Article

Systemogenesis as a General Regulator of Brain Development

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Abstract

The data collected in the laboratories over a number of years gives an opportunity to suggest that systemogenesis is a real regulator of the development of the brain structures and functions. The development goes on all the time selectively and is accelerated in accordance with the earliest needed adaptation to the outside surroundings by the newborn animal. It is seen that the well-timed consolidation of the vitally needed functional systems of the organism is continuously monitored by the systemic initial arrangement, the growth, and consolidation of the components of the functional system. It is also seen that this heterochronic maturation of different components of the functional system takes place everywhere, including the finest organizations on the level of molecular combinations and in the processes of the selective and successive maturation of individual synaptic organizations, in particular, on the cortical level. It is true that the systemogenetic type of the maturation and the growth is the most marked for those functional systems of the organism, which must be mature exactly at the moment of birth. They are evidently inborn, the preparation for their consolidation is preformed, and in fact, in the process of the ontogenesis, they correspond demonstrably to the ecological factors of that species of animal. The combination of the components of later and finer organized functional systems on the basis of which different behavioral acts are formed is less easily demonstrated. In that case, maturation and formation of new synaptic organizations of the brain in the presence of the completely mature peripheral working apparatus begin to play a leading role.

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... The various constraints set up by phylogeny will selectively sponsor the growth and structuring of pathways in the nervous system that are parts of functional systems which the child needs at birth [8]. As a consequence of this selective, accelerated growth, neonates are prepared to sustain life in their new environment and to explore and adapt to it. ...
... As a consequence of this selective, accelerated growth, neonates are prepared to sustain life in their new environment and to explore and adapt to it. Anokhin [8] gives a number of examples of such accelerated growth. For instance, although the facial nerve is an isolated structure, it shows a marked disproportionate maturation of several fibres at birth. ...
... The parts related to the functional system of sucking are ready to be used, while, for instance the parts that are the source of the frontal branches of the N. Facialis, are just beginning to differentiate. The fact that the morphogenesis of the nervous system primarily follows functional rules rather than structural ones was called "the principle of systemogenesis" by Anokhin [8]. ...
Book
A Conceptual Framework for Developmental Cognitive Systems.- Pre-natal Development and Core Abilities.- The Development of Cognitive Capabilities in Infants.- What Neurophysiology Teaches Us About Perception and Action.- Computational Models of Cognition.- A Research Roadmap..- The iCub Cognitive Architecture.- Conclusion.
... C. Works devoted to the general theory of development and improvement of technical systems and application of the theory of evolution to describe the process of system intellectualization. Such models are based on the provisions of the works of Peter Kuzmich Anokhin and Valentin Fyodorovich Turchin [17][18][19][20], who were the founders of the idea that technical systems are a special case of any other systems and, therefore, they cannot obey some general biological laws. The theory of functional systems, proposed by Anokhin [17], has gained practical application in many branches of science and technology over more than half a century of its development, which confirms its versatility. ...
... Continuing their ideas, Redko [21] shows that the development of any system includes their intellectualization, and in the course of their development the system expands its intellectual abilities. Anokhin has developed the theory of systems evolution as a generalization of mutation and natural selection processes, including before the advanced reflection of external influences on the system [17,18]. Turchin applied a cybernetic approach to evolution by proposing the theory of metasystemic transitions that allow to apply the evolutionary approach to technical systems, treating the development of these systems as jump transitions causing structural changes [19,20]. ...
... From an information security point of view, Turchin's approach is more suitable, because when a system implements a cyber attack, at some random moment of time, it experiences a sudden change caused by external action; this is its development, its evolution [20]. Together, the provisions of Anokhin, Turchin, and Redko are applied to global industries, allowing to predict the development and evolution of various complex systems [17][18][19][20][21]. However, as a rule, such approaches are global in nature and do not address the problem of information security, although this problem is an integral part of the digital transformation of the technological mode. ...
Article
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The paper looks at the problem of cybersecurity in modern cyber–physical systems and proposes an evolutionary model approach to counteract cyber attacks by self-regulating the structure of the system, as well as several evolutionary indicators to assess the state of the system. The application of evolutionary models makes it possible to describe the regularities of systems behavior and their technical development, which is especially important regarding cyber attacks, which are the cause of a discontinuous evolution of complex systems. A practical example describes a system behavior during attacks and the self-regulation of its structure. The methodological approach consists of using evolutionary models to describe how modern cyber–physical systems can counteract cyber attacks and evolve, building on the experience of past security incidents. The main conclusions and recommendations are presented in the Discussion section, and they consist of the fact that using an evolutionary approach will not only increase the security of cyber–physical systems, but also define the principles of building systems that are resistant to cyber attacks.
... The latter belong mostly to the developmental branch of functional systems theory termed systemogenesis, and for the lack of subsequent comments or reviews, some of these studies will be addressed below in more detail (but cf. Anokhin 1964Anokhin , 1974. ...
... For this purpose, wide comparative investigations were carried out on the embryological maturation of reflex systems supporting behavioral coordination in the immediate postnatal period, on the basis of which later, conditional and individually learned responses are elaborated. Such studies included the eco-physiological works conducted by Anokhin and co-workers on a variety of species and taxa, such as fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals (including human foetuses), the different ecologies of whom pose widely distinct requirements on nervous system maturation and postnatal adaptation (Anokhin 1964(Anokhin , 1974. This line of studies soon revealed that not only is maturation highly selective and accellerated in specialized functional systems, in correspondance with species' ecology and behavior; it also revealed the impossibility of matching many of those adaptations to the established criteria of reaction classificatione.g., distinguishing strictly between Bconditional^and Bunconditional^responses in terms of associatively learned versus innately expressed response patterns (Anokhin 1975(Anokhin [1949). ...
