Article

Camel milk, the white gold of the desert

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

New World Camelids are not milked, but the milk of Old World Camelids is being used for many centuries. The two-humped camel lives in cold climate, hence their milk fat can reach levels of 8% which serves as an energy source for the newborn. The one-humped camel lives in hot climate zones, hence the fat content is low, but the water content is high. The camel udder possesses 4 quarters, one teat per quarter and 2 teat canals per teat, sometimes even 3. One of the most remarkable features of dehydrated camels is the ability to continue lactation, and to secrete milk that is highly diluted with over 90 % water content. A temperamental camel cow which does not like or know its milker, will simply cease production, but a contented camel, on the other hand, can produce milk for a very long period. Globally, the milk productivity of camels is more than five times lower than milk productivity of cattle. The camel's mammary gland possesses at least 8 (4 × 2) independent milk units. The camels are milked by hand. A pilot camel milking project using bucket milking machines began at CVRL in 2001. A modern camel dairy farm with the intention of milking several hundred dromedaries will be opened in autumn 2006 in Dubai under the name "Dubai Camel Dairy Farm" (DCDF). Mastitis in camels is rare. Treatment of camel mastitis is carried out parenteral due to the narrow teat canals. No bacteriological standards exist for raw and pasteurised camel milk. Transformation from colostrum to normal milk is reached after 7 to 10 days. The colostrum of camels is white like normal milk. Duration of milk let-down is very short: about 1 to 2 mins, therefore milking from both sides is essential. Camels should be milked several times a day. Good milkers can produce 20 to 30 litres daily. Camel milk is a rich source of proteins with potential anti-microbial and protective activity. Components of camel milk differ considerably of those from ruminants and have strong similarities to those of human milk. Camel fat contains much higher concentration of long-chained fatty acids (C 14 - C 18) than short-chained fatty acids, and is therefore healthier. Camel milk contains less vitamin A, B2 folic acid and panthothenic acid than cow milk. On the contrary the content of niacin and vitamin C is remarkably higher than in cow milk. The high concentration of vitamin C and the high water content are the most eminent factors of camel milk. Whey proteins in camel milk were more heat resistant than those of cow milk. The degree of denaturation varied in camel milk from 32% to 35% at 80°C. In cow milk, 70 to 75% of whey proteins were denaturated at this temperature. Pasteurisation at 72° C for 5 min revealed only 5-8% losses of camel milk compositions investigated. ). Lactation periods of up to 24 months are known to occur in dromedaries. Camel milk proteins are different to cow milk, this may be the reason why no allergies to camel milk proteins are known. Camel milk does not coagulate easily. It passes the acid stomach undisturbed, and reaches the intestines for absorption. Camel milk contains five times more vitamin C compared to cow milk. Camel milk contains insulin and is therefore used to treat Diabetes mellitus camel milk contains medicinal properties to treat different ailments such as-autoimmune diseases, allergies,asthma, rash, diabetes, infectious diseases like tuberculosis, stress, peptic ulcers and cancer. It is a booster of the immune system. Camel milk products are consumed commercially as fresh raw or pasteurised camel milk, cheese, especially soft cheese in West Africa, e.g. "Caravane" made in Mauritania, ice creams with different flavours and milk shakes, puddings, such as crème brulée, panna cotta and the Arabian dish "Mohabila" and "Susa" (North-Eastern Africa) or "Shubat" (Kazakhstan) as sour milks.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... To be efficient, the selection should be based on accurate milk records. However, there is a lack of standard milk recording system proper to camels (Wernery 2006;Aziz et al. 2016;Burger et al. 2019). Currently, everyone is talking about the lack of standard method for milk recording in camels, but unfortunately nobody proposed any method. ...
... The morphology, anatomy, and physiology of the camel udder are complex. The udder of the camel is divided into four quarters; each has one teat (Wernery 2006;Kaskous 2018). The teats are not as long or thick as those of a cow. ...
... Mean teat length ranges from 4.3 to 7.1 cm (Eisa et al. 2012;Ayadi et al. 2013;Atigui et al. 2015;Nagy and Juhasz 2016). Udders are of various forms varying between globular, pear, and pendulous (Wernery 2006;Ayadi et al. 2015;Musaad et al. 2017). For camel selection programs, Ayadi (2018) suggested the exclusion of camels with pendulous udders as well as blew-up teats and low milk flow peak since they are not suitable for high milk production. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article was to review the milk let-down in camels and to propose a simple milk recording method. Milking of camels generally starts between 1 and 3 months postpartum. The udder is stimulated for 0.5 to 2 min by either calf suckling or hand massaging to induce the milk let-down. About 40% of daily milk yield is consumed by the calf before and after milking. The best interval between milking is 8–12 h. Lactation length is in the range 8–18 months, and the mean total milk yield is 1000– 4000 kg. Peak yield of 4 to 10 kg is attained between 2 and 7 months post calving, and persistency is greater than 85%. The proposed milk recording method for camels has been adapted from ICAR’s procedures. The milking (manual or machine) starts after a suckling period of 1 month. Before each milking, the udder is stimulated for 1 min, either by calf suckling or by hand massaging. The milk recording interval is 36 days. The first test recording must take place within 75 days following the end of the suckling period. Milk yield recorded is the milk off-take or milked only. The lactation period corresponds to the milking length. Records are standardized to the reference lactation of 335 days. At each recording day, milk yields are recorded and milk samples are collected alternatively at either morning or evening milking. It was concluded that using this method, a sound milk recording database will be built for camels.
... Average dromedary milk yield is not very consistent and rarely exceeds 25 kg/day (Nagy and Juhasz 2016). The absence of genetic selection, lack of uniform milking method, and use of traditional rearing systems are some of the factors that affect the wide variation among animals (Wernery et al. 2004;Wernery 2006;Wernery et al. 2006). ...
... Dromedary camels have longer lactation periods than dairy cows, and they may last up to 24 months (Yagil and Yagil 2000;Wernery 2006). In the last 20 years, milking machines specifically designed for dromedary camels have caused increased milk yield as well as improved milk hygiene (Wernery 2006;Wernery et al. 2006;Ayadi et al. 2018). ...
... Dromedary camels have longer lactation periods than dairy cows, and they may last up to 24 months (Yagil and Yagil 2000;Wernery 2006). In the last 20 years, milking machines specifically designed for dromedary camels have caused increased milk yield as well as improved milk hygiene (Wernery 2006;Wernery et al. 2006;Ayadi et al. 2018). Based on a meta-analysis published by Konuspayeva et al. (2009), dromedary camel milk contains on average 3.35% protein, 3.82% fat, 4.46% lactose, 0.79% ash, and 12.5% dry matter. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the originally published version of the article, Figure 4 image has an error. Corrected Fig. 4 is shown below.
... C aM is famous for having good proteins with potential protective and anti-microbial properties (Wernery, 2006). The water contents in CaM varies from 84 to 90 %, severely affects the composition. ...
... According to Agrawal et al. (2003) CaM have insulin so can be used for the cure of Diabetesmellitus. The insulin present in CaM (42 μU/ml) is not so much than of cow's milk but is protective which is not degraded in forestomach; bypass to intestines and cause reduction in blood glucose levels (Wernery, 2006). ...
... Regarding colostrum composition, the milk fat, milk protein, milk lactose, SNF and milk solids were found to be 2.02, 4.4., 6.4, 11.78 and 13.8 %, respectively in Pakistani dromedary she-camel (Table 2). Unlike bovines; the camel colostrum is slightly clear and diluted like normal-milk (Farah, 1993) and converts in 7-10 days (Wernery, 2006). Abu-Lehia et al. (1989) reported colostrum composition in Saudi-Arabian camel while Sestuzheva (1958) in Russian camels ( Table 2). ...
... Average dromedary milk yield is not very consistent and rarely exceeds 25 kg/day (Nagy and Juhasz 2016). The absence of genetic selection, lack of uniform milking method, and use of traditional rearing systems are some of the factors that affect the wide variation among animals (Wernery et al. 2004;Wernery 2006;Wernery et al. 2006). ...
... Dromedary camels have longer lactation periods than dairy cows, and they may last up to 24 months (Yagil and Yagil 2000;Wernery 2006). In the last 20 years, milking machines specifically designed for dromedary camels have caused increased milk yield as well as improved milk hygiene (Wernery 2006;Wernery et al. 2006;Ayadi et al. 2018). ...
