions: The Role of Time and Higher-Order Thinking

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Abstract

This study compares the experiences of students in face-to-face (in class) discussions with threaded discussions and also evaluates the threaded discussions for evidence of higher-order thinking. Students were enrolled in graduate-level classes that used both modes (face-to-face and online) for course-related discussions; their end-of-course evaluations of both experiences were grouped for analysis and themes constructed based on their comments. Themes included the "expansion of time," "experience of time," "quality of the discussion," "needs of the student," and "faculty expertise." While there are advantages to holding discussions in either setting, students most frequently noted that using threaded discussions increased the amount of time they spent on class objectives and that they appreciated the extra time for reflection on course issues. The face-to-face format also had value as a result of its immediacy and energy, and some students found one mode a better "fit" with their preferred learning mode. The analysis of higher-order thinking was based on a content analysis of the threaded discussions only. Each posting was coded as one of the four cognitive-processing categories described by Garrison and colleagues [1]: 18% were triggering questions, 51% were exploration, 22% were integration, and 7% resolution. A fifth category - social - was appropriate for 3% of the responses and only 12% of the postings included a writing error. This framework provides some support for the assertion that higher-order thinking can and does occur in online discussions; strategies for increasing the number of responses in the integration and resolution categories are discussed.

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... There is a greater possibility of live interaction between the teacher and learner; also, learners have a greater level of interaction with their peers. This type of education system is considered highly effective and is being intensively practiced [8]. ...
... can be created [8]. Online learning can be seen as a powerful method for inculcating information, given that the lessons are conceived and performed in an affable and thoughtful manner in compliance with the guidelines of the agencies concerned. ...
... Although the screen interface may be different, most virtual classroom devices have similar features. Examples include Vedamo, WizIQ, Adobe Link, Google Classroom, LearnCube, Moodle, BlackBoard Read, etc.[8]. ...
... Studies that are based on the CoI framework have shown that both lower levels (e.g. Meyer, 2003;Shea et al., 2010;Vaughan & Garrison, 2005) and higher levels (e.g. Gaševi c et al., 2015;Oh et al., 2018;Richardson & Ice, 2010) of cognitive presence are most common in online discourse. ...
... Richardson & Ice, 2010;Vaughan & Garrison, 2005) or examined it in general (e.g. Galikyan & Admiraal, 2019;Li & Yu, 2020;Meyer, 2003). Furthermore, Picciano (2002) claimed that social presence is more significant when it comes to learning activities that are not just about acquiring knowledge but also constructing new information with peers. ...
... integration) was frequently found in students' discussions (e.g. Akyol & Garrison, 2011;Meyer, 2003;Richardson & Ice, 2010). For example, Oh et al. (2018) investigated students' online debate about a moral dilemma. ...
Article
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Project-based learning (PjBL) engages students in knowledge acquisition, application, and construction through artefact development. Based on the Community of Inquiry framework, this study characterized college students' social and cognitive presences in online PjBL and examined how presence was related to their academic performance. Twenty-four groups of students participated in a 3-week project via WeChat discussion groups and created a final product. Transcripts of students' online discourse were collected and analysed by a coding scheme. The quality of students' artefacts was evaluated by a grading rubric. Descriptive results showed that the component of affectiveness and the level of exploration accounted for the majority of students' social and cognitive presences, respectively. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that certain components and sub-components of students' social presence, and levels and sub-levels of their cognitive presence were positively associated with their academic performance. Practical implications for teachers and suggestions for further research are provided. Lay Description What is already known about this topic • Social and cognitive presences predict academic performance in non-project-based online learning. What this paper adds • Various components of social presence predict group artefact performance in online project-based learning. • Different levels of cognitive presence predict group artefact performance in online project-based learning. Implications for practice and/or policy • Students should acquire basic content knowledge before participating in online project-based discussions. • Teachers might consider assisting students with the direction of online project-based discussions.
... Les récents travaux de Gibson et Ifentalher (2017) invitent à utiliser les traces laissées par les utilisateur·rices sur les sites web en enseignement supérieur, leurs actions ainsi que le décompte de leurs accès, etc. (Daniel & Butson, 2014). L'analyse des traces permet d'effectuer une évaluation ou à tout le moins d'obtenir des informations sur l'efficacité des dispositifs étudiés quant à la gestion du temps (Meyer, 2003) des utilisateur·rices. Selon Meyer (2003), les individus peuvent plus efficacement gérer leur temps dans ces dispositifs asynchrones (flexibilité entre le temps investi dans les dispositifs et le temps disponible en dehors de ceux-ci). ...
... L'analyse des traces permet d'effectuer une évaluation ou à tout le moins d'obtenir des informations sur l'efficacité des dispositifs étudiés quant à la gestion du temps (Meyer, 2003) des utilisateur·rices. Selon Meyer (2003), les individus peuvent plus efficacement gérer leur temps dans ces dispositifs asynchrones (flexibilité entre le temps investi dans les dispositifs et le temps disponible en dehors de ceux-ci). Notre utilisation des traces se distingue du caractère « prédictif » des traces analysées par les auteur·rices intéressé·es par les « learning analytics » ou l'analyse des apprentissages numériques (Peraya, 2019a) qui ciblent explicitement l'optimisation des apprentissages dans les environnements numériques. ...
... Cette manière de faire peut poser des obstacles et des défis. En effet, des courriels perdus ou des délais de traitement ou de réponse peuvent engendrer des frustrations dans les équipes de travail et limiter l'efficacité du groupe en mode asynchrone (Meyer, 2003). Dans d'autres contextes, le fait de permettre à un seul individu à la fois de modifier un texte, puis d'attendre des réponses avant de poursuivre le travail a pour effet de limiter sa participation et celle des membres de comités, en plus de causer de l'insatisfaction pour toutes les parties (Rockinson-Szapkiw et al., 2010). ...
Article
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This article presents the empirical results of a study aimed at describing the use of the SharePoint environment as a digital device to support collaboration between different trainers (with different statuses) of a teacher education program. Since 2017, the University of Sherbrooke's Bachelor of Education in Preschool and Elementary Education (BEPP) is undergoing a major overhaul of its program. This overhaul is based on the creation of a program based on a professionalization pathway. This Sherbrooke expertise in program development is supported by the Training Support Service and requires the collaboration of all program stakeholders (professors, lecturers and pedagogical advisor) involved in the courses as well as in on-the-job training. The SharePoint environment has been identified as a device to support this collaboration. Based on the data provided by the traces left by the users of this device and by identifying indicators of collaboration, we wish to take an evaluative look at the capacity of this device to support collaboration. This exploratory and descriptive study documents the implementation of SharePoint to support collaboration between January 2018 and June 2019. From the frequencies observed, a positive evaluation of the device to support collaborative work emerges. We will make pragmatic recommendations on how to guide the collaborative work that could inspire other teams wishing to take advantage of this environment.
... There is a greater possibility of live interaction between the teacher and learner; also, learners have a greater level of interaction with their peers. This type of education system is considered highly effective and is being intensively practiced [8]. ...
... can be created [8]. Online learning can be seen as a powerful method for inculcating information, given that the lessons are conceived and performed in an affable and thoughtful manner in compliance with the guidelines of the agencies concerned. ...
... Although the screen interface may be different, most virtual classroom devices have similar features. Examples include Vedamo, WizIQ, Adobe Link, Google Classroom, LearnCube, Moodle, BlackBoard Read, etc.[8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online Teaching has been an effective method to meet a great number of learners at the global level. Learning this way leads the eager learners to find different ways to discover new horizons of knowledge. The online content of language learning has led many information seekers to concentrate on the acquisition of exuberant language skills. This paper study various methods and techniques that could be used to connect diverse information aspirants. Challenges are also being discussed in the existing eligible system for online language teaching. The virtual classroom here is designed with cyberspace to create a language learning atmosphere. The paper outlines the reasoning, design, including the use of these lesson plans that facilitate action and reflection across the learning cycle. The techniques and approaches set out in this paper will provide insight into the outcome of the initiative. This research also provides a look at the shots of online teaching. This study examines potential approaches and techniques and explores the wider possibilities and varied prospects for achieving the objective of helping the target group of students to achieve their goals. Possibilities have brought more benefits not only to the pupils, but also to the aspirants, irrespective of their age group. It also suggests some potential online training methodologies for teachers to take classes online.
... • (Meyer, 2003;Marttunen and Laurinen, 2001;Francescato et al., 2006): In these studies, the form of group settings that we have defined as Traditional F2F was compared with onlinegroup settings. Students were made to experience both settings in studying a course in (Meyer, 2003), their observations of the two group settings were collected for review at the end of the course. ...