... This line of studies soon revealed that not only is maturation highly selective and accellerated in specialized functional systems, in correspondance with species' ecology and behavior; it also revealed the impossibility of matching many of those adaptations to the established criteria of reaction classificatione.g., distinguishing strictly between Bconditional^and Bunconditional^responses in terms of associatively learned versus innately expressed response patterns (Anokhin 1975(Anokhin [1949). Instead, numerous functional systems, achieving structural closure and sufficient maturity by time of birth, involve the defining and typical features of conditional associative reactions, such as cue-based signaling of objects anticipated in the postnatal environment (Anokhin 1964(Anokhin , 1974. At the same time, the maturational and instinctive specifics of various animals continue to shape their learning abilities throughout life in ways which had likewise been seldom ecologically clarified, and this formed the subject of a different line of eco-physiological studieson so-called natural associative reactions (Biryukov 1955(Biryukov , 1960(Biryukov , 1974Slonim 1961Slonim , 1967Slonim , 1976cf. ...
Article
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The possible evolutionary significance of epigenetic memory and codes is a key problem for extended evolutionary synthesis and biosemiotics. In this paper, some less known original works are reviewed which highlight theoretical parallels between current evolutionary epigenetics, on the one hand, and its predecessors in the eco-physiology of higher nervous activity, on the other. Recently, these areas have begun to converge, with first evidence now indicating the possibility of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of conditional associations in the mammalian nervous system, and related findings in other taxa. This can serve as an interesting example of evolutionary code-making, where the molecular mechanisms underlying arbitrary associations between stimuli involve lasting changes in gene expression that may be transmitted epigenetically across generations, and which in some cases could be further assimilated into the genome over subsequent evolution. Although preliminary, such epigenetic scenarios would also offer an interesting, if so far overlooked parallel to earlier research carried out by one of I.P. Pavlov’s leading students, acad. P.K. Anokhin, and his colleagues, but also by eminent eco-physiologists of the time, several of whom offered arguments for the possibility of unconditional reflexes representing evolutionarily later, specialized, and reduced forms of associative reflexes, from which they may be derived. Although discarded under the growing dominance of modern synthesis, these early epigenetic investigations may deserve renewed attention in the modern context, and if further confirmed, could open essentially new perspectives on the morphofunctional evolution of the nervous system.
... The choice of the paradigm describing "how does the brain work" affects our studies' design, language and the interpretation of results, and therefore determines the efficacy of our science. As an alternative to the "reactivity" paradigm in psychology, the Soviet school of psychology proposed the Activity Theory (AT) in the 1930s to 1970s, especially in the works of Bernstein (1935Bernstein ( , 1947Bernstein ( , 1996, Anokhin (1964Anokhin ( , 1975 and Leontiev (1978Leontiev ( , 1981Leontiev ( , 1983 which were adopted by a number of European scientists; see Bongaardt and Meijer, (2000) and Bedney and Meister (2014) for reviews. The Activity Theory (AT) is often presented as a theory suggesting that behavior is regulated not by external stimulation but rather by the goals or motives of behavior. ...
... The most prominent pioneering evidence that specifically has demonstrated the constructive principles of behavior, was reported in experiments in kinesiology by Nikolay Bernstein in mid-1930s (Bernstein, 1935(Bernstein, , 1996. The FC phenomena were subsequently described and simplified in cybernetics (Amazeen, Amazeen, & Turvey, 1998;Bedney & Meister, 2014;Pickering, 2010), and received additional evidence in neurophysiology (Alexandrov, 2006(Alexandrov, , 2015Anokhin, 1964Anokhin, , 1975Hebb, 1961;Joel & Wiener, 2000;Pribram, 1971;Quartz & Sejnowski, 1997), neurochemistry (Tsein, 2006;Waldhoer, Bartlett, & Whistler, 2004), developmental and educational psychology (Bruner, 1973;Elkonin, 2005;Pearce, 1995;Vygotsky, 1998), ecological psychology (Bateson, 1972;Gibson, 1979), psychological modeling (Bar-Yam, 2000;Carbonaro & Serra, 2002;Guastello, Koopmans, & Pincus, 2009;Sulis, 1995Sulis, , 2008Trofimova, 2001a;Trofimova, Mitin, Potapov, & Malinetsky, 1997), psychology of cognition (Freeman, 2000(Freeman, , 2001Kahneman, 1973;Norman, 2002;Treisman & Gelade, 1980;Trofimova, 1999Trofimova, , 2014 and psychology of emotions (Barrett, 2009;Lindquist, Wager, Kober, Bliss-Moreau, & Barrett, 2012;Russell, 2003;Vuilleumier, 2005). ...
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... 17 [5] 19 [3] 10 [2] G=15.7 G=25.8 In particular, they found that the stress increases the overall association and connectivity of the gene regulation network, even if different stress conditions, such as desiccation, salt and oxidative stresses in addition to cold or heat, occur in combination. ...
... Independent component analysis (ICA) was specially invented for separation of a complex signal into signals from independent subsystems [82] (For the technical aspects of ICA applications such as determining the optimal number of components and improving reproducibility of the results see [156]). The theory of functional systems in biology was developed before the big data revolution came [3,4,160]. The configuration of subsystems is dynamic and changes over time and under the pressure of various factors. ...
Article
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The concept of biological adaptation was closely connected to some mathematical, engineering and physical ideas from the very beginning. Cannon in his “The wisdom of the body” (1932) systematically used the engineering vision of regulation. In 1938, Selye enriched this approach by the notion of adaptation energy. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. Selye did not use the language of mathematics systematically, but the formalization of his phenomenological theory in the spirit of thermodynamics was simple and led to verifiable predictions. In 1980s, the dynamics of correlation and variance in systems under adaptation to a load of environmental factors were studied and the universal effect in ensembles of systems under a load of similar factors was discovered: in a crisis, as a rule, even before the onset of obvious symptoms of stress, the correlation increases together with variance (and volatility). During 30 years, this effect has been supported by many observations of groups of humans, mice, trees, grassy plants, and on financial time series. In the last ten years, these results were supplemented by many new experiments, from gene networks in cardiology and oncology to dynamics of depression and clinical psychotherapy. Several systems of models were developed: the thermodynamic-like theory of adaptation of ensembles and several families of models of individual adaptation. Historically, the first group of models was based on Selye's concept of adaptation energy and used fitness estimates. Two other groups of models are based on the idea of hidden attractor bifurcation and on the advection–diffusion model for distribution of population in the space of physiological attributes. We explore this world of models and experiments, starting with classic works, with particular attention to the results of the last ten years and open questions.
