Article

Laser stimulation of collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblast cultures

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Abstract

Two low energy lasers, helium-neon (He-Ne, continuous wave, 632.8 nm), and gallium-arsenide (Ga-As, pulse, 904 nm), were tested for their effects on connective tissue metabolism by human skin fibroblasts in culture. The cells were subjected to laser treatment at various energy fluence, and the treatment schedule included one or two daily exposures on several consecutive days. The results indicated that procollagen production was enhanced by both lasers approximately 4-fold in average. The highest enhancement of 36-fold was noted in cultures which initially synthesized procollagen at a relatively low level, while a lesser effect was achieved in cultures which already actively synthesized procollagen. The lasers tested had no effect on the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, two proteolytic enzymes controlling the degradation of collagen, in fibroblast cultures. The increased procollagen production by either one of the lasers could not be explained on the basis of enhanced cell proliferation. Also, the viability and the ultrastructural organization of the fibroblasts remained unaltered by these lasers. Thus, the results suggest that low energy lasers, with appropriate treatment schedule, might provide a safe and efficient modality for enhancement of collagen deposition in chronic necrotic processes, as in leg ulcers and pressure sores.

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... Low-level light (Laser) therapy (LLLT) is currently being used to treat various conditions based on the principles of photobiomodulation [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that LLLT has a significant influence on a variety of cellular functions and clinical conditions [1,4,5,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. ...
... Low-level light (Laser) therapy (LLLT) is currently being used to treat various conditions based on the principles of photobiomodulation [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that LLLT has a significant influence on a variety of cellular functions and clinical conditions [1,4,5,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. However, other studies have concluded that photoradiation had little or no effect on treatment outcomes irrespective of whether a laser, lightemitting diode (LED) or broadband polarized light source is used as the energy source [6]. ...
... Work from several investigators has demonstrated that photobiomodulation influences a variety of biological processes, including the acceleration of wound healing [11,13,19,21,22], increased mitochondrial respiration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis [8,10,12,17,18], cell proliferation [9][10][11]16,23], enhancement, and promotion of skeletal muscle regeneration following injury [12] and a variety of other effects. Photobiomodulation enhances collagen synthesis in the wound area, thereby increasing wound tensile strength [13]. ...
... The use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been clinically used for pain relief, modulation of inflammatory processes, and healing acceleration of damaged tissues [12]. At a cellular level, wound healing is reached through the PBMT-induced proliferation of fibroblast and endothelial cells, and increases of collagen and procollagen and basement membrane synthesis [13][14][15][16][17]. In the skeletal muscle, the electromagnetic radiation promoted by light amplification also stimulates macrophages and lymphocytes, activates dormant satellite cells, angiogenesis, and neovascularization, and improves mitochondrial energy metabolism [18,19]. ...
... Why the band 1452 cm −1 is present in groups administered Bjssu and laser-irradiated (VL48 and VL72) is indeterminate. However, given this band is also present in healthy tissue as shown here in the CG48 and CG72 groups, and considering the already reported speed of regeneration promoted by PBMT [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25], it is reasonable to suppose its appearance in VL48 and VL72 and not in V48 and V72. In relation to 1667 cm −1 band, its presence in all groups agrees with its presence recorded both in healthy and pathological tissues [46]. ...
... As for Raman spectroscopy, the results of FTIR spectroscopy qualitative analysis also suggest that PBMT promoted increases in the collagen content in the Bjssu-injected muscle region. Increases in the collagen content may indicate that the muscle cytoarchitecture, which had been damaged by phospholipases A 2 and metalloproteinase hemorrhagins present in Bjssu [3,53], was reorganized probably by laser activation of collagen synthesis by fibroblasts [13][14][15][16][17][54][55][56]. Thus, the collagen synthesis induced by PBMT was beneficial to recompose the architecture of the extracellular matrix of muscle, a key element for biomechanics [57]. ...
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The pathogenesis of myonecrosis caused by myotoxins from bothropic venom is associated with local extracellular matrix (ECM) disintegration, hemorrhage, and inflammation. Search for alternative methods associated with serum therapy is mandatory to neutralize the fast development of local damage following snakebites. The experimental use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in murine models has shown promising results relative to structural and functional recovery from bothropic snakebite-induced myonecrosis. This study pioneered in using Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies to characterize biochemical alterations in the gastrocnemius that had been injected with Bothrops jararacussu venom and exposed to local PBMT. Results show that vibrational spectra from lyophilized and diluted venom (1307 cm ⁻¹) was also found in the envenomed gastrocnemius indicating venom presence in the unirradiated muscle 48 h post-injection; but any longer visible after PBMT at this time exposure or 72 h post-injection regardless irradiated or not. Raman and FTIR analyses indicated that the bands with higher area and intensity were 1657 and 1547 cm⁻¹ and 1667 and 1452 cm⁻¹, respectively; all are assignments for proteins, especially collagen, and are higher in the PBMT-exposed gastrocnemius. The infrared spectra suggest that laser treatment was able to change protein in tissue and that such change indicates collagen as the main target. We hypothesize that the findings reflect remodeling of ECM with key participation of collagen and faster tissue recovery for an anabolic condition.
... Upregulation of cytochromes, other transport and energy compounds [e.g., nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH), ATP, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)], enhances the activities of various cellular components in the local wound milieu. [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] Avci et al. reviewed the use of PBMT for the treatment of hair loss. 60 They reported that PBMT acts on the mitochondria and may alter cell metabolism through photodissociation of inhibitory NO from cytochrome c oxidase, specifically Unit IV in the respiratory chain of mitochondria, causing increased ATP production, modulation of ROS, and induction of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1. ...
... PBMT has been demonstrated to accelerate wound healing [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46]48,54,55,74 and reduce pain and inflammation 63,66,71,73 and cancer. [75][76][77][78][79] PBMT augments intracellular metabolism by increasing ATP production, among other metabolic pathways, as well as to induce or reduce production of ROS and other free radicals as the mechanistic basis for the outcomes observed after using PBMT. ...
... [75][76][77][78][79] PBMT augments intracellular metabolism by increasing ATP production, among other metabolic pathways, as well as to induce or reduce production of ROS and other free radicals as the mechanistic basis for the outcomes observed after using PBMT. [43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58]63,64,66,[71][72][73] The ability of PBMT to downregulate inflammation and modulate inflammatory processes via cellular metabolism and cellular responses induced by changes in ROS, NO, and other inflammatory mediators orchestrated by light exposure might also contribute to its mechanism of action. [52][53][54]57,58,[60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67]71,73,77 Work from several laboratories has demonstrated that NIR photoirradiation can accelerate wound healing and tensile strength in both normal and impaired tissues and that the effects are not related to alterations in tissue tempera-ture. ...