... • (Meyer, 2003;Marttunen and Laurinen, 2001;Francescato et al., 2006): In these studies, the form of group settings that we have defined as Traditional F2F was compared with onlinegroup settings. Students were made to experience both settings in studying a course in (Meyer, 2003), their observations of the two group settings were collected for review at the end of the course. In (Marttunen and Laurinen, 2001), between email-exchange and F2F study groups, it was investigated how much students develop their argumentation skills. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Online learning is gaining greater acceptance due to the flexibility it provides with regard to time and location, and the benefit of lowering the cost of accessing quality learning. For online education to be effective, there is a need to improve the cognitive functionality it provides comparable to the learning experience in traditional classrooms. One functionality to be improved is the facilitation of socio-cognition through collaborative learning. A teacher who is physically present in a traditional classroom encourages and manages face-to-face (F2F) group interaction in order to optimise collaboration towards expected learning. This process is based on the instinct and experience of the teacher. To provide such real-time support to online groups, it is necessary to characterise and digitise the process of monitoring and supporting group collaboration. To address this challenge, we defined three goals, based on the framework of the Collaboration Management Life Cycle: (i) a computational assessment of online collaboration; (ii) a visual representation of this measure, and (iii) a method for guiding learners’ interactions based on the awareness from this representation. We explored these goals in 2-phases as follows. Phase 1: First, we have surveyed the literature to define collaborative markers in group-learning engagement, and have performed a case-study on F2F joint problem-solving (JPS) to substantiate, fine-tune, and characterise our findings. This provided the initial insights for measuring collaboration which, with further exploitation of the literature, lead to the development of a metric for online textual collaboration, the WC-GCMS. We validated the WC-GCMS metric, using a case-study of JPS discourse of online groups. Our findings show that WC-GCMS is effective for measuring online collaboration and applicable in real time. Phase 2: Having obtained a valid computational metric for measuring collaboration-level within online learning groups, we used this real-time assessment to provide feedback on the relative level of individuals’ participation within-groups, through mirroring. We assumed that the awareness from the mirroring would motivate individuals, within groups, to participate better. This was investigated with a case-study of online group JPS interaction in a controlled-experiment design. We validated that our mirroring provided a measurable positive stimulus towards in-group participation, thus improving the collaboration of groups. While our research focused on text-based interaction, we rationalized COLEA, as a generic template for characterising a group-learning environment and analysing learners’ interaction data in it. We argue that the view of group-learning interaction based on COLEA will allow our WC-GCMS metric and the mirroring framework to be adapted to other group-learning settings, regardless of media and learning context differences. The novel contributions of this thesis include: the WC-GCMS collaboration-metric, a framework for feedback support to scaffold online collaboration, Mirroring, and a generic template for group-learning research COLEA
... A importância do tempo e a sua relação com o pensamento de ordem superior é sustentada pela evidência de que as discussões assíncronas implicam maior reflexão na produção de intervenções (Meyer, 2003). No que se refere à linguagem, também se conclui que os alunos utilizam uma linguagem lexical e sintacticamente mais formal, complexa (Warschauer, 1996) e correcta (Meyer, 2003), à qual não é alheio o facto de estarem perante uma audiência alargada e atenta, que os encoraja a ter outro cuidado na preparação das suas participações. ...
... A importância do tempo e a sua relação com o pensamento de ordem superior é sustentada pela evidência de que as discussões assíncronas implicam maior reflexão na produção de intervenções (Meyer, 2003). No que se refere à linguagem, também se conclui que os alunos utilizam uma linguagem lexical e sintacticamente mais formal, complexa (Warschauer, 1996) e correcta (Meyer, 2003), à qual não é alheio o facto de estarem perante uma audiência alargada e atenta, que os encoraja a ter outro cuidado na preparação das suas participações. ...
Conference Paper
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Resumo A Web 2.0 disponibiliza ferramentas gratuitas que permitem o desenvolvimento de competências de comunicação e de pensamento de ordem superior. Uma destas ferramentas é o VoiceThread, uma aplicação online que possibilita conversas assíncronas através de um interface simples e agradável. O presente artigo expõe os resultados de um estudo de caso que procurou saber como se processa a aprendizagem da competência oral, utilizando esta ferramenta como complemento à aula de Inglês no 3º ciclo. Palavras-chave: Web 2.0; competência oral; Voicethread; conversas assíncronas Abstract Web 2.0 offers free tools that support the development of communication skills and high order thinking. One of these tools is VoiceThread, a web-based application that enables users to establish asynchronous conversations, while using an easy and attractive interface. This paper presents the results of a case study that tried to understand how the learning of oral skills occurs, using VoiceThread as a complement to the English as a Foreign Language classes. Introdução Confrontados com turmas extensas, onde a participação de cada aluno se limita no espaço e no tempo e com a necessidade de desenvolver competências de expressão oral, condição sine qua non para uma comunicação efectiva, tentámos verificar como se processa a aprendizagem da competência oral em língua inglesa através da aplicação VoiceThread 40 (VT) como complemento à aprendizagem presencial. Esta ferramenta enquadra-se no paradigma da Web 2.0 e segue a linha dos podcasts. Na Web 2.0 o utilizador deixou de ser um mero consumidor passivo e tornou-se produtor activo de conteúdos, tornando-se, nas palavras de McLoughlin & Lee (2007), um prosumer (junção de producer e consumer). A Web passou a ser encarada como uma plataforma, onde qualquer um de nós pode, de forma gratuita, partilhar conteúdos sem necessitar de criar 40
... This has been shown to be true in informal professional development forums, where there is considerable discussion, but most of it is of a social nature with only a low level of cognitive exchange, where information was shared rather than knowledge constructed (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005;Kanuka & Anderson, 1998). This also holds true in more formal academic settings where there is a growing body of research showing that the quantity of interaction does not reflect the quality of discourse (i.e., cognitive presence) as measured by the progression through the phases of the Practical Inquiry Model Meyer 2003;Pawan, Paulus, Yalcin, & Chang, 2003). The Practical Inquiry Model built by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2001) was "specifically created to assess outcomes of collaboration in a higher education online course environment." ...
... The design feature of successful online courses demonstrates structured discourse that facilitate clear discussion threads, avoid disjointed monologues and move the discussion through the phases of inquiry (levels of thinking). Another important feature found in the literature is clearly defined roles (Aviv et al., 2003;Garrison and Cleveland-Innes 2004;Hiltz & Turoff, 1993;Meyer 2003;Tagg & Dickenson, 1995). Here we find the leadership role of the instructor to be powerful in triggering discussion and facilitating high levels of thinking and knowledge construction. ...
Research
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This research deals with Teaching Presence (TP), which is one of the three presences, but the most impactful one, in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model. The research has two unique features: 1. Most research on Teaching Presence deals with the students' perspective of this phenomenon, although it is the teacher who is responsible for creating Teaching Presence thus it is important that their perspective, challenges, and thought process be understood. 2. Almost all research has been Quantitative which can prove hypothesis, correlations, causal relationships. However, it does not go into the minds of the people to understand what and how people think. My research is Qualitative which provides rich, thick description of the perceptions and allows detailed analysis of the challenges from the human angle. 3. This research provides explanations of the common interchangeability error committed by many; using Teacher Presence and Teaching Presence as synonymous. It also provides tools for new teachers to design courses based on TP which is not something that one can insert laterally BUT it is a mindset that starts even before a course is planned.
... This has been shown to be true in informal professional development forums, where there is considerable discussion, but most of it is of a social nature with only a low level of cognitive exchange, where information was shared rather than knowledge constructed (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005;Kanuka & Anderson, 1998). This also holds true in more formal academic settings where there is a growing body of research showing that the quantity of interaction does not reflect the quality of discourse (i.e., cognitive presence) as measured by the progression through the phases of the Practical Inquiry Model Meyer 2003;Pawan, Paulus, Yalcin, & Chang, 2003). The Practical Inquiry Model built by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2001) was "specifically created to assess outcomes of collaboration in a higher education online course environment." ...
... The design feature of successful online courses demonstrates structured discourse that facilitate clear discussion threads, avoid disjointed monologues and move the discussion through the phases of inquiry (levels of thinking). Another important feature found in the literature is clearly defined roles (Aviv et al., 2003;Garrison and Cleveland-Innes 2004;Hiltz & Turoff, 1993;Meyer 2003;Tagg & Dickenson, 1995). Here we find the leadership role of the instructor to be powerful in triggering discussion and facilitating high levels of thinking and knowledge construction. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation is unique in two ways: 1. Almost all the research on Teaching Presence was done from the learners perspective, my research looks' at it from the Teachers' perspective; the challenges they see and how they try to overcome them. .Their understanding of this concept and how it helps them to design courses and improve learning outcomes. 2. Most research in this field was quantitative which cannot deal with perceptions and thought processes. My research is qualitative, thus it gives a rich, thick, in-depth description of the teachers' thinking, their perceptions, their feelings and how they struggle to beat the odds.
... This has been shown to be true in informal professional development forums, where there is considerable discussion, but most of it is of a social nature with only a low level of cognitive exchange, where information was shared rather than knowledge constructed (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005;Kanuka & Anderson, 1998). This also holds true in more formal academic settings where there is a growing body of research showing that the quantity of interaction does not reflect the quality of discourse (i.e., cognitive presence) as measured by the progression through the phases of the Practical Inquiry Model Meyer 2003;Pawan, Paulus, Yalcin, & Chang, 2003). The Practical Inquiry Model built by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2001) was "specifically created to assess outcomes of collaboration in a higher education online course environment." ...
... The design feature of successful online courses demonstrates structured discourse that facilitate clear discussion threads, avoid disjointed monologues and move the discussion through the phases of inquiry (levels of thinking). Another important feature found in the literature is clearly defined roles (Aviv et al., 2003;Garrison and Cleveland-Innes 2004;Hiltz & Turoff, 1993;Meyer 2003;Tagg & Dickenson, 1995). Here we find the leadership role of the instructor to be powerful in triggering discussion and facilitating high levels of thinking and knowledge construction. ...
... The time delay that is made available through asynchronous communication has provided students with more time to delve deeper into the text or topic and provide more thoughtful responses in return (Branon & Essex, 2001;Burnett, 2003;Meyer, 2003;Sotillo, 2000;Wu & Hiltz, 2004). Online discussions often require students to be more active on a continuous basis and are typically student-driven and autonomous in nature (Little, 1991); therefore, the students take responsibility in directing and molding the class's discussion (Wu & Hiltz, 2004). ...
... In addition to some of these synchronous activities affording participants time to reflect on their learning (Little, 1991), asynchronous activities showed that participants observed that non-real-time activities allowed the opportunity to spend additional time to focus and "practice" (Participant 174) topics. Although asynchronous communication allowed a self-paced environment (Holec, 1981), where participants were able to explore course content further (Branon & Essex, 2001;Burnett, 2003;Meyer, 2003;Sotillo, 2000;Wu & Hiltz, 2004), the data also suggested that participants felt disconnected from other L2 learners since there was a delay in communication (Branon & Essex, 2001) and the tools didn't "provide feedback" (Participant 40). Participant 3 said it best when stating the following: "[It] was kind of annoying because I had to wait for my partner to post before I could finish the assignment." ...
Article
This study investigates the ways in which synchronous and asynchronous activities create an online language laboratory that mediates second language (L2) learning for 188 L2 university participants over a 6-week period. Completion of tasks and pre-, post-, and weekly surveys were analyzed. Statistical analyses were run on self-rated questions while coding was complete on open-ended questions. Quantitative results revealed significant differences when comparing pre- and post-surveys on questions regarding L2 skills and knowledge while qualitative results indicated that participants had preferences between the technology tools used during the treatment. Although the physical language lab has become almost non-existent, this study suggests that L2 instructors should provide opportunities where L2 learners can expand their language skills outside of the classroom through the creation of an online language laboratory. This laboratory has the ability to transform L2 students' language learning as well as be very valuable in today's classroom given the current COVID-19 global crisis.