... 17 [5] 19 [3] 10 [2] G=15.7 G=25.8 For each region, a 19-dimensional vector of the prevalence rates of the public fears was identified. ...
... Independent component analysis (ICA) was specially invented for separation of a complex signal into signals from independent subsystems [81] (For the technical aspects of ICA applications such as determining the optimal number of components and improving reproducibility of the results see [156]). The theory of functional systems in biology was developed before the big data revolution came [3,4,160]. The configuration of subsystems is dynamic and changes over time and under the pressure of various factors. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The concept of biological adaptation was closely connected to some mathematical, engineering and physical ideas from the very beginning. Cannon in his "The wisdom of the body" (1932) systematically used the engineering vision of regulation. In 1938, Selye enriched this approach by the notion of adaptation energy. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. Selye did not use the language of mathematics systematically, but the formalization of his phenomenological theory in the spirit of thermodynamics was simple and led to verifiable predictions. In 1980s, the dynamics of correlation and variance in systems under adaptation to a load of environmental factors were studied and the universal effect in ensembles of systems under a load of similar factors was discovered: in a crisis, as a rule, even before the onset of obvious symptoms of stress, the correlation increases together with variance (and volatility). During 30 years, this effect has been supported by many experiments and observations of groups of humans, mice, trees, grassy plants, and on financial time series. In the last ten years, these results were supplemented by many new experiments, from gene networks in cardiology and oncology to dynamics of depression and clinical psychotherapy. Several systems of models were developed: the thermodynamic-like theory of adaptation of ensembles and three generations of models of individual adaptation. The simplest models were based on the Selye's concept of adaptation energy, the second used the separation of adaptation energy into "superficial" and "deep" energies (proposed in physiology), and the third introduced adaptation entropy and free energy. We explore this world of models and experiments, starting with classic works, with particular attention to the results of the last ten years.
... The choice of the paradigm describing "how does the brain work" affects our studies' design, language and the interpretation of results, and therefore determines the efficacy of our science. As an alternative to the "reactivity" paradigm in psychology, the Soviet school of psychology proposed the Activity Theory (AT) in the 1930s to 1970s, especially in the works of Bernstein (1935Bernstein ( , 1947Bernstein ( , 1996, Anokhin (1964Anokhin ( , 1975 and Leontiev (1978Leontiev ( , 1981Leontiev ( , 1983 which were adopted by a number of European scientists; see Bongaardt and Meijer, (2000) and Bedney and Meister (2014) for reviews. The Activity Theory (AT) is often presented as a theory suggesting that behavior is regulated not by external stimulation but rather by the goals or motives of behavior. ...
... The most prominent pioneering evidence that specifically has demonstrated the constructive principles of behavior, was reported in experiments in kinesiology by Nikolay Bernstein in mid-1930s (Bernstein, 1935(Bernstein, , 1996. The FC phenomena were subsequently described and simplified in cybernetics (Amazeen, Amazeen, & Turvey, 1998;Bedney & Meister, 2014;Pickering, 2010), and received additional evidence in neurophysiology (Alexandrov, 2006(Alexandrov, , 2015Anokhin, 1964Anokhin, , 1975Hebb, 1961;Joel & Wiener, 2000;Pribram, 1971;Quartz & Sejnowski, 1997), neurochemistry (Tsein, 2006;Waldhoer, Bartlett, & Whistler, 2004), developmental and educational psychology (Bruner, 1973;Elkonin, 2005;Pearce, 1995;Vygotsky, 1998), ecological psychology (Bateson, 1972;Gibson, 1979), psychological modeling (Bar-Yam, 2000;Carbonaro & Serra, 2002;Guastello, Koopmans, & Pincus, 2009;Sulis, 1995Sulis, , 2008Trofimova, 2001a;Trofimova, Mitin, Potapov, & Malinetsky, 1997), psychology of cognition (Freeman, 2000(Freeman, , 2001Kahneman, 1973;Norman, 2002;Treisman & Gelade, 1980;Trofimova, 1999Trofimova, , 2014 and psychology of emotions (Barrett, 2009;Lindquist, Wager, Kober, Bliss-Moreau, & Barrett, 2012;Russell, 2003;Vuilleumier, 2005). ...
Article
Introduction Temperament and mental illnesses are considered to be varying degrees along the same continuum of imbalance in the neurophysiological regulation of behavior. Mental disorders are linked to specific patterns in the relationships between neurotransmitters and between brain structures. Similar links were found for temperament traits. Development of DSM and ICD classifications might benefit therefore from an integration between psychiatry, functional neurochemistry and differential psychology. Objectives To describe the neurochemical systems underlying mental disorders and temperament traits in healthy adults. Methods Findings in neurochemistry, neuropsychology, differential psychology and psychopathology are compared to the traits described in various temperament models. This analysis is summarized in the perspective of the neurochemical functional ensemble of temperament (FET) model. Results Neurochemical correlates for 12 main dynamical aspects of behavior are presented as a systemic framework that follows a universal functional structure of human actions described in kinesiology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and clinical neuropsychology. The role of monoamine systems (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin), acetylcholine, GABA/glutamate, neuropeptide and opioid receptor systems are linked to regulation of specific dynamical properties of behavior in a systematic way. Several insights for the structure of the classification of mental disorders from the perspective of the FET model are proposed. Conclusions An integration of research in neurochemistry and psychopathology of behavior with differential psychology based on healthy samples can bring new insights for future versions of DSM and ICD classifications of mental disorders. Such integration does not follow either dimensionality or categorical approach but instead is based on functional ecology of human behavior.