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Objective: Light, particularly in the visible to far-infrared spectrum, has been applied to the female genital tract with lasers and other devices for nearly 50 years. These have included procedures on both normal and neoplastic tissues, management of condylomata, endometriosis, and menometrorrhagia, and, more recently, a number of fractional laser devices have been applied for the management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and to achieve so-called vaginal rejuvenation. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been proposed as an alternative for use in managing GSM and SUI. Methods: This article reviews the biological basis, symptoms, and management of GSM, and investigates the current status and rationale for the use of PBMT. Results and conclusions: Based on the preliminary evidence available, PBMT is safe and appears to be efficacious in treating GSM.
... In the YOLOv2 detector, a total of 28 × 28 gird cells are divided in the input images, and the regions of the object are proposed anchor boxes at various aspect ratios and scales, as shown in Fig. 6. In this study, seven anchor boxes were defined with pairs of numbers: (30,41), (32,47), (34,46), (36,53), (46,60), (48,43), and (56, 49). Hence, each grid cell position in the input image has seven anchor boxes associated with it. ...
... Furthermore, the side effects such as skin irritation and deterioration are becoming disadvantages of retinoids, and chemical peelings in acne treatment [1]. With safe and side-effect-free, LED phototherapy has been introduced as a non-invasive therapy with high effectiveness for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation in recent years [47,48]. Visible light activates the endogenous porphyrins of P. acnes, which results in a photodynamic reaction to destroy the bacteria and was has fewer side effects compared to other existing therapies. ...
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In low-level laser therapy, providing an optimal dosage and proposing a proper diagnosis before dermatological treatment are essential to reduce the side effects and potential dangers. In this article, a smart LED therapy system for automatic facial acne vulgaris diagnosis based on deep learning and Internet of Things application is proposed. The main goals of this study were to (1) develop an LED therapy device with different power densities and LED grid control; (2) propose a deep learning model based on modified ResNet50 and YOLOv2 for an automatic acne diagnosis; and (3) develop a smartphone application for facial photography image capture and LED therapy parameter configuration. Furthermore, a healthcare Internet of Things (H-IoT) platform for the connectivity between smartphone apps, the cloud server, and the LED therapy device is proposed to improve the efficiency of the treatment process. Experiments were conducted on test data sets divided by a cross-validation method to verify the feasibility of the proposed LED therapy system with automatic facial acne detection. The obtained results evidenced the practical application of the proposed LED therapy system for automatic acne diagnosis and H-IoT-based solutions.
... Since then, further scientific research has demonstrated a positive effect of low-level laser on fibroblast 4 and collagen synthesis at the cellular and molecular level, leading in recent years to use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in many clinical applications. 5 When managing knee osteoarthritis, most clinicians and surgeons use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and conventional physical therapy, consisting of ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical therapy, and short wave therapy. However, these conservative treatments only offer short-term symptomatic benefits, and many elderly patients do not tolerate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication well. ...
... On the other hand, the mean WOMAC pain subscore after a mean follow-up of 7 years for the 70 knees treated with protocol A was 11 (range: 10-12) and the mean stiffness subscore was 4 (range: [3][4][5]. Fifteen knees treated with protocol A required joint replacement surgery, and the difference in the proportions of knees requiring total joint replacement between protocol A versus B was statistically significant (P,0.05). ...
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Background: This study evaluated whether half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection together with low-level laser therapy in addition to standard conventional physical therapy can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery in elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis. Methods: In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral tricompartmental knee arthritis were assigned at random to either one of two conservative treatment protocols to either one of the painful knees. Protocol A consisted of conventional physical therapy plus a sham light source plus saline injection, and protocol B consisted of protocol A with addition of half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection as well as low-level laser treatment instead of using saline and a sham light source. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain necessitating joint replacement. Results: Among the 140 painful knees treated with either protocol A or protocol B, only one of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol B required joint replacement, whereas 15 of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol A needed joint replacement surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that half-yearly hyaluronic acid injections together with low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into the standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis, because it may prolong the longevity of the knee joint without the need for joint replacement.
... L OW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY is being used currently to treat a wide variety of medical conditions. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that light therapy has a significant influence on cellular functions. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11][12][13] However, other studies have concluded that light therapy produces no measurable effects. ...
... [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that light therapy has a significant influence on cellular functions. 1,4,5,[8][9][10][11][12][13] However, other studies have concluded that light therapy produces no measurable effects. 6 Light therapy treatment is currently performed in chronic wounds, arthritic joints, and dental applications. ...
... A review of well controlled in vitro and in vivo laboratory experiments reveals a trend that suggests that low intensity lasers enhance wound healing by promoting cell proliferation [8,[28][29][30][41][42][43][44], accelerating the formation of granulation tissue, promoting collagen synthesis [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61], fostering the formation of type I and type III procollagen specific pools of mRNA [62], increasing ATP synthesis within the mitochondria, activating lymphocytes, and increasing their abilities to bind pathogens [10,52]. The trend is not as clear when clinical reports on tissue repair are examined. ...
Article
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We studied the depth of penetration and the magnitude of attenuation of 632.8nm and 904nm light in skin, muscle, tendon, and cartilagenous tissues of live anaesthetized rabbits. Tissue specimens were dissected, prepared, and their thicknesses measured. Then, each wavelength of light was applied. Simultaneously, a power meter was used to detect and measure the amount of light transmitted through each tissue. All measurements were made in the dark to minimize interference from extraneous light sources. To determine the influence of pulse rate on beam attenuation, the 632.8nm light was used at two predetermined settings of the machine; continuous mode and 100 pulses per second (pps), at an on:off ratio of 1:1. Similarly, the 904nm infra-red light was applied using two predetermined machine settings: 292 pps and 2,336 pps. Multiple regression analysis of the data obtained showed significant positive correlations between tissue thickness and light attenuation (p < .001). Student's t-tests revealed that beam attenuation was significantly affected by wavelength. Collectively, our findings warrant the conclusions that (1) The calf muscles of the New Zealand white rabbit attenuates light in direct proportion to its thickness. In this tissue, light attenuation is not significantly affected by the overlying skin, a finding which may be applicable to other muscles. (2) The depth of penetration of a 632.8nm and 904nm light is not related to the average power of the light source. The depth of penetration is the same notwithstanding the average power of the light source. (3) Compared to the 904nm wavelength, 632.8nm light is attenuated more by muscle tissue, suggesting that is is absorbed more readily than the 904nm wavelength or conversely that the 904nm wavelength penetrates more. Thus, wavelength plays a critical role in the depth of penetration of light.
