This treatise reviews medical uses of various forms of copper recorded throughout the history of mankind. Ancient Egyptian papyri, Greek, Roman, Aztec, Hindu, and Persian writings as well as medieval and subsequent European medical literature record various consistent medical uses of copper. There are many reported uses of copper and its compounds as antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antiarrhythmic, antitumor, and antiepileptic agents. Copper was also recommended to promote wound healing and heal broken bones. Tracing the development of folk medicine and the many rediscoveries of the beneficial effects of copper compounds leads to the suggestion that serious consideration should be given to modern-day medical uses of complexes of this essential metalloelement.