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Botanical expedition to Haiti: Revisiting Erik Ekman’s 1920s collecting localities

  • Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
The Journal for Gesneriad Growers
Volume 65 ~ Number 3
Third Quarter 2015
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The Journal for Gesneriad Growers
Volume 65 ~ Number 3
Third Quarter 2015 ~
Flower of Gesneria odontophylla collected in the
Rivière Voldrogue, Haiti. See article, page 9.
Photo: John L. Clark
Back Cover
Habitat of gesneriads in Zhejiang Province,
Eastern China. See article, page 29.
Photo: Hong Xin
9 Botanical Expedition to Haiti:
Revisiting Erik Ekman’s 1920s
Collecting Localities
John L. Clark
23 Flower Show Roundup
28 In Memoriam: Monte Watler
Paul Kroll
29 Collecting Seeds in Zhejiang
Province, Eastern China
Hong Xin
37 Gesneriad Registrations
Irina Nicholson
44 Financial Statement
Rebecca Fontes
1 President’s Message
Paul Susi
2 From The Editor
Peter Shalit
3 Seed Fund – Species
Carolyn Ripps
36 Changes to Hybrid Seed List 2Q15
46 Coming Events
Mary Schaeffer
47 Back to Basics: Sinningias
Dale Martens
51 Information About The Gesneriad
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John L. Clark ~ Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 ~ <>
than a thousand kilometers just a stone’s throw from the US mainland, this small country
remains a biodiversity enigma. In January of 2015 I organized a botanical expedition to
the Republic of Haiti for an ongoing research project to study the taxonomy and
diversification of the Caribbean members of the Gesneriaceae. This project is supported
by a National Geographic Society Research and Exploration grant. The primary
objectives of this project are to provide a taxonomic treatment of the Gesneriaceae for
Cuba and to produce a molecular-based phylogeny of the near-endemic Caribbean tribe
Gesnerieae (Gesneria, Pheidonocarpa, and Rhytidophyllum). Understanding the Cuban
members of the Gesneriaceae is contingent on sorting through taxonomic anomalies in
Haiti, and that is why this expedition was particularly important. Haiti is an unexplored
biodiversity hotspot because there are very few documented collections relative to other
countries in the Caribbean. For example, of the 32 native Gesneriaceae species in Haiti
(Skog 2012), there are seven species that have only been collected once. Of these rarities,
it is astonishing that six species are only known from a single collection from the 1920s
by the Swedish botanist Erik Ekman. In contrast, in neighboring Dominican Republic
there are about the same number of Gesneriaceae species (33), but none of the endemics
10 Return to Table of Contents
are limited to a single collection. As I sat in my office in Alabama and imagined
searching for a plant species known from a single population collected nearly a century
ago, finding a needle in a haystack seemed easier.
There are additional challenges to working in Haiti, such as extreme deforestation
that is compounded by poverty and a growing population that depends on severely
limited natural resources for cooking and farming. Haiti is ranked as the poorest country
in the western hemisphere, and food insecurity and hunger are chronic issues. Before
1920 the human population in Haiti was less than 2 million people (Jefferson 1914) and
currently the population is over 10 million, with a predicted growth at current rates that
will exceed 20 million by 2014 (Verner 2008). The amount of forested land in Haiti in
1924 was 60% and by 1993 it was less than 1% (Hedges & Wood 1993). These statistics
were notable in the original collection localities (AKA “type localities”), where we found
only pastures. For example, Gesneria christii was first collected in an area known locally as
“Furcy. We walked through Furcy on our way from La Visite National Park to Port-au-
Prince. In the landscape (Fig. 1), the steep hillsides have been entirely converted to
pastures that rapidly erode during the rainy season. Luckily, Skog and Talpey found
Gesneria christii in other forests of Haiti in the 1970s and Tom Zanoni located
populations in the Dominican Republic in the 1980s. The nearly complete deforestation
and ensuing extreme soil erosion leave little hope of locating Gesneria christii or other
rarely collected species from regions where they were first discovered.