... Dromedary camels have longer lactation periods than dairy cows, and they may last up to 24 months (Yagil and Yagil 2000;Wernery 2006). In the last 20 years, milking machines specifically designed for dromedary camels have caused increased milk yield as well as improved milk hygiene (Wernery 2006;Wernery et al. 2006;Ayadi et al. 2018). Based on a meta-analysis published by Konuspayeva et al. (2009), dromedary camel milk contains on average 3.35% protein, 3.82% fat, 4.46% lactose, 0.79% ash, and 12.5% dry matter. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Camelidae family comprises the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), and four species of South American camelids: llama (Lama glama), alpaca (Lama pacos) guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). The main characteristic of these species is their ability to cope with either hard climatic conditions like those found in arid regions (Bactrian and dromedary camels) or high-altitude landscapes like those found in South America (South American camelids). Because of such interesting physiological and adaptive traits, the interest for these animals as livestock species has increased considerably over the last years. In general, the main animal products obtained from these animals are meat, milk, and hair fiber, although they are also used for races and work among other activities. In the near future, climate change will likely decrease agricultural areas for animal production worldwide, particularly in the tropics and subtropics where competition with crops for human consumption is a major problem already. In such conditions, extensive animal production could be limited in some extent to semi-arid rangelands, subjected to periodical draughts and erratic patterns of rainfall, severely affecting conventional livestock production, namely cattle and sheep. In the tropics and subtropics, camelids may become an important protein source for humans. This article aims to review some of the recent literature about the meat, milk, and hair fiber production in the six existing camelid species highlighting their benefits and drawbacks, overall contributing to the development of camelid production in the framework of food security.
... However, an excellent milking unit, is a key to achieve good milk ability. In general camels are known to be difficult to milk using a milking machine (Wernery, 2006). Several researchers reported problem of disturbed milk ejection (Nagy & Juhasz, 2016). ...
... Knowledge of morphology, anatomy and physiology of camel udder is necessary to develop an appropriate milking machines for camel (Caja et al., 2011). Secondly, there is a need for implementation of breeding programs to improve milk production and udder morphology of camels, taking into consideration all aspects affecting it, if we know that different shapes and varying udders between globular, pear and pendulous shapes and forms teats varying between conical and cylindrical (Wernery, 2006;Ayadi et al., 2015b). This will make the milking process mechanism more efficient and economically feasible. ...
... Every quarter consists of two or three separate units each leading to a separate streak canal within the respective teat. This means that the camel's mammary gland possesses at least 8 (4 x 2) independent milk units (Wernery, 2006). Between the events of milk removal by suckling or milking in Camel as in other dairy animals, milk accumulates in the udder and is stored within two compartments: the cistern (including teat and, gland cisterns and in large and medium milk ducts) and the alveoli (alveoli and small milk ducts) (Fig. 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Dromedary camels have the capability and the genetic potential to achieve high levels of milk production. However, systematic breeding programs to increase milk production are not common in this species. Dromedary camels are not well adapted to machine milking. Milk removal obviously requires in most farms a pre-stimulation through calf suckling before the milking machine can completely harvest the stored milk. In camels, most of the milk is stored in the alveolar compartment (>90-95%) of the udder. Therefore, almost no milk can be obtained in the absence of milk ejection. In addition, the morphological, anatomical and physiological properties of the camel udder are complex and not fully understood. Because of all biological and economical limitations related to machine milking dromedary camels are mostly hand-milked. The introduction of machine milking makes only slow progress and is limited to intensive dairy camel farms in a few countries. Machine milking of dromedary camels showed so far acceptable results. However, some studies clearly showed that udder emptying by machine milking with the available equipment is not satisfactory. The amount of residual milk after machine milking is high and was up to 30 % or even more of the stored milk in some studies. This means that the used machine needs to be improved to fit the camel's udder. Nevertheless, some studies clearly showed that a major proportion of dromedary camels have a suitable machine milking ability.
... Dromedary milk contains more iron and vitamin C than cow's milk. In addition, dromedary milk from Europe and the Middle-East contains less cholesterol and fat [27,28]. All these properties together increase the popularity of dromedary milk as a "superfood" [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The worldwide dromedary milk production has increased sharply since the beginning of this century due to prolonged shelf life, improved food-safety and perceived health benefits. Scientific confirmation of health claims will expand the market of dromedary milk further. As a result, more and more dromedaries will be bred for one purpose only: the highest possible milk production. However, intensive dromedary farming systems have consequences for animal welfare and may lead to genetic changes. Tighter regulations will be implemented to restrict commercialization of raw milk. Protocols controlling welfare of dromedaries and gene databases of milk-dromedaries will prevent negative consequences of intensive farming. In countries where dromedaries have only recently been introduced as production animal, legislators have limited expertise on this species. This is exemplified by an assessment on behalf of the Dutch government, recommending prohibiting keeping this species from 2024 onwards because the dromedary was deemed to be insufficiently domesticated. Implementation of this recommendation in Dutch law would have devastating effects on existing dromedary farms and could also pave the way for adopting similar measures in other European countries. In this paper it is shown that the Dutch assessment lacks scientific rigor. Awareness of breeders and legislators for the increasing knowledge about dromedaries and their products would strengthen the position of dromedaries as one of the most adapted and sustainable animals.
... Unfortunately, people are unaware about the nutritional facts and healthy benefits of camel's milk, their composition is different from that of ruminants (Al-Haj and Al-Kanhal, 2010). Camel milk is the most valuable product and it is known as 'white gold of the desert' (Wernery, 2006 andDavati et al. 2015). The period life of raw Camel milk is 8-9 h (Singh et al., 2017). ...
... Despite the fact that overweight or obesity has been reported to induce inflammatory problems through release of hepcidine, an inhibitor of dietary iron absorption which may cause anaemia among overweight or obese individuals (30,45,89) , the percentages of anaemia among participants with high BMI were quite less. This may probably be due to the reasons majority of the overweight participants were having active lifestyles in an attempt to shed their extra weight and were on dietary intake of camel milk which contains greater iron concentration (1⋅35-2⋅5 mg/l v. 0⋅3-0⋅8 mg/l) (90) . Since the majority of iron in camel's milk is associated with the lower molecular fraction of casein suggesting better bioavailability to increase iron store and haemoglobin synthesis (91) , this might probably be the reason that the majority of overweight and obese participants could not develop anaemia. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to determine nutritional anaemia using haemoglobin levels of female nursing undergraduates studying at Farasan Island with the purpose to intervene at a point, before the potential problems become serious later in life. In total, 130 apparently healthy, female students of Department of Nursing were recruited by a random sampling method to collect information on socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropogenic characteristics, and dietary habits including breakfast skipping. Haemoglobin content was estimated using Sahli's Haemoglobinometer and observations were interpreted as per WHO's criteria for anaemia. Body mass index (BMI) was recorded using a digital weighing machine. Correlation between haemoglobin concentration, breakfast skipping and body mass index of study participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation. Data analyses were done using Origin software. Overall, 51⋅6 % ( n = 67) students were all together anaemic with 28⋅5 % ( n = 37) had mild anaemia, 15⋅4 % ( n = 20) moderate and 7⋅69 % ( n = 10) had severe anaemia. Of these, 20⋅8 % ( n = 27) were underweight, 63⋅8 % ( n = 83) normal weight and 15⋅4 % ( n = 20) were above normal weight (over weight and obese). The Hb content showed a positive correlation with the BMI and exhibited an increasing trend with increase in the BMI among study participants ( P < 0⋅05). Questionnaire analyses revealed that the majority (96⋅9 %, n = 126) of students were taking junk food as bulk of their meal. A strong negative correlation was recorded between Hb contents and breakfast skipping tendencies ( r = −0⋅987, P < 0⋅05). Findings of the present study are of high significance for public health professionals and educators to prioritise actions that could motivate these future nurses to adapt healthy lifestyles to strategically combat nutritional anaemia.
... Whey proteins of camel milk were more heat stable than those of cows milk [65]. At 80°C for 30 min, the denaturation of camel milk whey proteins was less (32-35%) than cow milk whey proteins, 70-75% [66]. Felfoula et al. [67] revealed that the denaturation temperature of sweet and acid whey was 73.8 and 60.50 °C for camel milk, and 70.5, and 63.9°C for cow milk, reflecting whey proteins of camel milk are more sensitivity towards acidity than whey protein of cow milk. ...
... Camel milk is used for treating anemia, asthma, dropsy, jaundice, spleen ailments, tuberculosis sclerosis, psoriasis and lupus. The patients suffering from chronic hepatitis had developed liver functions after drinking camel milk (Sharmanov et al., 1998;Mal et al., 2006;Wernery, 2006). Immunoglobulins in the milk are accessible for fighting autoimmune diseases (El -Agamy et al., 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
- The camel milk is the most important and commonly used food in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. Camel is a significant animal that contributes to social persistence of arid and dry agro- ecologies. Camel’s products like milk, meat and urine has therapeutic value for different human diseases especially in the pastoral societies. Mammals produce milk in the mammary gland lacteal secretion. As it is obvious, milk is natural food young mammals. Among all lactating animal in the nomadic people, camel is one of the most appreciated mammal by producing highly nutritive and therapeutic milk. Camel milk has essential elements such as minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, carbohydrates and protective proteins like immunoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin and lysozme. Moreover, camel milk comprises small sized protective proteins or immunoglobulins which can fight diseases, through penetration of antigen body and increasing the efficiency of the resistance of diseases like, dropsy, jaundice, spleen ailments, tuberculosis, asthma, anemia, autoimmune diseases (autism), constipation, crohn’s diseases, liver cirrhosis and also serve as beauty goods. Since, camel is native and well known among the pastoral society; they have indigenous information in treating themselves and their domestic animals using camel milk, as they are existing at distant zone where community services are in scarce or even absence and hence, they depends on traditional medicines. Camel milk is among the items used as traditional medicine in pastoral communities. The objective of this paper is to review the medicinal value of camel milk.
