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Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 6(1): 123129, 2013
ISSN: 20407459; eISSN: 20407467
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013
Submitted: October 31, 2012 Accepted: December 21, 2012 Published: June 05, 2013
Corresponding Author: Seth Daniel Oduro, Department of Design and Technology Education, University of Educatio
n
Winneba, Kumasi Campus, P.O.Box 1277 Kumasi, Ghana
123
A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Effects of Tyre Pressure on Fuel Consumption
1
Seth Daniel Oduro,
2
Timothy Alhassan,
2
Prince OwusuAnsah and
3
Prince Y. Andoh
1
Department of Design and Technology Education, University of Education Winneba,
Kumasi Campus, P.O. Box 1277 Kumasi, Ghana
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854 Kumasi, Ghana
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
(KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana
Abstract: This study studies the relationship between tyre pressure and fuel consumption of vehicles using
experimental methods and mathematical model to predict vehicle fuel consumption. The model obtained was F =
0.6272 2.5941p+3.3428p
2
±0.018 where F is the fuel consumed and p is the tyre pressure of a vehicle, which can
also be used to predict the amount of fuel consumed by other vehicles. The model was validated with its own data
which showed a deviation of ±5% which is within experimental error. Using the recommended tyre pressures the
model reduces the fuel consumption by 17.6% thus reducing cost of fuel. From the experiment, it was observed that
the relationship between the fuel consumption and the tyre pressures of various vehicles is in the form of F = B
2
p
2

B
1
p+B
0
± e, where B
0
, B
1
, B
2
and ‘e’ depends on other factors of the vehicle such as the age of the vehicle and the
conditions under which the measurements were taken. This equation can be used to predict fuel consumptions for
vehicles when their tyre pressures are known. In all, it was seen from the research that any deviation in tyre pressure
of vehicles resulted in an additional fuel consumed by vehicles. It is recommend that, there should be a massive
public education or awareness about the need to keep recommended tyre pressure at all times because when tyre
pressure falls below the recommended value, the decrease in the pressure invariably leads to an increase in fuel
consumption.
Keywords: Fuel consumption, model, tyre, tyre pressure
INTRODUCTION
In the world today, due to the high cost of running
a vehicle, there have been many research works to see
ways of minimizing this cost. Some of this cost comes
from the tyre of the vehicle, amount of fuel needed to
run the vehicle smoothly, buying spare parts of vehicles
and ensuring safety of the vehicle. As an automobile
travel, the surface of the tyre and the road come into
contact and must be continually peeled apart. In
addition, each surface (both the tyre and the road) is
deformed slightly so that in effect, the wheel rolls
uphill. These effects combine to produce a rolling
resistance. A ratio of 1:5.3 or more than a two percent
is found for the effect on fuel economy for every ten
percent change in rolling resistance for highway driving
and a ratio of 1:9.6, or about a one percent fuel
economy change for every ten percent change in rolling
resistance for urban driving, Calwell et al. (2003).
Consistent with these findings, the study of Friedrich
(2002) reports a thirty percent reduction in
a tyre's rolling resistance can reduce a vehicle's fuel
consumption from two percent to six percent,
depending on driving conditions and other factors.
According to the Rubber Manufacturer's
Association, when a tyre is under inflated by one pound
per square inch ( psi), the tyre's rolling resistance is
increased by approximately 1.1% and that a five to
eight percent deterioration in rolling resistance
performance, which equates to roughly one percent
reduction in fuel efficiency (Calwell et al., 2003). This
is similar to the review study done by Schuring and
Futamura (1990) which found for each ten percent
reduction in the rolling resistance coefficient the fuel
efficiency increased by (1.22.5%) for city and (0.9
2.1%) for highway driving. This is because inflation
pressure determines tyre stiffness, which has a
significant influence on the contact area of the tyre and
pressure distribution over the contact surface. Thus, as
pressure in the vehicles tyres is reduced, the rolling
resistance increases over the road because the surface
contact area and virtual hill height is increased. When
the rolling resistance is increased, it takes more energy
(fuel) to get the automobile to go the same distance.
The relationship between tyre pressure, rolling
resistance and fuel economy is complex and dynamic
and is dependent on several other factors, including
Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 6(1): 123129, 2013
124
Fig. 1a: Over inflation
Fig. 1b: Under inflation
vehicle type and load, road and environmental
conditions.