... Thus, online learning pedagogy relies on supporting classroom dialogue (Laurillard, 2002). Meyer (2002Meyer ( , 2003 claims that the sociocognitive dynamics of online discourse not only help learners gain a thorough understanding of the content itself but that they also help students acquire critical thinking and inquiry skills. However, later empirical research reports that providing a discussion forum could not guarantee effective learning (Guo et al., 2014;Meyer, 2003;Smith, Ferguson & Caris, 2001). ...
... Meyer (2002Meyer ( , 2003 claims that the sociocognitive dynamics of online discourse not only help learners gain a thorough understanding of the content itself but that they also help students acquire critical thinking and inquiry skills. However, later empirical research reports that providing a discussion forum could not guarantee effective learning (Guo et al., 2014;Meyer, 2003;Smith, Ferguson & Caris, 2001). Through their research on professional development for teachers, Guo and his colleagues (2014) conclude that instructional feedback (i.e., asking thought-provoking questions, giving encouragement, and facilitating reflective discussion) positively enhances learners' cognitive engagement. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Online learning has been widely adopted in higher education to reach students who typically would not have a chance to complete accredited courses (Kentnor, 2015). Massive open online courses (MOOC), which is a type of online learning, makes it easier for people to take university courses with internet access and a fraction of cost compared to traditional residential programs (Reich, 2020). MOOCs also become popular for those who want to increase their professional profile or advance their academic career (Pheatt, 2017). However, online learning has long been criticized for its universally low completion rates, high dropout rate and poor learning performance (Almeda et al., 2018). This phenomenon is more exacerbated in MOOC environments. Historical studies have attempted to support learner self-regulated learning (SRL) activities in order to enhance completion rates and academic outcomes. Prior studies have conducted pre-course questionnaires as inexpensive SRL interventions to prompt learners as SRL support(Kizilcec et al., 2017, Kizilcec & Cohen, 2017; Kizilcec et al., 2020; Yeomans & Reich, 2017). Yet, these one-time-only, short-term interventions only yield limited or no effects. This study implemented and evaluated the effectiveness of an alternative intervention, the self-regulated learning user interface (SRLUI), to support students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies in a MOOC environment. SRLUI is based on Zimmerman’s (2000) SRL model and develops learner’s SRL skills through longitudinal, recurring practice of multiple SRL dimensions activities (i.e., goal setting, self-evaluation, task planning, setting reminders) with content-specific information. The study utilized a randomized experimental design and implemented SRLUI in eight MOOCs with a total of 808 participants. The results indicated a higher usage rate of SRL support compared to the historical findings, which may be owing to the SRL support embedded into the learning activities throughout the course. Also, the study showed improved learning outcomes for a subgroup of participants, but there was no reduction in the number of dropouts. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that a personalized SRL tool featuring content-specific information should be embedded in online courses. The research design also recorded direct cognitive records of learners' SRL activities, which yield stronger validity compared to trace and survey data. The result suggested SRLUI might only benefit a subgroup of learners with passing grades. Thus, it is recommended that future research identify various subgroups of learner profiles in MOOC environments and to consider how to reach and support learners in different subgroups.
... The usability of moderated approach active flipped learning, learner gain high-level analytical skills, in this process, learner fully involved in activity, environment encourage them to lead the position pertaining to innovative ideas and contribute there and may play an important role for object oriented solutions [13]. According to [49] active learning is learner centered concept and opportunities, it's actually the applied thoughts at high level cognitions. The ways of learner-centered in flipped classroom, collaboration, group discussion, open ended, case studies, group assignment, object-oriented based learning, and problem solving task etc. all these will be more important for learners before going into practical world[56].According to [3] lot of variety design cases applied for course content in the flipped model, some researchers refer to complete change of design in contents environment [15], whereas some also suggests starting with normal position of contents gradually shifting and when and where required moments for flipping [7,8,9,31,32]. ...
Article
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Flipped is an emerging mode of blended e-learning, as blended is mix mode of learning to enhance the skills of students, saving the time and cost either sides (students and educators). Flipped classroom is such as an e-learning blended approach in which instructions can be hovered into individual and groups, interactively to exchange and solving the assigned problems. Flipped classroom approach presents the dynamic, interactive and user's friendly environments for in class and online blended learning. This kind of mode leads students to enhance their interpersonal skills, collaborate the experiences, and innovate new horizons by mutual activities for the given problems. The flipped mode has at least four dimensions; friendly easy environment, supporting culture for learning, contents availability when offline, minimizing time cost, trained educators/professionals and reducing repetition of learning content's cost. In Flipped model of learning, first students go to seeking the exposure of problems by visiting the contents, materials, videos and other materials before getting in the classroom in person, fully aware to share or inquire the problem related matters in the class, its inverse approach against traditional institutional learning model. This is very effective mode of learning for activity based and assignment-based learning strategies prior commencing class, fruitful feedback can be shared and reducing the tutorial part. Blended Learning The term blended was coined in the market of technology at the end of decade 90, due the huge and emerging concepts making new trends through collaborative and individual learnings[21] and this change of approach having lot of potential to engage the stack holders, and educators, minimizing the obstacles relating to time, place, paths etc. Definitions In the early days, the term "blended learning" according to [21] it was a mixture of technology and educational means only. In the early stage of this approach "blended Learning" may be just the internet accessibility to the students for like instructional means [21]. Another view come out in 2003 when Procter[54] explained that the different mode of delivery for learning relates to blended learning, its somehow little clear to the approach "blended"[54]. Another dimensional view of the definition by[29] was that it's a mix system of physical appearance and computer supporting elements for learning[29] by virtue of this definition it is further some extent clear that the system having two mixed modes at the same time for deliverance of the lectures. As described by[60] made clear picture about the definition of the concept "blended" that just a formal system of education but having the delivery mode in mixed integrated structure some part of lecture in the class, some part of the lecture out of the class, permitting students by flexibility of time, space, pace and away from classroom physically[60,66]. Further the "blended " approach explained by adding the features, like interactive and collaborative learning approach, meant that some part must has time allocation for interactive session with teacher and also interactive session with students groups too when needed for collaboration study time, group studies, discussions, and solving group assignments [44]. Blended learning Models The blended learning models may derive into three major categories: 1. Skill-driven, some initially required valued skills of the students with supportive role of teachers 2. Attitude-driven, provision of positive environment of behaviors, between groups, individuals centrally. 3. Competency-driven, observation of expert's knowledge for level best learning outcomes[65]. The further basic six models extended to 12 models introduced in the blended learning approach: 1. F2F-Model, face to face, presence in classroom, additionally supporting online art of learning too. 2. Rotation-Model, replacing classroom by online in routine for acquiring the knowledge and learning.
... This finding is unsurprising given that eLearning can provide more opportunities to practice and communicate beyond the limited time of an onsite classroom (Ortega, 2007). In computer-mediated L2 learning, learners have additional time to contribute to a task, thereby reducing pressure, particularly on shy students, and encouraging everyone to participate (Meyer, 2003). ...
... Discussion forums, or asynchronous threaded discussions, allow for students to post on a given topic, and their peers' responses to that topic. Well-structured forums have been shown to encourage reflection and critical thinking skills and allow for all students to more fully participate in classroom discussions (Joyner, 2012;McNamara & Brown, 2009;Meyer, 2003;Rizopoulos & McCarthy, 2009;Weasenforth et al., 2002). OTA faculty utilized discussion forums on our university's LMS, Canvas, to allow students to post questions for clarification, for faculty driven weekly content, as well as to generate dialogue among students and between students and faculty. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact worldwide in every aspect of society including occupational therapy assistant students enrolled in academic coursework. This manuscript examines the unique experience of occupational therapy assistant faculty in a northeast state who were able to quickly modify classroom and lab teaching-learning strategies to a fully online virtual format for two semesters. Since no available information on strategies for online delivery of occupational therapy assistant education were found in the literature, their experiences implementing active learning strategies are described and discussed. Strategies covered include: the flipped classroom model; think-pair-share and jigsaw technique using breakout rooms; polling and student response systems; muddiest point via chat box; lab kits; one-minute paper using discussion forums; and student-generated videos. Twenty students provided feedback through a survey about the helpfulness of each strategy. The breakout room and chat box feature of the synchronous virtual classroom as well as lab kits were perceived as most helpful, whereas student-generated videos and one-minute papers were perceived as least helpful. Implications for continued incorporation of online learning in occupational therapy assistant curricula are outlined.
... Asynchronous communication supports and follows the constructivist-based education, where the teacher is a collaborator (Cavana, 2009;Gold, 2001). Meyer (2003) mentioned several time-based advantages of threaded discussions, including increased time-on-task, extra time for reflection, and sufficient opportunities for everyone to contribute to the discussion. Some studies argue that asynchronous communication provides in-depth and thoughtful discussions (Branon & Essex, 2001;Tu & Corry, 2003). ...
Article
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Within the field of second language acquisition, pronunciation has received relatively little attention. This lack of research can also be seen in the general lack of systematic pedagogical materials for pronunciation training, effectively reinforcing the “marginalized” nature of pronunciation in the second language classroom (Lee, Plonsky & Saito, 2019). Accordingly, the current study investigated the use of synchronous/asynchronous computer-mediated communication as a method of L2 pronunciation instruction for the phonemic and lexical features of pronunciation. Broadly, the current study examined the effectiveness of face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous voice computer-mediated communication on EFL learners’ pronunciation achievement. In so doing, the study utilized an experimental design with 15 participants in the control group and 30 participants in two experimental groups. There were two types of tests in this study: lexical stress test, and phonemic discrimination test. The results showed the positive effect of CMC-oriented instruction compared with F-F instruction on EFL learners’ pronunciation development; however, not a significant difference was found between the two CMC instructional modes. The Syn group, on the other hand, tended to vary their pronunciation achievements more than the other groups. Indeed, technology holds great potential for pronunciation training, particularly in terms of maximizing opportunities for practice and exposure to oral language.
