Article

Effects of Flowering and Foliage Plants in Hospital Rooms on Patients Recovering from Abdominal Surgery

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Abstract

Using various medical and psychological measurements, this study performed a randomized clinical trial with surgical patients to evaluate if plants in hospital rooms have therapeutic influences. Ninety patients recovering from an appendectomy were randomly assigned to hospital rooms with or without plants. Patients in the plant treatment room viewed eight species of foliage and flowering plants during their postoperative recovery periods. Data collected for each patient included length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety, and fatigue, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1, the Environmental Assessment Scale, and the Patient's Room Satisfaction Questionnaire. Patients in hospital rooms with plants and flowers had significantly fewer intakes of postoperative analgesics, more positive physiological responses evidenced by lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, lower ratings of pain, anxiety, and fatigue, and more positive feelings and higher satisfaction about their rooms when compared with patients in the control group. Findings of this research suggested that plants in a hospital environment could be noninvasive, inexpensive, and an effective complementary medicine for patients recovering from abdominal surgery.

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... The majority of the participants, however, were college students. Only six studies recruited office workers [54][55][56][57][58][59], five studies recruited patients [60][61][62][63][64], two studies recruited junior high school students [65,66], and one study recruited high school students as participants [67] ( Table 2). The records generally did not focus on only one measure of human functions. ...
... In brief, the systematic review concluded that indoor plants, in general, affect participants' functions positively, particularly their physiology and cognition. Regarding physiological functions, participants exhibited greater benefits in a room with plants than in a room without plants in relation to lower blood pressure [60,61,63,76,78,82], lower electrodermal activity (EDA) [69,83,85], lower electroencephalography (EEG) α and β waves [56,69,72,81,83], lower heart rate [59,[61][62][63]68,76,91,93], and lower respiration rate and body temperature [61]. Table 7. Summary of the outcomes of the records. ...
... In brief, the systematic review concluded that indoor plants, in general, affect participants' functions positively, particularly their physiology and cognition. Regarding physiological functions, participants exhibited greater benefits in a room with plants than in a room without plants in relation to lower blood pressure [60,61,63,76,78,82], lower electrodermal activity (EDA) [69,83,85], lower electroencephalography (EEG) α and β waves [56,69,72,81,83], lower heart rate [59,[61][62][63]68,76,91,93], and lower respiration rate and body temperature [61]. Table 7. Summary of the outcomes of the records. ...
Article
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The influences of indoor plants on people have been examined by only three systematic reviews and no meta-analyses. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of indoor plants on individuals’ physiological, cognitive, health-related, and behavioral functions by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses to fill the research gap. The eligibility criteria of this study were (1) any type of participants, (2) any type of indoor plants, (3) comparators without any plants or with other elements, (4) any type of objective human function outcomes, (5) any type of study design, and (6) publications in either English or Chinese. Records were extracted from the Web of Science (1990–), Scopus (1970–), WANFANG DATA (1980–), and Taiwan Periodical Literature (1970–). Therefore, at least two databases were searched in English and in Chinese—two of the most common languages in the world. The last search date of all four databases was on 18 February 2021. We used a quality appraisal system to evaluate the included records. A total of 42 records was included for the systematic review, which concluded that indoor plants affect participants’ functions positively, particularly those of relaxed physiology and enhanced cognition. Separate meta-analyses were then conducted for the effects of the absence or presence of indoor plants on human functions. The meta-analyses comprised only 16 records. The evidence synthesis showed that indoor plants can significantly benefit participants’ diastolic blood pressure (−2.526, 95% CI −4.142, −0.909) and academic achievement (0.534, 95% CI 0.167, 0.901), whereas indoor plants also affected participants’ electroencephalography (EEG) α and β waves, attention, and response time, though not significantly. The major limitations of this study were that we did not include the grey literature and used only two or three records for the meta-analysis of each function. In brief, to achieve the healthy city for people’s health and effective functioning, not only are green spaces needed in cities, but also plants are needed in buildings.
... With the increasing social attention given to health and the development of physiological measurement devices, researchers have been collecting scientific data on nature therapy. Several study outcomes have shed light on the benefits of nature therapy, such as physiological relaxation and immunity function improvement, by direct exposure to natural environment [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] and natural elements (flowers [33][34][35][36][37][38], green plants [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], or wooden materials [49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58]) or by indirect exposure to natural environments through a display [59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67] or projector [68][69][70][71][72][73]). ...
... In particular, indoor experiments, where it is possible to control the stimuli and physical environment, entail more specific and diverse methodological approaches than those used in field experiments. Of the five senses, the effectiveness of sight [33][34][35][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], smell [36][37][38]52,53,75] and touch [49][50][51] have been discussed. The rapid development of physiological indicators has enabled evaluation of body responses such as cerebral activity (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI], near-infrared spectroscopy [NIRS] and electroencephalography [EEG]), autonomic nervous activity (heart rate variability [HRV], heart rate, pulse rate and blood pressure) and endocrine activity (salivary cortisol concentration). ...
... Many studies have reported the effect of viewing green plants on physiological relaxation. The findings confirmed that viewing green plants, such as foliage plants, in an indoor environment can elicit positive health outcomes with greater stabilization of prefrontal cortex activity and autonomic nervous activity [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]. ...
Article
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Contact with nature has been proposed as a solution to achieve physiological relaxation and stress recovery, and a number of scientific verification outcomes have been shown. Compared with studies of the other senses, studies investigating the visual effects of nature have been at the forefront of this research field. A variety of physiological indicators adopted for use in indoor experiments have shown the benefits of viewing nature. In this systematic review, we examined current peer-reviewed articles regarding the physiological effects of visual stimulation from elements or representations of nature in an indoor setting. The articles were analyzed for their stimulation method, physiological measures applied, groups of participants, and outcomes. Thirty-seven articles presenting evidence of the physiological effects of viewing nature were selected. The majority of the studies that used display stimuli, such as photos, 3D images, virtual reality, and videos of natural landscapes, confirmed that viewing natural scenery led to more relaxed body responses than viewing the control. Studies that used real nature stimuli reported that visual contact with flowers, green plants, and wooden materials had positive effects on cerebral and autonomic nervous activities compared with the control. Accumulation of scientific evidence of the physiological relaxation associated with viewing elements of nature would be useful for preventive medicine, specifically nature therapy.
... The countries with the highest frequency of inclusion were China and the USA, with ten studies (five studies each). Most studies were randomized controlled studies (n = 13) and the remainder were non-randomized controlled studies (n = 6) [5,12,16,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]. ...
... Fifteen of these studies had a sample size of no less than 50. Participants were generally young, with 84% of the studies (n = 16) recruiting students (mean age < 30); two studies were working people and patients with a wide age range [37,48]; one study recruited senior citizens (range 61-97 years) [38]; and one study had identified a specific population: patients recovering from appendectomy [48]. Each of the nineteen studies had either male or female participants [45,46]. ...
... Fifteen of these studies had a sample size of no less than 50. Participants were generally young, with 84% of the studies (n = 16) recruiting students (mean age < 30); two studies were working people and patients with a wide age range [37,48]; one study recruited senior citizens (range 61-97 years) [38]; and one study had identified a specific population: patients recovering from appendectomy [48]. Each of the nineteen studies had either male or female participants [45,46]. ...
Article
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A positive experience of nature triggers beneficial mental and physical responses. Today, we live in a rapidly urbanizing world where access to nature is often limited. Against this backdrop, this systematic review investigated studies on the effectiveness of small-scale greenery for stress reduction. We searched EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Science Direct, searching databases from inception to April 2022. Studies were screened against predetermined criteria, and the risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for RCTs and The Risk of Bias in Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Of the 2500 records identified, we screened 1817 citations for eligibility, which included 13 RCT studies and 6 non-RCT studies. The studies were conducted in eight different countries. The study populations included office workers, students, senior citizens, and patients with specific diseases. Research has mainly focused on indoor greening, with relatively little research on small-scale outdoor greening. All included studies assessed the impact of the intervention on various stress reduction-related outcomes, with the most common stress measures being blood pressure and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Various beneficial effects of the interventions on human health were reported in all 19 studies, 15 of which reported positive effects on stress reduction. All included studies were at high risk of bias. It is recommended that future studies in this area take appropriate measures to reduce bias and improve quality in order to build a strong evidence-based medical foundation. According to our findings, even very small-scale greening, including indoor green walls and potted plants, may provide effective help for stress relief. Understanding the physiological and psychological benefits of small-scale greenery can help better provide more opportunities for urban residents to engage with nature in the context of dense urban trends, as well as provide some reference for urban design planning.
... For air quality improvement, phytoremediation is one of the most effective, economical and environmentally friendly indoor air purification methods, and the benefits of air quality provided by indoor plants include improving indoor thermal comfort and reducing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [9][10][11], as well as removing carbon dioxide from the air and producing oxygen [12,13]. Meanwhile, the indoor plants have positive impacts on human physiology and psychology, especially the positive psychology influences on improving learning and work efficiency [14][15][16], relieving negative emotions [17][18][19] and promoting the recovery of physical and mental health [20][21][22]. ...
... Their results showed that the pressure of patients was lower in the environment with indoor plants. Park and Mattson [21,22] conducted medical and psychological measurements on these patients. The results showed that patients in an environment with indoor plants had significantly shorter hospital stays, reduced analgesic intake, pain, anxiety and fatigue scores and felt more positive and satisfied with their rooms. ...
Article
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Indoor plants have great benefits to humans, including physical health, cognition and emotion through their repair and purification capabilities, but most of these positiv e effects have not been quantified and valued. In this study, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), when people must be self-isolated at home and avoid outdoor activities in China, was utilized adequately and the influence of indoor plants was analyzed via the 2031 valid questionnaires, in which indoor plant status, interest degree, interaction frequency and anxiety alleviation were surveyed. Results showed that indoor plants were widely cultivated especially in the living room. Compared to before the COVID-19, the interest degree with indoor plants increased by ∼33% and their overall interaction frequency increased by ∼78% during the COVID-19. More than 70% of the surveyed people exhibited anxiety during the COVID-19, and the overall anxiety level was 1.17 (between 'Slight anxiety' and ' Anxiety'). And ∼61% of the surveyed people supported that indoor plants could alleviate self-isolation anxiety, and the anxiety alleviation degree was 0.79 (tend to 'Releasing the certain anxiety'), which showed that indoor plants had also shown to have an indirect psychological effect on anxiety alleviation.
... Together with the fields created by human beings, nature has become a combination of both fields, both cultural (artifactual) fields and natural (without human intervention) areas. The use of nature for housing needs caused destruction after a while ( Parks and Mattson, 2008;Turkyilmaz et al., 2018a,b;Cetin et al., 2017). Especially with the rapid increase of the human population, the needs have increased and this caused the insensible utilization of nature. ...