Although there are many examples of disappearing forests that once hosted rare
species such as Gesneria christii, I will focus our expedition’s successes in locating plants
that could easily have been considered extinct. Despite what is often reported about the
dismal conditions of Haiti’s natural landscape, there are many examples of inspirational
leaders who are working to promote and conserve Haiti’s biodiversity. Haiti is one of the
few countries in the western hemisphere that lacks a national botanical garden, but that
is changing because of the leadership and inspiration of native Haitian, William Cinéa.
Figure 1. Road near the village of Furcy, which is the original collecting locality (=type locality)
for Gesneria christii. This was a forest when H. Christ discovered his namesake species in 1899.
The road between Parc National Morne La Visite and Port-au-Prince is entirely converted to
pastures as shown here.
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Our expedition was greatly
facilitated by William who is also
an advocate for scientific
investigation and promoter of the
Haitian National Botanical
Garden (Fig 2). William’s
enthusiasm for plants is
contagious and he has expert
vision for locating rare species,
exemplified by some of our most
significant discoveries. William
has an advanced degree in
Forestry from the Dominican
Republic. He has also studied
botany at Cornell University and
Dr. Walter Judd’s Tropical Botany
course, taught at the Kampong
(University of Florida).
Most formidable during this
research were the Haitian
administrators who oversaw
protected areas, development aid
agencies, local students, and an international network of dedicated biologists.
Constituents from all levels of government and academia provided logistical support and
encouragement for our expedition. My greatest regret is that I did not learn more
Haitian Creole to better express gratitude and sincere appreciation to our host-country
Our expedition resulted in 230 collections of which 56 were Gesneriaceae. The rest
were from other plant families (e.g., Melastomataceae, Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae,
ferns, and many others). Outlined below is a summary of our 16-day expedition that
includes highlights of the gesneriads that were documented.
Saint Louis de Sud to Grand Frond – On Ekman’s trail and
our search for Phinaea pulchella
Starting near sea level along a busy highway at the town of Saint Louis de Sud, we
walked north to the small village of Grand Frond at 300 meters. From there we walked
to an elongate ridge that terminated at an abandoned fort (“Bonnet Carre”) that
overlooks the southern side of the Tiburon Peninsula. We walked nearly twelve hours
and covered over twenty miles. It took the entire day to reach a small patch of forest, but
long walks are typical for locating vegetation near villages. Native vegetation in Haiti has
diminished to isolated areas that are either inhospitable to cultivation (e.g., cliffs) or
remote. It is important to note that you can’t study Haiti’s vegetation by staying near
populated areas – you have to get far from roads or urban areas by long walks or traveling
via horseback or mule.
Our primary objective in visiting Grand Frond was to relocate the only known
Haitian population of Phinaea pulchella, which has been collected in Cuba and is known
from a single collection in Haiti. The distribution of this species in western Cuba and
western Haiti is unusual because it is absent from eastern Cuba. The population of this
plant in Haiti was documented during the early 20th century by the Swedish botanist
and explorer Erik Ekman (Ekman 1928; 1936). Unfortunately, we were not able to locate
Phinaea pulchella, but we were satisfied that we located the “shaded cliffs” below the
Figure 2. William Cinéa holding a picture of himself that
appeared in a newspaper. Field botanists use newspaper
when pressing plants. While collecting during our hike to
the summit of Macaya, it was happenstance that we came
across a sheet of newspaper that featured an article about
William and his heroic efforts to promote the Haitian
National Botanical Garden.
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Figure 3. Plants collected along trail between Saint Louis de Sud and Grand Frond.
A. Columnea domingensis. B. Besleria lutea. C-D. Rhytidophyllum auriculatum.
E-F. Gesneria fruticosa. G. Columnea scandens. H. Bellonia spinosa.
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Figure 4. Rhytidophyllum leucomallon. A. Inflorescence showing flower in both mature male
phase (left) and mature female phase (right). B. Corolla removed showing annular nectary.
C. Lateral view of flower. D. Front view of flower. E. Outskirts of the coastal village of Jérémie
where abundant populations (indicated with red arrows) of Rhytidophyllum leucomallon were
observed on cliffs.
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Figure 5. Gesneria haitiensis collected in the Rivière Voldrogue (Dept. Grand’Anse).
A. Lateral view of flower. B. Front view of flower. C. Primary shoot. D. Immature fruit. E. Dry
riverbed (Rivière Voldrogue) showing rock bands with primary vegetation on right and landslide
with secondary forest on left.