... The choice of the paradigm describing "how does the brain work" affects our studies' design, language and the interpretation of results, and therefore determines the efficacy of our science. As an alternative to the "reactivity" paradigm in psychology, the Soviet school of psychology proposed the Activity Theory (AT) in the 1930s to 1970s, especially in the works of Bernstein (1935Bernstein ( , 1947Bernstein ( , 1996, Anokhin (1964Anokhin ( , 1975 and Leontiev (1978Leontiev ( , 1981Leontiev ( , 1983 which were adopted by a number of European scientists; see Bongaardt and Meijer, (2000) and Bedney and Meister (2014) for reviews. The Activity Theory (AT) is often presented as a theory suggesting that behavior is regulated not by external stimulation but rather by the goals or motives of behavior. ...
... The most prominent pioneering evidence that specifically has demonstrated the constructive principles of behavior, was reported in experiments in kinesiology by Nikolay Bernstein in mid-1930s (Bernstein, 1935(Bernstein, , 1996. The FC phenomena were subsequently described and simplified in cybernetics (Amazeen, Amazeen, & Turvey, 1998;Bedney & Meister, 2014;Pickering, 2010), and received additional evidence in neurophysiology (Alexandrov, 2006(Alexandrov, , 2015Anokhin, 1964Anokhin, , 1975Hebb, 1961;Joel & Wiener, 2000;Pribram, 1971;Quartz & Sejnowski, 1997), neurochemistry (Tsein, 2006;Waldhoer, Bartlett, & Whistler, 2004), developmental and educational psychology (Bruner, 1973;Elkonin, 2005;Pearce, 1995;Vygotsky, 1998), ecological psychology (Bateson, 1972;Gibson, 1979), psychological modeling (Bar-Yam, 2000;Carbonaro & Serra, 2002;Guastello, Koopmans, & Pincus, 2009;Sulis, 1995Sulis, , 2008Trofimova, 2001a;Trofimova, Mitin, Potapov, & Malinetsky, 1997), psychology of cognition (Freeman, 2000(Freeman, , 2001Kahneman, 1973;Norman, 2002;Treisman & Gelade, 1980;Trofimova, 1999Trofimova, , 2014 and psychology of emotions (Barrett, 2009;Lindquist, Wager, Kober, Bliss-Moreau, & Barrett, 2012;Russell, 2003;Vuilleumier, 2005). ...
Article
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The Functional Constructivism (FC) paradigm is an alternative to behaviorism and considers behavior as being generated every time anew, based on an individual's capacities, environmental resources and demands. Walter Freeman's work provided us with evidence supporting the FC principles. In this paper we make parallels between gradual construction processes leading to the formation of individual behavior and habits, and evolutionary processes leading to the establishment of biological systems. Referencing evolutionary theory, several formal descriptors of such processes are proposed. These FC descriptors refer to the most universal aspects for constructing consistent structures: expansion of degrees of freedom, integration processes based on internal and external compatibility between systems and maintenance processes, all given in four different classes of systems: (a) Zone of Proximate Development (poorly defined) systems; (b) peer systems with emerging reproduction of multiple siblings; (c) systems with internalized integration of behavioral elements ("cruise controls"); and (d) systems capable of handling low-probability, not yet present events. The recursive dynamics within this set of descriptors acting on (traditional) downward, upward and horizontal directions of evolution, is conceptualized as diagonal evolution, or di-evolution. Two examples applying these FC descriptors to taxonomy are given: classification of the functionality of neuro-transmitters and temperament traits; classification of mental disorders. The paper is an early step towards finding a formal language describing universal tendencies in highly diverse, complex and multi-level transient systems known in ecology and biology as "contingency cycles".
... According to the theory of functional systems, Anokhin [14][15][16], the general scheme of the relationship between running speed and perception of the surrounding space can be represented as follows. The central nervous system receives signals from muscle proprioceptors about the intensity of muscle contractions. ...
Article
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Introduction: The purpose of the work is to theoretically and experimentally substantiate the influence of psychophysiological factors on individual performance in athletics sprint in high-qualified athletes on the example of an elite athlete. Material and methods: In this study, participated 1 athlete, 36 years of age, female. Athlete is specializing in short-distance running and long jump, the European Athletics Champion 2010; prize winner of the World Paralympic and Paralympic Games among athletes with visual impairments (T12 category) in 2016. The study was conducted for 5 months. Twice a week, testing was conducted (psychophysiological indicators and running speed); 36 tests of one athlete were conducted. Individual characteristics of the psychophysiological state and results in running for 100 m for five months were analyzed. Results. The models of multiple linear regression between results in 100 m run for an elite athlete with visual impairment and psychophysiological indices are compiled. High importance of psychophysiological indices in individual performance in running on 100 m is shown. Conclusions. Compensatory mechanisms of visual function deficiency were established to maintain high speed in the 100 m run as
... Still, another possibility for such difference in the onset of IEGs induction is that species-specific alarm call induces neuronal activation in auditory structures earlier than does the species song. This variance in the age when species-specific signals of different biological meaning induce expression of immediate early genes can be due to a selectively accelerated maturation of defensive functional systems critical for the survival during the early nest period (Anokhin 1964). The alarm call controls intensity of brood's vocalization that tends to disclose the nest, thus being an essential factor even within the nest period. ...
Article
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The present study analyzed expression of transcriptional factors c-Fos and ZENK in 9-day-old pied flycatcher nestlings' (Ficedula hypoleuca) telencephalic auditory centers (field L, caudomedial nidopallium and caudomedial mesopallium) involved in the acoustically-guided defense behavior. Species-typical alarm call was presented to the young in three groups: 1--intact group (sighted control), 2--nestlings visually deprived just before the experiment for a short time (unsighted control) 3--nestlings visually deprived right after hatching (experimental deprivation). Induction of c-Fos as well as ZENK in nestlings from the experimental deprivation group was decreased in both hemispheres as compared with intact group. In the group of unsighted control, only the decrease of c-Fos induction was observed exclusively in the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that limitation of visual input changes the population of neurons involved into the acoustically-guided behavior, the effect being dependant from the duration of deprivation.