Conference Paper
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Urban spaces, accepted as the start point of civilization history, that constitute the collective living space of the people is one of the most important centers of socialization. University campuses are important components of urban spaces considering both their large scaled areas and functions. Campus areas are necessary to be designed in a way that attracts young people’s attention and enables to get rid of stress and have a qualified time as the young people are the ones who use these areas most. The green spaces are the basic components of the campuses that draws attention and constitutes campus identity. As in all urban areas, open green spaces also have important functions on university campuses. These functions include creating the circulation system in the campus, providing integrity across the area, meeting recreation requirements, establishing the relationship between human and environment, adding aesthetic values to the campus. This study aims to evaluate the functions of the ornamental plants in university campuses. For this purpose the ornamental plants of Tokat Gaziosmanpasa university campus were examined according to the usage functions of the plants. As a result of the study mistakes of plant design on case campus were determined and suggestions for the right usage of plants in functional and aesthetical aspects were developed.
... Several studies have resulted that 95% of patients and families exposed to direct contact with nature reported decreased stress degrees, better thoughts, and improved coping abilities [7]. Besides it, vegetations in rooms and rooftop gardens in hospitals increase patients' psychological reaction handling, with bringing down levels of pain, solicitude, and weariness [8] [9]. Fractal structures and more broadly, natural figures and form instigate a decreasing of stress levels due to the excitant of the μ-opioid receptors (MOR), which are responsible for pleasure [10]. ...
Article
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Cancer, including the most dreaded disease. This is because the disease is still arduous to cure and requires quite a long time in healing. This situation makes people with cancer experience severe depression. Therefore, we need a cancer hospital design that can reduce the level of depression. The purpose of this research is want to perform design exploration studies cancer hospital by applying Biophilic architectural concept that is expected to reduce the level of depression. The methods used there are three, namely the study of literature, precedent studies and field studies. The results showed that the Biophilic concept can be applied to waiting room, inpatient unit and site. In the waiting room there is a void leads directly to the pool below, wall coverings made of natural wood that seem deliberately not solid. So sunlight can get into the room. Inpatient unit room using a glass that can be opened that serves to incorporate light and the natural air. Used blue glass color for the purpose of applying the color of sky and water. On the site can be seen when the patient enters the hospital neighborhood atmosphere to be conveyed to the patient is a natural setting so that the first impression when entering hospital patients is not negative thinking. This research is limited to the application of Biophilic Architecture concepts in waiting rooms, inpatient rooms and sites. Further research is needed regarding the application of Biophilic concepts in outpatient facilities and another facilities.
... The results show that the perceived stress of patients is reduced in the presence of indoor plants. The same environment was considered by S. Park et al. in [22], where they studied the therapeutic influence of plants on a sample of 90 patients through the acquisition of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate. ...
Article
Full-text available
Users’ satisfaction in indoor spaces plays a key role in building design. In recent years, scientific research has focused more and more on the effects produced by the presence of greenery solutions in indoor environments. In this study, the Internet of Things (IoT) concept is used to define an effective solution to monitor indoor environmental parameters, along with the biometric data of users involved in an experimental campaign conducted in a Zero Energy Building laboratory where a living wall has been installed. The growing interest in the key theory of the IoT allows for the development of promising frameworks used to create datasets usually managed with Machine Learning (ML) approaches. Following this tendency, the dataset derived by the proposed infield research has been managed with different ML algorithms in order to identify the most suitable model and influential variables, among the environmental and biometric ones, that can be used to identify the plant configuration. The obtained results highlight how the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)-based model can obtain the best average accuracy score to predict the plant configuration considering both a selection of environmental parameters and biometric data as input values. Moreover, the XGBoost model has been used to identify the users with the highest accuracy considering a combination of picked biometric and environmental features. Finally, a new Green View Factor index has been introduced to characterize how greenery has an impact on the indoor space and it can be used to compare different studies where green elements have been used.
... Also, patients with plants in their room showed lower systolic blood pressure and cardiac rates compared to rooms without plants. 15 As stated, the beneficial impact of nature and plants on the physiology and psychology of individuals has been well documented. However, limited research has been conducted to investigate the physiological and psychological impacts of flowering plants with different colours. ...
Article
Despite the existence of plentiful studies on how plants can positively affect human wellbeing, few have focused on the potential effects of flower colours on stressed people. The present study was designed to illustrate the psychophysiological relaxation impacts of seeing purple and blue hydrangea flowers among finance workers. Thirty employees were asked to view purple, blue flowers or an empty table for 3-min, during which we measured the participants' brain activity, heart rate variability and skin conductance. We also assessed their emotions and mood states. Findings suggest that, compared with viewing the control, viewing blue and purple flowers resulted in a significant increase in alpha relative waves in the prefrontal and occipital lobes, and a significant increase in parasympathetic nervous activity. A significant increase in the sensation vote for ‘comfort', ‘relaxation' and ‘cheerfulness', as well as a dramatic improvement in the mood state was observed. The results show clear evidence for the support of the use of blue and purple flowering plants in places where comfort and calmness are required. In addition, blue flowers were more favoured and had the greatest positive effects. Results indicate that viewing flowering plants would be a promising therapeutic approach for enhancing physiological functions and improving psychological relaxation for office workers.
... The importance of plants in hospitals has been better established by the four experiments concerned with pain Park & Mattson, 2008Park et al., 2004). These studies proceeded with the idea that the pleasant and attention holding (i.e., positively distracting) properties of plants can keep a person from focusing on pain from an external source. ...
Technical Report
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In India, health care sector offers massive growth potential and a chance to capitalise on its expansion, especially as the country sees a rise in the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. A growing elderly population paired with a rise in income levels also emphasizes the need for better facilities in the country. Historically, it has been the role of architects, planners, and designers to interpret the needs, wishes, and capabilities of those who will use their buildings. Today, a need has been felt for specialized behavioral sophistication in facility design to properly determine functional and ergonomic requirements and to translate them into the language of design and ultimately into bricks, mortar, and operating practices. The researcher has selected super – specialty hospitals for conducting the study since these spaces are being used by people belonging to all age and socio – economic group. Three numbers of super – specialty hospitals which render preventive, curative and palliative services were selected. The researcher has tried to identify the components of a therapeutic environment that would present a conducive setup for rendering optimum level of curative and palliative care within hospitals in Urban Indian context. Methods have included observations, interviews, and activity or behavior mapping as tools for understanding behavior of people in a practical situation and for determining user preference or attitude. The findings of this research implies that no longer should the ethics of healthcare be viewed exclusively through the lens of physician-patient dyad but architects associated with hospital design bear equal responsibilities. It was established by earlier researchers that architecture, which heals, requires a milieu that allows harmony - with nature and components of healing architecture include adequate daylight, sound of water and aroma along with other elements of visual aesthetics like colour, nature, and artwork. However, the current findings highlight issues like psycho – physical vulnerability of patients and family stress associated with hospitalization. It focuses on the non-medical needs of family members and visitors as an important factor in deciding the merits of specific designs and policies for hospital architecture. The research concludes by highlighting importance of factors which are closely linked with generating a sense of trust and faith on the hospital set up, familiarizing the patients and their relatives with hospital working system and process of treatment. It also highlights the need for comforting them through various rejuvenating elements, helping in negating the fear of the unknown through information dissipation and counselling.
... The importance of plants in hospitals has been better established by the four experiments concerned with pain Park & Mattson, 2008Park et al., 2004). These studies proceeded with the idea that the pleasant and attention holding (i.e., positively distracting) properties of plants can keep a person from focusing on pain from an external source. ...
Technical Report
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna - Urban (PMAY-U) was launched by the Government of India in 2014 with the objective of "Housing For All" to eligible urban families by year 2022. The validated demand under the scheme stood at 1 crore houses across all states and union territories. A massive spurt in housing activities as resulted, and it is reported that already 15 lacs new dwelling units are built and occupied. Another 40 lacs are under construction. While speedy and affordable construction is of uppermost importance, it is also to be noted that, India is a multi-climate country. the diverse geo-climatic conditions demands tailor-made solutions for the country across the boundary. A standard prototype is bound to fail as it is essential to make housing climate balanced to reduce dependence on mechanical means of lighting and ventilation. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) defines affordable housing according to different income brackets as follows: (i) Economical Weaker Section (EWS) with income level less than INR 3 lac p.a. and a dwelling unit size up to 30 sq.m, (ii) Lower Income Group (LIG) with income between INR 3 lacs to 6 lacs , dwelling unit size up to 60 sq.m (iii) Middle Income Group I (MIG-I), with income range INR 6 - 12 lac, dwelling unit size 90 - 120 sqm and (iv) Middle Income Group II (MIG-II), with income range INR 12 - 18lac, dwelling unit size 110 - 150 sqm. A housing unit is considered affordable if the EMI or rent does not exceed 30 percent of gross monthly income of buyer. Under such challenging boundary conditions of (a) geo climatic diversity, (b) low affordability, (c) size constraint and with the view t o bring in variety and flexibility in unit design., the task of this housing manual was taken up for EWS and LIG households from for the eastern part of our country viz. West Bengal and Odisha. Post occupancy evaluations were conducted on already occupied housing schemes across the two states. Field measurements were taken to assess the indoor livability conditions like lighting, ventilation and sound insulation parameters at different zones within dwelling units and also at common spaces like staircase, landings. The responses on space adequacy and general satisfaction were analyzed and a prioritization of factors was done to give design inputs. It is expected that this manual will be a handy tool for producers and policy makers of housing and also serve as a guide book for students in architectural institutes.
... However, only little is known about what particular exercise types individuals should engage in to maximize positive health effects (e.g., Asztalos et al., 2012;Biddle et al., 2015). Over the past 15 years, there has been growing interest in the health benefits of exercise in natural environments (Barton, Wood, Pretty & Rogerson, 2016): Because the sole exposure to nature or natural scenes/objects is known to have positive effects on health (e.g., Herzog, Maguire, & Nebel, 2003;Park & Mattson, 2008;Ulrich, 1984;van den Berg, Maas, Verheij, & Groenewegen, 2010), especially when compared to negative effects of exposure to urban environments (e.g., Lederbogen et al., 2011;Peen et al., 2010), it is hypothesized that the combination of exercise and natural environments, so-called "green exercise", leads to a synergistic health benefit (Pretty, Peacock, Sellens & Griffin, 2005). The study at hand investigates the significance of this synergistic benefit as well as the role of different exercise environment characteristics with regard to exercise-induced improvements in mental health. ...
Article
Previous studies indicated that exercising in natural settings could have more positive mental health effects than other types of exercise. This article further investigates the role of different exercise environment characteristics and compares effects of indoor and outdoor exercise sessions on acute wellbeing and stress levels. A field study with N = 140 collegiate sports participants was conducted. Mood, state stress and state anxiety as well as perceived exercise intensity and the naturalness and calmness of the exercise environment were assessed by means of questionnaires immediately before and after engagement in an indoor or an outdoor exercise session. Results strongly support previous evidence on the beneficial effects of acute exercise on wellbeing and stress levels. Engagement in outdoor exercise did not per se lead to more beneficial changes than engagement in exercise sessions indoors. However, outdoor exercise environments were perceived as more calming and exercise sessions in more calming environments were associated with more stress-reductive effects. Thus, future studies should further investigate the impact of exercise environment characteristics as this could help to maximize beneficial preventive health effects of physical exercise.