... Furthermore, the delay in in-person communication allows students to deeply engage in reflection on the learning materials. Meyer (2003) recognized AOC as promoting in-depth learning enhanced by the extra time allocated for individual reflection. It is important to note that students indirectly interact with their instructor often through media (Hrastinski, 2008). ...
Article
The self-paced nature of asynchronous online learning (AOL) is recognized as an obstacle that disrupts student success in the learning environment. Without on-time interventions provided by instructors, students find it challenging to use learning strategies tailored to the learning environment, and their use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies has been regarded one of the key indicators of success in AOL. To examine how student SRL strategies are associated with their video engagement trajectory and learning outcomes, we used student video engagement data collected at multiple time points. Participants were 159 students who were taking a self-paced asynchronous online statistics course. Results revealed that student video engagement was found to increase over time and student management strategies contributed to the upward change. We also found that the growth of engagement predicted student achievement in the course. Our findings shed light on instructional strategies to support students in AOL contexts.
... A somewhat extensive body of research has reported that online discussions can lead to a positive learning experience for students, can enhance both cognitive development and higher-order thinking (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000;Garrison & Kanuka, 2004;Meyer, 2003;Taradi & Taradi, 2004), and can improve social development in some applications, such as EFL classrooms (Huang, McConnell & McConnell, 2009). However, research that addresses the implementation of online discussion as a supplemental instructional tool in a traditional F2F classroom appears to be relatively rare. ...
... The usability of moderated approach active flipped learning, learner gain high-level analytical skills, in this process, learner fully involved in activity, environment encourage them to lead the position pertaining to innovative ideas and contribute there and may play an important role for object oriented solutions [13]. According to [49] active learning is learner centered concept and opportunities, it's actually the applied thoughts at high level cognitions. The ways of learner-centered in flipped classroom, collaboration, group discussion, open ended, case studies, group assignment, object-oriented based learning, and problem solving task etc. all these will be more important for learners before going into practical world[56].According to [3] lot of variety design cases applied for course content in the flipped model, some researchers refer to complete change of design in contents environment [15], whereas some also suggests starting with normal position of contents gradually shifting and when and where required moments for flipping [7,8,9,31,32]. ...
Article
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Flipped is an emerging mode of blended e-learning, as blended is mix mode of learning to enhance the skills of students, saving the time and cost either sides (students and educators). Flipped classroom is such as an e-learning blended approach in which instructions can be hovered into individual and groups, interactively to exchange and solving the assigned problems. Flipped classroom approach presents the dynamic, interactive and user's friendly environments for in class and online blended learning. This kind of mode leads students to enhance their interpersonal skills, collaborate the experiences, and innovate new horizons by mutual activities for the given problems. The flipped mode has at least four dimensions; friendly easy environment, supporting culture for learning, contents availability when offline, minimizing time cost, trained educators/professionals and reducing repetition of learning content's cost. In Flipped model of learning, first students go to seeking the exposure of problems by visiting the contents, materials, videos and other materials before getting in the classroom in person, fully aware to share or inquire the problem related matters in the class, its inverse approach against traditional institutional learning model. This is very effective mode of learning for activity based and assignment-based learning strategies prior commencing class, fruitful feedback can be shared and reducing the tutorial part. Blended Learning The term blended was coined in the market of technology at the end of decade 90, due the huge and emerging concepts making new trends through collaborative and individual learnings[21] and this change of approach having lot of potential to engage the stack holders, and educators, minimizing the obstacles relating to time, place, paths etc. Definitions In the early days, the term "blended learning" according to [21] it was a mixture of technology and educational means only. In the early stage of this approach "blended Learning" may be just the internet accessibility to the students for like instructional means [21]. Another view come out in 2003 when Procter[54] explained that the different mode of delivery for learning relates to blended learning, its somehow little clear to the approach "blended"[54]. Another dimensional view of the definition by[29] was that it's a mix system of physical appearance and computer supporting elements for learning[29] by virtue of this definition it is further some extent clear that the system having two mixed modes at the same time for deliverance of the lectures. As described by[60] made clear picture about the definition of the concept "blended" that just a formal system of education but having the delivery mode in mixed integrated structure some part of lecture in the class, some part of the lecture out of the class, permitting students by flexibility of time, space, pace and away from classroom physically[60,66]. Further the "blended " approach explained by adding the features, like interactive and collaborative learning approach, meant that some part must has time allocation for interactive session with teacher and also interactive session with students groups too when needed for collaboration study time, group studies, discussions, and solving group assignments [44]. Blended learning Models The blended learning models may derive into three major categories: 1. Skill-driven, some initially required valued skills of the students with supportive role of teachers 2. Attitude-driven, provision of positive environment of behaviors, between groups, individuals centrally. 3. Competency-driven, observation of expert's knowledge for level best learning outcomes[65]. The further basic six models extended to 12 models introduced in the blended learning approach: 1. F2F-Model, face to face, presence in classroom, additionally supporting online art of learning too. 2. Rotation-Model, replacing classroom by online in routine for acquiring the knowledge and learning.
... This research has, therefore determined that the idea of teaching presence in the CoI framework is central to preserving course satisfaction. The findings of this study also correlated with the results of research conducted by other scholars who reported that the body of evidence attesting to the essential value of teaching presence for successful online learning is vast (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005;Meyer, 2003;Murphy, 2004;Swan & Shih, 2005;Vaughn & Garrison, 2005). Garrison and colleagues (2000) argued that interactions between participants in virtual learning environments are not sufficient to ensure effective online learning. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to assess online course delivery satisfaction among undergraduate students at a Jordanian public university using an adapted Community of Inquiry (CoI) model. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a group of students enrolled in an English language online course. The data was analyzed to determine whether teaching presence and social presence had significant effects on course satisfaction. The results showed that teaching presence significantly correlated with course satisfaction, followed by social presence. Teaching presence showed the strongest positive correlation, which would be considered a very large effect size, followed by social presence. These findings indicated that students were very likely to have high course satisfaction levels. The outcome of the analysis also indicated no statistically significant differences in the level of satisfaction based on average, major, or study year.
... Earlier research on forums focused on their use within online courses for content subjects (e.g. Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 1999;2001;Meyer, 2003;Zhu, 2006), where the learners' linguistic competence is not a core competence. However, this study explores discussions amongst learners of a second language and their teachers, in which communication in the second language is an essential pedagogical aim of the course. ...
Article
Aquest estudi investiga l’eficàcia de pràctiques diferents en l’ensenyament d’idiomes en línia comparant la participació de quatre grups d’estudiants i professors en dues tasques asíncrones als fòrums, en el context d’un curs d’anglès com a llengua estrangera B2 en una universitat catalana. Els missatges del professorat s’analitzen de manera qualitativa; es realitzen després anàlisis estadístiques inferencials per comparar les dades de participació dels estudiants en aules virtuals amb índexs de finalització diferents i en dos tipus de tasca. Els resultats indiquen que, quan els professors participen en els debats com si fossin un membre més i fan preguntes per fomentar l’intercanvi, augmenta la probabilitat de participació dels estudiants, un patró que sobresurt en aules amb majors índexs de finalització de curs.
... Through online discussion, learners can improve their works based on learner-learner and/or learner-instructor interactions. The study by Meyer (2003) reported that online discussion forums allowed learners to spend time related to learning objectives, and higher-order thinking occurred among graduate-level learners in the study. ...
Chapter
Many organizations want to implement blended learningBlended learning. Many have invested resources in their efforts of implementing blended learningBlended learning. This study is aimed to find out the appropriate situations of using face-to-face activity, asynchronous online activityasynchronous online activities, and synchronous online activitysynchronous online activities in a blended learningBlended learning environment. We explore the reasons why these are the appropriate situations. In this qualitative study, seven instructional designers, who have at least three years blended learningBlended learning design experience were interviewed. Findings from this study show that there are key situations and potential challenges that instructional designers opine the usage of face-to-face activities, asynchronous online activitiesasynchronous online activities, and synchronous online activitiessynchronous online activitiesin blended learningBlended learning. Based on the various perspectives from the seven instructional designers, blended learningBlended learning design guidelines on various situations of using face-to-face activities, asynchronous online activitiesasynchronous online activities, and synchronous online activitiessynchronous online activities, and preventing some potential challenges have been postulated, which serve as a guide for instructional designers.
... Indeed, Vaughan and Garrison (2005) found a greater number of student comments related to the integration phase in asynchronous, online contexts as compared to face-to-face environments. This can be explained by Newman et al.'s (1997) finding that asynchronous, written communication helps students to make connections between ideas as well as Meyer's (2003) investigation into asynchronous discussion response, wherein students were able to better recognize connections and understand other's ideas. ...
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... The third issue, teaching presence includes interaction and discourse that plays a key role in higher-order learning but not without structure (design) and leadership (facilitation and direction). Meyer (2003) states that "faculty may need to be more directive in their assignments for threaded discussions, charging the participants to resolve a particular problem, and pressing the group to integrate their ideas." Also, in order to facilitate the highest-level collaborative processes in an online asynchronous environment, the instructor needs to be explicit with strategies or techniques aimed at promoting these processes (Murphy, 2004b). ...
Conference Paper
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Academic advising is one of the most important technological issues in higher education today. Through the utilization of learning technologies, higher education can harness data like never before to help students find efficient avenues towards graduation, help students choose appropriate courses, and with advisors’ assistance, plan pathways for future careers. Current and future uses of learning technology in advising will produce autonomous students who plan their curriculum with the help of a system that interacts with the student. In the future, students will gain insight from software systems that recommend requirements or electives that align with a student’s career goals or find quicker or more efficient routes to graduation. Faculty and staff advisors will gain access to data that has never been tracked before that will help to increase the quality and efficiency of face-to-face advising. Advising will be forever positively altered unlike any previous generation thanks to learning technology.
... It does not rely on simultaneous educational interactions between teachers and students so students can access learning materials multiple times or at their convenience. Several researchers have conveyed advantages of asynchronous learning, such as extra time-on-task, increased time for reflection, and more equal levels of contribution (Meyer, 2003). Rourke and Kanuka (2009), however, they also suggest that a large number of students worked at the lowest cognitive level when engaging in asynchronous learning, which might result in a less meaningful outcome. ...