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village of Grand Frond that were astutely noted by Ekman when he made the discovery
in 1927. We tasked two Haitian students with returning to this area to search for and
locate it. Other plants that we found during the foray were Bellonia spinosa, Besleria lutea,
Columnea domingensis, Columnea scandens, Gesneria fruticosa, and Rhytidophyllum bicolor
(Fig. 3).
Road from Roseaux to Rivière Voldrogue – On Ekman’s trail
(again) and the re-discovery of Gesneria odontophylla
and Gesneria haitiensis
On a two-day road trip we traveled from Les Cayes to the northern side of the Tiburon
Peninsula to the town of Jérémie (Grand’Anse Department). A common plant that is
easily observed on the limestone cliffs as you enter Jérémie is Rhytidophyllum leucomallon
(Fig. 4). Populations of 5+ individuals are readily seen near the urban center (Fig. 4E).
We found this species to be abundant when we walked along the beach where cliffs were
often covered with hundreds of shoots.
In 1970 Larry Skog (then a PhD student at Cornell) and Tom Talpey conducted an
exploratory research expedition to Haiti. A report of their findings was published in The
Gloxinian (Skog & Talpey 1971). Tom Talpey is a former AGGS president (1968 to
1969) and he conducted exploratory research expeditions to collect gesneriads to many
islands in the West Indies (Haiti, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica). Larry
Skog was doing field research for his doctoral dissertation on a revision of Gesneria. One
of his goals in Haiti was to relocate Gesneria odontophylla. Erik Ekman collected the sole
specimen of this rare species in 1928, later published by Urban (1932). The museum
specimens were limited to leaves and immature fruits, which makes it even more
puzzling because it is not known from mature fruits or flowers. The vegetative features
alone (ovate leaves with deep serrations) were unusual enough for it to be described as a
new species. The current peer-review process for publishing plant species would likely
reject the description of such a discovery because fertile material was absent. Skog and
Talpey failed to locate Gesneria odontophylla. Skog (1976, p. 67) wrote that, “An attempt
was made in 1970 to relocate G. odontophylla, but no material was found ….” Skog
elaborated on this taxon, “Based on the habit and vegetative characters … it may be
closely related to either G. clarensis from Cuba or G. cubensis from Cuba and Hispaniola.”
Any disappointment by Skog and Talpey in not locating Gesneria odontophylla was
probably short-lived because they made an important discovery. In the process of
searching for Gesneria odontophylla, Skog and Talpey discovered a new species that was
later described as Gesneria haitiensis (Skog 1971) that had not been collected since. We
revisited the same area and were pleasantly surprised to locate many populations of
Gesneria haitiensis. By the time we arrived in Rivière Voldrogue it was 4:00 PM and we
had at least five hours of driving to return to Les Cayes. Our driver waited impatiently
as we ran to check a few more bends of the dry river valley. Steep slopes that are
frequently disturbed by landslides characterize the valley. Between these disturbed areas
are undisturbed rock bands with old growth vegetation (Fig. 5E). It is here that we
found abundant populations of Gesneria haitiensis (Fig. 5). Just as we were about to
return, William located one individual of Gesneria odontophylla. Relocating a species
that has not been collected since 1928 (by E. Ekman) was exhilarating, but finding
something that has never been collected in flower made the discovery even more
momentous. Images of this remarkable species are included here (Fig. 6). Please note
the contrasting bright yellow tube with dark purple lobes. This color combination is not
common in other members of the family and the images included here are the first ever
for this species.
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Figure 6. Gesneria odontophylla collected in the Rivière Voldrogue (Dept. Grand’Anse).