... This adaptation is due to its great resistance to heat and long periods without drinking water combined with capacity to make better use of feed resources characterized by their low availability and limited nutritional value (Sawadogo et al. 1998). The dromedary Camelus dromedarius, like all other herbivores of arid and semi-arid areas, faces seasonal difficulties of feed and water scarcity both in quantity and quality (Moaeenuddin et al. 2004;Wernery 2006). It also faces several challenges that result in low production rates because of traditional camel husbandry systems (Kadim and Mahgoub 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in socio-economics, demography, politics, and climate in arid and semi-arid regions in recent decades have led to profound transformations in livestock practices, particularly in the management of local animal resources. The dromedary Camelus dromedarius has always played an important role in human life history in Algeria; it provides a substantial contribution in protein production such as milk and meat, and it is used as means of transportation by local populations. It is well-adapted to arid environments and has a satisfactory potential for food production that enables economic security to locals, especially in the context of climate change. This paper adds supplementary yet valuable information to the current knowledge on camel genetic diversity related to different management practices. Genetic and phenotypic variations and the underlying management practices are studied to understand differences between breeds, for a better resource management. The survey of 277 camel breeders across the Algerian desert revealed a genetic diversity in terms of breeds driven by four pastoral practices. According to coat colour and morphological aspect, the camel population “Tergui” corresponds to three breeds, namely Mahri with 53.13% of the population, Marouki (43.22%), and the single-ecotype Azerghaf (3.65%). Mahri is a mixture of Amelal and Abahou ecotypes that are being outnumbered by Marouki’s ecotypes (Atelagh and Alemlagh). This biodiversity is under real threat because of the behaviour of pastoral societies that pushes breeders to turn to breeds with a high market value. Several useful conservation methods, including the use of modern farming systems, could be positively used and/or improved, in order to protect the genetic variety and help breeders realize a good living out of rearing camels.
... One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) play an important role as a primary source of subsistence in the lowlands of Ethiopia [1]. Due to their characteristics, camels are often referred to as the 'White gold of the desert' as they can thrive in areas where crop production is limited and other animals cannot withstand the harsh climatic conditions [2,3]. The majority of these camels are found in the eastern and southern parts of Ethiopia. ...
... One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) play an important role as a primary source of subsistence in the lowlands of Ethiopia [1]. Due to their characteristics, camels are often referred to as the 'White gold of the desert' as they can thrive in areas where crop production is limited and other animals cannot withstand the harsh climatic conditions [2,3]. The majority of these camels are found in the eastern and southern parts of Ethiopia. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to assess traditional camel milk and camel milk products handling, preservation and processing, as well as utilization in Borana area. A total of 132 and 24 respondents were selected from milk producers and supplies, respectively through purposive sampling technique and interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey. Survey results revealed that the majority of camel dairying was done by women. Result showed hygienic handling of camel milk and milk products of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists was poor. Respondents reported that they preserved camel milk by washing and smoking milk vessels, keeping milk in a cold place and processing into other milk products. All most all respondents use camel milk mainly in its raw state for home consumption. Most of the respondents in the study area traditionally process camel milk into other camel milk products mainly during surplus milk production. The major product produced by respondents was fermented sour camel milk, locally named Chuuchee. According to respondents lack of cooling facilities, improper collection center, lack of milk collection equipment, market milk selling shed, quick spoilage of milk due to the hot environment, seasonality of milk supply and marketing are the main constraints. Establishment of milk collection centers and introduction of small-scale milk processing plants with market linkage might help to solve camel milk hygienic handling and marketing problems in the study area.
... One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) play an important role as a primary source of subsistence in the lowlands of Ethiopia [1]. Due to their characteristics, camels are often referred to as the 'White gold of the desert' as they can thrive in areas where crop production is limited and other animals cannot withstand the harsh climatic conditions [2,3]. The majority of these camels are found in the eastern and southern parts of Ethiopia. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to assess traditional camel milk and camel milk products handling, preservation and processing, as well as utilization in Borana area. A total of 132 and 24 respondents were selected from milk producers and supplies, respectively through purposive sampling technique and interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey. Survey results revealed that the majority of camel dairying was done by women. Result showed hygienic handling of camel milk and milk products of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists was poor. Respondents reported that they preserved camel milk by washing and smoking milk vessels, keeping milk in a cold place and processing into other milk products. All most all respondents use camel milk mainly in its raw state for home consumption. Most of the respondents in the study area traditionally process camel milk into other camel milk products mainly during surplus milk production. The major product produced by respondents was fermented sour camel milk, locally named chuuchee. According to respondents lack of cooling facilities, improper collection center, lack of milk collection equipment, market milk selling shed, quick spoilage of milk due to the hot environment, seasonality of milk supply and marketing are the main constraints. Establishment of milk collection centers and introduction of small-scale milk processing plants with market linkage might help to solve camel milk hygienic handling and marketing problems in the study area.
... Although PAST-2 was not completely effective against the total viable count (only 3.4 log 10 reduction), it was effective in the complete inactivation of E. coli O157: H7. The effects of PAST-2 and PAST-3 on camel milk composition and the preparation of fermented camel milk were reported previously [16,17,21], however, the antimicrobial effects of these two thermal treatments are lacking in camel milk. To our knowledge, this study is the first one that reports these findings. ...
... Indeed, in new large-scale intensive systems such as in the Emirates and Saudi Arabia, calves and she-camels are allowed together during machine milking (Juhasz and Nagy, 2008;Ayadi et al., 2013), to induce the milk ejection reflex and limit stress. Additionally, in most countries, camels reared in traditional farming systems are milked by hand (Alhadrami, 2003;Wernery, 2006) but after or in parallel with calf suckling until the milk ejection (teats swelling) is observed (Kaskous and Abdelaziz, 2014). Nevertheless, it may be possible to milk by hand and without the presence of the calf (Caja et al., 2011). ...
Article
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that oxytocin (OT) could be released during suckling and during milking with and without the presence of a calf and that this release could be regulated by maternal behaviour. Plasma concentration patterns of OT and cortisol (CORT) were measured in six Tunisian dromedary camels during 2 suckling episodes, 2 manual milking episodes with calves beside the mother and 2 machine milking episodes without calves present. Various patterns of OT release were observed between each camel including specific two peak release patterns. Higher plasma OT concentrations were found during the suckling and hand-milking episodes with simultaneous suckling of calves, than during the machine milking episodes without calves. Exclusive mechanical milking episodes also evoked significant mean OT release, although greatly reduced compared to suckling and hand milking. The low basal levels and classical CORT release patterns suggested non-stressful management practices were used and there were very limited differences in udder stimulation between managements. The OT release induced by exclusive suckling and suckling together with hand-milking gives a reference point for what a good milk ejection stimulation is in camels. The important and specific reduction of OT release during machine milking without the calf present could be a physiological consequence of the maternal behaviour (selectivity for the own young) and to a lesser extent explained by a lower stimulation by machine milking.
... Camel is a draught animal that has significance due to its nutritional and medicinal benefits. Its milk is called white gold of the desert (Wernery 2006). According to a prospective study conducted by Saltanat et al. (2009) aimed at assessing the influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patient, they found out that camel milk corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines network and inhibit the replication process of DNA by strengthening the cellular immune response, thereby improving the recovery chances of chronic hepatitis B patients (Saltanat et al. 2009). ...
... Camel is a draught animal that has significance due to its nutritional and medicinal benefits. Its milk is called white gold of the desert (Wernery 2006). According to a prospective study conducted by Saltanat et al. (2009) aimed at assessing the influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patient, they found out that camel milk corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines network and inhibit the replication process of DNA by strengthening the cellular immune response, thereby improving the recovery chances of chronic hepatitis B patients (Saltanat et al. 2009). ...
... It is different from other milks, however, having low sugar, cholesterol and high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium and vitamin C). Fresh and fermented camel milk is having antibacterial, therapeutic properties and important nutritional and functional source (Wernery, 2006). ...
... vs 0.3-0.8mg/L) [12]. In addition, the majority of iron is associated with the lower molecular fraction of casein suggesting better bioavailability to increase iron store and hemoglobin synthesis [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cow milk is an important source of macro-and micronutrients. However, it has low iron content but high content of casein and calcium thus could negatively influence hemoglobin synthesis. On the other hand, camel milk contains higher iron concentration than cow milk. In addition, the majority of iron in camel milk is associated with the lower molecular fraction of casein suggesting better bioavailability. Furthermore, vitamin C concentration, a useful iron absorption enhancer, is more than three-fold greater in camel milk than cow milk. This study compared hemoglobin concentration among young children consuming consistently cow milk or camel milk. Methods Hemoglobin concentration of young children (aged 6–59 mo) from settled pastoralist communities of the Somali region, Ethiopia, consistently consuming cow milk (n = 166) or camel milk (n = 166) was determined. In addition, socio-demographic and water, sanitation, and hygienic (WASH) conditions of study participants’ households were captured. Furthermore, dietary intake and anthropometric characteristics of participating children were assessed. Results Among the participating children, 38.6% were underweight, 33.4% were stunted, and 34.5% were wasted. In addition, 77.4% of children were anemic. The present study households had poor WASH conditions. Only 0.6% of children had the minimum acceptable dietary diversity. There was small but significant mean hemoglobin difference among camel milk and cow milk consuming children (9.6±1.8 g/dl vs 9.1±2.2 g/dl; p = 0.012). In addition, the odds of low hemoglobin concentration was greater among cow milk consuming children than camel milk consuming children [AOR 2.17; 95 CI; 1.39, 3.37; p = 0.001]. However, the overall anemia prevalence among the two groups was similar. Conclusion Camel milk consumption is associated with better hemoglobin concentration but may not be sufficient to prevent anemia in populations from resource poor settings. The etiology of anemia is multifactorial thus further studies on the link between milk consumption and hemoglobin concentration are important.