... More likely is that regulatory systems developed in tune with those functional properties of behavior that are general across tasks and situations rather than for specific tasks such as eating, drinking and sex. A description of such universal properties, or components involved in the construction of behavioral actions and routines was offered in early (Anokhin, 1964(Anokhin, , 1975Bernstein, 1947Bernstein, , 1996; Table 1 Mapping of neurochemical systems and temperament factors within neurophysiology and developmental psychology models in the framework of the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET). Emotionality dimensions of temperament and models with primarily emotionality traits are excluded. ...
... Development of behaviour has been studied from the beginning of 20 th century [5][6][7] and more recently there are studies regarding the role of prenatal experience on the subsequent postnatal behaviour in avian and mammalian ...
... Walter followed a very important trend in neurophysiology that emerged as "activity theory" in Russian neuroscience in the mid-1950s and then made its way to the West in the 1970s. Similar to the positions of Bernstein (1935Bernstein ( , 1947Bernstein ( , 1996Bongaardt & Meijer, 2000;Whiting, 1984) and Anokhin (1964Anokhin ( , 1975, Walter understood cognition and behavioural regulation in general as an active, generative process that is being constructed on the basis of the situational context and the state of the nervous system. In How Brains Make Up Their Minds (Freeman, 2001), he provided a popular account of his ideas, suggesting that brains do not form representations of the world but instead generate meaning and intentions upon which they base their interactions with the world. ...
... It is called lexical not because it used questionnaires but because it used (arbitrarily chosen) thousands of common-language descriptors of psychological differences, in which proximity was analysed using FA. This method, however, has a strong sociability bias by default [3,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]40,41,43,44,46]: after all, language (and verbal descriptors) emerged in evolution to dimensions are nonlinear Yerkes-Dodson [74] strong optimal body state where math can't help: contingency, feedback, multi-level regulation… Anochin [79,80]; Bernstein [81] experience current stimuli energetic maintenance speed of integration type of orientation temperament traits correspond to functional aspects of behaviour: linear models but dimensions are not independent Pavlov [78]: 4 types of nervous systems Russell, Mehrabian …with an overlap on same neurons feedback action ...
Article
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This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology—as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century. It also highlights the inability of common statistical methods to handle nonlinear, feedback, contingent, dynamical and multi-level relationships between psychophysiological systems of consistent psychological traits discussed in this theme issue. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'.
... Intercorrelations between these measures showed that the most individually consistent traits that could be associated with specific psychophysiological measures and EEG patterns were: ergonicity, plasticity, tempo and emotionality. At that time (in the mid-1970s) Anokhin's [18,19] theory of functional systems and Bernstein's [20,21,45] theory of construction of behaviour converged and gained more and more interest both in Russia and in the West [21,22]. Listening to Anokhin's lectures convinced me that, instead of reflexology, a structure of temperament could be mapped around functional blocks described by Anokhin and Bernstein. ...
Article
This brief opinion contribution reflects on the application of Anokhin's functional systems theory in the development of models of temperament in Russian differential psychophysiology. It points to the benefits of using an activity-specific approach in temperament theory. This approach suggests separating traits related to physical, communicative and mental aspects of behaviour. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'.
... The reason for choosing an approach based on immunization is that immunization is another approach to solving the problem of countering cyber threats-the development of the ideas of P.K. Anokhin about the transfer of the biological properties of life preservation to information security [15,16]. Immunization is one of the mechanisms of self-regulation for systems, which, unlike homeostasis, protects the system from a certain spectrum of cyber threats and reduces the risk of damage to critical nodes from new cyber threats. ...
Article
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This paper looks at the problem of cybersecurity in modern cyber-physical and information systems and proposes an immune-like approach to the information security of modern complex systems. This approach is based on the mathematical modeling in information security—in particular, the use of immune methods to protect several critical system nodes from a predetermined range of attacks, and to minimize the success of an attack on the system. The methodological approach is to systematize the tasks, means and modes of immunization to describe how modern systems can counter the spread of computer attacks. The main conclusions and recommendations are that using an immunization approach will not only improve the security of systems, but also define principles for building systems that are resistant to cyber attacks. The immunization approach enables a symmetrical response to an intruder in a protected system to be produced rapidly. This symmetry provides a step-by-step neutralization of all stages of a cyber attack, which, combined with the accumulation of knowledge of the attacker’s actions, allows a base of defensive responses to be generated for various cyber attack scenarios. The theoretical conclusions are supported by practical experiments describing real-world scenarios for the use of immunization tools to protect against cyber threats.
... This approach has been conceptualized within an evolutionary framework (e.g. Anokhin, 1964). Biobehavioral perspectives on brain maturation are consistent with expectations of continuing transformations in pain experience and expression subsequent to birth. ...
... Therefore, imitation is not something fixed in the brain Bjorklund (1987) or governed by an innate mechanism (Anisfeld, 1996) but rather, is part of the human development process and is intimately linked to cognitive, perceptual and social development in the broadest forms. After the newborn period, imitation seems to be more and more socially reinforced Rayson, Bonaiuto, Ferrari, & Murray, 2017) and be influenced by speeching and smiling that infants see in social interactions. ...
Article
Early infancy has been neglect not having the best opportunities to promote social motor and cognitive development. The maturational concept considering young infants as passive beings provide a misguided view of the developmental process. The human infant is an active being from the very beginning of life. In the social and physical world, they can, by observing and imitating, perform complex actions involving different motor behaviours. In the present review we argue that imitation and manipulative actions are integrated in Expressive Action System (Reed, 1996) where baby-caregiver social interaction is the link between the use and exploration of objects in the world. We present evidence that neonatal imitation and manipulation activities are connected and thus, we propose stimulation practices based in seminal experimental designs where infants should be positioned in favourable postures to observe others acting in the world. This will have an impact on the way that early infants understand the social world and the chain of actions possible in this environment.