... Furthermore, reduction of wound diameter in blue group from the beginning of the study until day 14 was greater than the green group, which may due to its specific anti-inflammatory role as mentioned by some articles. Overall, our findings were in contrast to the findings of those investigators who found out the significant effect of LLLT on accelerating repair process of injured tissues during animal lab experimental studies ,which might be due to different methods specially dissimilar dosage and the rhythm of exposure (4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10). In contrast, our findings were in accordance with those studies who did not find any statistical significant positive effect of soft laser on wound healing process (17)(18)(19). ...
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Background: Burns are one of the most common injuries in the world, most importantly during the wars, and the patients usually
... The importance of low-level laser in clinical medicine dates back to the 1960s from the important works of Endre Mester. The various clinical applications of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in recent years were mainly based on previous scientific works concerning the effect of low-level lasers which provide pain relief in knee arthritis by means of improved microcirculation [1] while at the same time exert a positive influence on ATP synthesis on a cellular level [2] as well as cellular-molecular level on fibroblast [3] and collagen synthesis [4]. ...
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The current study evaluates whether the addition of low-level laser therapy into standard conventional physical therapy in elderly with bilateral symptomatic tri-compartmental knee arthritis can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery. A prospective randomized cohort study of 100 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic knee arthritis with each knee randomized to receive either treatment protocol A consisting of conventional physical therapy or protocol B which is the same as protocol A with added low-level laser therapy. The mean follow-up was 6 years. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain which necessitated joint replacement surgery. After a follow-up of 6 years, patients clearly benefited from treatment with protocol B as only one knee needed joint replacement surgery, while nine patients treated with protocol A needed surgery (p < 0.05). We conclude low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis.
... The importance of low level laser dates back to the sixties with the important works of Endre Mester. The various clinical applications in recent years of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) were mainly based on additional scientific works concerning the effect of low-level lasers which exert a positive influence on cellular-molecular level on the fibroblast (Van Breugel & Bär, 1992) and collagen synthesis (Lam et al., 1986). ...
Article
p class="1Body"> Objective: to study the clinical effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the clinical management of heel pain in sportsman having Achilles tendinitis Materials and Methods : this is a prospective cohort study of 35 consecutive patients having Achilles tendinitis being referred to our pain centre after various sports, who did not respond to an initial minimum of 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy, and managed with low-level laser therapy for six consecutive weeks Results: There was statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of pain with respect to VAS scale, and pressure pain threshold, the post-treatment color Doppler revealed improved tendon vascularity, the clinical follow up was eight weeks Conclusion : It is concluded that LLLT has clinical efficacy in the short-term treatment of Achilles tendinitis in sportsman</p
... The success of LPL therapy on pain and functions in LBP may be due to several mechanisms, one of which may possibly be through its positive effects on chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis [5,41,42]. Skinner [43] reported that low power Ga-As pulse laser had significant stimulatory effects on fibroblast function and enhanced connective tissue repair. These effects seem to be related to the bio-stimulation effect of LPL at the cellular level [44]. ...
... Para alguns autores 4,5,6 , o laser tem sido usado para acelerar o reparo de diferentes tecidos, incluindo tecido muscular. Albertine et al. 7 relataram um aumento no número de mitose e o desenvolvimento de células epiteliais, promovendo aumento da vascularização e síntese de colágeno pelos fibroblastos nos sítios da lesão, sendo esta síntese confirmada por estudos in vitro 8,9,10 . ...
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The laser therapy is a procedure utilized at long scale in the musculoskeletal injuries, due its anti-inflammatory and reparatory proprieties and others. Besides, there are differents types of laser equipments. Despites with the many experimental models at literature, there is no consensus about the range of application as well as the type of laser that promove of the best repair in muscular tissue. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the low level laser therapy in the expression of collagen after muscular injury. Mice Swiss albinos (n=18) were subjected to the muscular surgical injury and separated in two groups, control (C) and test (T). The animals were submitted a daily radiation of 5 J/cm² for the lasers AsGaAl 830 nm and AsGa 904 nm and, in different times of sacrifice (7 and 14 days). The results didn't demonstrate significant statistical difference in the expression of collagen in both analyzed groups. However, the data appear that the dose of 5 J/cm² of the laser AsGa 904 nm promoted larger deposition of fibers collagens after 14 days of treatment, suggesting that the therapy is effective in the synthesis of collagen. Others studies will be proposed at humans to bigger inferences about the results of laser in the treatment muscular injury.
... For accelerating the healing process, several new methods have been introduced recently. Some of these innovative treatment modalities are: vacuum wound healing (VWH) (2), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (3), regeneration via somatic stem cell proliferation, (4) and therapeutic lasers (5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18). From a histological stand point of view, paracrine signals would activate keratinocytes to secret growth factors such as: keratinocyte growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, IL-6 and GM-CSF; these cytokines stimulate fibroblastic proliferation process to form new epithelium (19). ...
Article
Introduction: One of the most important innovative methods for tissue repair promotion is therapeutic lasers with photobiomodulution effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of four different wavelengths of therapeutic laser (405 nm, 532 nm, 660 nm and 810 nm) laser on healing of third-degree burn injuries from both clinical and pathological standpoint of view in rats. Material and methods: 60 male Wistar rats were used. Animals were anesthetized and dorsal hairs were shaved and third-degree skin burns were created by use of a 95?C copper stamp. Lesions were irradiated with 1.5 J/Cm2energy densities and 200 mW/Cm2power densities. Results: Statistical analyses of the "wound contraction" changes between five groups during the study showed more reduction in wound size in all laser groups in comparison with the control group but these differences were not statistically significant except between red and blue lasers on the last day of experiment. Discussion: results of our study showed that by using therapeutic lasers with green, blue, red and infrared wavelengths may accelerate healing process. This trend is more obvious in red and infrared groups especially after acute phase, however, this effect was neither statistically nor clinically significant.
... Irradiation with red light increased fibroblastic growth factor synthesis from photoactivated macrophages and accelerated mast cell degeneration (Lam et al. 1986). ...
Chapter
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Light-emitting diode therapy was discovered in the late 1960s but only recently has it been widely applied in dermatology to treat a wide range of skin diseases including photoaging, scars, and acne. Since the introduction of photobiostimulation into medicine, the effectiveness and applicability of a variety of light sources have thoroughly been investigated. Light-emitting diode photomodulation is a nonthermal technology used to modulate cellular activity with light, and the photons are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores in skin cells. Various beneficial effects of light-emitting diode at relatively low intensities have been reported, especially in indications where stimulation of healing, reduction of pain and inflammation, restoration of function, and skin rejuvenation are required. The light-emitting diode therapy is safe, nontoxic, and noninvasive with no side effects reported in the published literature.