... Dromedary one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are the only dairy animals in the world that can survive the harsh desert conditions of high temperature and drought (Wernery, 2006). Camel milk (CM) is an important source of nutrients and has several health benefits, including antidiabetic and antiallergic effects (Izadi et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Camel milk has unique physical, nutritional, and technological properties when compared with other milks, especially bovine. Because proteins confer many of the properties of milk and its products, this study aimed to determine the proteins of camel milk, their correlations, and relative distribution. Raw milk samples were collected from 103 dromedary camels in the morning and evening. Capillary electrophoresis results showed wide variation in the concentrations (g/L) of proteins between samples as follows: α-lactalbumin, 0.3 to 2.9; αS1-casein, 2.4 to 10.3; αS2-casein, 0.3 to 3.9; β-casein, 5.5 to 29.0; κ-casein, 0.1 to 2.4; unknown casein protein 1, 0.0 to 3.4; and unknown casein protein 2, 0.0 to 4.6. The range in percent composition of the 4 caseins were as follows: αS1, 12.7 to 35.3; αS2, 1.8 to 20.8; β, 42.3 to 77.4; and κ, 0.6 to 17.4. The relative proportion of αS1-, αS2-, β-, and κ-caseins in camel milk (26:4:67:3, wt/wt) differed from that of bovine milk (38:10:36:12, wt/wt). This difference might explain the dissimilarity between the 2 milks with respect to technical and nutritional properties.
... Camel milk is popularly referred as 'The White Gold of the Desert' [21]. Meta-analysis of the literature data on camel milk composition gave results with higher values in all the components, except ash from Asia linked probably to predominant Bactrian camel species and higher in fat content from East-Africa [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Camels serve as multipurpose animals providing milk by the females, used for transport or draught usually by the males, yield fiber/ hair from both the sexes and finally providing meat as the animals culled from any production purposes. Modern-day camel regain its importance through its ability to produce quality meat, milk, and fiber and recognizing 'Camel Diary' as a means of opportunity for the urban farmers and 'Job-creation' for the entrepreneurs. The two most-promising climate resilient species thrive well in hot arid and semi-arid regions of the desert (e.g. Camelus dromedaries) and arid cold-climatic regions of the mountains (e.g. C. bactrianus) and continue to provide livelihood opportunity to co-habiting human population. This review is an attempt to focus on sustenance of this livestock, which has faced a rapid decline in some of the regions of the world including India due to overtaking of its principal transportation services by rapid mechanization. Nevertheless, camel's unique ability to adapt to extreme desert ecosystem with peculiar physiological (thermoregulation, water metabolism, glucose and energy metabolism, salt tolerance, forbearance against choking dust, etc.) and anatomical (fore limb and hind limb, long neck, single and double hump, third eyelid , forestomach, etc.) differences has a significant bearing on its productive lifespan. The recognition and contribution of single-humped camel as 'Dairy Animal' has many encouraging prospects as its milk, meat and products have functional, nutraceutical and therapeutic value besides contributing to human protein nutrition. There is multiple potential role of camel milk bioactive peptides to demonstrate as antimicrobial, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-hypertensive activities. Thus, the camel milk, meat and their products can be grouped under agricultural trade for international market. This era of importance would certainly draw renewed focus in developing camel as sustainable dairy animal that can fetch additional price and augment the income of the farmers.
... The application of camel milk crème containing 40% raw camel milk showed very good results in psoriasis patients. Itching, skin redness and dryness reduced when 20 patients with psoriasis were treated with 2 x camel milk crème for four weeks, daily (Wernery, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Camel milk has unique benefits for human health. Protein is the main component which gives special properties to camel milk and effectively influences its nutritional value. Due to lack of β-lactoglobulin in the camel milk, it may be as a proper alternative for human milk. Camel milk is rich in vitamins C, manganese and iron. There are high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, immunoglobulin's, insulin like protein and protective enzymes like lactoferrin and lysozyme in the camel milk. The lactoferrin has the effects or properties of antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatorry. Also, it has been proven that camel milk has beneficial application in disorders of stomach and intestinal, food allergy, diabetes mellitus, cancer, autism, and viral hepatitis. Camel milk containing insulin like protein and may help to heal diabetes of Type 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes. It contains small size immunoglobulins which strengthens the immune system. In addition, camel milk reduces blood cholesterol amount, avoiding of psoriasis disease, healing of inflammation and improving of tuberculosis patients. Camel milk may be effective as unique miracle in many healthy issues of human and especially cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is not only food, but also it is as amazing remedy for treatment and healthy issues.
... Approximately 90-95% of black people and the simplest 20%-25% of white individuals of the world have partial or whole lactose intolerance. So, the camel milk contain low lactose content that is high as in cow milk, camel milk lactose intolerance does no longer occur but reason likewise now not yet acknowledged(Wernery, 2006).Milk protein allergy is a hypersensitivity of proteins usually determined in cow milk because of the immune mechanism reacting to milk proteins as they might risk to the body. An activated immune mechanism reacted simply to oversee a virus or toxin.Numerous studies have validated most of the kids with cow milk protein hypersensitive reaction synthesized antibodies predominantly against alpha casein and beta-lactoglobulin (Lorenzen & Meisel, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This review has been conducted on camel milk and its nutritional parameters and medicinal effect on humans. Basically, milk is a complete diet and it is composed of a wide range of health-beneficial components. Camel milk has salty taste due to rich of minerals. Nutritionally, it is composed of protein in form of casein and whey, short-chain fatty acid, lactose, immunoglobulins, vitamin including A, E, D, and B, and minerals such as sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, especially calcium and kalium. Medicinally, camel milk can reduce the risk of cancer and autism. This milk is also suitable for infectious diseases like diarrhea, hepatitis and allergy and plays a vital role in physiological disorders such as diabetes. The immunoglobulins components of camel milk boost human immunity. Camel milk is stored after processing in the form of cheese. The camel milk is beneficial for human health against diseases.
... Le lait camelin est « l'or blanc du désert » (Wernery, 2006). En fait, les dromadaires et les bactriens sont considérés comme source de production du lait dans les pays en zones arides et semi arides, ils produisent plus de lait durant une longue période sous des conditions extrêmes que les autres mammifères (Farah et Younan et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
Le lait est connu par sa valeur nutritionnelle et son excellent pouvoir protecteur contre les infections. Il contient des composants solubles et cellulaires qui fournissent des nutriments essentiels. Les laits de différentes espèces diffèrent selon leur composition en protéines.Malgré leur richesse et leur production, les laits de dromadaire et du lama demeurent des produits relativement peu consommés et transformés car insuffisamment étudié et mis en valeur. L'objectif de cette étude était d’étudier et de comparer la composition en protéines des différentes fractions du lait du dromadaire et du lama.Les protéines du lait écrémé de dromadaire et de lama ont d'abord été caractérisées par une technique de séparation en deux dimensions couplée à la chromatographie liquide en phase liquide à haute performance en première dimension suivie de l'électrophorèse sur gel de polyacrylamide en deuxième dimension (RP-HPLC -SDS- PAGE).Les protéines majeures du lait, les caséines αs1, αs2, β et κ ainsi que quelques protéines du lactosérum telles que l’α-lactalbumine, la lactoferrine et la sérum albumine ont été identifiées par carte d’empreinte peptidique.Les protéines du lait du lama et du dromadaire ont été aussi caractérisées par Chromatographie Liquide à Haute Performance en Phase inverse couplée à la Spectrométrie de Masse d’Ionisation Electrospray. Cette approche nous a permis d’attribuer les masses moléculaires précises pour la majorité des protéines identifiées précédemment par la spectrométrie de masse. De même, grâce à la technique d’électrophorèse bidimensionnelle sur gel (2-DE), nous avons pu identifier plus de 45 spots de protéines présentes dans le lactosérum du lait de dromadaire.Le séquençage de novo de l’α -lactalbumine du lama par la Chromatographie Liquide couplée à la Spectrométrie de Masse en tandem (LC-MS/MS) a montré la présence de deux substitutions d'acides aminés ( R62L / I et K89L / I ).Puisque les données sur la membrane de globules gras du lait des Camélidés sont inexistantes , nous avons utilisé dans la dernière partie de ce travail l’outil 1D- LC-MS/MS qui a permis d'identifier 322 et 187 groupes fonctionnels de protéines associées à la membrane de globules gras du lait de dromadaire et du lama respectivement.