A. Lateral view of flower with scale. B. Lower leaf surface. C. Lateral view of flower.
D. Front view of flower. E. Primary shoot.
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Parc National Pic Macaya – Multi-day expedition to
the remote summit of Macaya
Our third segment of the expedition was to a mountainous and remote region in the
Parc National Pic Macaya in the Massif [Mountain Range] de La Hotte. The forests of
La Hotte harbor Haiti’s most endemic flora and they had been predicted to have the
richest flora on Hispaniola (Howard 1973). Our expedition would hike to the summit of
Pic Macaya in the heart of the national park, which is the most important intact remnant
forest in Haiti. Not many people venture to the summit of Macaya because the trail is
usually overgrown, there is no water outside the small village of Formon, and it takes an
entire day (12+ hours) to gain access to the summit ridge. We hired three people for
three days prior to our arrival to clear the trail using machetes, and this greatly facilitated
our ability to move quickly and efficiently to a high camp. Walking through heavily
vegetated areas was our biggest challenge and could also be considered the biggest risk
for our expedition. Even though the temperatures during the day reach 80 degrees
Fahrenheit (26+ degrees Celsius) it is imperative to wear long pants and long-sleeve
shirts for protection from thorns, stinging nettles, and especially razor sharp leaf blades.
Any exposed skin is prone to “paper” cuts caused by leaf blades from the terrible grass,
Arthrostylidium haitiense. The only nice thing about Arthrostylidium haitiense is that it is
native to Hispaniola (common in Massif de la Hotte, but rare elsewhere). The trail
between Ville Formon to the summit of Macaya allowed us to experience one of the only
intact cloud forests in Haiti.
The most important commodity on this expedition was water and it was only used for
drinking (no bathing or washing dishes). We hired porters to carry gear, water, and food.
We ate mostly yams that were cooked directly on a fire. The terrain is steep, and locating
flat areas that could accommodate our expedition team of seven (Fig. 7) was only
possible on the saddle between Pic Macaya (2347 m) and Pic Formon (2219 m).
Specifically, the area where we set up our camp was on a saddle below a steep ridge that
had a series of four flat spaces. One of the flat areas was used for cooking and the other
three were used for sleeping.
Figure 7. Expedition team on summit of Pic Macaya (2347 m). From left to right: Matteo Sturla,
Ingrid Henrys, William Cinéa, Similien Rose Eudia, Adrien Despagne, Pierre Andre, and
John L. Clark.
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The hike to the summit of Pic Macaya resulted in many interesting collections, but
the most significant gesneriads were found near the base of the mountain. The
vegetation at the base of the mountain is broad-leaved humid forest on limestone that
has been heavily eroded with exposed blocks that stand like jagged monuments. This
“dog tooth” limestone is referred to locally as “rak bwa” (see Howard 1973 & Judd 1987).
Three plants that were collected from this area remain unidentified and may be new to
science. An unidentified Gesneria (Fig. 8A-B) was found on vertical rock faces in shady
areas. We were successful in locating numerous populations of this species, but we only
found it with mature fruits. The exact identification will remain a mystery until it is
documented with flowers. The second unidentified species belongs to Rhytidophyllum
(Fig. 8C-E) and if it is new to science then it will be collaboratively published with
colleagues from the Montreal Botanical Garden (Simon Joly and François Lambert) who
also collected it during an expedition in August of 2014. A third unidentified species was
a small tree (2+ m tall) that was collected on the saddle between Pic Formon and Pic
Macaya. Other species that were collected in Parc National Pic Macaya include Bellonia
spinosa, Besleria lutea, Columnea domingensis, C. scandens, Gesneria fruticosa, G. reticulata,
G. viridiflora subsp. acrochordonanthe, Rhytidophyllum auriculatum, and R. bicolor.
Parc National Morne La Visite – An epic trip from
wilderness to Port-au-Prince
Our last segment of the expedition was to Parc National La Visite (on the Massif de La
Selle). This area is the most heavily botanized region in Haiti. The presence of previous
studies (e.g., Judd et al. 1987; Woods & Harris 1986) facilitated what species we
expected to locate. We also learned that some species previously reported as common
have become extremely rare and are limited to a few patches of remnant forest. James
Goetz assisted our work there. Goetz is a native New Yorker, currently working for GIZ
(German Agency for International Cooperation), and partnered with Fondation Seguin,
a local conservation foundation. One of his main missions is working in the Berak Valley
on the west end of the park, directing a forest conservation program that provides direct
payments to farmers who protect their forest parcels from clearing and degradation.