... The light is in the visible (red) or near infrared (NIR) spectrum (600-1000 nm) and achieves an average power density between 1 and 5 W/cm 2 [14]. Despite the fact that effectiveness of LLLT on bone fracture healing is not yet universally accepted, nonetheless, there were a lot of promising results in regard to the impact of LLLT in recent experimental studies [5,15,16]. In recent years, the optimal intensity of laser and the effect of LLLT on bone-implant interface were also noticed [17]. ...
Article
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Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) and low-amplitude, high-frequency (LAHF) whole body mechanical vibration on bone fracture healing process when metallic plates are implanted in rats' femurs. Materials & Methods: Forty male rats weighing between 250 and 350 grams, 12 weeks old, were employed in this study. A transverse critical size defect (CSD) was made in their right femurs and were fixed by stainless steel plates. After the surgery, the rats were divided equally into four groups: Low level laser therapy group (GaAlAs laser, 830 nm, 40 mW, 4 J/cm2, 0.35 cm beam diameter, LLLT), Whole body vibration group (60 Hz, 0.1 mm amplitude, 1.5g, WBV), a combination of laser and vibration group (LV), and the control group (C). Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on sacrifice dates. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 3 and 6 weeks after the surgery to extract their right femurs for radiography, biomechanical and histological analyses, and the results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: Radiographic analyses showed greater callus formation in the LLLT and WBV groups than in control group at both 3 (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively) and 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05 and P<0.05 respectively). Histological evaluations showed a higher amount of new bone formation and better maturity in the LLLT and WBV groups than the control groups at 3 and 6 weeks after surgery. Biomechanical tests showed that the maximum force at fracture in the LLLT (P<0.05 in 3 weeks and P<0.05 in 6 weeks) and WBV (P<0.001 in 3 weeks and P<0.05 in 6 weeks) groups were greater than the control groups at both time intervals. But, a combination of laser and vibration therapy, LV, did not show a positive interaction on bone fracture healing process. Conclusions: The biostimulation effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) or low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and biostimulation effects of low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (WBV) both had a positive impact on bone healing process, for critical size defects in the presence of stainless steel implant. But, their combination, i.e. low-level laser therapy and low-amplitude high-frequency whole body vibration (LV), interestingly did not accelerate the fractured bone healing process.
... Irradiation with red light increased fibroblastic growth factor synthesis from photoactivated macrophages and accelerated mast cell degeneration (Lam et al. 1986). ...
... LLLT has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative effects providing pain relief in joint arthritis by improving the microcirculation (Hegedus et al., 2009). It also exerts a positive influence on ATP synthesis on the cellular level with an increase in the cellular metabolism (Hashmi et al., 2010) and cellular-molecular level on fibroblasts (Van Breugel and Bär, 1992) as well as collagen synthesis (Lam et al., 1986). LLLT inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators such as PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 and reduces MMP activity. ...
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Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, and renal amyloidosis. Arthritis could be the presenting symptom in many cases. Laser acupuncture has analgesic and anti‑inflammatory effects on joint arthritis. Aim To highlight the genetic basis of osteoarthritis in patients with FMF and to highlight the anti‑inflammatory effect of laser acupuncture on osteoarthritis of knee joint in Egyptian patients with FMF. Patients and methods A randomized controlled study was performed on 40 Egyptian patients with FMF. Molecular analysis of MEFV gene mutations was performed for all selected patients. Twenty patients with FMF were exposed to low‑level laser acupuncture sessions (laser acupuncture group) and 20 other patients with FMF did not receive low‑level laser acupuncture sessions (control group). Twelve low‑level laser acupuncture sessions were implemented for the group treated with laser acupuncture three times per week for a duration of 4 weeks. All patients were checked before and after laser acupuncture sessions for pain intensity, radiography changes, and some inflammatory markers (white blood cell, eosinophils, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C‑reactive protein). Results M694V mutation was detected in 40% of patients. Patients with FMF with knee arthritis exposed to low‑level laser acupuncture sessions showed significant improvement in pain intensity compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Statistical significance improvement of the treated knees started from the third follow‑up laser session revealed by significant improvement in the radiography findings (P < 0.001). The inflammatory markers white blood cell, eosinophils, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C‑reactive protein became significantly lower (P = 0.037, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion M694V variant of MEFV gene is more frequent in the Egyptian patients with FMF with osteoarthritis. Low‑level laser acupuncture therapy is effective in ameliorating pain of osteoarthritis in patients with FMF.
... Laser-tissue interaction is highly complex, and laser parameters widely influence the biological tissue response. For years, studies have been demonstrating various cellular responses to different lasers, such as the increase of mast cell numbers and degranulation [18], the enhancement of procollagen production in human skin fibroblast cultures [27] and the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation and macrophage responsiveness [28]. Karu found that irradiation with monochromatic visible light in the blue, red and far red regions can enhance metabolic processes in the cell and suggested that the photobiological effects of stimulation depend on the wavelengths, dose ...
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Purpose: We aim to elucidate the scientific fundamentals behind biophotonics, to empower laser users in health care, with the basic knowledge of this fast-growing biotechnology field. Method: We will present and discuss relevant aspects of biophotonics, utilizing scientific sources and publications that range from concepts of basic physics to optical properties of biological tissues. Discussion: We will discuss the characteristics of laser light and the optical properties of biological tissues and matter, that governs their interaction with light, fundamental principles for achieving success and safely use this treatment modality. Conclusion: The complexity of the optical properties of light and biological tissues and their interactive behavior, makes biophotonics a challenging science. A minimum understanding, however, is necessary when utilizing this biotechnology. The specific optical properties of the tissue that will be receiving the specific light, will dictate which laser parameters and treatment protocols are best for the interaction to produce the best outcome and in the safest way.
... Laser-tissue interaction is highly complex, and laser parameters widely influence the biological tissue response. For years, studies have been demonstrating various cellular responses to different lasers, such as the increase of mast cell numbers and degranulation [1], the enhancement of procollagen production in human skin fibroblast cultures [2] and the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation and macrophage responsiveness [3]. As early as 1989, studies demonstrated that the irradiation with monochromatic visible light in the blue, red and far red regions can enhance metabolic processes in the cell and suggested that the photobiological effects of stimulation depend on the wavelengths, dose and intensity of the light [4] . ...