... The colors and shapes of plants can decrease blood pressure and depressive symptoms and improve positive mood. Several studies have shown that plants with various colors and shapes have benefits for health care, rehabilitation, and emotional regulation [23][24][25]. Color and shape variations are often manifested in plants' ornamental organs. Recent attention has focused on the physical and mental effects of exposure to flowers with a variety of bright colors [26,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Visual characteristics (e.g., the color and shape) of ornamental plants can significantly affect their beneficial influence on humans. Prior research, however, has largely focused on the effects of the color or shape of flowers and the impact of differences in the visual appearance of foliage plants and plants with ornamental stalks has not yet been fully explored. This study examined the psychophysiological effects of urban ornamental bamboos that expressed different colors on different organs. Three hundred Chinese college students participated in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to view images of five ornamental bamboo landscapes with the following different visual characteristics: green stalks (GS) non-green stalks (NGS) multicolored stalks (MS) green leaves (GL) and multicolored leaves (ML). Before and after viewing the images, their EEG, blood pressure, pulse, profile of mood states (POMS) score, and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) score were measured. The results showed that ornamental bamboo landscapes have extremely significant beneficial psychophysiological effects as compared to urban landscapes. After viewing landscapes in the NGS and MS groups, EEG, blood pressure, and pulse rate of subjects showed more beneficial changes. Significant gender differences were observed only in systolic blood pressure and in the vigor score. In addition, an extremely significant interaction between color and organ of color expression was observed on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Organ of expression had significant main effects on all the physiological indicators and the fatigue, vigor, and irritability scores, while color only had a main effect on systolic blood pressure. Our study concluded that viewing urban ornamental bamboo landscapes with different visual characteristics has different effects on humans. With regards to ornamental bamboo, the organ expressing the color had a greater impact on psychophysiological responses than did the type of color itself. These study results can provide guidance for landscape construction of urban greening.
... In addition, improved mental and emotional health indicators have been noted, with improved mood and depression scores specifically demonstrated (Morita et al., 2007;Halmi, 2013;Tsunetsugu et al., 2013;Swami et al., 2016). From a physical standpoint, being exposed to nature has been shown to lead to faster recovery from surgeries (Park & Mattson, 2008;Park & Mattson, 2009a, 2009b, with a likely corresponding reduction of medical costs. ...
Article
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Urban Indigenous populations face significant health and social disparities across Canada. With high rates of homelessness and substance use, there are often few options for urban Indigenous Peoples to access land-based healing programs despite the increasingly known and appreciated benefits. In May 2018, the first urban land-based healing camp opened in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, one of the first to our knowledge in Canada or the United States. This camp may serve as a potential model for an Indigenous-led and Indigenous-based healing camp in an urban setting. We present preliminary outcome data from the healing camp in a setting with a high-risk population struggling with substance use and homelessness. Reflections are presented for challenging logistical and methodological considerations for applications elsewhere. This northern effort affords us ample opportunity for expanding the existing knowledge base for land- based healing applied to an urban Indigenous high-risk setting.
... For example, in healthcare and hospital environments, the presence of nature and biophilic elements has been explored in various research. The literature shows that views to the natural environment and implementing biophilic patterns in healthcare and healing environments have positive impacts on individual's well-being, reduce stress and pain, and enhance patients' recovery from illness and surgery (e.g., [42][43][44]). Therefore, it is recommended as a guideline for the design of hospital and healthcare facilities by the American Institute of Architects [45]. ...
Article
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Biophilic design as a new design approach promotes the integration of natural elements into the built environment, leading to a significant impact on human health, well-being, and productivity. On the other hand, scholars have explored Virtual Environment (VE) to create virtual nature and provide a complex experience of exposure to natural elements virtually. However, there is a lack of understanding about such studies in general, which use VE as a reliable tool to support biophilic design. Thus, the authors conducted a literature review on the applications, capabilities, and limitations of VE for biophilic design. The literature review shows that VE is capable of supporting critical features of biophilic design studies such as representing combinations of biophilic patterns, providing multimodal sensory inputs, simulating stress induction tasks, supporting required exposure time to observe biophilic patterns, and measuring human’s biological responses to natural environment. However, factors affecting user’s experience of a virtual biophilic environment exist, such as VE experience dimensions, user-related factors, cybersickness, navigational issues, and possible limitations of VE sensory input. Overall, biophilic design studies in VEs are still limited. Nevertheless, there are many opportunities for further research in this field.
... İç mekân bitkilerinin insanı dinç hissettirdiği, iş verimliliğini arttırdığı ve psikolojik olarak insan sağlığına iyi geldiği yapılan çalışmalarla kanıtlanmıştır. Özellikle ofislerde çalışanların iş verimini arttırdığı [23,26], okullarda öğrencilerin daha motive olmasına, çalışanların dikkat ve performansları üzerine katkıda bulunduğu ve mekândaki aidiyet ve mutluluk duygularına katkı sağladığı [13,[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34], hastanelerde hastalık semptomlarının azalmasına etki ettiği ve iyileşmeyi çabuklaştırdığı belirtilmiştir [35][36][37]. İç mekân bitkileri aynı zamanda estetik açıdan iç mekâna katkı sağlayarak, kimlik kazandırır. ...
... Numerous previous investigations have shown that exposing patients to nature has a positive effect on pain relief and healing, and that a brief look at nature can lead to a quick and meaningful recovery from stress [27]. In a study of patients recovering from appendectomy by Park and Mattson [28], patients in hospital rooms with plants and flowers had a significantly reduced intake of analgesics after surgery than those in hospital rooms without plants and flowers. Blood pressure, heart rate, pain, anxiety, and fatigue were lowered, and positive feelings and satisfaction with the hospital room were higher. ...
Article
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Patients’ emotional responses to the hospital environment can be considered as important as medical technology and equipment. Therefore, this study investigated their experiences to determine whether the pattern using hospital identity (HI) elements, a widely used design method for patient clothing in university hospitals, can affect their emotional response and contribute to healing. It aimed to identify whether controlling the motif characteristics, arrangement, and spacing in this pattern design, and the direction between motifs, could be a method to design patient clothing for healing. To investigate patients’ emotional response and suggestions for patient clothing design, an interview-based qualitative approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 patients discharged from Kyung Hee University Hospital Medical Center (KHUMC), Seoul. The interview questions consisted of two parts. One part featured questions about participants’ emotional responses to the medical environment and their latest patient clothing experience, and the other featured questions about their emotional response to, and suggestions for, the healing expression of pattern design using HI. The results confirmed that the motif characteristics, arrangement, and spacing, and the direction between motifs, influenced patients’ positive emotions and contributed to the healing effect. Therefore, when the HI elements of a medical institution are applied in the design of patient clothing with the characteristics of a healing design, patients perceive this as providing stability and comfort. The design of patient clothing becomes a medium that not only builds the brand image of medical institutions, but also enhances the quality of medical services centered on patient healing.
... According to one study, physiological reactions to olfactory stimulation by plant scents can affect brain activities and moods even when the scent is not consciously perceived (Lorig et al., 1990). Also, the subtle scents of flowering indoor plants used in horticultural therapy had positive effects on patients in a convalescent state (Park and Mattson, 2008), thus supporting the influence of plants on psychological and emotional states. Additionally, horticultural plants helped subjects attain emotional serenity and improved self-esteem and pride as the result of consciously enjoying the scents of plants and contemplating them (Kim et al., 2011). ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the effects of floral fragrances on human brain waves and moods. A total of 44 subjects participated in this experiment. Group 1 consisted of 11 male and 14 female college students with a mean age of 24.5 years (± 2.23) and Group 2 consisted of 10 males and 9 females with a mean age of 54.3 years (± 2.98). Subjects were exposed to floral fragrances of Rosa hybrida, ‘Hera’ (hereafter referred to as “rose”), Cymbidium faberi (hereafter referred to as “orchid”), or odorless control flowers (hereafter referred to as “control”). Experiments took place in three rooms (rose, orchid, and control). Electroencephalographs (EEGs) were recorded during exposure to the odors and the data were processed using quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) techniques. The changing EEG patterns were analyzed by brain mapping and compressed spectral arrays, and the subjects’ preferences (hedonic evaluations) were quantified with an A1 index. Increased activation of absolute alpha waves was verified on six of the eight EEG channels, with the right frontal and left occipital lobes exhibiting no changes and the left parietal region showing the greatest activation. According to the QEEG measurements in the electrode sites over the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, the strongest absolute alpha waves were induced in the parietal lobes, followed by the temporal lobes, with the other lobes showing no significant changes. On brain maps, the orchid fragrance induced greater absolute alpha and absolute mid-beta activities compared with the rose and control fragrances, and the rose fragrance induced high absolute mid-beta activation. To identify emotional responses to floral fragrances, the subjects were requested to fill in a questionnaire and the resulting odor-related emotional descriptors were analyzed using semantic differential and factor analysis. Principal component analysis identified “elegant” as the first principal component describing the floral fragrance, followed by “refreshing” and “aromatic.” The subjects gave orchid higher scores for “elegant” and “refreshing,” while finding rose more “aromatic.” Differences in hedonic evaluation revealed by the A1 index appeared in the 65-115 sec range of scent exposure time. The subjects with ages of around 50 years showed olfactory preferences throughout the entire experimental time of 160 sec, most markedly in the later time segment (115-165 sec), showing an increasing preference with increasing exposure time. We conclude that rose fragrance can improve concentration by creating an aromatic environment conducive to a concentrated and calm state of mind, and orchid fragrance can make people feel pampered and relaxed by creating an elegant and refreshing environment.
... Patients need less post-operative medication in hospital rooms with flowering plants. Seen from a more positive physiological response (heart rate, anxiety and fatigue, lower sytolic blood pressure, pain rating) and have more positive emotions and greater satisfaction with their hospital rooms than in the control group [18,19]. ...
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Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death globally also in Indonesia. Patients with the cardiovascular disease usually experience anxiety with varying degrees of anxiety when taking medication in the hospital. An uncomfortable physical environment can increase the level of patient anxiety which results in physical and psychological stress with an impact on organs especially the heart. This study aims to determine Healing Environment variables that influence to reduce the anxiety level of cardiovascular patients during treatment at the hospital. This study using a quantitative descriptive study with an online questionnaire survey method with a total of sixty respondents who are cardiovascular patients or people who have had cardiovascular disease treatment at the hospital. The results showed that the comfort variable which is influenced by some variables is very effective in reducing the anxiety level of cardiovascular patients. The result can use as guidelines for the architect or designer in design the cardiovascular hospital.
... Subjects viewing natural scenery videos have lower heart rates (HRs) and blood pressure than those watching urban landscape videos [2]. Patients who lived in rooms with plants, compared to rooms without plants, display reduced SBP and HRs [6,[19][20][21]. There is considerable evidence that contact with nature or plants has psychological benefits for relieving stress and mental fatigue, improving positive mood (such as happiness and calmness), reducing negative emotion (such as fear, sadness, anger, intensity, and anxiety) [22][23][24][25][26][27][28], and enhancing environmental satisfaction [29]. ...