Article
Higher education underwent an unprecedented transformation from conventional face-to-face education to remote learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the 2020-2021 academic year, most universities throughout the U.S. had moved educational programs online, so professors and instructors, with and without previous remote learning experience, were suddenly expected to shift to synchronous or asynchronous classroom settings. Facilitated through Learning Management Systems (LMS), many teaching and learning practices took place in web-based environments. Some schools allowed a combination of in-person or hybrid classes by complying with evolving COVID-19 protocols (e.g., use of hand sanitizer, social distancing, facial coverings). These novel implementations raised benefits and challenges for higher education. Previous research studies assert that students tend to become isolated due to fewer interactions within a highly remote learning context. However, few studies have shown how students engage in hybrid educational delivery, and little was known about student engagement in music education courses integrated with online learning components. The current study investigated student engagement in college music education courses under a mass educational transition induced by the pandemic. This study utilized a mixed methods case study approach, in which a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews concurrently investigated students’ three types of interactions, engaging with instructors, classmates, and learning content. There was no statistically significant difference in student engagement between grade levels. Qualitative analysis provided a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of student experiences as they engaged with online learning elements. The data integration procedure produced three individual cases representing different levels of student engagement (poorly-engaged, moderately-engaged, and highly-engaged cases). The highly-engaged case showed rapid adaptability in committing to innovative learning models, whereas the moderately-engaged case presented a slower adaptation, and the poorly-engaged case displayed the most reluctance in adjusting learning strategies. Recommendations and implications of how online learning components can be better incorporated in music education courses are also discussed. Advisor: Rhonda J. Fuelberth
... Interaction is crucial in face-to-face reflections where meaning is co-constructed either between peers or between learners and teachers. Meyer (2003) discussed how the face-to-face method had more speed and energy than asynchronous online discussions, that learners could build on each other, collaborate and benefit from the enthusiasm of others. On the other hand, learners who value privacy in personal reflections or those who lack communication competencies may have difficulties with the face-toface mode. ...
Article
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Reflection has been increasingly used to enhance student development in higher education, in both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. Learner autonomy is essential on reflection, particularly on how learners interpret their learning experiences. The learner has to take initiatives in making meaning of their learning by examining their experiences, and purposefully exploring their learning. Reflection is a key component in active learning as students actively engage in the process of thinking about what they have learnt or experienced. Mezirow highlighted how reflection can mean many things, including awareness of a perception, thought, feeling, intention and action, taking something into consideration or simply imagining alternatives. And there are also multiple approaches to embracing reflection today, such as reflective essays, videos and online blogs, where reflective processes and approaches may differ particularly in relation to technological adoption. In a learning environment, reflective approaches are adopted with the aim for learners to transfer knowledge and experiences to practice. However, there is scarce literature on student perception of the different reflective approaches. The present paper therefore examines student perspectives on four different reflective approaches and how these different approaches are applied within the context of higher education. The four approaches chosen are written, audio, video and face-to-face based on current literature on how reflection is documented or presented in education) and the integration of the concept of multimodality.
... In his study comparing synchronous vs asynchronous writing collaboration in an online course, Mabrito (2006) also found that asynchronous conversations focused more (and in more ways) on the writing task and objectives. He cites Meyer (2003), who points that threaded discussions allowed students "to reflect on what was said and to take their time to develop a useful response" (Meyer, 2003, p. 61) more than face-to-face sessions. Still, asynchronous tools alone cannot lead to CABLe and need to be combined with appropriate pedagogical guidance. ...
Article
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Education, Cultures, Politiques (ECP) Laboratory France We study emotion regulation in a distant CABLe (Collaborative Argumentation Based-Learning) setting at university. We analyze how students achieve the group task of synthesizing the literature on a topic through scientific argumentation on the institutional Moodle's forum. Distinguishing anticipatory from reactive emotional regulation shows how essential it is to establish and maintain a constructive working climate in order to make the best out of disagreement both on social and cognitive planes. We operationalize the analysis of anticipatory emotional regulation through an analytical grid applied to the data of two groups of students facing similar disagreement. Thanks to sharp anticipatory regulation, group 1 solved the conflict both on the social and the cognitive plane, while group 2 had to call out for external regulation by the teacher, stuck in a cyclically resurfacing dispute. While the institutional digital environment did afford anticipatory emotional regulation, reactive emotional regulation rather occurred through complementary informal and synchronous communication tools. Based on these qualitative case studies, we draw recommendations for fostering distant CABLe at university. Introduction With a disciplinary "arguing to learn" perspective (Andriessen et al., 2003), many university teachers do not explicitly target argumentation skills, but design Collaborative Argumentation Based-Learning (CABLe) tasks to foster distant socio-cognitive conflict (Roschelle & Teasley, 1995) for disciplinary improvement. Nevertheless, engaging productively in such tasks requires appropriate group emotions to solve the socio-cognitive conflict on the cognitive plane and not only on the social plane (Polo et al., 2016). To understand how groups manage conflict during their work, a metacognitive perspective, addressing the regulation of the learning processes, both at individual and group levels, is needed. Such research could, then inform how instructional design can help the students regulate the conflict associated to CABLe tasks in distant collaboration. In this paper, we suggest that addressing anticipatory emotional regulation, which is to say, paying attention to building a positive socioemotional working climate before conflict arises is essential to foster an efficient reactive emotional regulation when tensions emerge, helping the students handle its cognitive content. Within an ecological perspective on affordance, we study how students successfully establish and preserve a positive working climate, managing conflict in a constructive way. In a discussion section, we specifically question the tools provided for distant collaboration regarding their affordance for CABLe regulation. Our argument is illustrated by an in-depth qualitative empirical study. We investigate how students and teacher in a French university structure a literature review group work about adult education and make use of different tools in their environment to regulate the learning processes. More specifically, we study the emotional regulation of the CABLe task, either through the institutional Moodle forum or with other tools belonging to the environment of the participants. We focus on two groups of students facing great tensions, putting their forum discussions in perspective with complementary data gathered through group and individual final Affording Emotional Regulation of Distant Collaborative Argumentation-Based Learning at University 3 reports on the task. We aim at understanding what happened within the group asking for teacher regulation, as compared with the other group who proved capable of self-regulating similar initial tensions. Hence, our first research question (RQ1) addresses students' reactive emotional regulation practices in a context of such online CABLe setting, comparing the two groups (hypothesizing a difference, H1). We also question group differences in terms of anticipatory emotional regulation (RQ2). Our idea is that through such differences, groups may have achieved distinct previous working climate, which determined how they faced the socio-cognitive conflict (H2). Our third hypothesis is that articulating argumentation and collaboration helps self-regulate group work in terms of emotions (H3). Furthermore, we wonder to which extent the institutional formal environment provided to the students affords both the completion of the CABLe task and its anticipatory and reactive emotional regulation (RQ3). Within an ecological perspective on affordance, the environment designed by the teacher should allow for achieving all the dimensions of the activity, including its socioemotional one (H4). Our argument is illustrated by an in depth qualitative empirical study based on discourse analyses. After specifying our theoretical background, we describe more precisely the pedagogical setting studied, our research
... Measuring the learning that results from CBI, and specifically AODs, is challenging. Prior research suggests that student participation and interaction in AODs are positively related to their academic achievement and the development of higher-order thinking (Frijters et al., 2008;Meyer, 2003). However, researchers have commonly relied on learners' perceptions when measuring the value of social interactions, without considering learners' behavioral and performance data to capture the actual interaction process. ...
Article
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Asynchronous online discussions (AODs) are a central component of online courses and have been widely implemented in case-based instruction (CBI). In online CBI, AODs offer learners a medium for making sense of complex problems, as they consider case topics col-laboratively with peers and facilitators. Therefore, learners' interactions with others have the potential to impact the overall effectiveness of the method, and specifically, participating in AODS during CBI may help learners develop problem-solving skills. However, little research has considered how learners' interaction patterns in an AOD relate to the development of problem-solving skills during CBI. We used social network analysis (SNA) to consider the relationship between social interactions and learners' problem-solving skills, as it offers a way to consider the structure of learners' social interactions. We found that the number of posts, replies, and connections learners made in course discussions were related to problem-solving performance measured both in case analyses and overall course grade.
... Online discussion is a valuable addition to the teaching process but not a substitution for face-to face one. Meyer (2003), An and Frick (2006) produced similar results when students compared their online discussions to their unspecified earlier experience with face-to-face discussions. Cuthrel (2007) and Artino (2010) wrote that many students prefer online classes to face-to-face classes for their convenience of time and choice to work when they could. ...
Conference Paper
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With the changes that can be observed on the labour market, working as a programmer offers a significant guarantee of work and one of the higher earnings. This causes that many people decide to change their current profession, precisely by learning programming. Due to the diverse educational offer related to programming, choosing the right course is not an easy task. The aim of this study is to examine the motivation, attitudes and declared effects of people who have decided to use e-learning methods to learn programming. The possibility of remote learning is an opportunity for those who want to change their profession or improve their financial conditions and at the same time cannot afford to give up their current job. The offer of courses aimed at learning programming also varies in terms of price, from free courses to courses with a job guarantee of around 3500 euros. The survey was carried out online on a group of 480 people who started to learn programming, which was not their basic learned profession. The survey consisted of a socio-demographic survey, a Behavioural Intention questionnaire, which was based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, and a self-assessment survey measuring the declared learning outcomes. The study included such constructions as: Technology Awareness, Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence, Attitude, Hedonic Motivation, Habit and Facilitating Condition. The aim of the study was to identify the key factors that contribute to the best possible learning outcomes in programming and those that hinder effective education. The participants of the study were persons of Polish citizenship, aged 20 to 56 years. The obtained results indicate a variety of factors, the most important of which are motivation, degree of involvement and the achieved, planned effects. The results obtained in this work are intended to draw attention to the key factors contributing to the success of learning programming, which may provide guidance for both those planning to change their careers and those constructing e-learning programmes.
... O EAD e o EaD são formas não-tradicionais de ensino e aprendizagem, caracterizadas principalmente pelo pouco ou nenhum contato presencial entre os pupilos e seus tutores e uma separação espacial e temporal (Meyer, 2003;Riggins, 2014;Sewart, [s.d.]). A principal diferença entre essas duas modalidades é que o EAD possui uma política acadêmica de portas abertas -aceita matrículas sem comprovantes de educação, experiência ou referências prévias, a baixo ou nenhum custo (Mill, 2012). ...