... L 'écosystème saharien se caractérise par son hyperaridité, engendrant un milieu très hostile et contraignant, et notamment par la faible disponibilité du couvert végétal pâturable. Les camélidés sont les seuls animaux d'élevage aptes à vivre et se reproduire dans un tel milieu, ainsi que de fournir du lait, de la viande et des services (transport) dans un milieu aride connu pour le manque de nourriture lors de plusieurs saisons (SCHWARTZ, 1992 ;WERNERY, 2006 ;FAYE, 2011). Leur physiologie et comportement leur permet de valoriser les maigres ressources floristiques (CHEHMA et FAYE, 2009 ;TRABELSI, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the natural feeding patterns of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in 2 Saharan rangelands in the Ouargla region of Algeria. More specifically, we directly observed (using a camcorder) the daily consumption of vegetation by 3 females during the fall of 2017 and the winter of 2018. The results showed that, on a given day, the dromedaries spent 67% of their time grazing, 11% of their time ruminating, and 22% of their time engaging in other activities. The animals ate while moving, taking small bites of plants (0.07-4.47g DM) at a variable rhythm (0.03-12 bites per min). Each dromedary consumed about 8-9 kg DM per day, which equates to a mean of 2-2.3 kg DM/100 kg LW.
... Camel is a draught animal that has significance due to its nutritional and medicinal benefits. Its milk is called white gold of the desert (Wernery 2006). According to a prospective study conducted by Saltanat et al. (2009) aimed at assessing the influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patient, they found out that camel milk corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines network and inhibit the replication process of DNA by strengthening the cellular immune response, thereby improving the recovery chances of chronic hepatitis B patients (Saltanat et al. 2009). ...
... Camel is a draught animal that has significance due to its nutritional and medicinal benefits. Its milk is called white gold of the desert (Wernery 2006). According to a prospective study conducted by Saltanat et al. (2009) aimed at assessing the influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patient, they found out that camel milk corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines network and inhibit the replication process of DNA by strengthening the cellular immune response, thereby improving the recovery chances of chronic hepatitis B patients (Saltanat et al. 2009). ...
Chapter
Functional foods are foods that provide health-promoting benefits beyond basic nutrition. Several studies demonstrate that functional foods can improve the overall status of the body of which milk is a peculiar example because it is a probiotic compound and contains viable bacteria which are beneficial to human body. Milk contains water, sugar, fat, protein, vitamin and minerals that have potential health benefits; especially when taken in the right proportion according to body mass index. This article reports in detail the different sources of milk (cow, goat, sheep, camel) with their respective intrinsic nutritional values—energy production, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, strengthening of bones and teeth, boosting of immunity amongst others.
... It stimulates host immune response, and it has broad antimicrobial activity (Gizachew et al., 2014;Gul, Farooq, Anees, Khan, & Rehan, 2015;Stefan Kappeler, 1998;Yadav et al., 2015). Several reports indicated that PGRP was first discovered in CM and has an apparent suppressive effect on breast cancer by controlling metastasis (El-Hatmi, Girardet, Gaillard, Yahyaoui, & Attia, 2007;Sharma et al., 2011;Pradeep Sharma et al., 2012;Wernery, 2006;Yadav et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Camel milk has been used as part of the human diet since ancient times. This chapter tries to elaborate the different aspects of nutraceutical functional properties of camel milk, focusing on the nutritional composition, presence of bioactive zoochemicals and peptides, antioxidant nutrients (vitamin C), and health rendering properties of this unique milk. Recent research has identified camel milk as a prophylactic and therapeutic functional food due to its noticeable content of essential macronutrients, namely bioactive functional proteins and peptides, along with its considerable content of essential micronutrients. Indeed, the presence of this unique mixture has shown to be promising contributors to the management and prevention of chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, liver and kidney, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases in adults, and autism. In vivo, in vitro, and epidemiological and experimental studies were reviewed, and molecular mechanisms were highlighted for better understanding of the health-promoting, disease-preventing potential of camel milk.
... Likewise, a higher cheese color acceptability score was found in sample T8 (2.8) with yellowish color, whereas the lower color score was found in sample T1 (1.9) with a moderately white color. This might be due to the combined effect of lemon juice and creamier visual appearance of camel milk (Wernery, 2006). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Camel milk is the common food for pastoral society and rich source of nutrients with therapeutic value. Processing of camel milk can increase the coagulation of protein for better sensory properties and handling. Milk processing can improve the nutritional properties, increase the digestibility of macromolecules and make it safe from harmful microbes. Cheese formation from cattle milk is an easy task, however, not in case of camel milk. Various products including citric acid and lactic acid used to facilitate cheese formation from camel milk. This study was designed to evaluate the coagulating effects of lemon juice for making cheese from camel milk. Soft cheese was made from 8 Liter camel milk using different volumes of lemon juice extract (150ml, 200ml, 250ml, 300ml, 350ml, 400ml, 450ml, and 500ml) after 24 h storage at ambient temperature, and each sample used 1Liter camel milk for each volume, and then samples (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, and T8) were analyzed for their percentage of yield, chemical composition, and sensory characteristics. The result has shown that maximum ash and lactose content were observed in T1 (product) (2.7%, 17.36cal), and, moisture and protein content in sample T8 (60.51%, 12.74%) while, energy content in T4 (product) (227.5cal) and fat content in T6 (product) (14.69%) respectively. Significant (P<0.05) increased yield of cheese was observed in T8 during more lemon juice addition. Moreover, the cheese developed was characterized with higher energy, fat, moisture, protein contents and high scores of softness property, color, flavor, and overall acceptability by increasing the lemon juice addition. In conclusion, the addition of lemon juice to camel milk could offer an economically suitable means for producing coagulated milk cheese.
... Qualitatively, these types of milk are not simple substitutes for cow milk. They are a food resource and a source of income for populations living in specific and mostly disadvantaged ecosystems, being produced by dairy camels in deserts (Wernery, 2006), yaks in highlands (Dong et al., 1999), buffaloes in wetlands (Bilal et al., 2006), horses on steppes (Konuspayeva and Faye, 2011), reindeer in polar regions (Holand et al., 2002), and goats and sheep in areas that are often semi-arid or have steep slopes (Boyazoglu and Morand-Fehr, 2001). They are produced in areas in which cattle farming is difficult. ...
Article
Full-text available
La filière laitière occupe une place importante à l’échelle mondiale, en termes de contribution à l’occupation des surfaces agricoles, aux emplois et à la création de richesse. La production laitière, qui résulte de modèles productifs très variés d’un pays à l’autre et qui relève d’espèces animales aux caractéristiques différentes, a considérablement augmenté au cours des dernières décennies. Le développement futur de la production laitière est soumis à différentes contraintes qui interrogent sur les voies à privilégier dans une optique de durabilité. Dans ce cadre, la première partie de cet article présente la dynamique du secteur laitier, en termes de consommation et de production, et ce, pour différentes grandes zones géographiques ; la seconde traite de la durabilité du secteur laitier, principalement dans les pays en développement, au travers d’une sélection de trois thèmes : la dimension sociale (souvent oubliée) et la nécessité d’intégrer les questions de genre ; l’usage durable des ressources hydriques en l’illustrant au travers de deux situations contrastées, celle du Maroc et de l’Inde ; la biodiversité et l’importance de la contribution des laits non bovins au développement local. La troisième partie rappelle que les échanges internationaux permettent, pour de nombreux pays déficitaires en lait, de satisfaire la demande intérieure.
... Also, the autistic children after the use of camel milk have a better social condition and reduction in hyperactivity and increased regular bowel movements [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Keywords: Autism; Antioxidant; Brain; Camel Milk; Oxidative Stress Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder and autoimmune disease that is linked with gastrointestinal disease, mental retardation, impairment of behavioral and social communication. Oxidative stress has a key role in autism. Oxidative stress occurs when reactive oxygen species amounts exceed the antioxidant activity of cells. It acts as a mediator in brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases and lead to autism. Camel milk has potential therapeutic effects in autism. The consumption of camel milk in children suffering from au-tism cause to reduce of autism symptoms and improve motor skills, language and cognition. Camel milk contains high minerals like iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and high vitamin C which considered as strong antioxidant against free radicals. Also due to the smaller size of immunoglobulin of camel milk, it can recover immune system of autistic cases. Therefore, findings suggest that camel milk play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by alteration and increasing of antioxidant enzymes; like glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and nonenzymatic antioxidants, improve autistic behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopment malfunctions that can be realized at 3 years of age, and are characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. In addition to behavioral impairment, autism is associated with high prevalence of gastrointestinal disease and mental retardation [7]. It is an autoimmune disease, which reactions in the intestines begin with diarrhea and effect on appetite [21]. The increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxi-dative stress may result in the injury and reduction of brain cell number, apoptosis and autism diseases [20]. Thus, the control of reactive oxygen production is necessary for cell function and they should be neutralized by antioxidant enzymes including superox-ide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase [4]. Camel milk has therapeutic effects in many diseases such as food allergy, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B, autism, and other auto-immune diseases [26]. Autistic children drinking camel milk have had amazing improvements in their behavior [4]. Camel milk decrease oxidative stress by alteration of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules, therefore improve autistic behaviors and symptoms. The consumption of camel milk in autistic cases improved motor skills, language and social communication [17]. Researchers reported use of camel milk possibly leads to recovering immune system, due to the immunoglobulins of camel milk; therefore brain damage can be prevented when camel milk is fed at an early age. Camel milk immunoglobulin's are smaller in size, and penetrate to tissues and consequently they are more active against antigens and more available for combating autoimmune diseases [3].