... These blocks should be processed and integrated during the stage of programming of actions and then gradually sharpened with more detailed units, with feedback from the execution of actions. Similar functional "blocks" or stages in the construction of behaviour have been commonly described since the mid-twentieth century in constructivism theories in kinesiology [24,25], functional neurophysiology [36], clinical neuropsychology [37], and behavioural cybernetics. ...
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Background/aims: Progress in the development of DSM/ICD taxonomies has revealed limitations of both label-based and dimensionality approaches. These approaches fail to address the contingent, nonlinear, context-dependent, and transient nature of those biomarkers linked to specific symptoms of psychopathology or to specific biobehavioural traits of healthy people (temperament). The present review aims to highlight the benefits of a functional constructivism approach in the analysis of neurochemical biomarkers underlying temperament and psychopathology. Method: A review was performed. Results: Eight systems are identified, and 7 neurochemical ensembles are described in detail. None of these systems is represented by a single neurotransmitter; all of them work in ensembles with each other. The functionality and relationships of these systems are presented here in association with their roles in action construction, with brief examples of psychopathology. The review introduces formal symbols for these systems to facilitate their more compact analysis in the future. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates the possibility of constructivism-based unifying taxonomies of temperament (in the framework of the neurochemical model functional ensemble of temperament) and classifications of psychiatric disorders. Such taxonomies would present the biobehavioural individual differences as consistent behavioural patterns generated within a formally structured space of parameters related to the generation of behaviour.
... The results of said measurements and studies of the psychophysiological parameters of a person as standard physical quantities show not only the possibility, but also the need to use the proposed cybernetic approach in the study of emotions, psychophysiological parameters, character traits and personality characteristics, i. e. all behavioral characteristics of a person. Moreover, unlike previous developers of the cybernetic approach to personality analysis, limited to the development of theoretical principles (Bernstein, 1967;Wiener, 1948;Anokhin, 1963;Simonov, 1986 (Minkin, 2019c). The fi rst Nobel laureate from Russia, Academician Pavlov wrote: "It is often said, and not without reason, that science moves with jerks, depending on the successes made by the technology. ...
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The monograph presents a new look at the cybernetic approach to the behavioral characteristics of personality. The classification of behavioral characteristics based on mathematical and metrological principles is proposed. Emotions and psychophysiological parameters of a person are determined by measuring physical quantities and physiological parameters of a person. It is proposed to use Pearson linear correlation as the classification feature that separates behavioral characteristics into emotions, psychophysiological parameters and consciousness parameters. Algorithms for calculating 12 emotional and 4 psychophysiological parameters using vibraimage technology are described. The density distribution functions of emotional and psychophysiological parameters given for the database of 10 266 tests. Open database on emotional and psychophysiological parameters includes test results of VibraMed, VibraMI and PsyAccent programs. Correlation dependencies (correlation matrixes and graphs) for all given behavioral characteristics are constructed and analyzed. The investigated databases of behavioral characteristics are publicly available. The monograph intends for specialists in the fields of physics, mathematics, cybernetics, computer science, psychology, biology, physiology, vibraimage and biometrics, as well as a wide circle of readers interested in emotions, psychophysiological parameters, character traits, abilities, consciousness parameters and other behavioral characteristics of personality.
... According to the theory of functional systems, Anokhin and Shuleikina [27] and Anokhin [28,29] found that the general scheme of the relationship of running speed and perception of the surrounding space could be represented as follows. The central nervous system receives signals from muscle proprioceptors about the intensity of muscle contractions. ...
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Introduction. The aim of the work was to determine the features of the influence of psychophysiological indices on the result in running for short distances of an elite sportswoman with visual impairments. Methods. The study involved a high-qualified athlete specializing in short-distance running and long jump. Psychophysiological testing of the athlete took place with appropriate optical lenses. Individual characteristics of the psychophysiological state and results in running at 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, 120 m, 150 m, and 200 m during 5 months of 2015 were analysed. Parameters characteristic for determining the psychophysiological state, typological characteristics of the nervous system, indicators of the nervous system working capacity, and attention indicators were analysed with the help of computer programs for psychophysiological testing. On the basis of the results in running and psychophysiological indicators, a factor analysis was carried out with the main components method with Varimax rotation, and multiple regression analysis by the linear model type in a step-by-step method. Results. Four factors were identified in the individual structure of psychophysiological functions and effectiveness in running for short distances. Compensatory mechanisms of visual deficiency were identified maintaining high speed in short-distance running as psychophysiological functions, expressed as indicators characteristic of sprinters and specific indicators (efficiency, strength of the nervous system). Conclusions. On the basis of mathematical models, the strengths of the athlete were highlighted, which tend to develop and also compensate for the inadequacy of the visual analyser.
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This review of findings in brain research is concerned with the biological causes of perception.
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Few facts about infancy are so obvious as the apparent inaccessibility of memories from the months and years just after birth. Explanations offered to account for this absence of early memories have ranged from psychoanalytic formulations to mechanisms grounded in neurobiology. In this chapter, we will suggest that the postnatal maturation of a specific neural system—the hippocampal formation—lies at the root of infantile amnesia. This argument is based on the points outlined below, each of which will be developed in the sections to follow.
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It is through the production of integrated sequences of movement that animals express rules by which they interact with, and adapt to, their physical, biological, and social environments. The diversity of these motor patterns in the behavior of animals can provide a valuable assay of processes of developmental organization. Our aim in this chapter is to examine motor patterns in development at different levels of organization and from several complementary perspectives.