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Abstract Introduction: Understanding the fundamentals of laser light, the optical properties of biological tissues, and light-tissue interaction, is essential for all health professionals wishing to work with lasers. Aim: We will present some important factors that directly or indirectly affect the interaction of light with tissues. Method: We will utilize scientific sources from PubMed, Google Scholar, and other fonts of publications and illustrations. Discussion: We will discuss how some characteristics of laser light and the optical properties of biological tissue and matter, can govern their interaction. Conclusion: The complexity of the optical properties of light and biological tissue and their interactive behavior, makes biophotonics a challenging science. A minimum understanding, however, is necessary when utilizing this biotechnology. The specific optical properties of the tissue that will be receiving the specific light, will dictate which laser parameters and treatment protocols are best for the interaction to produce the best outcome and in the safest way. The recently accelerated new discoveries in the field of lasers have stimulated the rising interest observed in the science of biophotonics. The driving forces for the exploration of this biotechnology are constantly allowing new applications to be explored and providing new aspirations for future capabilities previously unthought-of.
... LLLT has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative effects providing pain relief in joint arthritis by improving the microcirculation (Hegedus et al., 2009). It also exerts a positive influence on ATP synthesis on the cellular level with an increase in the cellular metabolism (Hashmi et al., 2010) and cellular-molecular level on fibroblasts (Van Breugel and Bär, 1992) as well as collagen synthesis (Lam et al., 1986). LLLT inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators such as PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 and reduces MMP activity. ...
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Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, arthritis, and renal amyloidosis. Arthritis could be the presenting symptom in many cases. Laser acupuncture has analgesic and anti‑inflammatory effects on joint arthritis. Aim To highlight the genetic basis of osteoarthritis in patients with FMF and to highlight the anti‑inflammatory effect of laser acupuncture on osteoarthritis of knee joint in Egyptian patients with FMF. Patients and methods A randomized controlled study was performed on 40 Egyptian patients with FMF. Molecular analysis of MEFV gene mutations was performed for all selected patients. Twenty patients with FMF were exposed to low‑level laser acupuncture sessions (laser acupuncture group) and 20 other patients with FMF did not receive low‑level laser acupuncture sessions (control group). Twelve low‑level laser acupuncture sessions were implemented for the group treated with laser acupuncture three times per week for a duration of 4 weeks. All patients were checked before and after laser acupuncture sessions for pain intensity, radiography changes, and some inflammatory markers (white blood cell, eosinophils, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C‑reactive protein). Results M694V mutation was detected in 40% of patients. Patients with FMF with knee arthritis exposed to low‑level laser acupuncture sessions showed significant improvement in pain intensity compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Statistical significance improvement of the treated knees started from the third follow‑up laser session revealed by significant improvement in the radiography findings (P < 0.001). The inflammatory markers white blood cell, eosinophils, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C‑reactive protein became significantly lower (P = 0.037, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion M694V variant of MEFV gene is more frequent in the Egyptian patients with FMF with osteoarthritis. Low‑level laser acupuncture therapy is effective in ameliorating pain of osteoarthritis in patients with FMF.
Chapter
Light-emitting diode (LED) treatments, unlike lasers and light sources, do not produce any thermal impact on skin. LED treatments photomodulate human cells. LED technology, much like lasers and light sources, can produce energy of varying wavelengths. Various LED wavelengths appear to have varying effects on human skin
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All biomedical laser applications are based on the interaction of laser light with biological systems. Such interaction causes a broad spectrum of effects which can be divided into three groups (Letokhov, 1985).
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There have been various reports of positive clinical results of laser therapy for rheumatoid arthritis [2], but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. Although there have been some reports of investigations of proliferation rates and cytokine production after low-power laser irradiation [3, 5, 8], the results concerning its effects on cell cultures are inconsistent. It is generally assumed that the resulting cellular changes depend mainly on the irradiation intensity and the irradiation time of the laser. To determine the mechanism of the effects of laser irradiation, we have investigated the effects of low-powered Nd:YAG laser irradiation on cytokine production of rheumatoid synovial cells.
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Over the past several decades, evidences have shown that low intensity laser can stimulate a number of biological processes, including stem cell proliferation. In order to fully utilize stem cells in research and medical studies, understanding these processes is essential. However, for gaining this fundamental understanding in a rapid and cost-effective manner, model predictions and computer simulations are required as they may yield useful information and represent powerful supportive tools. This chapter provides some of the experiments employed to measure influence of low intensity laser on proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells which can vary considerably according to many parameters and biological conditions such as laser nature of emission, irradiation time, wavelength, and energy density. These experiments were compared to intelligent agent-based model predictions and detailed information about the model description and comparison results are provided. The model was capable of predicting the data for the scenarios fairly well although a few were somewhat problematic. This study recommends a wave length ranging from 600 to 680 nm, and an energy density ranging from 0.3 to 4.0 J/cm2 for enhancing proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.
Patent
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A method for treating a subject having a loss of neurologic function caused by Parkinson's disease, the method comprising: identifying a subject having a loss of neurologic function caused by Parkinson's disease; noninvasively delivering light energy having a wavelength of about 630 nanometers to about 904 nanometers to the brain of the subject, wherein delivering the light energy comprises irradiating the scalp with light energy having an incident power density less than about 1000 mW/cm2 for a time period of about 30 seconds to about 20 minutes such that a portion of the light energy is transmitted through the scalp and the skull to the brain.
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their physiological inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) play significant roles in wound repair. The aim of this study was to determine whether MMP and TIMP-1 mRNA is differentially expressed between laser-created and excisional skin wounds. Full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal surface of Balb/c mice by either excision of the skin or with a CO2 laser. Animals were sacrificed at days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 13, and their wounds processed for RNA isolation or histology and immunohistochemistry. Northern hybridization for MMP-3, -10, -13, and TIMP-1 mRNA demonstrated higher expression on days 1, 3, and 5 in the laser wounds as compared to the excisional wounds. Histological evaluation revealed a two day delay in the resurfacing of laser wounds as compared to excisional wounds. Immunohistochemistry of Day 5 and 7 excisional and laser wounds showed MMP-3 within the epidermal compartment and the neo-dermis. No remarkable differences were noted in the spatial distribution patterns of MMP-3 between wound types. Our findings demonstrate that MMPs and TIMP-1 mRNA expression is higher on days 1–5 post injury in full thickness laser-created wounds than in comparable same day excisional wounds. Lasers Surg. Med. 30:106–116, 2002.
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The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the possible clinical role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in discogenic back pain patients who failed to respond to a conventional physical therapy program to avoid recourse to operative intervention. The paper reports on the long-term mean 5-year prospective follow-up of a patient cohort of 50 unselected patients visiting our tertiary referral pain center for discogenic back pain who had had a single-level lesion documented by magnetic resonance imaging followed by subsequent discography to confirm the affected disc being the pain generator. All of the patients who entered the study had failed response to a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and had had not less than 3 months of conventional physical therapy. LLLT, at a wavelength of 810 nm wavelength emitted from a GaAIAs semiconductor laser device with 5.4 J per point and a power density of 20 mW/cm(2), was employed. The treatment regimen consisted of three sessions of treatment per week for 12 consecutive weeks. All but one patient had significant improvement in their Oswestry Disability Index score, from a mean of 50% score to a mean of 10% score, at the end of treatment at 12 weeks. In addition, surprisingly, the improvement was found maintained at follow-up assessments 1 year and 5 years later. The one patient among the 50 patients who failed to respond eventually required surgery, while the others did not require surgery. We conclude that LLLT is a viable option in the conservative treatment of discogenic back pain, with a positive clinical result of more than 90% efficacy, not only in the short-term but also in the long-term, with lasting benefits.