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To address the question of whether the behavior of humans to view different phenological peony flowers has various effects on their physical and mental parameters, we investigated psycho-physiological responses of 74 participants (61.3 ± 10.78 years old) to environments of pre- and post-viewing tree peonies at four stages, including the exhibition leaf stage (ELS), initial bloom stage (IBS), full bloom stage (FBS), and terminal bloom stage (TBS). Physiological factors were examined using systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fingertip pulse (FP), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), and psychological evaluation, which was carried out using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The results indicated that the SBP, DBP, HR, and FP levels of participants were significantly reduced after viewing tree peonies, whereas no remarkable alterations in SpO2 were found. The POMS scores of anger–hostility (A–H), fatigue–inertia (F–I), tension–anxiety (T–A), confusion–bewilderment (C–B), and depression–dejection (D–D) were significantly lower, but of vigor–activity (V–A) was higher post-viewing than pre-viewing. Furthermore, participants exhibited markedly decreased anxiety levels according to the STAI. Notably, the changes in measurement indices were more pronounced at the FBS. Our studies demonstrated that a short peony-viewing program, especially at the FBS with completely opened and large tree peony flowers, would be a promising therapeutic method for improving physiological functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals.
... The stresses of being a hospital resident (Gonzalez-Cabrera et al., 2018), patient (Park and Mattson, 2008), or even a caretaker (Seltzer et al., 2010) have all been demonstrated through increases in salivary cortisol. This is because when the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated by a stressful event, cortisol is released into the bloodstream; the stressful event could be physical such as pain as well as psychological (Dickerson and Kemeny, 2004). ...
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The potential for urban open spaces to convey therapeutic benefits is increasingly substantiated. More work is needed to specifically consider how low impact designs to manage stormwater such as ecoroofs perform in this context. Here, we report on a pilot study addressing: (1) factors determining whether a hospital has an ecoroof, and (2) how ecoroofs might convey therapeutic benefits. We utilized a mixed methods approach which encompassed phone interviews of hospital ecoroof managers as well as analysis of national hospital databases. We also conducted a local case study which compared cortisol samples and stress indicators from patients, staff, and caregivers visiting an ecoroof to those waiting indoors at the Oregon Health and Sciences University in Portland OR. Behavioral observations took place at this same location. In 2017, we identified 105 hospitals with ecoroofs in the contiguous United States. Our analysis of a national hospital database found two factors that significantly increased the likelihood of a hospital having an ecoroof: Medicaid discharges per year; and non-profit status. Interviews with practitioners nationally revealed a wide range of motivations but that therapy was a consideration for a majority, but notably not all, of the hospitals surveyed. They similarly noted variation in roof design, maintenance, and programming around horticultural therapy; we highlight some best practices here. Our physiological case study was limited in sample size. Preliminary findings showed that salivary cortisol levels varied by ecoroof visitor type, ranging on average from 0.09 μg/ml for caregivers to 0.30 μg/ml for patients. We did not observe any significant changes in visitor cortisol. This could be explained by low replication or the short treatment duration. Alternatively, these pilot data may indicate a gap in horticultural therapy theory vs. practice. Behavioral observations demonstrated a wide array of different uses of the ecoroof space such as cell phone use and passing by. Though preliminary, our findings suggest that therapeutic effects may vary by user type and activity and depend on roof design and goals. This study offers both information on the therapeutic potential of hospital ecoroofs as well as lessons learned regarding different approaches to researching this somewhat new topic.
... More specifically, although positive trends in BP and HR were observed in the gardening group, no improvements were found to be statistically significant at p < .05 in the gardening group. The blood pressure findings contrast with other people-plant studies, which found that nature interactions or even viewing nature improved BP and HR [71,80,81]. While statistically significant increases in diastolic BP and decreases in HR were found in the present study for the art group, these findings are not supported by another study that found no HR or BP changes following an art intervention [79]. ...
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Background: There is mounting anecdotal and empirical evidence that gardening and art-making afford therapeutic benefits. Objectives: This randomly controlled pilot study tested the hypothesis that participation in group-based indoor gardening or art-making activities for one hour twice a week for four weeks would provide quantifiably different therapeutic benefits to a population of healthy women ages 26-49. Methods: A population of 42 volunteers was randomly assigned to parallel gardening or art-making treatment groups. A total of 36 participants initiated the treatment protocol and 32 (Gardening n = 15 and Art n = 17) received the interventions and completed all assessments. Treatments included eight one-hour group-based gardening or art intervention sessions. Self-report psychometric assessments were conducted for anxiety, depression symptomatology, mood disturbance, stress, satisfaction with discretionary social activities, and quality of life measures. Cardiac physiological data were also collected. Outcomes were measured at baseline, during, and post-intervention. Results: Engaging in both gardening and art-making activities resulted in apparent therapeutic improvements for self-reported total mood disturbance, depression symptomatology, and perceived stress with different effect sizes following eight one-hour treatment sessions. Gardening also resulted in improvements for indications of trait anxiety. Based on time-course evidence, dosage responses were observed for total mood disturbance, perceived stress, and depression symptomatology for both gardening and art-making. However, gardening or art-making did not have an apparent influence on heart rate or blood pressure or result in marked improvement for satisfaction with discretionary leisure activities. Conclusion: The data did not support the hypothesis of differential therapeutic benefits of gardening and art-making for healthy women. When taken together, group-based gardening or art-making can provide quantitatively measurable improvements in healthy women's psychosocial health status that imply potentially important public health benefits. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03266120.
... Literatürde hastane ortamında iyileştirici bir çevre oluşturmak için resim, müzik ve estetik görsellerin kullanımı önerilmektedir (16,40,41) . Ancak yoğun bakım üniteleri ya da kritik hastalığa sahip hastaların odalarında müzik, görseller ve diğer iletişim araçlarının kullanımı konusunda daha fazla çalışma yapılması da önerilmektedir (42)(43)(44) . Özellikle planlı ameliyat ve postoperatif yoğun bakım yatışlarında hastaların operasyona ve yoğun bakım ortamına ilişkin kaygı yaşadıkları, aynı zamanda iyileşmeye ve taburculuğa odaklandıkları bilinmektedir (45)(46)(47)(48)(49) . ...
... Literatürde hastane ortamında iyileştirici bir çevre oluşturmak için resim, müzik ve estetik görsellerin kullanımı önerilmektedir (16,40,41) . Ancak yoğun bakım üniteleri ya da kritik hastalığa sahip hastaların odalarında müzik, görseller ve diğer iletişim araçlarının kullanımı konusunda daha fazla çalışma yapılması da önerilmektedir (42)(43)(44) . Özellikle planlı ameliyat ve postoperatif yoğun bakım yatışlarında hastaların operasyona ve yoğun bakım ortamına ilişkin kaygı yaşadıkları, aynı zamanda iyileşmeye ve taburculuğa odaklandıkları bilinmektedir (45)(46)(47)(48)(49) . ...
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Z Amaç: Yoğun bakım ortamına ilişkin hastaların görüşlerinin alınması iyileştirici yoğun bakım ortamı sağlanmasına temel oluşturur. Araştırma toraks cerrahi yoğun bakım ünitesinde yatan hastaların yoğun bakım ortamı ile ilgili görüşlerinin incelenmesi amacı ile yapılmıştır. Çalışma Planı: Araştırma bir üniversite hastanesinin toraks cerrahi yoğun bakım ünitesinde 100 hasta ile tanımlayıcı ola-rak yapılmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Yoğun bakım ünitesinde en az 24 saat yatan, postoperatif dönemde iki ya da dört saat içinde ekstü-be olan, soruları anlayabilecek ve yanıtlandırabilecek durumda olan hastalar örneklem grubuna dahil edilmiştir. Araştırmada hastaların yoğun bakım ortamına ilişkin görüş-lerini belirlemek amacı ile "Yoğun Bakım Ortamına İlişkin Hasta Görüşleri Belirleme Formu" kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırmaya katılan hastaların yaş ortalaması 49±16'dır. Hastaların yoğun bakımda kalış gün sayısı ortala-ma 3 gündür. Hastaların çoğunluğu yoğun bakım ünitesinde aydınlatma düzeyinin ve ortam sıcaklığının normal olduğunu (%88) ve ses düzeyinin rahatsız edici olmadığını (%86) belirt-mişlerdir. Hastaların tamamına yakını (%96) ailesini merak ettiğini, %66'sı aile üyelerinin sürekli yanında kalmasını iste-diklerini belirtmişlerdir. Hastaların çoğu hemşireye (%97) ve hekime (%75) sorunlarını rahatlıkla söyleyebildiklerini ve %96'sı yoğun bakımda mahremiyetine saygı gösterildiğini belirtmiştir. Sonuç: Araştırma sonuçları hastaların yoğun bakım ortamı ile ilgili olumlu görüşlere sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. Anahtar kelimeler: Toraks cerrahisi, yoğun bakım ortamı, hasta memnuniyeti, hemşirelik bakımı aBSTRaCT Objective: Receiving the opinions of patients regarding intensive care environment forms a basis for providing a a more improved intensive care environment. The study was conducted for the purpose of examining the opinions of patients hospitalized in intensive care unit of chest surgery regarding intensive care environment. Study Plan: This descriptive study was conducted with 100 patients in the surgical intensive care unit of chest surgery of a university hospital. Materials and Methods: The patients who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit for at least 24 hours, extubated within two or four hours during the postoperative period, and could understand and answer the questions were included in the sample group. In the study, the "Determining the Opinions of Patients Regarding Intensive Care Environment Form" was used for determining the opinions of the patients regarding intensive care environment. Results: Mean age of the patients who participated in the study was 49±16 years. They were hospitalized in the intensive care unit for three days, on average. Majority of the patients stated that illumination level and ambient temperature in the intensive care unit were normal (88%) and the voice level was not disturbing (86%). Almost all the patients (96%) stated that they were worried about their families and 66% of them wanted their families to stay with them all the time. Majority of the patients indicated that they could easily talk to nurses (97%) and doctors (75%) about their problems and 96% stated that their privacy was respected in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: The results of the study show that the patients had positive opinions regarding intensive care environment.
... The therapeutic effect of green spaces and plants is well documented [64,65]. Thus, the psychological benefits of viewing rose flowers may be therapeutic, as they are expected to alleviate stress, encourage positive mood states, and stimulate feelings of vigor, all consistent with previous findings [19,20]. As a result, the study's findings showed the potential benefits of seeing flowers with different colors in our daily lives to promote positive emotions and reduce negative emotions. ...