Article
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No ano de 2020, iniciou-se uma emergência de saúde pública mundial. A fim de frear a transmissão do SARS CoV-2, foram aplicadas medidas de distanciamento social, que reduziram o contato interpessoal e deflagraram mudanças profundas em comportamentos relacionados à interação social. Os sistemas educacionais ao redor do mundo têm se adaptado a esta nova realidade, adotando protocolos emergenciais caracterizados, em grande parte, pela substituição das atividades presenciais pelas virtuais. O objetivo deste artigo é dialogar sobre os impactos do distanciamento social no ensino superior através de uma abordagem neurofisiológica, conectando estresse, empatia e o contexto histórico do ensino emergencial quando comparado ao Ensino à Distância, além das ferramentas à nossa disposição e as complexidades do ambiente virtual. Os professores devem estar conscientes do impacto do estresse e do uso de ferramentas digitais e de ensino à distância na formação dos estudantes, buscando formas responsáveis de passar por este momento histórico e estratégias para lidar eficientemente com os desafios no ensino evocados pela pandemia.
... Three research team members individually analyzed interviews using descriptive attribute coding (Miles et al., 2014). Next, researchers met to compare coding and update the constructed learner profiles. ...
Article
Discussions play an important role in supporting problem solving during case-based instruction (CBI). Yet, little research has considered how students purposefully use online case discussions to support problem solving. Using a multiple case study approach, we examined how the content covered in three online discussions supported students' individual problem solving during CBI. Using a modified version of Jonassen’s (1997) ill-structured problem-solving framework, we coded all discussion postings to understand individual problem-solving processes. Next, we conducted interviews with six students to gain deeper insights into their participation intentions. Findings revealed while the students collaboratively covered all aspects of the problem-solving process, individually, their approaches did not always cover all phases. Individuals with strong problem-solving presence valued discussions as an important part of the learning process, were willing to invest time engaging in the discussion, and maintained a consistent presence. Additionally, as problem-solving presence decreased, learners' perceived barriers increased. Strategies for boosting individual problem-solving processes are discussed.
... Resolution proved the most difficult to attain. Meyer (2003) explained that integration and resolution are more demanding compared to exploration. To attain integration and resolution, students need to reflect on their experiences. ...
Article
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This current study investigates the use of online role-playing, in an online discussion forum, in learning the community of inquiry framework – an area of learning covered in the Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) course, an elective course for Computer Science undergraduate students at Universitas Indonesia. The participants were divided into different roles. Each group was triggered to discuss the implementation of online collaborative learning. A mixed-methods approach was utilised to analyse the qualitative and quantitative data. The result of content analysis exhibited students implementing all the components of the CoI framework. Teaching presence was the rarest, as students were focused on delivering their ideas. Social presence appeared in almost all messages since it is the easiest, and students can feel the impact immediately. The discussion moved to the integration phase but did not proceed to resolution. This study suggested some recommendations and future research topics.
... Social participation in MOOCs is mainly guaranteed by discussions forums. Research suggests that asynchronous online discussions can support critical thinking and knowledge co-construction even more than synchronous faceto-face discussions, due to the available time for reflection (Meyer, 2003) and more critical, constructive and explicit contributions (Wang, Woo, & Zhao, 2009). Many approaches have been adopted to analyze critical thinking level in MOOCs discussion forums. ...
Article
In recent years, the use of innovative learning strategies within museum education contexts has been considerably supported by the use of digital technologies, especially in terms of critical thinking enhancement. As underlined by several studies in the field, the aesthetic experience is particularly effective in terms of reflection skills promotion, critical interpretation and analysis, both at individual and group level, as well as personal and creative reinterpretation (Biasi, Patrizi, & Fagioli, 2020). The present paper describes a research conducted within the MOOC «Teaching Critical Thinking through Art», created by the National Gallery of Art in Washington (DC), under the scientific supervision of the Harvard Project Zero researchers, pioneers of Visual Thinking Strategies within the museum context. The paper is aimed at illustrating the results of a content analysis conducted on the forum section of the above-mentioned MOOC during the 2020 edition. In particular, 163 posts from the «See/think/wonder» activity were assessed by two human evaluators using two different Critical Thinking evaluation tools (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2001; Poce, 2017). In addition, specific analyses were carried out selected users’ writing activities in order to identify possible positive correlations between the characteristics of forum posts and the critical thinking skills solicited.
... The large classroom size and the two-hour time constraint allow only a small percentage of learners to participate in classroom discussion (see Vaughan and Garrison, 2005). Further, classroom time constraint is proven to increase competition between learners rather than cohesion (Meyer's, 2003). Also, it does not allow enough time for reflection and discourse (see McConnell, 2000;Thomas and MacGregor, 2005;Garrison and Vaughan, 2008). ...
Research Proposal
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The proposed project aims to address the current limitations in delivering the Business Research Methods (BRM) module by transforming the delivery mode into blended learning, combining face-to-face and hybrid sessions with asynchronous learning on the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). There will be minor changes in the curriculum design because some topics will be shifted to the VLE. Further, a series of weighted assessment tasks will be introduced, including a problem-based learning case-study; instead of the current assessment method. The proposed ideas in this project are based on Vygotsky (1962) socio-cultural theory, which postulates that learning is a result of social activity, where students learn through discourse and social interaction. The project also highly relies on the application of Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000) community of inquiry framework (COI). The implementation of the CoI framework will not only help in addressing the issues presented above but also in supporting learners to develop higher-order thinking (Lipmann, 1991) through promoting “purposeful, open, and discipline interaction and discourse” (Garrison and Vaughan, 2008, p16).
... For one, triggering event was found to be the lowest coded category during ERT which resonates with the findings of Garrison et al. (2001) concerning traditional distance education courses. However, one reason for a low triggering event may be since activities associated with such a category works best in face-to-face settings (Meyer, 2003). An ERT approach in this regard could have worked effectively through the use of synchronous teaching and learning to cultivate conditions necessary for a triggering event from the onset. ...
Article
Purpose-This study aims to examine how lecturers at a South African university navigated teaching and learning in the current educational landscape obscured by the global pandemic. The authors examine how lecturers employed a community of inquiry (CoI) in their online classrooms within the context of emergency remote teaching (ERT). The study further aims to ascertain students' feedback concerning current ERT practices at the university toward cultivating a CoI. Doing this would offer more appropriate interventions and support for lecturers and students from, within and for an African context. If not, instructors might risk reproducing and perpetuating the same outdated pedagogies before the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach-A mixed-method research design informed by a pragmatist paradigm was used. Primary data were collected from 40 lecturers at the university through online questionnaires of which 10 lecturers responded to e-mail interviews. The original CoI survey was distributed among 150 students in the Faculty of Education at the university. Findings-The findings revealed that, despite the rushed and trial nature of the use of ERT, there were instances of a CoI among students. The findings further revealed that the majority of the lecturers were not adequately prepared for ERT as a result of limited experience with asynchronous and synchronous online teaching. There was evidence of an absence of a strong active teaching presence that was found to have negatively influenced the development of social and cognitive presences during ERT. Research limitations/implications-Only a single faculty at one university was selected in this single case. Practical implications-The results of the study have significant implications for faculties and academic staff who are currently teaching online in response to the teaching challenges paused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings will assist lecturers in developing appropriate pedagogical intervention strategies to enhance strong and active teaching and social presences necessary for cultivating the cognitive presences among students during ERT. Originality/value-This is one of the first empirical studies to explore the influence of ERT on the cognitive, social and teaching presences at a university in an African context. The findings and conclusion of the study are novel as they relate to the development of appropriate pedagogical practices and intervention strategies suitable for ERT in response to the current education crisis.
... There is no quantitative assessment of them and the impact on the activities of organizations is not analyzed. Consequently, there is a need to determine the factors that affect the resource potential of the enterprise, and their systematization and identification of classification features [23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. ...
Article
The article examines the factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of resource potential management of higher education institutions. The positive impact of which ensures competitiveness and performance. The aim of the study is to analyze the study of the external and internal environment factors and the compilation of their classification. The multiplicity of studies and different approaches is of interest to this problem. For the study, such methods were used as analysis of the literature on the relevant topic, comparison, contrast. The results of the study will reduce the risks for identifying opportunities and reserves the growth of educational organizations. The scientific contribution of the author lies in the fact that the studied experience can be used and applied in the process of carrying out educational activities.
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The aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about what characterizes students' capabilities to reflect on and self-assess their professional development during four school based vocational training courses in distance higher education. What abilities and challenges appear in their written reflections and self-assessments with critical incidents about a situation, incident, or issue in their log journals, as well as in their discussions online. face-to-face (F2F), supported by a mobile learning hub (MLH) with both mobile and blended activities? Theoretically, the study is based on five major levels of reflection: reporting, responding, relating, reasoning and reconstructing. The results from a group of students' representative excerpts demonstrates the importance of letting student teachers have agency and mediate their subjective experiences during practical vocational training in progression, supported by mobile and blended tools, to understand and make sense of experience in relation to self, others, and contextual conditions for personal and professional learning.
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The use of Turnitin as a tool within Higher Education has been growing for many years. Alongside this, however, a culture of fear has been growing amongst students that they will somehow be caught out by the software and vilified as a cheat. This case study aims to challenge that culture and offer some insight into how Turnitin can be used as a positive tool for both staff and students. Through proper understanding of Turnitin and its intended use, staff and students can begin to use Turnitin to self-assess, to make academic improvements, and to send and receive appropriate formative feedback throughout modules and courses
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The research here evaluates student interactions in an undergraduate American politics course at two institutions. Significant evidence reveals that student interactions lead to deeper reflective learning when correcting, clarifying, arguing, and disagreeing with each other. These findings add to the growing research on online spaces as well as providing educators with a stronger understanding in how to tailor their instructional strategies and tasks to better meet academically reflective outcomes.