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This paper reports on the medium-term mean 2-year prospective follow-up of a patient cohort of 35 unselected elderly patients with mean age of 65 years who visited our tertiary referral pain center for painful adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder managed with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). All patients in this prospective cohort study had documentation of the diagnosis by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging before study entry and all had failed to respond to a combination of conventional physical therapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications for not fewer than 4 weeks. LLLT, at a wavelength of 810 nm emitted from a GaAIAs semiconductor laser device with 5.4 J per point and a power density of 20 mW/cm(2), was employed to irradiate six predetermined anatomic points and two acupuncture points. The treatment regimen consisted of three sessions of treatment per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session lasted 180 seconds. Serial clinical assessment was undertaken using the Constant-Murley shoulder score. A total of 50 painful shoulder joints were treated, as a number of elderly presented with bilateral symptoms. All but four painful shoulders showed significant improvement in Constant-Murley shoulder score at the end of 8-weeks' LLLT treatment and, surprisingly, the improvement was found maintained at follow-up assessments at 1 year and 2 years. We conclude that LLLT is a viable option in the conservative treatment of shoulder pain arising from adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in the elderly, with a positive clinical result of more than 90% and with clinical efficacy both in the short-term and the medium-term.
Article
Objective : Low level laser therapy(LLLT) is conjugated many different diseases such as skin disease, nervous system disease, cardiovascular disease, etc. This study was tried to survey the conjugation of LLLT in field of ophthalmology, otolaryngology and dermatology of Korean Medicine. Methods : In this study, LLLT deal with the field of ophthalmology, otolaryngology and dermatology was searched at Pubmed and NDSL. We searched Pubmed and NDSL with the title "Laser Therapy and Low-Level" for the last 10 years and analyzed disease, laser type, sample size, effect, journal and year. Results : Using Pubmed and NDSL, 8 treatises were researched. About 8 treatises, 7 treatises were papers in field of dermatology, 1 treatise was ophthalmology. And about 8 treatises, 6 treatises were foreign papers and 2 treatises were domestic papers on clinical application of laser status. Mainly used type of laser was a He-Ne laser and Diode laser. The diseases were ocular hypertension, acne, ulcers in patients with leprosy sequelae, freckles, segmental-type vitiligo lesions, diabetes-linked skin lesion, facial skin melanin and elasticity, atopic dermatitis symptom. As a result, we found that treat group had more improvement than control group in 7 of the 8 treatises, that treat group had no difference control group on effect significantly only 1 treatise. Conclusions: As therapeutic tool, LLLT`s application range is very wide in the field of ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, and dermatology. Keep up with the increasing interest of domestic and foreign about laser therapy, clinical tries on the use of laser will be studied steadily. It is necessary to have sustained attention and research on the point of view of the Korean Medicine.
Patent
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An apparatus for irradiating at least a portion of a patient's brain with electromagnetic radiation to treat stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, or depression, the apparatus comprising: a source of the electromagnetic radiation; an output optical element comprising a rigid and substantially thermally conductive material, the output optical element comprising a first surface configured to face towards the patient's scalp and to be in thermal communication with the patient's scalp during treatment and a second surface configured to face away from the patient's scalp during treatment; a cooler thermally coupled to the second surface of the output optical element to remove heat from the output optical element through the second surface; and a heat sink thermally coupled to the cooler, wherein the heat sink is positioned so that the electromagnetic radiation from the source propagates through the heat sink and through the output optical element.
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Enttäuschungen über frustrane Bemühungen „schulmedizinischer“ Heilkünste, schwindendes Vertrauen in eine hochtechnisierte „Apparatemedizin“, mangelhafte Zuwendung im von wirtschaftlichen und bürokratischen Zwängen diktierten kassenärztlichen Versorgungssystem, inadäquate Erwartungshaltungen zusammen mit fehlendem Verständnis über das Wesen der eigenen, oft chronischen und rezidivfreudigen Hauterkrankung sind mögliche Motive für die Inanspruchnahme „alternativer“, also wissenschaftlich nicht anerkannter Verfahren der Diagnostik und Therapie. Plazebowirkungen suggestiver Heilmethoden, vermeintliche Erfolge bei spontanheilenden Dermatosen, Positivdarstellungen in den Medien und vieles mehr nähren den Glauben an verborgene Kräfte von Licht, elektromagnetischen Strömungen oder fernab verwurzelter Praktiken, die nicht nur zur Therapie von Hautkrankheiten oder andrologischen Leiden, sondern auch in der Diagnostik allergologischer Problemstellungen in einer permissiven Medizinlandschaft ihren Stellenwert beanspruchen.
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Lasers and light source technologies can be applied to a wide variety of open and laparoscopic surgeries, as well as other procedures encountered by general surgeons and other medical professionals. The ability to produce highly precise and controllable effects on tissues, and the potential to facilitate complex dissection make these devices a welcome addition to the armamentarium of the surgeon, who is skilled in their use. Each laser wavelength has a characteristic effect on tissue. The combination of the laser tissue interaction, the selection of the appropriate delivery systems and laser parameters determines the ultimate effects of laser use on the conduct and outcomes of surgery. This chapter reviews the array of laser technologies available for operative surgical and therapeutic use and discusses the relative merits and disadvantages of each.