Article
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The global spread of COVID-19 has disrupted the normality of people’s daily lives, leading the population to social distancing and isolation. The closure of green areas also affected the well-being of the individual during the COVID-19 pandemic. Viewing flowers is expected to have similar positive effects to viewing natural scenery. Therefore, this study investigates how white, red, and yellow flower colors affect individuals’ psychological and physiological well-being. The experiment was conducted in an office-like setting with 50 participants. Participants looked at each flower color for 3 min. Electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate variability, and skin conductivity were measured to evaluate physiological responses along with both the semantic differential questionnaire (SD) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess psychological responses. EEGs showed that the mean values of alpha relative power in the prefrontal lobe were significantly higher when viewing yellow and red flowers vs. white flowers. Furthermore, heart rate variability revealed that viewing yellow and red flowers increased parasympathetic nerve activity significantly. After viewing the yellow and red flowers, the average results for each subscale of the POMS questionnaire improved. The vigor (V) subscale and overall mood status values were significantly improved. The results of the SD method revealed that viewing yellow and red flowers resulted in a significantly higher sense of relaxation, cheerfulness, and comfort than viewing white flowers.
... Surgical patients in hospital rooms with plants and flowers had significantly fewer intakes of postoperative analgesics, more positive physiological responses that stimulate lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, lower ratings of pain, anxiety, and fatigue, and more positive feelings and higher satisfaction about their rooms compared to without plants which helps to patients faster recovering from abdominal surgery [46]. Professor Roger Ulrich from Texas A&M University focused on the effects of plants in hospitals and found that plants reduce dependency on serious postoperative drugs, IJSER improve the effect of relaxation, create a positive and holistic environment, reduce stress, decrease the heart rate, reduce blood pressure, and improve the patient satisfaction and recovery time which reduce hospital length of stay and result in fewer medications for patients [61]. ...
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The effect of urbanization has spread all over the place in the world and created numerous physiological, and psychological in addition to environmental problems that are extending extensively day by day. There is a lot of infrastructure being developed due to the unexpected expansion of the urban sprawl, in consequence, green spaces are extensively damaged and reduced from the city gradually. Greening the great indoors with living plants is the innovative technology in architecture that can regain losses of a natural environment in dense urban areas which provides economic, environmental, lifestyle, health, and social benefits as well as is a sustainable solution to improve the environmental balance of cities to limit the major negative effects of urbanization. This study is being focused on a small document concerning the benefits of indoor plants based on the existing scientific evidence. Studies also indicate that people have learned and innate responses to plants. We hope that the present and future community can be greatly benefited along with realized through this discussion and review that indoor plants have multi-sensory benefits which can enhance our life span. This research will be successful when citizens can understand the truth on the subject of the benefits of indoor plant nurturing inside the building or home.
... Burns et al. (2002);;Munyan III et al. (2016) Haptic feedback through touching real plant life to help reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue, and produce more positive feelingsPark and Mattson (2008); Marianne Thorsen Gonzalez et al. (2009); Marianne T. Gonzalez and Kirkevold (2014) Gustatory stimulation through tasting fruit and vegetable to experience nature in man-made environments Hummel et al. (2010); Brewer et al. (2013); Napawan (2015) Thermal comfort and airflow Natural ventilation design for increasing fresh air and satisfaction Wilson (2007); Gou et al. (2018a) Outdoor/semi-outdoor thermal comfort design for encouraging outdoor activities nearby buildings Katzschner (2006); Goshayeshi et al. (2013); Cao et al. (2018) Slow traffic and physical activities promotions ...
Article
This paper advocates a shift for green building rating tools (GBRTs) from energy-oriented towards human-oriented through incorporating the concept of biophilia. A biophilic framework has been derived to address human sensorial experience and related health benefits via indoor-outdoor and building-nature connections. Six representative GBRTs and their credits have been standardized and categorized for a detailed comparison with the biophilic framework. The relationship between GBRTs and biophilia is disclosed through a series of credit-strategy pair analyses. GBRT credits except for those on Energy are closely related to 85% of biophilic strategies. However, some important biophilic strategies on outdoor human sensorial experience are missed out in GBRTs. Methodologically, green building design should shift from the building centric engineering approach towards a human centric biophilic approach for promoting health and wellbeing. The proposed biophilic framework and strategies provide guidelines for such shifting.
... The natural environment including plant life is identified to increase positive distractions and emotions, enhance the sociocultural climate, and promote restoration from illness and stress [287][288][289]. The contribution of plants to the aesthetic and wellbeing enhancement of cities is acknowledged in built environment discourse as 'biophilic design', which gathered interest and momentum in response to the need to alleviate symptoms of sick-building syndrome [281]. ...
Thesis
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To meet the challenge of implementing green infrastructure enhancements to address climate risks in densely built cities, attention has been directed in recent times towards encouraging surface greening approaches. The thesis presented here acknowledged this trend and examined how the typology described as ‘vertical greening’ contributes to this climate resilience enhancement of urban built environments. The project engaged with case study-based quantitative measurements and simulation methods to answer research questions concerned with the microclimate modification and resultant energy use influence presented by installations, in building-scale sheltered environments (e.g., an indoor atrium and a semi-outdoor court), and outdoor neighbourhood-scale canyon environments. It also engaged with qualitative interview and observational methods to address concerns related to the maintenance and sustainability of wider application of installations. The key monitoring findings from temperate climate sheltered applications highlighted hygrothermal and airflow modifications to be most apparent within the 1-2 m proximate zone, with other phenomena typically introducing airflow mixing to disrupt influence distribution. The potencies of these were relatively modest, and less than those presented in the literature for outdoor installations (maximum mean air temperature reduction of 0.3 K and relative humidity increase of 5.5% at the indoor atrium study, in contrast to 0.9 K air temperature reduction and 13.7% relative humidity increase at the semi-outdoor court study). The modifications nevertheless presented thermal sensation and diversity opportunity to occupants as a significant benefit. The building-scale simulation findings of the same temperate climate case studies highlighted these influences to contribute to thermally moderated microclimates. For the semi-outdoor court this translated to surface flux reductions, with living wall application offering the most (84-90%), followed by green façade application (37-44%). Such reductions could translate to energy use savings if the occupied environments implement mechanical cooling. This was exemplified by the indoor study simulations, where a net annual energy consumption saving for the atrium zone was estimated (69% with living wall and 71% with green façade application). The neighbourhood-scale simulation results also demonstrated widespread outdoor application to have improved the thermal climate of street canyons to benefit pedestrians (summer daytime cool island occurrences increased by 39% for central urban and 3.4% for suburban canyons), as well as present annual net energy use savings to the canyon buildings (between 0.8 and 5.2%). These benefits were pronounced most for the central urban than suburban context, while living walls presented greater influence than traditional green façades in both urban backgrounds. The synthesis of both observational and simulation findings broadly supports the wider applicability of such installations in densely built temperate climate cities; with the thesis discussing concerns and making recommendations for installation designers. Furthermore, the project presents two novel model coupling pathways for assessing building and neighbourhood-scale vertical greening influence, which would enable urban planners, architects, and installation designers to expediently utilise this typology of green infrastructure to enhance urban built environments and benefit the health, comfort, and wellbeing of their ever-growing occupant populations.
... According to the findings obtained by medical doctors Park and Mattson as a result of their study with 90 patients who were undergone appendicitis surgery, it has emerged that the plants used in the hospital environment are an affordable and complementary medicine for patients who are in recovery phase after the surgery. It was determined that patients with plants in their rooms demanded fewer painkillers, their blood pressure was more regular and they were more satisfied with their hospital rooms (Park & Mattson, 2008). The effects of global warming, one of the biggest problems of today, are increasing day by day due to the decrease in green areas, the decrease in biodiversity, water and air pollution, unplanned urbanization, the formation of urban heat islands and the increase in energy consumption. ...
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Purpose In recent years, design approaches that offer sustainable solutions have been preferred widely. Although these sustainable design approaches provide solutions for physical context, they are not able to solve the problems on psychological side of this situation. These psychological problems have been observed both on adults and children. This research aims to examine the benefits of enabling children who spend their time in built environments to experience nature through Biophilic Design. Methodology 140 children between the ages of 3 and 5 from two different pre-school institutions participated in the study. Participation criteria were to be volunteer, a pre-school student, and accessible. The pictures drawn by the children in reply to the question ‘What is nature like?’ were analysed by using content analysis and cognitive mapping method. The data obtained from the study were analysed and the results were presented as median, mean values ± standard deviations (SD), numbers, and percentages. The compliance of the total score to normal distribution according to age and gender independent variables was examined by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Non-parametric tests were used in the analysis, p
... Bunlar; düşük kan basıncı, daha hızlı iyileşme, hastalık belirtilerinin azalması olarak sıralanabilir. Park ve Mattson'ın 2008 yılında yaptığı bir çalışma aynı operasyonu geçiren iki farklı odada kalan hastaların, odasın bitki bulunan hastanın diğer hastaya göre daha az ağrı kesici ihtiyacı duyduğunu gözlemlemişlerdir (Park ve Mattson, 2008). Çevresel etkiler, biyofilik tasarımın doğru şekilde ele alınması halinde yapıya katkı sağlayacağı bir başka boyuttur. ...
... Making available fruit and vegetable plants though gardening and DIY so that the aged can obtain tactile feedback from real plant life in nature, taste fresh fruits and vegetables, and have more positive feelings. [49,50] Beautiful outdoor landscape (C 15 ) ...
Article
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Based on the trend of global aging, people are paying more and more attention to the health of the elderly and the improvement of green open spaces. However, few studies have focused on strategies to improve green spaces in response to this trend. Especially, with the outbreak of COVID-19, an urgent need to develop a sustainable system strategy to improve the health of the elderly in residential communities in old districts has emerged. Traditional improvement strategies based on current situation evaluation often focus on the most prominent practical problems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide theoretical research and practical improvement strategies for green open spaces in old downtown residential communities to improve the health and well-being of the elderly. In response to this problem, this research proposes an alternative method based on causality (FDM-DANP-mV model), by extracting 23 green open space elements that affect the health of the elderly and dividing them into three dimensions, to form a preliminary evaluation framework. On this basis, the more effective and feasible standard elements are screened out, and the influence relationship behind the elements is clarified. Then, the sustainable development strategy is systematically discussed in three practical cases. This allows for the analysis of the present situation to not only identify the current significant problems but also to capture the source of the influence behind the real problems based on the clarification of the dominant influence relationship. The actual value of this study is to provide a key design decision basis for the improvement of the green open spaces in old downtown residential communities, aiming at avoiding waste to the greatest extent under the premise of limited resources and gradually promoting the improvement of the urban built environment to promote the health and well-being of the elderly.
Chapter
The first voyagers who venture to Mars and seek to live on soil beyond our terrestrial home will face an environment mismatched with the one in which their genomes, epigenomes, and psyches evolved. Even if technical hurdles are circumvented to provide adequate resources for basic physiological needs, Homo sapiens will not survive on an alien land if a fracturing psychology prohibits the utilization of these resources. Environmental psychology can be employed to shape the choice architecture of a vessel to Mars and a colony upon it, in order to bias choices toward the fulfillment of fundamental existential, relationship, safety, and fitness needs. Aspects of surroundings that should be engineered to create psychological states optimal for survival and welfare include primes, defaults, private spaces, shared spaces, ceiling height, object shape, color, nature, pets, light, windows, noise, temperature, odors, contaminants, order, and diversions. No matter how far we soar into the stars, our psychologies will be ever tethered to the totality of our surroundings. By shaping our environments, we indirectly shape our psyches and prepare them for a mission of unprecedented alienation and duration which might be the last best hope to avert the end of our kind.