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The transition of an undergraduate course to fully online is examined through the lens of a professor who revised the platform for the course and through the perspectives of preservice teachers participating in a hybrid version of the course in their teacher education program which is not offered fully online. Benefits of flexible student schedules and meaningful discussion participation emerged, indicating that preservice teachers can navigate learning modules and benefit from an online course offering. Challenges of implementing teamwork in the online environment arose throughout the semester of implementation, indicating a need for improvements/revisions. These lessons learned from this case study contribute to a systematic approach to transitioning from offline to online courses and augment the literature base of the experiences and appropriateness of online preservice teacher education courses.
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Patterns of the use of digital technology and social media in relation with the Self-Regulated Learning Strategies-Cognitive and Metacognitive-in university English Language Courses P a g e | 2 Abstract The invention of the Smart Phone was a major game changer in providing access to uninterrupted anytime anywhere connectivity to the web which inevitably impacted the education sector. The uninterrupted connectivity aspect in daily life was embraced by Generation Z (Digital Natives) as they were born with the attitude of having a mobile lifestyle as part of their digital learning DNA. This research focuses on the technology tools students use during the process of learning English. Moreover, we tried to link the specific technology tools to the Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) strategies, mainly the cognitive and meta-cognitive students organize and self-regulate their learning during the course. In recent year, there has been a substantial number of researches on the impact of the use of technology on the SRL mainly driven by the need for educational researchers to understand the impact of the integration of technology and social media tools in classrooms. This study will also provide suggestions and recommendation for educators on how to adapt their lesson plans became increasingly important. Hence, we will focus on answering the following questions: what are the patterns of the technology tools students use to self-regulate their learning strategies? What are the specific tools related to the cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies? Is there a difference in the use of the technology tools among the four institutions? and, how can teachers benefit from identifying the technology profile of the students? In order to answer these questions, we used Yot-Dominguez and Marcelo (2017) Survey of Self-regulated Learning with Technology at the University (SRLTU, 2017) which includes a list of technology tools and the their corresponding SRL. Data was collected from a sample of 753 students from universities in Turkey, Chile, Iran, and Canada. The analysis results indicated that the despite the fact that students know and use technology, the level and purpose of its usage did not register high averages. We have also detected that there are differences in the use of tools related to the Self-Regulated Learning strategies among the four participating institutions.
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Buku pengembangan kurikulum sekolah golf disusun berdasarkan hasil dari kajian yang menyatakan bahwa sudah lama golf merupakan olahraga sekaligus hiburan yang mempunyai banyak guna dari segi bisnis, relasi, bahkan edukasi. Selain itu golf juga dapat menjadi pendorong industri pariwisata. Timbulnya golf sebagai sarana promosi memberikan dampak yaitu mulai banyaknya peminat dari dalam kota, luar kota bahkan luar negeri. Sebagian besar peminat terdiri atas kaum menengah ke atas yang diantaranya adalah bapak-bapak dengan umur sekitar 40-50 ke atas. Tetapi berhubung dengan informasi, prospek, teknologi yang berkembang, pengguna golf berkembang menjadi 40% diantaranya adalah kaum muda dengan umur 18-30 tahun dan sisanya adalah anak-anak. Buku pengembangan kurikulum sekolah golf ini disusun dengan tujuan sebagai salah satu upaya menambah bahan bacaan maupun informasi pengetahuan bagi akademisi maupun praktisi dalam cabang olahraga golf. Selain itu, buku pengembangan kurikulum sekolah golf ini diharapkan juga dapat dimanfaatkan oleh atlet, calon pelatih, serta pelatih golf sebagai bahan referensi untuk mengadakan sekolah atau pelatihan golf maupun dapat dijadikan acuan dalam melaksanakan pembelajaran golf pada atlet.
Article
هدفت هذه الد ا رسة إلى البحث في أثر إستخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي بكثرة على الحالة النفسية للطالب الجامعي العربي. بالتالي، أعدّ الباحثون استبياناً حول هذه المسألة، تواصلوا مع عدد من الجامعات في الدول العربية لتوسيع مجال الع ينة. بناءً على النتائج الأوّليّة، إستندوا على نتائج كل من البلدان التالية: الجمهوريّة اللبنانيّة، المملكة العربية السعودية، المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية، ودولة فلسطين. وبالتالي تكوّن مجتمع البحث من الشباب الجامعي في هذه البلدان، الذي تت ا روح أعماره بين 18 و 24 سنة وتكوّنت عيّنة عشوائية من 668 فرد اً. أظهرت النتائج وجود فروقات ذات دلالة إحصائية بين الخصائص البيئية للشباب الجامعي العربي وفق البلد بالنسبة للإشباعات المحقّقة عبر استخدام مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي. كذلك، تبيّن أنّ استخدام هذه المواقع يعزّز الإحساس بالحضور الإجتماعي. كما ظهر وجود علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية ما بين المعدّل اليومي لاستخدام مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي اولإدمان السيب ا رني، والغيرة والإحباط. أمّ ا بعض ممارسات الأصدقاء على مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي كالحجب، والخداع، والكذب، والشتيمة والتشهير فتدفع إلى شعور الشباب الجامعي العربي بالإحباط. الكلمات المفتاحية: مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي، الإدمان السيب ا رني، الحضور الإجتماعي، الإحباط
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L’Unione Europea pone la formazione alla base di tutte le sue dichiarazioni concernenti lo sviluppo e il futuro dei Paesi membri. Questo rende d’importanza vitale qualsiasi discorso legato alla formazione degli insegnanti, in quanto essi fanno contemporaneamente da specchio e canale di trasmissione delle teorie della formazione e delle metodologie didattiche adottate. Per rispondere alle sfide proposte dall’Unione Europea e alle richieste specifiche della formazione insegnante è necessario ricorrere a modelli formativi in grado di far fronte alle esigenze di una società complessa come quella attuale. Le teorie pedagogiche appartenenti alla sfera della mediazione cognitiva permettono di operare in profondità nell’ambito delle strategie educative, argomento al cuore della formazione. Per raggiungere tutti gli insegnanti in formazione e per dotarli di uno strumento flessibile ma altresì potente è necessario ricorrere alle possibilità offerte da Internet e dalle sue molteplici applicazioni. Abbiamo quindi indagato un modello formativo che si propone come plausibile per questo genere di formazione, vale a dire la comunità di pratica-apprendimento online (o comunità virtuale).
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ABSTRACT Al-Saleem,Basma Issa (2010). The Effect of Using Blended Learning on EFL Jordanian Tenth Grade Students' Oral Skills and Teacher and Student Perceptions of Its Utility and Their Suggestions for Improvement. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yarmouk University. (Supervisors :Professor Oqlah Smadi and Professor Mohammed Tawalbeh) The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using blended learning on EFL Jordanian tenth grade students' oral skills and teacher and student perceptions of its utility and their suggestions to improve the use of BL in the Jordanian schools. The present study attempted to answer the following questions : 1.Was there a statistically significant difference at (α=0.05) between the students' subjects' mean scores on English oral skills test due to teaching procedures, gender and interaction between procedure and gender? 2. How did EFL Tenth grade teachers in Amman Discovery schools implement BL when teaching oral skills? 3. What were EFL teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of BL to enhance their students' oral skills? 4. What were EFL students' perceptions of the benefits of BL to enhance their oral skills? 5. What were EFL teachers' and students' suggestions to improve the implementation of BL in Amman Discovery schools? Since the study had multi purposes, the researcher used three samples to fulfill the required goals. A random sample of 327 Tenth grade EFL students from Amman Discovery schools represented the experimental group. A random sample of 145 Tenth grade students from Amman the Second Directorate of Education represented the control group. Those students sat for the pre-post tests of oral skills. Blended Learning was used to teach the experimental group. A Second, stratified random sample consisted of 368 students who studied in Amman discovery schools represented traditional face-to-face, online, and blended EFL courses. Those students responded to The College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) to gather information about the students’ perceptions of BL utility to enhance their oral skills and to provide suggestions to improve the use of BL in the Jordanian schools. A third purposeful sample of six EFL teachers in Amman Discovery schools was chosen to examine their perceptions of BL utility to enhance students' oral skills and their suggestions to improve the use of BL in the Jordanian schools. The following instruments were used in this study: 1. Six Instructional lesson plans based on BL were prepared by the researcher to be used by the teachers in oral skills classes. 2.An achievement test to measure the effect of BL on developing students' oral skills . 3. An observation checklist. The researcher used the same observation checklist adopted by the Ministry of Education to assess the participating teachers' implementation of BL. 4. Two structured interviews to investigate the teachers' perceptions concerning the effectiveness of using BL in improving students' ability in English oral skills, and their suggestions to improve the implementation of BL. 5. Documents collected for this study included one electronic copy of EIO, a copy of EIO teacher's guide, two course syllabi, and a student teaching assessment. Information was also collected from the Ministry of Education website (e-learning). 6. Survey-College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) were used to gather information about students’ perceptions of the classroom environment (Winston, Vahala, Nichols, and Gillis, 1994). The validity and reliability of the research instruments were assured. As the study design was a quasi–experimental one, qualitative analysis was used to analyze the data of the study, ANCOVA was used to analyze the quantitative data. The results of the study were the following: First, BL enhanced significantly the oral skills of Tenth grade students of the experimental group. Second, EFL teachers played new roles while implementing BL to teach the oral skills. The implementation of BL lessons occurred through three stages; pre-lab stage, lab stage, and post lab stage. Third, EFL teachers' perceptions indicated that they used the term supplement because they did not frequently replace conventional face-to-face classes with online electronic classes. They supplemented classes with interactive teaching pedagogy. Fourth, the results of EFL students' perceptions suggested that by combining elements of both face-to face and online courses, blended courses could create a positive learning environment. Finally, the respondents suggested more training programs in the implementation of BL, financial support for schools to purchase suitable digital equipments to prepare a suitable infrastructure for the best implementation of BL. Based on the results of this study, it was recommended that EFL teachers adopt BL principles and procedures in their classroom practices. More training in BL and support for each EFL teacher could enhance the implementation of BL when designing and executing their lesson plans. Consequently, EFL oral skill's teaching would be improved as well. Key Words: Blended Learning, EFL, Tenth Graders, Oral Skills,. Perception, Improvement
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Cybercrime threatens the national security of different countries around the world. The growth of cyberattacks destabilizes the international order and disrupts the normal functioning of international relations. The purpose of the academic paper is to analyze the causes and economic consequences of the level of cybercrime in the world and to identify modern legal arrangements to combat cybercrime. In order to achieve the purpose outlined, the following methods have been used, namely: the method of comparison, analysis, element-theoretical method, method of generalization and analogy. It has been established that the level of cybercrime in the world and the economic consequences of its impact tend to increase. It is estimated that in 2020 the total cost of cybercrime and cybersecurity will exceed one trillion US dollars, which is more than 1% of world gross domestic product. The reasons have been determined why the number of cybercrimes are increasing (electronization and computerization of most industries, public sector; low level of operational cooperation; inconsistency of legal policy with the realities of cybercrime; development of cyber-attack mechanism; modernization of cybercrime; obstacles to international cooperation and so forth). The cause and effect interrelationship between the level of cybercrime, cybersecurity and legal methods of counteraction in different countries of the world has been proven. Three interrelated ways of the legal mechanism of counteraction to cybercrime have been offered, namely: the general, organizational and preventive ones. The expediency of international cooperation in the development of global strategies and other measures to combat cybercrime has been emphasized.