A shrub that was previously widespread and is now limited to the Berak Forest is
Gesneria ekmanii (Fig. 9A-B). This large shrub (2+ m tall) with stiff leaves was limited to
shaded areas of mature forest. At the base of the Berak valley the stony white bed of the
Paraisso river, now waterless in the extended dry season, descends to where, in the wet
season, water plummets over a treacherous rocky cliff. Where the river drains into the
cliff we found a small population (5+ individuals) of Gesneria viridiflora subsp.
acrochordonanthe (Fig. 9C-D). Additional species that we collected in Parc National
Morne La Visite include Besleria lutea, Columnea domingensis, Gesneria hypoclada (Fig.
9G-H), G. f ruticosa, and Rhytidophyllum auriculatum (Fig. 9E-F).
The drive from Les Cayes to the southern entrance of Parc National La Visite took
more than twelve hours, much of that over rough roads. To return to Port au Prince, we
decided that it would be easier to walk out to the north instead of returning by car to the
south. On our last day we rented mules and walked five hours along the winding dirt
roads towards Furcy. One of the most common plants growing in full sunlight along the
cliffs was a yellow flowered population of Rhytidophyllum auriculatum (Fig. 9E-F). Most
populations that we observed of Rhytidophyllum auriculatum have red flowers (Fig. 3C-
D), but the populations in La Selle were entirely yellow (Fig. 9E-F). We had hoped to
arrive at an area where taxis were readily available, but we ended up in a village that had a
nightly truck, which would have gotten us into Port-au-Prince at midnight. We decided
to hire a motorbike to transport us the two hours to the next village. From there we
jumped into a packed school bus. Naturally, the seats were designed for young school
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Figure 8. Unidentified collections from Parc National Pic Macaya (in the Massif de La Hotte).
A-B. Gesneria sp. C-E. Rhytidophyllum sp.
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Figure 9. Gesneriads collected in Parc National Morne La Visite (in the Massif de La Selle).
A-B. Gesneria cf. ekmanii. C-D. Gesneria viridiflora subsp. acrochordonanthe.
E-F. Rhytidophyllum auriculatum. G. Lower leaf surface of Gesneria hypoclada.
H. Immature fruit of Gesneria hypoclada.
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children, but we squeezed in, six adults to a row, the space between neighboring seats
bridged by a board across the center aisle. Four hours after leaving our mules we arrived
in Pétion-Ville, the relatively prosperous suburb above capital Port-au-Prince. From
there we hired a taxi that took us to our hotel. Twelve hours later we were on a plane
back to New York.
This project was funded by a Research and Exploration grant from the National
Geographic Society (9522-14). I thank William Cinéa for his invaluable assistance for
organizing logistics in Haiti. Additional in country logistical support was provided by
James Goetz (GIZ and Fondation Seguin), Ingrid Henrys (Parc National Pic Macaya),
Paul Denis Caton (Parc National Pic Macaya), and many students who assisted our
expedition (Douet Cevelorme, Similien Rose Eudia, Phito Merizier, and Matteo Sturla).
I am also grateful to the network of dedicated foreign biologists who passionately
promote Haiti’s biodiversity and graciously provided essential pre-expedition
recommendations. These biologists are: Walter S. Judd (University of Florida), Gretchen
M. Ionta (Georgia College & State University), J. Dan Skean (Albion College), Simon
Joly (Montreal Botanical Garden), Joel Timyan (Societe Audubon Haiti), and Lucas C.
Majure (Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, AZ). Steve Ginzbarg (The University of
Alabama) provided ongoing support by processing collections and facilitating import
permits. Craig Remington (The University of Alabama Cartographic Research Lab)
provided help in creating the map (Figure 10). I thank Laurence E. Skog (Smithsonian
Figure 10. Map of Haiti showing collecting localities visited on the Tiburon Peninsula. Red
arrows indicate areas where collections were made. Base map reproduced from the CIA
World Fact Book.
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Institution), Silvana G. Nazzaro Clark (Princeton Junior School), Walter Judd
(University of Florida), James Goetz (GIZ and Fondation Seguin), and Kate McGinnity
for providing helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.
Literature Cited
Ekman, E. L. 1928. A botanical excursion in La Hotte, Haiti. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 22: 200-219.
Ekman, E. L. 1936. Botanizing in Haiti. United States Naval Medical Bulletin. 24: 483-497.