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Der Begriff Kognition wird in den Wissenschaftsdisziplinen, welche sich mit dem Erleben und Verhalten sowie deren zerebralorganischen Grundlagen und Umweltdeterminanten beschäftigen, verwendet, um alle jene Prozesse zu beschreiben, durch die sensorischer Input umgesetzt, reduziert, weiterverarbeitet, gespeichert, aber auch wieder reaktiviert wird. Aber auch Prozesse der Informationsverarbeitung, die ohne das Vorhandensein entsprechender äußerer Stimulation ablaufen, und die Organisation von Handlung werden unter diesem Begriff subsumiert (s. auch Neisser 1974). Begriffe wie Empfindung, Wahrnehmung, Behalten, Gedächtnis, Vorstellung, Erinnerung, Sprache und Denken beziehen sich auf angenommene und unterscheidbare Stadien im Rahmen der Informationsverarbeitung bzw. Informationsgenerierung, also auf verschiedene Aspekte von Kognition. Es scheint gerechtfertigt, Prozesse der Sensorik, d.h. der Vermittlung von Empfindung ohne die Verdichtung dieses Eindrucks zu einer Gewaltwahrnehmung sowie Prozesse der Motorikorganisation vom Bereich der Informationsverarbeitung, der als Kognition beschrieben wird, begrifflich zu unterscheiden.
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The purpose of the study: the determination of the effect of special precision-target exercises on the level and structure of psychophysiological indicators, physical and technical preparedness of players at the initial stage of training. Material and methods. The study was attended by 22 young footballers 10-12 years old. The subjects were divided into two groups (control and experimental) for 11 people in each. The control and experimental group trained the same amount of time for the same progips, but in the experimental group, in the main part of the class, used the technique of complex development of precision-target movements. Measured the level of physical and technical preparedness, as well as the level of psychophysiological functions of athletes. Results. It is shown that the experimental group experienced significant improvements in the techniques of football due to the development of precision-oriented skills. Really improved results of physical and technical preparedness of athletes of the experimental group were revealed. The control group is also characterized by a significant improvement in testing results by level of technical and physical fitness, but not reliable or at a lower level of significance. The positive influence of the method of complex development of precision-target movements on the psychophysiological indices of athletes is shown. It was shown that after the experiment, the number of reliable interrelationships between the indicators of psychophysiological functions and the indicators of technical and physical fitness in the experimental group increased, and in the control remained unchanged. Conclusions. The application of the experimental methodology for the development of precision-target movements positively influenced the level of tec
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Seven thousand seven hundred years ago, in a village near the coast of Peru, a small infant died. He was buried with a gourd in his hand; inside the gourd were tiny shells and cactus spines, indicating it was probably a baby rattle.1
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This paper analyses the role of A. A. Ukhtomsky’s principle of the dominant in L. S. Vygotsky’s psychological theory, as well as the relevance of their research traditions in the context of current cognitive research, particularly on the dual process models of mind and embodied cognition. It is proposed that the dominant principle – founded by A. A. Ukhtomsky, and elaborated by L. S. Vygotsky and colleagues, enables to analyze functional reorganizations of cognitive activity on the behavioral time-scale, thereby further specifying the chronogenic principle of systemic dynamic localization of higher psychological processes during ontogenesis. It’s shown how the dominant serves as a model of historical (developmental) explanation bridging psychology and physiology, and has the potential to advance shifts in current research directions.
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This paper analyses the role of A.A. Ukhtomsky's principle of the dominant in L.S. Vygotsky's psychological theory, as well as the relevance of their scientific schools in the context of current cognitive research, particularly on the dual-process models of mind and embodied cognition. It is proposed that the dominant principle – founded by A. A. Ukhtomsky, and elaborated by L. S. Vygotsky and colleagues, enables to analyze functional reorganizations of cognitive and cortical activity on the behavioral timescale , thereby further specifying the chronogenic principle of systemic dynamic localization of higher psychological processes during ontogeny. It's shown how the dominant serves as a model of historical (developmental) explanation bridging psychology and physiology, and has the potential to advance shifts in current research directions.
Thesis
This thesis presents a series of inter-related case studies aiming to reexamine, from modern perspectives, one of the most significant and integrative approaches to neurophysiology in the 20th century – the study of the dominant (учение о доминанте) by the physiologist acad. A.A. Ukhtomsky (1875–1942) and his scientific school. Although recognized as a critical contribution and framework for organism-centered study of physiology, knowledge of this school has remained minimal in the West, and to this day, almost entirely unexplored for its prospects of integration with respective foreign research programs in biology and neuroscience, both past and present. In recent years, and partly on the initiative of the present author, some of the first attempts have been made to overcome these limitations, and to more systematically address the legacy of Ukhtomsky's school from modern perspectives in Western science. The present thesis, growing out from these efforts, contributes further materials to such comparative and methodological investigation. It aims specifically to clarify the modern status and significance of the dominant framework as an integrative and organismic paradigm for neuroscientific research, and to show its potentially wide implications for human neuroscience in particular, as a socially and culturally (anthropologically) oriented discipline. Focused on the questions of historicity and temporal variability (process dynamics, chronogenic variation) as explanatory tools and concepts, the presented case studies touch upon theoretical problems ranging from basic homeostasis at the cellular and network levels, to problems of human labor and social neuroscience. All these applications are shown to derive from the basic physiological paradigm of the dominant, thereby demonstrating its continued integrative potential in the context of modern fundamental and applied research.
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Manual medicine perceives the function, disorders, and functional pathologies of the musculoskeletal system to be the central focus of all diagnostic considerations and therapeutic approaches. Chronification as the transition from temporary symptoms and findings to a permanent (chronic) manifestation of disease is a process in which the combined effect of morphologic and functional pathologies progress, potentiate one another, and exacerbate the symptomatic of reduced performance, dysfunction, and associated pain. The development of functional disorders affecting movement as well as chronification with morphological adaptation and pain progresses through various stages. Using Anochin’s “functional system for motoric dysfunction” model, functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system can be described and the various influences in these stages differentiated. Applying this model allows different subgroups of chronic manifestations and pain of the musculoskeletal system to be differentiated as distinct syndromes or clinical patterns.
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Zervikale Radikulärsyndrome gehen meist mit Funktionsstörungen einher. Sich jedoch nur auf einen einzigen Aspekt des funktionellen Systems zu fokussieren, ist nicht zielführend. Eine Einteilung in primäre und sekundäre Funktionsstörungen erleichtert den Überblick für Diagnostik und Therapie.