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Laser treatment is effective and safe device in the field of bio-medical research and represents one of the diagnostic methods based on the study of laser therapy to me heal the wounds in patients with diabetes. Has been used laser device in many medical journal , including the following( foot ulcer) , in addition to other applications many technical as easy to use, plus it SAFE way, and do not have any side effects on the body. The purpose of this letter the use of laser therapy in wound healing in diabetics. Animals will be divided randomly into the following groups: Group (I): Control group (10 mice) injected without citrate buffer Group (II): Experimental group (60 mice) injected with Streptozotocin, this group was divided into three subgroups: IIa- Experimental group (10 mice) without treatment IIb- Experimental group (10 mice) treated with insulin IIc- Experimental group (40 mice) treated with insulin combined with laser with different doses (1– 6 J ∕cm2) males ranging in weight between the mice 25-30g and before starting the experiment must be adapted mice with the place (called the period of adaptation).The blood samples were taken from mice to analyze the percentage of sugar in the blood through the device and glucometer already been confirmed that mice infected with the sugar has been surgery as follows: - are anesthetized mice before and during the occurrence of injuries were shaved mice on the wound area was the use of electric scissors expected to be created were wound surgery in the back of mice and the diameter of the wound using a 2.5 m2 toothed forceps or surgical tapered blade. The wound were left fully open and we found from the results of the application of laser treatment for all categories of the study as follows: -Diabetic group were taken by insulin treatment and exposure to the laser with the difference in time at the minute (1-2-3)min were exposed to The diode laser (650 nm) with an average power of 150 mW wound on days 1, 5 and 10 and 15 post wounding using transparency paper and a permanent marker will be provided through a fiber optic delivery system over the wound for 5 days /week until complete healing. sacrificed on days 2, 6, or 14 after the procedure, when skin samples. we note a clear healing of the wound for the rest of the groups and the greater the average time the rate of wound healing in less time. -Finally, samples were taken me work pressure and tight through the device Hooks low so make sure the power and intensity of fabric note fabric strength already when exposed me to the laser device and the results of the analysis also proved histopathology formation of collagen fibers on the strength and help heal wounds. Consequently, we found that the laser device has a modern technology for the treatment of wound healing in people with diabetes.
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The use and efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy in the treatment of canine sports-related injuries is a growing field of knowledge, evidence, and experience. Many supporting studies come from human literature. Trials and publications in veterinary literature continue to expand. The success of laser therapy in treating canine athletes is now well established. Its use through all four phases of rehabilitation of injured sporting dogs will only increase.
Article
Background: Photobiomodulation, also referred to as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), has been studied and used for (among other diseases) the promotion of hair regrowth. Objective/materials and methods/results: A clinical study was developed to define the physiologic effects that occur when the human hair follicle and surrounding tissue structures are exposed to laser light using a novel device that is fitted with an array of laser diode sources operating at 650 nm and placed inside a sports cap to promote discretion while in use. The study demonstrates that low-level laser treatment of the scalp every other day for 17 weeks using the HANDI-DOME LASER device is a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia in healthy females between the ages of 18 to 60 with Fitzpatrick skin Types I to IV and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2 to II-2 baldness patterns. Subjects receiving LLLT at 650 nm achieved a 51% increase in hair counts as compared with sham-treated control patients in this multicenter randomized controlled trial. Conclusion: These results suggest that the emerging technology of low-level laser therapy may play a potentially significant role in health care providers' armamentarium for the disease androgenic alopecia.
Article
Background: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is considered to be helpful for skin regeneration and anti-inflammation. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 types of LLLTs using 660 nm-emitting red LEDs and 411 to 777 nm-emitting white LEDs in the treatment of facial wrinkles. Materials and methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial involving 52 adult female subjects was performed. The faces of the subjects were irradiated daily with 5.17 J of red or white LEDs for 12 weeks. Results: In both groups treated with red and white LEDs, the wrinkle measurement from skin replica improved significantly from baseline at Week 12. The red LED group showed slightly better improvement, but there were no statistical differences. In assessments by blinded dermatologists, no significant differences were observed in both groups. In the global assessment of the subjects, the mean improvement score of the red LED group was higher than that of the white LED group. Conclusion: Low-level light therapy using 660 nm LEDs or 411 to 777 nm LEDs significantly improved periocular wrinkles. Especially, 660 nm LEDs could be an effective and tolerable treatment option for wrinkles.
Conference Paper
The following biological systems and physiologic processes were influenced by a variety of low-output lasers: 1) Repeated laser irradiation of the skin 2) Hair growth in depilated mice 3) Phagocytosis of bacteria by human and rat leukocytes 4) Spontaneous activity of jejunal villi in dogs 5) Neurotransmitter release following ruby laser exposure in guinea-pig ileum 6) DNA and RNA content in ruby laser irradiated Escherichia coli cultures 7) Laser irradiation on Ehrlich’s ascites tumor cells 8) Remote effect of laser irradiation on vessel formation in rabbit cornea 9) Low-output laser irradiation and wound healing: A) electronmicroscopy of granulation tissue: collagen production in fibroblasts B) enzymatic events in the early stages of wound healing C) regeneration of microcirculation in rabbit ear D) regeneration of muscle fiber E) tensile strength of He-Ne laser-irradiated wounds in rat’s skin F) immunosuppressive effect of laser-irradiation: – skin allotransplant survival time in rat – blast formation of phytohemagglutine stimulated lumphocytes – effect of noncoherent light sources on T and B lymphocytes G) prostaglandin content in wounded dorsal skin of the rat Biostimulatory effects of low-output laser irradiation have been demonstrated at a variety of molecular and cellular levels, as well as at whole organ and tissue levels. Under certain circumstances, syner-gistic effects with laser irradiation have been demonstrated; e.g. an effect on the immune system. Evidence exists which indicate that effects remote to the irradiated site occur, suggesting the presence of a circulatory active substance. Furthermore, the biostimulatory effects of low-output laser irradiation are dose dependent and, with sufficient intensity, the stimulatory effect disappears and inhibition occurs.
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Die Anwendung von Lasern in der Wundbehandlung stellt eine adjuvante Therapie dar. Diese Behandlung soll die Wundheilung unterstützen, wenn diese aus den verschiedensten Gründen derart gestört ist, dass sie ohne zusätzliche Maßnahmen nicht oder nicht in ausreichendem Maß einsetzt. Das ist dann der Fall, wenn weitere Faktoren eine hemmende Rolle spielen, d. h. eine komplexe Störung vorliegt. Dies ist typischerweise bei den sog. chronischen Wunden der Fall, die dann vorliegen, wenn sich nach 3 Monaten trotz entsprechender therapeutischer Intervention keine Heilung einstellt. Meist liegen dann bereits weitreichende hämodynamische Störungen der Makro- und Mikrozirkulation vor, deren Schweregrad durch das Vorliegen zusätzlicher Faktoren weiter verschlechtert wird. Hierzu gehören v. a. Fettstoffwechselstörungen, Rauchen, Adipositas, Immobilität und Störungen der humoralen und/oder zellulären Immunität. Trotz verschiedenster Störungsmechanismen führen letzten Endes alle diese Faktoren zu einem Sauerstoff- und damit Energiedefizit an der Endstrecke der Energieversorgung im Wundgewebe mit entsprechenden Störungen der Wundheilung. Diese Situation soll durch die adjuvante Therapie kompensiert werden.