Hedges, S.B. and A.C. Woods. 1993. Caribbean hot spot. Nature (London) 364: 375.
Howard, R.A. 1973. The vegetation of the Antilles. In: Vegetation and vegetational history of Northern
Latin America, A. Graham (ed.). Amsterdam: Elsveier, 1-38.
Jefferson, J. 1914. Population Estimates for the Countries of the World from 1914 to 1920. Bulletin of
the American Geographical Society 46(6): 401-413.
Judd, W.S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Bulletin of the
Florida State Museum. Biological Sciences 32:1-136.
Skog, L.E. 1972. Two new species of Gesneria (Gesneriaceae) from Jamaica and Haiti. Baileya 18
[“1971”]: 113-117.
Skog, L.E. 1976. A study of the tribe Gesnerieae, with a revision of Gesneria (Gesneriaceae:
Gesnerioideae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 29: 1-182.
Skog, L.E. 2012. Gesneriaceae. In: Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, P. Acevedo-
Rodríguez and M.T. Strong (eds.). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
Skog, L.E. and T.E. Talpey. 1971. Rediscovery of Gesneria humilis. The Gloxinian 21(3): 7-9.
Urban, I. 1932. Gesneriaceae. In: Plantae Haitienses et Domingenses novae vel rariores X. a cl. E.L.
Ekman 1924-1930 lectae. Arkiv für Botanik 24(4): 33-35.
Verner, D. 2008. Making poor Haitians count, poverty in rural and urban Haiti. Policy Research Working
Paper 4571. The World Bank, Sustainable Development Division.
Woods, C.A. and L. Harris. 1986. Stewardship Plan for the National Parks of Haiti. Report,
USAID/Haiti. Port-au-Prince, 272 pp.
$16.00 postpaid
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... Plants were not located on nearby cliffs." John L. Clark's field report (Clark 2015), does not mention G. brachysepala directly. Showing a map of the country, he writes however "Red arrows indicate areas where collections were made." ...
Full-text available
Gesneria brachysepala was collected by Erik L. Ekman at the 4th of October 1928 and had not been seen ever since. The species was known from a single collection locality in South Western Haiti. Gesneria brachysepala has been searched for, by two Gesneriad experts: The Laurence E. Skog expedition in 1970 and the expedition of John L. Clark in 2015. They did however not find it, and Laurence E. Skog considered it extinct. The species was rediscovered in 2019 in a ravine about 1 km east of the type locality. Reith, M (2020). Rediscovery of Gesneria brachysepala Urb. & Ekman. Gesneriads, the Journal for Gesneriad Growers. Vol.70 Nr.1
A botanical excursion in La Hotte
  • E L Ekman
Ekman, E. L. 1928. A botanical excursion in La Hotte, Haiti. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 22: 200-219.
Population Estimates for the Countries of the World from 1914 to 1920
  • J Jefferson
Jefferson, J. 1914. Population Estimates for the Countries of the World from 1914 to 1920. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 46(6): 401-413.
Making poor Haitians count, poverty in rural and urban Haiti. Policy Research Working Paper 4571. The World Bank
  • D Verner
Verner, D. 2008. Making poor Haitians count, poverty in rural and urban Haiti. Policy Research Working Paper 4571. The World Bank, Sustainable Development Division.
Stewardship Plan for the National Parks of Haiti
  • C A Woods
  • L Harris
  • Usaid Haiti
Woods, C.A. and L. Harris. 1986. Stewardship Plan for the National Parks of Haiti. Report, USAID/Haiti. Port-au-Prince, 272 pp.
Gesneriaceae In: Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies
  • L E Skog
Skog, L.E. 2012. Gesneriaceae. In: Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, P. Acevedo- Rodríguez and M.T. Strong (eds.). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
Rediscovery of Gesneria humilis
  • L E Skog
  • T E Talpey
Skog, L.E. and T.E. Talpey. 1971. Rediscovery of Gesneria humilis. The Gloxinian 21(3): 7-9.
Two new species of Gesneria (Gesneriaceae) from Jamaica and Haiti. Baileya 18
  • L E Skog
Skog, L.E. 1972. Two new species of Gesneria (Gesneriaceae) from Jamaica and Haiti. Baileya 18 ["1971"]: 113-117.