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Engagement with nature is an important part of many people’s lives, and the health and wellbeing benefits of nature–based activities are becoming increasingly recognised across disciplines from city planning to medicine. Despite this, urbanisation, challenges of modern life and environmental degradation are leading to a reduction in both the quantity and the quality of nature experiences. Nature–based health interventions (NBIs) can facilitate behavioural change through a somewhat structured promotion of nature–based experiences and, in doing so, promote improved physical, mental and social health and wellbeing. We conducted a Delphi expert elicitation process with 19 experts from seven countries (all named authors on this paper) to identify the different forms that such interventions take, the potential health outcomes and the target beneficiaries. In total, 27 NBIs were identified, aiming to prevent illness, promote wellbeing and treat specific physical, mental or social health and wellbeing conditions. These interventions were broadly categorized into those that change the environment in which people live, work, learn, recreate or heal (for example, the provision of gardens in hospitals or parks in cities) and those that change behaviour (for example, engaging people through organized programmes or other activities). We also noted the range of factors (such as socioeconomic variation) that will inevitably influence the extent to which these interventions succeed. We conclude with a call for research to identify the drivers influencing the effectiveness of NBIs in enhancing health and wellbeing.
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Bitkiler bilimsel olarak herhangi bir sağlıklı ortamın, ofisler, oteller, bekleme odaları ve restoranlar ya da içinde bulunduğumuz herhangi bir kapalı alanın hayati ve vazgeçilmez bir parçası olarak kabul edilmektedir. Canlı bitkilerin sanatsal tasarımlarını ve düzenlemelerini kullanarak mekanınıza estetik değer katarken, duyulara hitap eden doğal, iyi hissettiren bir ortam yaratmak için iç mekan bitkileri kullanabilir. İnsanların doğa ile yakın bir ilişkisi vardır ve bu nedenle doğa dünyasını iç mekanla bütünleştirmek insanların doğaya katılımını etkili bir şekilde artırabilir. Bu da sağlıklarına ve rahatlıklarına yarar sağlayabilir. İnsanlar zamanlarının % 80-90'ını iç mekanlarda geçirdikleri için insanlar zamanının çoğunluğunu iş seyahatinde,ofiste oturmaya ve bahçesiz dairelerde yaşamaya harcamaktadır. Bu da doğada ve yeşilliklerle geçirdikleri zamanı sınırladığı için iç ortam sağlıkları çok önemlidir. İç mekan bitkileri, doğal iç ortamın bir parçasıdır. İnsanların doğaya yakın olmalarından dolayı bitkilere bilinçaltı bir ihtiyaç vardır bu nedenle bitkiler sadece evlerde değil, hastanelerde, restoranlarda, perakende satış alanlarında, eğitim alanlarında da sık sık görülmektedir. Bitkiler insan algıları ve davranışları üzerinde olumlu yönde etkiler yaratır. Bitkilerin güzelliklerinin altında biraz daha derine inildiğinde iç peyzajın faydalarının estetiğin çok ötesine geçtiğini görmekteyiz. Bu makale, bitkilerin insan sağlığına etkileri üzerine yapılan bir literatür çalışmasının sonuçlarını bildirmektedir. İç mekan bitkileri iki ana fayda grubu sunar: gelişmiş psikolojik (zihinsel) refah ve fiziksel insan sağlığı yani genel sağlığı destekler. İç mekan bitkileri, iç mekan hava temizleyicileri olarak işlev görebilir, insan maduriyetini azaltmak için iç mekandaki kirleticileri azaltmanın etkili bir yoludur. Çeşitli ülkelerden yapılan farklı çalışmalar, insanların bitkilerle etkileşime girdiği birçok farklı ortam olduğunu göstermekte ve bu ortamların bazılarının tedavi amaçlı bir amacı vardır. Bitkiler stresi, öfkeyi, acıyı azaltmaya yardımcı olur ve refah duygusu yaratır. Bitkileri evinize veya iş ortamınıza yerleştirmek, yaşamınızda olumlu değişikliklere yol açabilir. Araştırmalar, hastanelerde bulunan ve doğaya bakan odalarda kalan hastaların daha hızlı düzeldiğini göstermiştir. İç mekan bitkilerinin insanlarda rahatlama, doğallık, sevgi ve neşe etkileri yarattığıda elde edilen sonuçlar arasındadır.
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Bringslimark, Hartig, and Pati conducted a literature review of empirical studies investigating the psychological benefits of indoor plants, all of which adopted an experimental design and were written in English. However, the researchers did not follow the rigorous Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Additionally, the reviewed data were obtained at least a decade ago, and thus require an update. Therefore, the present article reports a systemic review of the quantitative empirical research (in English and Chinese) exploring the effects of indoor plants on subjective psychological perceptions. The information sources were mainly Web of Science (1900–) and WANFANG DATA (1980–), in which only empirical studies using quantitative methods were selected. The eligibility criteria were studies (1) involving any participants, (2) regarding indoor plants (real or surrogates) as an intervention, excluding those equipped with a power-driven biofilter, (3) involving comparators to facilitate within-subject and between-subject comparisons, (4) presenting psychological perceptions as outcome measures, and (5) of all study designs. The two authors collected 45 journal papers (with 50 studies in total). The (1) authors and publication years, (2) participants’ nationalities, sex, and age, (3) number of interventions, (4) duration of plant exposure, (5) participant–plant distance, (6) experiment room size, (7) room climate (i.e., lighting, temperature, and humidity), (8) study designs (i.e., experimental, field experimental, quasi-experimental, field quasi-experimental, or survey designs), and (9) self-reported perceptions (i.e., emotion, cognition, health, restoration, thermal comfort, productivity, and satisfaction) were identified and reviewed. These 50 studies were also analyzed for their quality. Most had moderate research quality. The synthesized results of the reviewed studies showed that the most noticeable effects of indoor plants on participants were increasing positive emotions and reducing negative feelings, followed by reducing physical discomfort. Because members of the general public today spend most of their time indoors and are faced with increasingly severe problems associated with physical–mental health and wellbeing, the application of indoor plants to improving people’s physical–mental health is worth exploring.
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Patients often experience emotional distress after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). These may lead to symptoms of depression or anxiety and greater morbidity/mortality. We sought to determine whether flowering plants in the coronary care ward reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms in these patients. Patients with ACS were randomly allocated to flowering plants (intervention) or no plants (control) in their room during index hospitalisation. Baseline data were collected. The primary outcome was the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) depressive and anxiety symptom scores at discharge. Secondary outcomes were HADS depression and anxiety scores at 3 months. Both modified intention-to-treat (mITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis were performed. 122 patients were included in the analysis after case exclusion, with all completing the HADS questionnaire at discharge and 89/122 (73%) patients completing the 3-month post-discharge HADS. At discharge, mean depressive symptom scores were lower in the intervention group, but only significantly so in the PP analysis (mITT 3.6/21 vs 4.6/21, p = 0.11; PP 3.5/21 vs 4.9/21, p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in between-group anxiety symptom scores (mITT 6.4/21 vs 6.1/21, p = 0.51; PP 3.3/21 vs 3.6/21, p = 0.67). The mean increase in depressive symptom scores at 3 months was smaller in the intervention group in both analyses (mITT 0.6 ± 3.6 vs 2.2 ± 2.6, p = 0.02; PP 0.8 ± 3.6 vs 2.4 ± 2.7, p = 0.03). Mean increase in anxiety symptom scores was not significantly different between groups (mITT 2.8/21 vs 2.5/21, p = 0.86; PP 3.3/21 vs 3.6/21, p = 0.67). Flowering plants during index hospitalisation for ACS reduced depressive symptoms in a per-protocol analysis but did not have a significant impact on anxiety symptoms. Increases in depression symptom scores were significantly smaller at 3 months post exposure to flowers compared to anxiety symptom scores.
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Elevated indoor concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) cause health issues, increase workplace absenteeism, and reduce cognitive performance. Plants can be part of the solution, reducing indoor CO2 and acting as a low-cost supplement to building ventilation systems. Our earlier work on a selection of structurally and functionally different indoor plants identified a range of leaf-level CO2 removal rates, when plants were grown in one type of substrate. The work presented here brings the research much closer to real indoor environments by investigating CO2 removal at a whole-plant level and in different substrates. Specifically, we measured how the change of growing substrate affects plants’ capacity to reduce CO2 concentrations. Spathiphyllum wallisii ‘Verdi’, Dracaena fragrans ‘Golden Coast’, and Hedera helix, representing a range of leaf types and sizes and potted in two different substrates, were tested. Potted plants were studied in a 0.15-m³ chamber under ‘very high’ (22,000 lx), ‘low’ (~ 500 lx), and ‘no’ light (0 lx) in ‘wet’ (> 30%) and ‘dry’ (< 20%) substrate. At ‘no’ and ‘low’ indoor light, houseplants increased the CO2 concentration in both substrates; respiration rates, however, were deemed negligible in terms of the contribution to a room-level concentration, as they added ~ 0.6% of a human’s contribution. In ‘very high’ light, D. fragrans, in substrate 2, showed potential to reduce CO2 to a near-ambient (600 ppm) concentration in a shorter timeframe (12 h, e.g. overnight) and S. wallisii over a longer period (36 h, e.g. weekend).
Chapter
Biophilic design helps create regenerative, resilient and happy cities. Contemporary cities are under stress. They have been built as human habitats, but designed by economics, not by liveability, well-being, or as a healthy, sustainable habitat for humans. Current pressures of increasing urban density and climate change are amplifying crises of human health such as stress, obesity and mental health issues, along with the heat island effect and water and air pollution. Biophilic design, based on humans’ innate connection to nature, is a rapidly expanding urban design approach initially driven as a response to these urban crises, but now being taken up by progressive and innovative cities who acknowledge the multiple social, environmental and economic benefits which result. Consistently emerging research of the responses to the rich and diverse biophilic elements (natural forms, patterns, places, materials, greenery) shows the endless remedial possibilities of inserting cost-effective biophilic elements and uniting nature and the urban fabric. This brings both physical integration and human connection and values, solving the problem of habitat fragmentation and human disconnect resulting from underutilised spaces and incompatible built elements.