... Camel milk can be used for the treatment of different types of tuberculosis (Mal et al. 2000(Mal et al. , 2001(Mal et al. and 2006. Camel milk possesses medicinal properties to treat different ailments such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, allergies-asthma (Wernery, 2006). Camel milk drinking has shown a good effect for treating crohn's disease (Shabo et al. 2008). ...
Conference Paper
Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) occurs as an intermediate product by breaking down sugars in acidic media or during the Maillard reaction. The formation of HMF is used as a chemical index to determine the storage time of food products and to determine if the heat treatment is performed properly to the food products such as fruit juices, milk, honey, cereal products and jams. Fruit juices are conducive to the formation of HMF due to its high sugar content. In fruit juice production, heat treatments are applied for inactivation of enzymes, prevent harmful microorganism growth and concentration process. Since high temperature and pH value above 7 accelerates the formation of HMF, the main parameters (temperature and time) in heat treatments should be controlled to limit the formation of HMF. In this study, it was investigated the formation of hydroxymethyl furfural due to heating process in whitegrape, red grape juice and pomegranate juices. The fruit juices were heated at 200 °C and HMF occurrence was analyzed over period for different raw materials. Temperature, pH value and Brix˚ values of the samples were also measured. Heating was continued until the Brix˚ of the grape juices reached at 68 and pomegranate was 37.5. The initial HMF content of white grapes, red grapes and pomegranate, juices which are sold in the market were found as 21.44, 26.46 and 27.32 mg/kg, respectively. As a result of heating treatment at 200 °C, the Brix˚ value was reached to 68 and the HMF content of white and red grape juices were increased to 3292.01 in 190 min and 2741.61 mg/kg in 220 minutes, respectively. For the same target Brix˚ value of pomegranate juice was reached to 37.5 at 360. min and the HMF value were found 2867.79 mg/kg. Consequently, the HMF content of white grape, red grape and pomegranate juices was increased 153, 103 and 104 times higher than their initial content by long term heating process under atmospheric conditions. The raw materials composition and time effects were determined.
... The dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) like any other herbivores animals grazing in arid range lands are seasonally challenged with shortage of feed and scarcity of water. However, they are known for their ability to survive and produce milk during dry and drought periods (Moaeenuddin et al., 2004;Wernery, 2006). Improvement of the reproductive and productive performance and reduction of animal losses by management measures that are applicable to a mobile system appear to offer possibilities of increasing camel productivity of the herd in terms of milk production and growth of calves (Chimsa et al., 2013). ...
... Camels are multi-purpose animals raised for riding, carrying loads, and producing milk, wool, hair, and meat (Figure 1). Milk is the most valuable camel product and it is known as 'white gold of the desert' [4,5]. It is mainly consumed raw by the Bedouins (people who inhabited the desert) where access to green vegetables and fruits is limited, thus providing, in that case, a significant nutritional relevance. ...
... Also, lower content of B-casein, lack of B-lactoglobulin and presence of protective protein make camel milk suitable for to maintain immune system and brain development [59]. It has been stated that autism is among the diseases that has successfully healed with camel milk [60]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Camel has been mentioned in Quran in different places and described a miracle of almighty God. Also, prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has recommend camel in his speech (hadith). The prophet (PBUH) has recommended camel milk for some diseases such as skin disease as remedy. Camel plays in important livestock which produced milk longer than any other ruminant under harsh condition of desert ecosystem. Camel milk is different from other ruminant milk different ways. Camel milk is rich in vitamin C and protective proteins such as lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulins and lysozyme. Camel milk lacks β-lactoglobulin and used as an option for the individuals intolerant to lactose of cow's milk. Camel milk is extraordinary in terms of antioxidative agents, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-hepatitis, anti-arthritis, treatment for paratuberculosis, preventing aging, remedy for autoimmune diseases and cosmetics. Insulin in camel milk is safe and efficacious in improving long-term glycemic control in diabetic patient. Camel milk reduces autism symptoms in children. Lactoferrin has ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell. Camel milk is rich in magnesium and zinc thus could act as antiulcer. Therefore, this review focuses on the composition of camel milk and miraculous and medicinal aspect of camel milk in treating some diseases.
... Likewise, a higher cheese color acceptability score was found in sample T8 (2.8) with yellowish color, whereas the lower color score was found in sample T1 (1.9) with a moderately white color. This might be due to the combined effect of lemon juice and creamier visual appearance of camel milk (Wernery, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Camel milk is the common food for pastoral society and rich source of nutrients with therapeutic value. Processing of camel milk can increase the coagulation of protein for better sensory properties and handling. Milk processing can improve the nutritional properties, increase the digestibility of macromolecules and make it safe from harmful microbes. Cheese formation from cattle milk is an easy task, however, not in case of camel milk. Various products including citric acid and lactic acid used to facilitate cheese formation from camel milk. This study was designed to evaluate the coagulating effects of lemon juice for making cheese from camel milk. Soft cheese was made from 8 Liter camel milk using different volumes of lemon juice extract (150ml, 200ml, 250ml, 300ml, 350ml, 400ml, 450ml, and 500ml) after 24 h storage at ambient temperature, and each sample used 1Liter camel milk for each volume, and then samples (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, and T8) were analyzed for their percentage of yield, chemical composition, and sensory characteristics. The result has shown that maximum ash and lactose content were observed in T1 (product) (2.7%, 17.36cal), and, moisture and protein content in sample T8 (60.51%, 12.74%) while, energy content in T4 (product) (227.5cal) and fat content in T6 (product) (14.69%) respectively. Significant (P<0.05) increased yield of cheese was observed in T8 during more lemon juice addition. Moreover, the cheese developed was characterized with higher energy, fat, moisture, protein contents and high scores of softness property, color, flavor, and overall acceptability by increasing the lemon juice addition. In conclusion, the addition of lemon juice to camel milk could offer an economically suitable means for producing coagulated milk cheese.
... Camel milk and its products have been reported to possess various human health benefits and used as a medicine to treat human diseases such as hepatitis, spleen problems (Korish and Arafah, 2013), diarrhea (Yagil, 2013), psoriasis (Wernery, 2006) etc. Camel milk has been reported to be very effective against bacteria: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and also rotavirus (Harrison et al., 2003). Camel milk is known to exhibit significant antioxidant effects (Korish and Arafah, 2013) as well as possess protective proteins which includes lysozyme, lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin (Agrawal et al., 2009;Shamsia, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objective Camel milk is traditionally known for its human health benefits and believed to be a remedy for various human ailments including cancer. The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of commercially available camel milk on cancer cells and its underlying mechanism(s). Materials and Methods Two cell lines: colorectal cancer HCT 116 and breast cancer MCF-7 were cultured with different doses of camel milk. The effects of camel milk on cell death were determined by MTT assay, viability by trypan blue exclusion assay and migration by in vitro scratch assay. The mechanism was elucidated by western blotting and confocal microscopy was used to confirm autophagy. Results Camel milk significantly reduced proliferation, viability as well as migration of both the cells. The accumulation of LC3-II protein along with reduction in expression of p62 and Atg 5-12, the autophagy proteins implied induction of autophagy. The (GFP)-LC3 puncta detected by confocal microscopy confirmed the autophagosome formation in response to camel milk treatment. Conclusion Camel milk exerted antiproliferative effects on human colorectal HCT 116 and breast MCF-7 cancer cells by inducing autophagy.
... Camel milk can be used for the treatment of different types of tuberculosis (Mal et al. 2000(Mal et al. , 2001(Mal et al. and 2006. Camel milk possesses medicinal properties to treat different ailments such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, allergies-asthma (Wernery, 2006). Camel milk drinking has shown a good effect for treating crohn's disease (Shabo et al. 2008). ...
... It is also very important for sport racing in Gulf countries. Dromedary camel is well known for its ability to survive drought period, and camel milk is called the white gold of the desert (Wernery, 2006). The population of camels in the world is small compared to ruminants species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Machine milking is widely spreading and practised in she- camel many years ago, but in some countries still used only in small scale due to some constraints; of which non effective use of the machine, difficulty of the machine usage or the restraining of the machine by the she-camel. This study presents some of problems that hinder the usage of machine milking in she-camel due to variations in the daily milk yield, lactation yield and length. Since genetic improvement programs planed towards improvement of camel reproductive and production performances were very scarce and hand milknig is practised in a wide range in small sacle production systems. The other constraint facing machine milking is the variations in morphological, anatomical and physiological aspects of camel udder and teats. These variations exist not only between countires, but between herds and within herds and this explore the inconvienice to practise machine milking. The third challenge is that most of camel milking necessitate the presence of calves beside their mothers to stimulate milk ejection reflex. Added to that camels must be trained enter milking which may take between 2-4 weeks based on the background of the animal.