Article
Background Red-coloured light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can improve skin photorejuvenation and regeneration by increasing cellular metabolic activity. AimTo evaluate the effectiveness of visible LEDs with specific wavelengths for skin photorejuvenation invitro and invivo. Methods Normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from neonatal foreskin were cultured and irradiated invitro by LEDs at different wavelengths (410-850nm) and doses (0-10J/cm(2)). In vivo experiments were performed on the skin of hairless mice. Expression of collagen (COL) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was evaluated by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (semi-qRT-PCR), western blotting and a procollagen type I C-peptide enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Haematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome stains were performed to evaluate histological changes. ResultsIn HDFs, COL I was upregulated and MMP-1 was downregulated in response to LED irradiation at 5952 and 630 +/- 8nm. In the EIA, a peak result was achieved at a dose of 5J/cm(2) with LED at 595 +/- 2nm. In vivo, COL I synthesis was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner to both 595 and 630nm LED irradiation, and this effect was prolonged to 21days after a single irradiation with a dose of 100J/cm(2). These histological changes were consistent with the results of semi-qRT-PCR and western blots. Conclusion Specific LED treatment with 595 +/- 2 and 630 +/- 8nm irradiation was able to modulate COL and MMPs in skin, with the effects persisting for at least 21days after irradiation. These findings suggest that yellow and red LEDs might be useful tools for skin photorejuvenation.
Conference Paper
The use of low energy lasers to accelerate wound healing continues to produce controversies. Some studies using cellular in vitro systems and animal models suggest that non-thermal laser irradiation can stimulate certain biochemical processes or physiological phenomena that might be related to wound healing. At the same time negative results are obtained in other studies using similar systems. The available information seems to indicate that the stimulation phenomena may occur for limited ranges of laser exposures and at specific sets of experimental parameters. At the same time, evaluation of the material reporting biostimulation phenomena is severely hampered by insufficient information on the protocols used, in particular on the exposure parameters. These deficiencies make it very difficult to objectively evaluate the status of the area of laser biostimulation.
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The curative effect of light was already described by the ancient Egyptians for treatment of some skin disorders. Later, the Greeks believed that sunlight brings strength and health to the organism. In the Middle Ages, sunlight was used to combat the plague. Physicians returned to light therapy by the late nineteenth century. Niels Finsen, the Nobel prize winner, utilized UV radiation to treat cutaneous tuberculosis. The concept of laser light application as light “medication” should therefore not be understood as new, having such antique roots. Low-energy lasers have been used in research and clinical applications for more than 30 years. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the effects of low-energy lasers on living tissues, cells, and organisms are not as well understood and known as the high-power laser-tissue interactions, used as a method of physical therapy and rehabilitation. Basically, it is thought that laser irradiation alters cellular behavior in the absence of significant heating. First reports in Hungary and the Eastern Bloc countries in the mid-1960s showed an acceleration of wound healing and hair growth [57, 61, 74–76, 99].
Conference Paper
Several lines of evidence suggest that low energy lasers, such as helium-neon (He-Ne) and gallium-arsenide (Ga-As) lasers, at very low energy, can modulate subtle biological functions of cells in vitro. For example, several clinical observations have suggested that He-Ne lasers might be effective in enhancing wound healing processes. The concept of laser biostimulation for wound healing has remained controversial, however, since some studies have not been able to document the beneficial effects of low energy lasers, and most trials thus far have been uncontrolled. Furthermore, although some studies have documented the beneficial effects of the laser energy, the question of specificity of the laser energy has remained controversial. In this presentation, we would like to review some recent studies from our laboratory suggesting that low energy lasers are capable of modulating subtle biological functions of cells.
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The impact of lasers in the field of dermatology has been quite large, whether as a tool to measure blood supply or as a means of destroying specific structures within the skin. The technology of the laser is a major advance. Nevertheless, there is probably — even with current technology — some fine tuning yet to be done, based not on the properties of the laser but on a greater understanding of the skin. There is a tendency to consider the skin as a homogeneous organ, without recognition of its great variety and the influence of site, age and pathology.
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The sun has always been associated with vitality. Many ancient cultures, such as the Egyptians and Greeks, worshipped the sun, and in Central America the Mayas, and later the Aztecs, even made an annual human sacrifice to appease the sun god. Heliotherapy, which is treatment based upon the use of sunlight, has been popular in the cure and palliation of many different diseases, such as rickets, skin disorders, and tuberculosis. At the end of the last century, the first artificial light source for therapeutic purposes, the ultraviolet lamp, was invented by the Nobel Prize winner, Niels Finsen. Several decades afterward, the interest in light therapy seemed to diminish, but with the invention of the laser, this modality has now begun a renaissance.
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During the near 25 years hystory of the low level laser biostimulation the promotion of the wound healing and the anti-inflammatory effect was proved in many different experimental and clinical studies.
Article
Diferent tipes of laser, like diode laser, are a good option of podiatry treatment in many patologies that appears in ours clinics. This option needs from the podiatrist a correct management and a deep knowledge of his use for not have secundary efects and could carry out treatments that are not painful, minimizing total time and providing a solution for many patologies.
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Die Anwendung niederenergetischen Laserlichtes stellt ein kontrovers diskutiertes Verfahren zur Therapie kochleärer Funktionsstörungen dar. Dazu tragen insbesondere fragwürdige methodische Vorgehensweisen und unkritische Ergebnisdarstellungen einiger Studien bei. Witt u. Felix (1989) entwickelten die „Selektive Photo-Biochemotherapie in der Kombination von Laser und Ginkgopflanzenextrakt“ zur Behandlung von Innenohrschwerhörigkeiten und chronischem Tinnitus [26]. Es existieren auch weitere klinische Studien, in denen die Wirkung von Laserenergie bei chronischem, therapierefraktären Tinnitus aurium und sensorineuraler Schwerhörigkeit untersucht wurde, häufig mit zusätzlicher i.v.-Applikation von Ginkgo-biloba- Extrakt („Soft-Laser-Ginkgo-Studien“), nachdem die üblichen Standardtherapieverfahren therapeutisch erfolglos waren.
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common musculoskeletal pain syndrome characterized by acute or chronic regional muscle pain. MPS is primarily caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrP). MPS treatment consists of MTrP inactivation, which breaks the vicious cycle of pain-contracture-pain and activates the descending pain inhibitory system. In recent years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become an increasingly mainstream modality for pain control of MPS and MTrP; however, the clinical outcomes of LLLT in MPS and MTrP seem controversial. This can probably be explained by the various parameters and applications of LLLT. Therefore, to discuss the effects of LLLT on MPS and MTrP, this review addresses the possible mechanisms of LLLT that operate both on cellular and tissue levels. The current literature suggests that LLLT may offer an important adjunct and non-drug option in general practices for MPS patients, especially in patients with adverse side effects to drug and invasive treatments.
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