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This research evaluated the attention capacity of 70 pupils in the sixth grade with the intervention of indoor air quality regulated by indoor plant placement in the classrooms of two elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea. Two sets of three-week measurements were conducted with an interval of 12 weeks from 27th June to 7th October, 2016. We divided subjects into two groups (Group I and II): subjects in Group I occupied classrooms without indoor plants and those in Group II occupied classrooms with indoor plants. The classrooms with indoor plants had indoor levels with constant air temperature (approximately 26°C), relative humidity (around 50%), and carbon dioxide (CO2) (around 1100 mg·m⁻³). Additionally, 12-week placement of indoor plants reduced the indoor concentrations of airborne contaminants. After 12 weeks of the experiments, the subjects’ attention capacity improved as demonstrated by a standard questionnaire (Frankfurt Aufmerksamkeits-Invertar, FAIR). Indoor plant placement showed little difference in terms of efficiency (FAIR-E) and continuity (FAIR-C) scores, but exhibited a significant improvement for performance (FAIR-P) (increasing from 0.964 to 0.989) and quality (FAIR-Q) scores (increasing from 0.945 to 0.973). Based on multiple regression, the current study suggested that indoor plant placement was one of the most important factors to improve the attention capacity of pupils in classrooms.
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There is increasing evidence for the restorative and stress-reducing benefits of natural window views and indoor vegetation. However, few studies have investigated associations between the naturalness of window and interior classroom views and students’ well-being and performance in primary schools. The present cross-sectional study investigated associations between the naturalness of window and interior classroom views and primary students’ subjective well-being and actual performance in a standardized attention and concentration test. Well-being was assessed with a written survey, covering students’ satisfaction and comfort in school, ability to concentrate and learn in class, satisfaction with achievements, perceived stress, and social belonging. Attention and concentration were measured with the d2-revision test. Social density, wall color, and degree of classroom decoration were controlled for. Students (n = 785; 8–11 years old; all 4th graders) reported less stress and were more focused on a task in classrooms with more natural window views, i.e., in rooms where more natural elements could be seen outside. Natural interior views, and thus the number of plants in a classroom, were not significantly associated with the tested variables. Children’s nature connectedness (measured as their time spent in nature and on plant care) was positively associated with feelings of comfort and learning satisfaction in school. Time spent in nature was also associated with less perceived stress and fatigue, and with more attentive behavior during lessons. Performance in the d2-revision test was not associated with the naturalness of classroom views, but was lower for children who perceived stress in school.
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With the urban development, indoor air quality (IAQ) is of growing public health concern due to that fact people spend 80%–90% of their time indoors, which has prompted the use of plants to reduce the air pollution through the phytoremediation from interior spaces, especially in the enclosed rooms with air-conditioning and heating. Indoor plants have been proved to improve the indoor environment, relieve anxiety, and reduce CO2 concentration. However, the comprehensive review has not been published to summarize the development status and potential deficiencies of indoor green plants after 2018. The 50 published articles related to indoor green plants were selected by the primary retrieval system and the later manual screening. This review mainly focused on the effects of green plants on the indoor thermal environment and indoor pollutants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and CO2 concentration, while the application efficiency of green plants was described on learning or productivity efficiency, patients' post-operative recovery and emotion comprehensively.
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Given the large proportion of time spent by the average person indoors, it is imperative to have an understanding of the impacts of long-term and immersive exposure to a variety of architectural features in order to develop a holistic understanding of the impact of building architecture on human function, health, and wellbeing. This review article identifies and categorizes the elements of building architecture that have been demonstrated through empirical research to affect human psychological and physiological function. The architectural stimuli in question are limited to those for which a biological, and thus evolutionary, response has been empirically demonstrated. The intention is to identify architectural stimuli for which responses are biologically ingrained to ensure their applicability both cross-culturally and independent of personal experience. The research indicating the impacts of the built environment on human psychology and physiology is extensive and robust in certain areas and weaker in others. Architectural design features involving light, colour, complexity, viewing nature, olfaction, audition, and some forms of geometry, have been demonstrated to influence human behaviour, health, happiness, and physiological function in myriad ways. However, there are many unsubstantiated affirmations in the literature as to the effects of pareidolia, thigmotaxis, object affordance, the Golden Rectangle, and somatosensory stimuli in architecture. Thus, it has been demonstrated that architecture can impact human health, happiness, and physiological function, and be leveraged to produce specific physical and behavioral outcomes, however, further research is required to validate much of the conjecture currently found in the literature.
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Değişen çalışma koşulları ve pandeminin etkisi ile kişilerin evlerinde geçirdikleri zaman artış göstermiştir. Bu artış sonucu kullanıcıların evlerinden beklentileri ve ev kullanımına bakış açıları değişkenlik göstermeye başlamıştır. Çamaşır asma ya da depolama gibi amaçları karşılamasına öncelik verilen balkonlar artık kişilerin sosyalleşmek ya da dış dünya ile bağ kurmak için kullandıkları mekanlar haline gelmeye başlamıştır. Bu bağlamda balkonların insanlar için sağlayabileceği olanakları maksimuma çıkarabilmek amacı ile bu çalışmada balkonların yeşil potansiyeli değerlendirilmiştir. Bitkilendirme için uygulanabilecek sistemler ışığında bu sistemlerin insanlara faydaları irdelenmiştir.
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A well-known research report showed that being in a hospital room with a view of trees rather than a view of a building was linked to the use of fewer pain-reducing medications by patients recovering from surgery. The experiment reported here was designed to further examine the role of plants in pain perception. We found that more subjects were willing to keep a hand submerged in ice water for 5 min if they were in a room with plants present than if they were in a room without plants. This was found to be true even when the room without plants had other colorful objects that might help the subject focus on something other than the discomfort. Results from a room assessment survey confirmed that the room with colorful, nonplant objects was as interesting and colorful as the room with plants present, but the presence of plants was perceived as making the air in the room fresher.
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The findings suggest that stressed individuals feel significantly better after exposure to nature scenes rather than to American urban scenes lacking nature elements. Compared to the influences of the urban scenes, the salient effect of the nature exposures was to increase Positive Affect — including feelings of affection friendliness, playfulness, and elation. The increase in positive affect produced by the nature scenes is consistent with the finding that the nature exposures also significantly reduced Fear Arousal. According to psychological theories, a reduction in arousal or activation produces pleasurable feelings if an individual is experiencing stress or excessive arousal (Berlyne, 1971, pp. 81–82). In contrast to the nature scenes, the urban views tended to work against emotional well‐being. The major effect of the urban scenes was to significantly increase Sadness. There was also a consistent but non‐significant tendency for the urban scenes to‐aggravate feelings of Anger/Aggression, and for the nature scenes to reduce such feelings. The urban exposures also held the attention of subjects somewhat less effectively than the nature exposures. These findings were stable across sexes, and applied to subjects who had grown up in either rural or urban environments.
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Subjects viewed sixty color slides of either (1) nature with water, (2) nature dominated by vegetation, or (3) urban environments without water or vegetation. The information rates of the three slide samples were equivalent. Measurements were taken of the effects of the slide presentations on alpha amplitude, heart rate, and emotional states. Results revealed several significant differences as a function of environment, which together indicate that the two categories of nature views had more positive influences on psychophysiological states than the urban scenes. Alpha was significantly higher during the vegetation as opposed to urban slides; similarly, alpha was higher on the average when subjects viewed water rather than urban content. There was also a consistent pattern for nature, especially water, to have more positive influences on emotional states. A salient finding was that water, and to a lesser extent vegetation views, held attention and interest more effectively than the urban scenes. Implications of the findings for theory development in environmental aesthetics are discussed.
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Depending on what is in the view, looking out the window may provide numerous opportunities for restoration. Unlike other restorative opportunities, however, window viewing is more frequent and for brief moments at a time. The setting is also experienced from afar rather than while being in it. A study conducted at six low-rise apartment communities, using a survey with both verbal and visual material, provides considerable support for the premise that having natural elements or settings in the view from the window contributes substantially to residents’ satisfaction with their neighborhood and with diverse aspects of their sense of well-being. Views of built elements, by contrast, affected satisfaction but not well-being. Views of the sky and weather did not have a substantial effect on either outcome. The potential of nature content in the view from home to contribute so significantly to satisfaction and well-being suggests clear action mandates.
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This study documents some of the benefits of adding plants to a windowless work place - a college computer lab. Participants' blood pressure and emotions were monitored while completing a simple, timed computer task in the presence or absence of plants. When plants were added to this interior space, the participants were more productive (12% quicker reaction time on the computer task) and less stressed (systolic blood pressure readings lowered by one to four units). Immediately after completing the task, participants in the room with plants present reported feeling more attentive (an increase of 0.5 on a self-reported scale from one to five) than people in the room with no plants.
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Different conceptual perspectives converge to predict that if individuals are stressed, an encounter with most unthreatening natural environments will have a stress reducing or restorative influence, whereas many urban environments will hamper recuperation. Hypotheses regarding emotional, attentional and physiological aspects of stress reducing influences of nature are derived from a psycho-evolutionary theory. To investigate these hypotheses, 120 subjects first viewed a stressful movie, and then were exposed to color/sound videotapes of one of six different natural and urban settings. Data concerning stress recovery during the environmental presentations were obtained from self-ratings of affective states and a battery of physiological measures: heart period, muscle tension, skin conductance and pulse transit time, a non-invasive measure that correlates with systolic blood pressure. Findings from the physiological and verbal measures converged to indicate that recovery was faster and more complete when subjects were exposed to natural rather than urban environments. The pattern of physiological findings raised the possibility that responses to nature had a salient parasympathetic nervous system component; however, there was no evidence of pronounced parasympathetic involvement in responses to the urban settings. There were directional differences in cardiac responses to the natural vs urban settings, suggesting that attention/intake was higher during the natural exposures. However, both the stressor film and the nature settings elicited high levels of involuntary or automatic attention, which contradicts the notion that restorative influences of nature stem from involuntary attention or fascination. Findings were consistent with the predictions of the psycho-evolutionary theory that restorative influences of nature involve a shift towards a more positively-toned emotional state, positive changes in physiological activity levels, and that these changes are accompanied by sustained attention/intake. Content differences in terms of natural vs human-made properties appeared decisive in accounting for the differences in recuperation and perceptual intake.
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The measurement of subjective pain intensity continues to be important to both researchers and clinicians. Although several scales are currently used to assess the intensity construct, it remains unclear which of these provides the most precise, replicable, and predictively valid measure. Five criteria for judging intensity scales have been considered in previous research: (a) ease of administration of scoring; (b) relative rates of incorrect responding; (c) sensitivity as defined by the number of available response categories; (d) sensitivity as defined by statistical power; and (e) the magnitude of the relationship between each scale and a linear combination of pain intensity indices. In order to judge commonly used pain intensity measures, 75 chronic pain patients were asked to rate 4 kinds of pain (present, least, most, and average) using 6 scales. The utility and validity of the scales was judged using the criteria listed above. The results indicate that, for the present sample, the scales yield similar results in terms of the number of subjects who respond correctly to them and their predictive validity. However, when considering the remaining 3 criteria, the 101-point numerical rating scale appears to be the most practical index.
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Records on recovery after cholecystectomy of patients in a suburban Pennsylvania hospital between 1972 and 1981 were examined to determine whether assignment to a room with a window view of a natural setting might have restorative influences. Twenty-three surgical patients assigned to rooms with windows looking out on a natural scene had shorter postoperative hospital stays, received fewer negative evaluative comments in nurses' notes, and took fewer potent analgesics than 23 matched patients in similar rooms with windows facing a brick building wall.