Article
Full-text available
Camel is unique and neglected animal which less research is done compared to other animals. But a few researches on camel contribute solution for human, animal and environmental health crisis. Camel products such as milk, urine and blood are used as remedies which can cure many infectious and non infectious human diseases. Camels act as reservoir for many animal and human diseases. A research finding on camel diseases could enable understanding of animal and human disease mechanism because camels are asymptomatic for devastating and highly pathogenic animal and human diseases. Before the outbreak of pandemic Covid-19, the outbreak of the virus which causes MERS-CoV infection, is genetically very similar to Covid-19 and reported to WHO in different parts of the world, camel is proposed as reservoir. If more investigation of MERS-CoV in camel and human had done the Covid-19 would have controlled and prevented without causing global pandemic. Climate change is causes for emerging and re emerging of human and animal disease. The climate change is caused by animal husbandry and feeding system. Feeding habits of animal, movement and releasing of waste product of animals cause environmental changes which disturb ecosystem health. A climate change impose a great impact on survival of animal but camel can resist and survive in harshly condition, can survive in less availability of feed and water, less methane emission compared to other ruminants. The dung of Camel is dry and can’t contaminate the area as other ruminants and used as fuel or sources of energy for cooking where woody plants are not available. Due to different grazing habits of camel from other ruminant, camel make less overgrazing. Camel is the solution for global health crisis of 21th century and provides increment that global health is depend on interconnection and cooperation of animal health, environmental health and public health experts
Article
This research is based on 296 camel petroglyphs from four surveyed areas within the Negev Highlands, Israel. We divided the camel petroglyphs into four styles, each represents the camel in a specific form with reoccurring attributes that are embedded with cultural information and meaning. Each of the styles was attributed to a chronological period based on the colour of their patina and related inscriptions. We demonstrate stylistic changes over time that may be related to transformations in the economic exploitation of camels and possibly the introduction of a different camel breed associated with population movement into the region. The symbolic role that the camel may have played in past Negbite societies is also discussed. Keywords: Camelus dromedarius, Southern Levant, Camel Breeds, Rock Art
Article
Full-text available
This investigation was conducted to evaluate the utilization of compost production using finely grinded date palm wastes and residues (particle size 0.5 cm), to examine its performance a substitute of potting media in comparison with commercial peat moss. Factors influence the rate of composting efficiency such as moisture content; aeration and temperature were treatments (culture substrates) with four replications were arranged in a completely randomized design. The treatments were commercial peat moss used as control; un-composted date palm residues (DP-0); composted date palm residues for 15 weeks (DP-15) and composted date palm residues for 30 weeks (DP-30). The physicochemical properties of substrates were measured before plant cultivation. During the duration of plant growth irrigation rate, temperature, humidity and pest control for all treatments were similar. Some growth and fruit quality parameters for strawberry plants were measured at the end of growth period. The results revealed that bulk density (BD), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and essential mineral nutrients (N, P and K) were increased, while organic matter (OM), organic carbon (Oc) and C/N ratio were decreased gradually by the end of composting time. DP-30 showed the most appropriate physicochemical properties compared with the other treatments, including peat moss. This could be attributed to improve the physicochemical properties of this substrate due to satisfactory enhanced compost maturity which would have been achieved by the end of 30 weeks’ incubation time, since the source, particle size (0.5cm) and composting process were the same for all date palm substrates. Therefore, the average rate of increase in plant growth characteristics and the improvement of fruit quality parameters were differed significantly depending on composting duration and connected to preference of suitable physicochemical properties enhanced in DP-30. The general trend observed in this investigation strongly suggestes the importance of potential benefits of the economically appropriate uses of the composted date palm materials (DP-30) for full substitution for peat moss in horticulture.
Article
Full-text available
Camel serve as multipurpose animal and one of the features is milk production. Camel milk has more similar chemical composition with human milk as compare to any other ruminant's milk. Camel milk is different from other animal milk. It is low in cholesterol and sugar while high in minerals, vitamin C, higher protective proteins like lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulins and lyso-zyme. Camel's milk has exceptional medicinal properties like antioxidative agent, antimicrobial, healing in joint inflammation, treatment of paratuberculosis, antiaging, immune system booster and cosmetic agent. Insulin concentration in camel milk is high that's why it is important for diabetic human patients. Camel milk is high in magnesium and zinc minerals that provide antiulcer property. Regardless of the fact that camel milk has such characteristics; it's less refreshing in this manner its utilization is limited to pastoral areas. Further research work is needed to a certain medicinal value and chemical composition of camel milk.
Article
Full-text available
The manuscript discusses the possibility of producing a dairy product based on special-purpose camel milk. Specialized nutrition is intended for all population groups and risk groups due to the content of targeted functional ingredients and balanced or enriched composition of food substances. The risk group, in addition to children and persons with impaired health, are elderly people, for whom a special nutrition is provided. Probiotic ferments are used in the production of fermented dairy products, as well as in butter and cheese making. The leaven is introduced into the product and allowed to develop in it under controlled conditions. In the process of fermentation taking place in this way, bacteria form substances that give the fermented milk product its characteristic properties, such as acidity (pH), taste, aroma, and consistency. The decrease in pH occurring during fermentation by lactose bacteria to lactic acid has a preservative effect on the product while improving nutritional value and digestibility. Unlike cow's milk, camel's milk is more saturated with vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is a healing biological natural medicine, as well as an immune modulator for the human body. Camel milk is the common food for pastoral society and a rich source of nutrients with therapeutic value. Milk processing can improve the nutritional properties, increase the digestibility of macromolecules and make it safe from harmful microbes. The optimal ratio (1:1) of probiotic ferments for fermented milk drinks – new Bio Drinks based on camel milk - was established.
Article
Full-text available
Currently, the importance of camel milk has been emphasized around the world base on its health properties. Recently, consumers' interest in camel milk has been largely due to awareness of its special health benefits. Camel milk is a unique source of nutrients and is considered as a super food with medicinal values. Smaller size of nobodies of camel milk enhances the immune and anti-inflammation responses. Also higher amount of zinc in the camel milk has key role for maintenance of normal function of immune system. Camel milk has hypoglycemic effects which may be beneficial in the healing of diabetes due to presence of insulin like protein. Camel milk vitamin C as strong anti-oxidant is higher than cow milk. Also camel milk has the highest amount of lactoferrin with anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties against infections. Camel milk has unique benefits for human health and plays an important role in improving diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, food allergies, hepatitis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and autism. Also it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immune stimulant and allergenic properties. Therefore, camel milk is recommended as adjunctive super food for healthy complications.
Article
Full-text available
Camel milk has been gaining immmense importance due to high nutritious value and medicinal properties. Peptides from milk proteins is gaining popularity in various therapeutics including human cancer. The study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties of camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPHs). CWPHs were generated at three temperatures (30 ℃, 37 ℃, and 45 ℃), two hydrolysis timepoints (120 and 360 min) and with three different enzyme concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 %). CWPHs demonstrated an increase in anti-inflammatory effect between 732.50 (P-6.1) and 3779.16 (P-2.1) µg Dicolfenac Sodium Equivalent (DSE)/mg protein. CWPHs (P-4.3 & 5.2) inhibited growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116) with an IC 50 value of 231 and 221 μg/ml, respectively. P-4.3 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and modulated the expression of Cdk1, p-Cdk1, Cyclin B1, p-histone H3, p21 and p53. Docking of two peptides (AHLEQVLLR and ALPNIDPPTVER) from CWPHs (P-4.3) identified Polo like kinase 1 as a potential target, which strongly supports our in vitro data and provides an encouraging insight into developing a novel peptide-based anticancer formulation. These results suggest that the active component, CWPHs (P-4.3), can be further studied and modeled to form a small molecule anti-cancerous therapy.
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of camel milk consumption as an adjunct to routine diabetic management in maintaining long-term glycaemia control in type I diabetes was assessed during a 52 week randomised study. Throughout the duration of the study, 12 randomly assigned patients underwent routine diabetic management (diet, exercise and parental insulin supplementation) and 12 randomly assigned patients additionally undertook daily consumption of raw camel milk (500ml/day). In both groups, the dose of parenteral insulin administration was adjusted to maintain an euglycaemic state. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the initiation of the study and monitored at 3 monthly intervals. Additionally, plasma insulin, C-peptide and anti-insulin antibodies were measured at the beginning and end of the study. In the group receiving camel milk, there was a significant increase in MBI (17 ± 4.4 to 19.7 ± 2.97; p < 0.001) and a significant reduction in HbA1c (7.8 ± 1.38 to 6 ± 0.96; p < 0.001), mean blood glucose (119 ± 19 to 95.42 ± 15.70; p < 0.001) and necessary insulin dose (32 ± 12 to 17.88 ± 12.40; p < 0.005) compared to the values at the initiation of the study. There was no significant change in c-peptide (0.18 ± 0.04 to 0.24 ± 0.07) or anti- insulin antibodies (22.92 ± 5.45 to 21.84 ± 7.34). We have demonstrated that the consumption of camel milk in type I diabetes results in a significant reduction in the dose of insulin required to maintain long-term glycaemic control. Based on our results, camel milk consumption, may therefore, be considered as a useful adjunct to parenteral insulin administration in the management of type 1 diabetes.