Thesis
Despite the efforts to prepare Malaysian teachers to support students with learning difficulties, little empirical knowledge exists that can be used to guide the provision of effective online Teacher Professional Development [oTPD] on dyslexia. The review of the literature on the studies of framing suggest that analysis of framing effect could facilitate a researcher to achieve a better understanding of an effective Teacher Professional Development. This study of teachers’ responses to training materials aims to understand how dyslexia awareness messages are framed in online resources to trigger Malaysian primary school teachers to inquire more information about dyslexia conception and dyslexia supports. This understanding was achieved by analysing the triggering events as the framing effects and how the frames and the framing of the messages contribute towards the identified triggering events. The study is divided into two main phases that are carried out sequentially: the pre-message framing phase [to identify the participants’ knowledge gap] and the message framing phase [to understand how the messages are framed to trigger the participants to inquire of more information about dyslexia]. The pre-message framing phase aims to answer the first research question [what is the level of dyslexia awareness among Malaysian primary school teachers?]; while the message framing phase aims to answer the second research question [which message/messages triggered the teachers’ awareness and learning about dyslexia?] and the third research question [how are the messages framed to trigger the participants’ awareness and learning inquiry?]. The main phase of the study is the message framing phase. However, the findings from the pre-message framing phase is vital to inform the selection of the artefacts to be utilised in the study of the framing effects [which addressed the second research question] and the message frames [which addressed the third research question]. The data for this study were collected from fifteen participants via WhatsApp instant messaging interviews and were analysed using a hybrid approach of inductive and deductive thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the participants’ lack of dyslexia awareness is due to a rote conceptual understanding of dyslexia. However, since the participants’ current background knowledge on dyslexia conception is not fully established, the new knowledge on dyslexia conception [highlighting neurodiversity theory] was introduced. The findings show that the all three artefacts contain messages that trigger the participants’ learning inquiry about dyslexia especially on identification. Messages that were framed using relevant situations, attributes, choices, actions, issues, responsibility and news with the help of audio and visual representations ii triggered the participants’ learning inquiry about dyslexia. The research concludes that utilising emotional and meaningful teacher-students’ situation as framing of the messages appears to be the most significant message framing element.<br/
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The study focuses on strategies for how online course outlines can be designed to improve the use of collaborative peer feedback in distance education and how distance students can learn to use argumentation processes as a tool for learning. For ten weeks, 30 student teachers studied the web-based 15 credit course Teacher Assignment. Data was collected from five student groups’ asynchronous argumentation, relating to authentic cases of teacher leadership. Focus was placed on the extent to which students used own and others' texts meaning content in the discussion forum and how the content can be analysed. A close investigation of the dialogical argument patterns (N=253) in their peer feedback shows the extent to which students distinguish, identify, and describe the meaning content that emerges in collaboration with other students in an online setting as an important aspect. The dialogue patterns that developed are illustrated in selected excerpts.
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The use of technology in Teaching and Learning in a Tertiary environment
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In this study I investigated whether instructor classroom behaviors, called "imme diacy behaviors," are significantly associated with student learning and satisfaction in Web-based MBA courses. Immediacy behaviors represent instructors' attempts to reduce the social distance between themselves and their students. While my study found that immediacy behaviors were positive predictors of student learning and course satisfaction, such other factors as student attitudes toward course soft ware, the length of a course, and prior student and instructor experience with Web-based courses were also significant predictors. These findings suggest that both structural characteristics of MBA programs and instructor behavior merit attention for Web-based courses to successfully deliver graduate management education.
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This article describes a practical approach to judging the nature and quality of critical discourse in a computer conference. A model of a critical community of inquiry frames the research. A core concept in defining a community of inquiry is cognitive presence. In turn, the practical inquiry model operationalizes cognitive presence for the purpose of developing a tool to assess critical discourse and reflection. The authors present encouraging empirical findings related to an attempt to create an efficient and reliable instrument to assess the nature and quality of critical discourse and thinking in a text‐based educational context. Finally, the authors suggest that cognitive presence (i.e., critical, practical inquiry) can be created and supported in a computer‐conference environment with appropriate teaching and social presence.
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The research literature on Web-based learning supports the assumption that interaction is important for a successful course, yet questions exist regarding the nature and extent of the interaction and its effects on student performance. Much of the research is based on student perceptions of the quality and quantity of their interactions and how much they have learned in an online course. The purpose of this study is to examine performance in an online course in relationship to student interaction and sense of presence in the course. Data on multiple independent (measures of interaction and presence) and dependent (measures of performance) variables were collected and subjected to analysis. An attempt was made to go beyond typical institutional performance measures such as grades and withdrawal rates and to examine measures specifically related to course objectives.
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An investigation was carried out to determine the extent to which evidence of collaborative learning could be identified in students' textual interactions in an online learning environment. The literature on collaborative learning has identified a range of behaviors that characterize successful collaborative learning in face-to-face situations. Evidence of these behaviors was sought in the messages that were posted by students as they interacted in online work groups. Analysis of students' contributions reveals that there is substantial evidence of collaboration, but that there are differences between conventional face-to-face instances of collaborative learning and what occurs in an asynchronous, networked environment.
Article
This paper gives a detailed account of the content analysis method developed at Queen's University Belfast to measure critical thinking during group learning, as used in our controlled comparisons between learning in face-to-face and computer conference seminars. From Garrison's 5 stages of critical thinking, and Henri's cognitive skills needed in CMC, we have developed two research instruments: a student questionnaire and this content analysis method. The content analysis relies on identifying, within transcripts, examples of indicators of obviously critical and obviously uncritical thinking, from which several critical thinking ratios can be calculated.
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This paper reviews the software functionality that has evolved over the past two decades of research in Computer Mediated Communications at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) to create a Virtual Classroom® to support distance education. Based upon many years of evaluating its effectiveness we also summarize our views about the software functionality needed for further improvement of this approach to distance education. This view of a future Virtual Classroom® allows the instructor complete control over the learning materials and the tools to easily to weave in the learners as co contributors to a growing web of course knowledge. Beyond the current basic tools of the Virtual Classroom® we discuss the future role for hypertext, gaming and simulation, animation and multimedia and the role of the educator as a facilitator of a collaborative learning process. Both the proper software and the proper pedagogical techniques are necessary in order to obtain maximum effectiveness in the asynchronous computer‐mediated environment
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Based on the GlobalEd inter‐university computer conference, this study examined how effective “social presence” is as a predictor of overall learner satisfaction in a text‐based medium. The stepwise regression analysis converged on a three‐predictor model revealing that social presence (the degree to which a person is perceived as “real” in mediated communication), student perception of having equal opportunity to participate, and technical skills accounted for about 68% of the explained variance. Social presence alone contributed about 60% of this variance, suggesting that it may be a very strong predictor of satisfaction. Reliability data on the social presence scale is provided. The results also indicated that participants who felt a higher sense of social presence enhanced their socio‐emotional experience by using emoticons to express missing nonverbal cues in written form. These findings have implications for designing academic computer conferences where equal attention must be paid to designing techniques that enhance social presence.
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Chemistry 331 is an upper level organic chemistry course for students interested in health related careers with an enrollment of approximately 150 students per semester. It assumes that students have a basic knowledge of organic chemistry principles and concepts and it builds on this base with advanced concepts in organic synthesis, mechanism of reactions, and spectroscopy with a biological perspective. Three years ago we moved to an on-line format to better serve the needs of students with disparate backgrounds and to help them master the concepts and applications of organic chemistry at an advanced level. The course includes on-line lectures with embedded problems, computer-graded quizzes, and on-line discussion sections. The exams are in the standard format and are proctored on campus or in off campus testing centers. The format of the course increases flexibility for the students, increases interaction among students and between students and faculty, and improves student performance on examinations that require complex reasoning skills.
Article
This study has two primary objectives. First, we want to know how students who enroll in online classes differ from their peers in traditional lecture classes. Our second objective involves both exploring what factors influence performance among online students, as well as whether those factors differ for online and lecture students. Our comparisons are of two large sections of a course in computer programming for which almost the only difference was that one section consisted of on-campus lectures, and the other section was online. We find that online students do differ from lecture students in a number of important characteristics. However, when we examine class performance and course completion, we find that the factors which influence performance seem to have a stronger impact on lecture students, but we cannot reject the hypothesis that factor coefficients are the same for the two groups.
Extending the Pedagogy of Threaded-Topic Discussions. The Technology Source
  • W R Klemm
Klemm, W. R. Extending the Pedagogy of Threaded-Topic Discussions. The Technology Source, September/October. 2002. http://ts.mivu.org/default.asp?show=article&id=1015
  • J D Spiceland
  • C P Hawkins
Spiceland, J.D., and Hawkins, C. P. The Impact on Learning of an Asynchronous Course Format. JALN, Vol 6, No. 1, 2002.
A Survey Compares 2 Canadian MBA Programs, One Online and One Traditional. The Chronicle of Higher Education
  • J Paskey
Paskey, J. A Survey Compares 2 Canadian MBA Programs, One Online and One Traditional. The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 26, 2001. http://chronicle.com/free/2001/04/2001042601u.htm