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Drawing upon the scaling techniques of Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum and the factor analytic methods of Flynn, and Mehrabian and Russell, a scaling procedure is presented that will permit the researcher to evaluate the affective characteristics of the environment and various features it contains. Starting with a large number of adjective-pairs in a semantic-differential format, an analysis of variance is computed from the responses to each adjective-pair, residuals are computed, and a correlation matrix is developed. A factor analysis of the correlation matrix yields the “attributes” being measured and the weights for each adjective-pair. The scale is then re-scored using these weights and the resulting values serve as dependent variables for a conventional analysis of variance. Examples of scales for measuring thermal comfort, environmental spaciousness, efficiency, attractiveness, and overall quality will be presented as well as scales that have been developed for measuring the size, style and comfort of office chairs, the comfort characteristics of protective clothing, and the style and acceptance of mixing valves used in showers. A step-by-step procedure for the statistically unsophisticated individual is presented.
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The purpose of this paper was to report the effects of window views and indoor plants on human psychophysiological response in workplace environments. The effects of window views and indoor plants were recorded by measuring participant's electromyography (EMG), electroencephalography (EEG), blood volume pulse (BVP), and state-anxiety. Photo Impact 5.0 was used to simulate the environment in an office, where six conditions were examined: 1) window with a view of a city, 2) window with a view of a city and indoor plants, 3) window with a view of nature, 4) window with a view of nature and indoor plants, 5) office without a window view, and 6) office without a window view and indoor plants. Participants were less nervous or anxious when watching a view of nature and/or when indoor plants were present. When neither the window view nor the indoor plants were shown, participants suffered the highest degree of tension and anxiety.
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Twelve 20-minute thermal biofeedback sessions were conducted with 26 university students. Visual stimuli were provided by a living foliage plant, a life-sized color photograph of that plant, or a metal stool (control). Of the participants, 38% responded positively to the presence of a live plant or plant photograph, while 23% showed lower stress in the control room. Stress reduction, as indicated by higher skin temperatures, occurred within the first 5 to 8 minutes of a 20-minute thermal-biofeedback session. A nonplant visual stimulus was not part of the experiment. The results are not intended as comparative, nor do they attribute unique or superior effects to plants. Due to the small number of participants, no significant results were obtained, but the trends were important and are being reported to help further research in this area.
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Results are presented of an investigation into the capacity of the indoor potted-plant/growth medium microcosm to remove air-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which contaminate the indoor environment, using three plant species, Howea forsteriana (Becc. (Kentia palm), Spathiphyllum wallisii Schott. 'Petite' (Peace Lily) and Dracaena deremensis Engl. 'Janet Craig'. The selected VOCs were benzene and n-hexane, both common contaminants of indoor air. The findings provide the first comprehensive demonstration of the ability of the potted-plant system to act as an integrated biofilter in removing these contaminants. Under the test conditions used, it was found that the microorganisms of the growth medium were the "rapid-response" agents of VOC removal, the role of the plants apparently being mainly in sustaining the root microorganisms. The use of potted-plants as a sustainable biofiltration system to help improve indoor air quality can now be confidently promoted. The results are a first step towards developing varieties of plants and associated microflora with enhanced air-cleaning capacities, while continuing to make an important contribution to the aesthetics and psychological comfort of the indoor environment.
Sixty-four subjects (32 men and 32 women) evaluated environmental quality and thermal comfort in a 2 − 2 design involving 2 temperature conditions, 20.0°C (68°F) and 25.6°C (78°F), within a climate controlled chamber that was either decorated with plants or was devoid of plants. The results showed that on a scale developed for measuring Occupied Space Quality, a higher rating accompanied the condition in which plants were used to enhance the environment than the condition in which no plants were used. The plants, however, did not affect the subjective thermal responses.
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Changes in human emotions were investigated during exposure to three different indoor conditions: floral display present, foliage display present, and no display present. There were 20 subjects (10 males and 10 females) in each condition. The subjects were shown a video that introduced the University of Reading and included scenes of landscapes. It was shown that a floral display had positive effects on human emotions, such as composition and confidence, however, some evidence of a significant increase in annoyance was also found for this treatment. The foliage display had a somewhat negative effect by slightly increasing bad temper, and the foliage display tended to have a positive effect on clearheadedness. Investigations of psychological responses to nature are complex, and many opportunities for more work exist.
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The utility of different theoretical models of restorative experience was explored in a quasi-experimental field study and a true experiment. The former included wilderness backpacking and nonwilderness vacation conditions, as well as a control condition in which participants continued with their daily routines. The latter had urban environment, natural environment, and passive relaxation conditions. Multimethod assessments of restoration consisted of self-reports of affective states, cognitive performance, and, in the latter study, physiological measures. Convergent self-report and performance results obtained in both studies offer evidence of greater restorative effects arising from experiences in nature. Implications for theory, methodology, and design are discussed.
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The effectiveness of essential oil to eliminate odorants has been shown by many studies. On this basis, the present research has been undertaken to develop a technique using road‐side plants for eliminating gaseous pollutants. A model for the sorption of pollutants by plants has been developed and diffusion coefficients in the plant layer have been experimentally investigated. As a result, diffusion coefficients of flow direction in the plant layer (Ez) with a gas velocity of 0.68 m/s were obtained as follows:Ez = 0.0207 · LAI + 0.107where LAI’ is the Leaf Area Index of flow direction.
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purpose of this chapter is to critically evaluate the available self-report measures of pain / our hope is that the chapter will assist clinicians and researchers to select the procedures that best serve their purposes / begin with a brief discussion of issues relevant to the use of self-report pain scales / describe and critique the methods currently available for assessing three dimensions of the pain experience: pain intensity, pain affect, and pain location (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Compared 137 staff and 100 inpatient responses to windows, views, and associated factors in hospitals. Data were gathered through the use of drawings, photographs, behavioral observation, and a 2-phase questionnaire. Patients were more negatively affected by poorly windowed rooms compared to staff. Paralyzed, immobile, visually impaired patients, and non-White patients were susceptible, particularly with respect to being more than 10 ft from a window for relatively long periods each day, as were those in rooms with screens obstructing part or all of the view. Staff persons who worked more than 40 hrs/wk, those who worked in occupational and physical therapy, or who commuted to work were associated with lessened well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study is based on a theoretical view which suggests that under increased demands for attention, individuals' capacity to direct attention may become fatigued. Once fatigued, attentional restoration must occur in order to return to an effectively functioning state. An attention-restoring experience can be as simple as looking at nature. The purpose of this study was to explore whether university dormitory residents with more natural views from their windows would score better than those with less natural views on tests of directed attention. Views from dormitory windows of 72 undergraduate students were categorized into four groups ranging from all natural to all built. The capacity to direct attention was measured using a battery of objective and subjective measures. Natural views were associated with better performance on attentional measures, providing support for the proposed theoretical view.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Kansas State University, 1985. Includes bibliographical references (p. 66-72). Photocopy of typescript. "Copyrighted materials in this document have not been filmed at the request of the author. They are availavle for consultation, however, in the author's university library. These consist of pages: Pages 74-78."--P. inserted after p. 73.
Article
This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behavior, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates, and persons lacking social skills may also be at increased risk for both illness behaviors and pathology. Psychobiological models of how stress could influence the onset and progression of infectious disease and a psychological model of how stress could influence illness behaviors are proposed.
Article
Developing interventions to maintain or restore attentional capacity during demanding phases of illness will help promote effective functioning in people with cancer. This study tested the effects of an experimental intervention aimed at maintaining or restoring attentional capacity in 32 women during the 3 months after surgery for localized (Stage I or II) breast cancer. The intervention was designed to minimize or prevent attentional fatigue through regular participation in activities that engage fascination and have other restorative properties. Attentional capacity was assessed using objective and subjective measures at four time points, approximately 3, 18, 60, and 90 days after breast cancer surgery. After the first observation, subjects were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (n = 16) or not to receive intervention (n = 16). Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction of experimental intervention and time on attentional capacity. Specifically, subjects in the intervention group showed significant improvement in attentional capacity over the four time points, while the nonintervention group showed a pattern of inconsistent performance over time. Findings suggest that nurses can intervene to maintain or restore attentional capacity in women after surgery for localized breast cancer. The theoretical basis for further development of attention-restoring interventions in patients with cancer is discussed.
Article
This study aimed to clarify the pre-operative-personality-post-operative-recovery association by considering anaesthetic variables. Additionally, the work investigated the relationships between psychological and cardiovascular functioning and anaesthetic induction difficulties and operative problems. Two minor gynaecological procedures were evaluated (dilatation and curettage, laparoscopy) which differ greatly in anaesthetic and operative techniques. Psychological factors predicted cardiovascular responding immediately prior to the induction of anaesthesia, and combinations of cardiovascular and psychological variables were associated with anaesthetic induction, operative and post-operative problems. Health locus of control and worry concerning the various stages of the operation emerged as the most consistent psychological predictors of peri-operative outcome in both procedures.
Article
An alternative approach to maintaining indoor air quality may be the biofiltration of air circulated within the space. A biofilter with living botanical matter as the packing medium reduced concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene concurrently present at parts per billion (volume) in indoor air. The greatest reduction in concentrations per pass was under the slowest influent air flux (0.025 m s(-1)); however, the maximum amount removed per unit time occurred under the most rapid flux (0.2 m s(-1)). There was little difference between the different compounds with removal capacities of between 1.3 and 2.4 micromol m(-3) biofilter s(-1) (between 0.5 and 0.9 g m(-3) biofilter h(-1)) depending on influent flux and temperature. Contrary to biofilters subjected to higher influent concentrations, the optimal temperatures for removal by this biofilter decreased to less than 20 degrees C at the most rapid flux for all three compounds. Microbial activity was decreased at these cooler temperatures suggesting the biofilter was not microbially limited but rather was limited by the availability of substrate. The cooler temperatures allowed greater partitioning of the VOCs into the water column which had a greater impact on removal than its reduction in microbial activity.
Article
To determine whether distraction therapy with nature sights and sounds during flexible bronchoscopy (FB) reduces pain and anxiety. Randomized controlled trial. Teaching hospital in Baltimore, MD. Consecutive adult patients (n = 80) undergoing FB with conscious sedation. Nature scene murals were placed at the bedside, and patients were provided a tape of nature sounds to listen to before, during, and after the procedure. Patients assigned to the control group were not offered either the nature scene or the sounds. Measurements and results: The primary outcomes were patient ratings of pain control (a 5-point scale ranging from poor to excellent) and anxiety. In a multivariate ordinal logistic regression model, the odds of better pain control were greater in the intervention patients than in the control patients (odds ratio [OR], 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 16.7), after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, health status, and dose of narcotic medication. Older patients and patients with better health status reported significantly less pain. There was no difference in patient-reported anxiety between the two groups (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.96). Distraction therapy with nature sights and sounds significantly reduces pain in patients undergoing FB. Although the precise mechanism of this beneficial effect requires further investigation, clinicians should consider this nonintrusive strategy in addition to standard analgesic medications in patients undergoing painful, invasive procedures.
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