Article
During an 8-month period 1313 raw camel milk samples were tested to evaluate their microbiological status. Samples were collected from 14 individual healthy dromedaries of UAE breed with no signs of mastitis. All precautions were taken to avoid any contamination of the milk. The dromedaries were free of brucellosis and the milk samples did not contain Salmonella, Campylobacter or Listeria organisms. The microbiological results of the 1313 raw camel milk samples were compared with the bacteriological milk parameters laid down in milk hygiene regulations of the EU and Germany. It was found that only 5.1% of the samples did not meet these standards.
Article
We report here the effect of heat treatment on a variety of camel milk constituents. Six raw and 6 pasteurised camel milk samples were tested for 17 different milk constituents. The pasteurisation was performed at 72°C for 5 min. The parameters tested were: Fat, protein, ash, zinc, iron, calcium, copper, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, D3, C and pyridoxal. There was no significant difference between the raw and pasteurised milk samples with the exception of α-lactalbumin and ash. β-lactoglobulin was only found in traces. This study demonstrates that the measured components of camel milk are more heat resistant than those in cow milk, a finding which is a tremendous advantage in relation to the commercial production of camel milk. Only 6 samples of camel milk were tested. In the future a greater number of samples should be tested following exposure to a variety of different temperatures.
Article
Present report is based on two cases of mastitis out of which first dromedary revealed a swollen and hard left front quarter. On necropsy of this quarter both cisterns were filled with coagulated blood. Histology revealed a massive acute haemorrhagic to suppurative mastitis with interlobular oedema from which P. haemolytica was isolated. The dromedary died from a Cl. perfringens enterotoxaemia. The acute mastitis is thought to have triggered the enterotoxaemia. The second mastitis case was detected during a routine bacteriological investigation of camel milk samples. The affected milk was more watery than normal milk samples. Str. agalactiae was isolated from the milk. Adspection of the camel's udder revealed a painful and hot swelling of the left hind quarter. Microscopic examination of the Gram - stained milk revealed high numbers of inflammatory cells and typical streptococcal chains.
Article
The applicability of six commercially available inhibitor tests for camel milk was determined in a comparative study. 259 milk samples collected from untreated camels were tested using the Delvotest SP and various versions of the brilliant black reduction test (BR-Test "AS Special", BR-Test "AS Brilliant", BRT-lnhibitor Test, BRT-lnhibitor Test with prediffusion and BRT MRL-Screening Test). The occurrence of unspecific reactions (specificity) and the sensitivity against common antimicrobial compounds were assessed. According to German Official Methods of Analysis L 01.00-11 and L 01.00-51-EG the BRT-Inhibitor Test with prediffusion indicated negative results for all samples when the control milk turned yellow, the BR-Test "AS Special" resulted in an earlier colour change. Four test systems (BR-Test "AS Brilliant", BRT-lnhibitor Test, BRT MRL-Screening Test and Delvotest SP) indicated positive - unspecific - results when the tests were evaluated, at the same time the negative control sample showed a complete colour change. However, extension of the incubation period led to negative results for 100 % (BRT-Inhibitor Test and Delvotest SP), 95 % (BR-Test "AS Brilliant") and 89 % (BRT MRL-Screening Test) of the samples, respectively. The sensitivities against most of the antimicrobials tested in camel milk did not significantly differ from those determined in cow milk.
Article
Copper deficiency was diagnosed in 10 dromedary calves and their dams. The serum copper values in calves and dams were 9.7 mg/dl and 28.6 mg/dl, respectively (reference range for serum copper is 70.4 ± 10.8 mg/dl), whereas the zinc values were 58 mg/dl and 54.9 mg/dl, respectively which was normal (reference range for serum zinc is 62.1 ± 11.0 mg/dl). The camel calves died from Cl. perfringens and E. coli septicaemias one to 10 days after parturition. Their liver and kidney copper levels were also low (12.43 and 2.74 mg/kg wet weight) confirming their copper deficiency. The most striking finding in all 10 necropsied dromedary calves revealed that the animal had not ingested any milk. Instead, a variable amount of sand was detected in their compartments. It is believed that the calves tried to compensate their copper deficiency which was derived from their dams by ingesting sand. Due to their low immunoglobulin status and the ingestion of pathogens with the sand, the animals succumbed to septicaemias. The dromedary calves did not show any pathological lesions indicating a copper deficiency, nor did they develop any deformities or paralysis.
Article
The effect of heat treatment, pasteurization and different storage temperatures on the insulin concentration of 19 dromedary milk samples was tested. Insulin concentrations between the milk samples obtained from individual camels varied widely, and the overall mean insulin value of fresh camel milk taken 3 times within one month was 41.9 ± 7.38 μU/ml (mean ± SEM). There was a significant difference in insulin concentration between the 3 milk samples collected on three different occasions within a one month period. Pasteurization, freeze drying or storage of camel milk at 4°C for 4 days as well as freezing at -20°C resulted in a statistically significant reduction in insulin concentrations; however, this was minimal. Contrary to other researchers, our study demonstrated that the mean insulin concentration in camel milk does not significantly exceed the values found in bovine milk. However, the fact that camel milk, in comparison to bovine milk, does not coagulate in acid environment most probably is the main factor for its therapeutic effect on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients.
Article
Sixteen U.A.E. dromedaries were milked with an automatic bucket milking machine for twelve months. They produced a total of 21,959.9 kg of milk with a daily milk yield of 4.8 kg each. The milk production followed a typical lactation curve with the highest milk yield during the first months after parturition. Milk production was significantly dependent on how often the camels were milked per day and when milking started after parturition. It seems that camel calves can be removed from the dam without any negative effect on the milk yield. A herringbone stand is suitable for milking dromedaries. Dromedaries entered the stand effortlessly without any sign of stress or discomfort. The automatic bucket milking machine using 25 mm silicon liners was accepted by all the 16 dromedaries without any problem. Machine stimulation was abandoned because it caused udder oedema and mastitis. Hand stimulation of two to three minutes was well accepted and duration was decreased after the first three months of milking. Milking was performed with a vacuum pressure of 36 -40 kPa, a pulsation rate of 60:40 with 90 cycles per min.
Article
The milk production potential of camels (Camelus dromedarius) was studied with the objective to understand the lactation characteristics of camels in selected pastoral herds, in eastern Ethiopia. The milk was measured from 61 lactating camels once in a week from October 1997 to January 2000. The mean daily milk offtake was 4.14±0.04 kg/day. The daily milk offtake varied according to the number of milkings per day and ranged from 1.26±0.05 kg/day for one time milking to 6.77±0.15 kg/day for four times milking (P
Article
A study was conducted on 207 lactating camels in six herds in Kenya to evaluate the California mastitis test (CMT) for the detection of intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus and to investigate the prevalence of both the pathogens in the camel udder. IMI with S. agalactiae was found in 12% of all camels sampled. IMI with S. aureus was present in 11% of all camels sampled. The herd-level prevalence of IMI varied between 0 and 50% for S. agalactiae and between 0 and 13% for S. aureus. Longitudinal observations over 10-12 months confirmed persistent infections for both pathogens. Observations in one herd suggested that camel pox was a contributing factor in spreading and exacerbating S. agalactiae udder infections.The CMT had quarter-level sensitivities of 77 and 68% for S. agalactiae and S. aureus in camels, respectively. The CMT specificities were 91% for both the pathogens.
Article
Camelid immunoglobulins differ from all other known antibodies and contradict all common theories on antibody diversity. It was demonstrated that up to 75% of all serum proteins are immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules lacking light chains. IgG2 and IgG3, which only consist of heavy chains, have a low molecular weight which improves their biodistribution and allows a better tissue penetration. Of special importance is the long complementary determining region (CDR) loop which inserts deep into the active site of an enzyme. This binding property was only observed in experiments to gain structural data and to point out the extraordinary value of heavy chain antibodies as biochemical and pharmacological tools. The acquisition and absorption of adequate amounts of colostral immunoglobulins are essential to the health of the neonate. Pre-colostrum serum IgG levels in camelids are low, with concentrations of 0.26 +/- 10.23 mg/ml. Maximum IgG levels are reached after 24 h and kept at a plateau with concentrations of 24.52 +/- 8.8 mg/dl. IgG concentrations above 10 mg/ml indicate a successful passive transfer. IgG levels decline after 2-5 weeks and a marked increase is observed between 1 and 2 months, indicating that the immune system of the neonate has started to mature. A number of different tests are available for the assessment of IgG serum levels. Single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) is the only method that specifically measures serum IgG concentrations. It is a reliable assay to test failure of passive transfer (FPT). FPT is a major factor in neonatal mortality in camelids, but very little has been published so far. Therapeutic administration of colostrum will provide passive protection against infectious diseases for a 2-3-week period of risk, and the intravenous administration of 20-40 ml of camelid plasma helps to combat FPT.