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Funktionsstörungen am Bewegungssystem (BS) gehören zu den häufigsten Befunden bei Schmerzen am BS. Funktionsstörungen am BS sind primär nicht immer von Strukturveränderungen abhängig, sondern bilden eigenständige Entitäten, die in Verbindung mit Einschränkungen des täglichen Lebens und Schmerz als Funktionskrankheiten definiert werden können. Im Mittelpunkt dieses 2. Teils steht die Organisation eines auf die Qualität des Bewegungsresultats gerichteten funktionellen Systems, in dem funktionelle Strukturen des Zentralnervensystems die zentrale Stellung einnehmen. Als Beispiel für vernetzte motorische Funktionskreise wird der kraniozervikothorakale Übergang (Schlüsselregion) gewählt. Das von Anochin für das Verhalten entwickelte funktionelle System beinhaltet in einem zyklisch, dynamisch ablaufenden Kreislauf die Komponenten der Afferenz, Motivation, Erfahrung, Entscheidungsfindung, Bildung des motorischen Plans, Efferenz, Bewegung als Resultat sowie Reafferenz und Vergleich des Resultats im Aktionsakzeptor. Das System verdeutlicht, dass die einzelnen Teilfunktionen und Dysfunktionen zueinander in Relation stehen (Relationspathologie). In dieses System haben die Autoren nun die grundlegenden manualmedizinischen Begriffe eingefügt, sodass das funktionelle System als Modell für die Erklärung manualmedizinischer Befunde, für die gezielte Therapieplanung und für die Planung weiterer Forschung genutzt werden kann.
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This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology—as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century. It also highlights the inability of common statistical methods to handle nonlinear, feedback, contingent, dynamical and multi-level relationships between psychophysiological systems of consistent psychological traits discussed in this theme issue. _____________________________________________________________________________ http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/373/1744/20170152
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Background Despite high acceptance of manual medicine and proven positive for diseases of the locomotor system in particular, it is not recognized by or established in academic medicine. The reason for this might be the lack of a defined therapeutic target. No other medical field is defined by the diagnosis and treatment of clinical findings (somatic dysfunction). Methods Based on an expert panel and relevant literature, somatic dysfunction, the development of functional diseases, and factors influencing their chronification are discussed and defined. Results The diagnostic and therapeutic target of manual medicine is the functional disease as well as the underlying primary and secondary somatic dysfunction. Functional diseases of the locomotor system are characterized by the following cardinal symptoms: pain and deficits in function, participation, and activities. Somatic dysfunctions are the result of a discrepancy between burden and endurance of the structure and/or tissues. Somatic dysfunctions precede functional diseases and are the basis thereof. Discussion In order to establish manual medicine in academic medicine, an accepted definition of functional diseases as diagnostic and therapeutic target is essential. Specific primary and secondary somatic dysfunctions are the cause for functional diseases and should therefore be diagnosed and treated. Other factors can also influence functional diseases and play an important role in their chronification. For chronic functional diseases, a multimodal interdisciplinary diagnosis is essential for the therapeutic strategy.
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The purpose of the work is to develop model characteristics of physical development, physical and technical preparedness of players of 15 years of different playing roles. Material and methods. Participants. In the study, 47 football players took part in 15 years of the Sports School "Areal" in Kharkov. Methods. Analysis of scientific and methodological literature, determination of physical development indicators testing of physical and technical preparedness, methods of mathematical statistics. The course of the study. The results of physical development, physical and technical preparedness of football players for 15 years are fixed. Model characteristics of physical and technical preparedness of young football players are developed. Analyzed comparative characteristics of the physical and technical preparedness of players 15 years of different playing roles. Results. It is established, according to the indicators of the physical development of players, players of different playing roles practically do not differ from each other. It is shown that the goalkeepers have practically the lowest technical and physical readiness indicators practically in all test results, in contrast to the attackers, defenders and midfielders. It is recommended that the development of a program for the development of physical qualities for goalkeepers, as well as the development of a separate program for improving the technical preparedness for players of each playing role. Conclusions. It is fixed, significant differences in the level of physical and technical preparedness between field players and goalkeepers. It is established that the greatest differences between representatives of different playing roles in terms of juggling, holding the ball on the foot, accuracy and range of strikes. It was revealed, not the reliability of the difference between the indicators of physical and technical preparedness of attackers, defenders and midfielders, which indicates their universality, and, therefore, possible replacement of each other.
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Durante el primer año de vida, desde los primeros meses, todo el desarrollo del niño se encuentra sometido a las actuaciones de sus cuidadores cercanos. Sin su participación precisa y constante, no se da el desarrollo psicomotor ni la adquisición del lenguaje de forma espontánea, tanto en casos de bases neuropsicológicas conservada o afectada
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This chapter presents two aspects of cortical electrophysiology that become amenable to analysis because of identifying spontaneous and evoked slow potentials as algebraically summated postsynaptic potentials, generated in varying proportions in the soma-dendritic membrane of cortical neurons by complexly organized systems of excitatory and inhibitory elements. These include (1) the relation of slow potentials to unit discharges; and (2) the synaptic organizations in cerebral and cerebellar cortex involved in the production of potentials evoked in response to different activating pathways. Analyses of different varieties of data indicate that the major determinants of electrocortical activity are (1) the specific organization of neuronal connections; (2) the temporal and spatial distribution of their synaptic actions; (3) the proportions of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potentials (p.s.p.); and (4) their magnitudes. The use of selectively acting pharmacological agents permits, in certain instances, defining the proportion and relative magnitudes of axodendritic depolarizing and hyperpolarizing p.s.p.s evoked by different afferent pathways. Surface potentials with similar characteristics can represent the integrated synaptic activity of entirely different neuronal organizations and the same neuronal population activated in different ways can give rise to evoked potentials with entirely different characteristics.