Overall, rolling resistance makes up a relatively
small percentage of the losses in a typical vehicle; it
accounts for about four percent of a vehicle's energy
expenditure at low speeds and about 7% at highway
speeds (Stein, 2006). However, these modest losses are
substantial when in the context of automobile travel
accounts for the largest source of energy use and
greenhouse emissions, with petroleum combustion
causing 2438 Tg (106 tons) Carbon dioxide (CO
2)
or
forty three percent of the emissions. Globally the
situation is similar, where in 1990 the transportation
sector was responsible for some twenty five percent of
the world's energy use and twenty two percent of the
global CO
2
emissions (Stein, 2006).
Tyres are specified by the vehicle manufacturer
with a recommended inflation pressure, which permits
safe operation within the specified load rating and
vehicle loading. Most tyres are stamped with a
maximum pressure rating. For passenger vehicles and
light trucks, the tyres should be inflated to what the
vehicle manufacturer recommends, which is usually
located on a decal just inside the driver's door, or in the
vehicle owners handbook. Tyres should not be inflated
to the pressure on the sidewall; this is the maximum
pressure, rather than the recommended pressure.
If tyre pressure is too high, the tyre contact patch is
reduced, which decreases rolling resistance. However,
ride comfort is reduced, but traction is not always
reduced, stopping distance is not always increased
(Han, 2007). Also, going above maximum sidewall
pressure rarely results in the center of the tyre wearing
more than the shoulders as shown in Fig. 1a. If tyre
pressure is too low, the tyre contact patch is increased,
increasing rolling resistance, tyre flexing and friction
between the road and tyre. This "under inflation" as
shown in Fig. 1b can lead to tyre overheating,
premature tread wear and tread separation in severe
cases. Braking distance does not statistically change as
tyre pressure increases, suggesting that a larger contact
patch from under inflation may not be a significant
contributor for the conditions explored in these specific
tests.From the above information it is seen that the
inflation pressure or tyre pressure of a vehicle affects
rolling resistance, tyre heating, tread wear and tread
separation which result in vehicle fuel consumption.
The facts are that, tires with proper inflated
pressure can safe its life up to 20% which is nine
months more of its life span. Inflating correct tire
pressure can also prevent tires from overheating,
explosion and on the other hand, ease motoring and
reduce maintenance cost (Hillier, 1991). The main
problem therefore is, what is the effect of incorrect tyre
pressure on the on the performance of vehicle and the
relationship between the tyre pressure and fuel
consumption. This study seeks to find the effect that
tyre pressures of vehicles have on the fuel consumption
and develop a model for predicting the fuel
consumption.
Importance of tyres: Tyres are part of the backbone of
a car, truck, piece of construction equipment or bicycle.
Tyres add traction, braking, steering and load support to
vehicles while also absorbing shock and creating a
smooth and comfortable ride. There are oshaped parts
that can be pneumatic or solid and fit around the wheels
of the vehicle to protect the wheels and add to their
effect. A solid tyre consists of rubber, metals and
plastic parts (Williams, 2008).Vehicle tyres can affect
not only the way cars are handled, but also affect the
overall performance and fuel economy of a vehicle.
One of the most important things to do is a regular
schedule to check air pressure in tyres. Incorrect air
pressure in tyre causes the tyre failure. Tyre failure
while driving can lead to crush and possibly injure the
driver and the passengers (Gibson, 2006).
Rolling resistance: According to Friedrich (2002)
rolling resistance is the resistance to rolling caused by
deformation of the tyre in contact with the road surface.
As the tyre rolls, tread enters the contact area and is
deformed to conform to the roadway. The energy
required to make the deformation depends on the
inflation pressure, rotating speed and numerous
physical properties of the tyre structure, such as spring
force and stiffness. Friedrich (2002) stated that, tyre
makers sought lower rolling resistance tyre
constructions in order to improve fuel economy in cars
and especially trucks, where rolling resistance accounts
for a high amount of fuel consumption. The pneumatic
tyre also has the more important effect of vastly
reducing rolling resistance compared to a solid tyre.
Because the internal air pressure acts in all
directions, a pneumatic tyre is able to "absorb" bumps
in the road as it rolls over them without experiencing a
reaction force opposite to the direction of travel, as in
the case with a solid (or foamfilled) tyre. Overall,
Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 6(1): 123129, 2013
125
Table 1: Reading taken for the first two days for Vehicle No.1
Tyre Pressure (N/m
m
2
)

Day Time Odometer reading (km) Fuel reading (L) Right fron
t
Left fron
t
Right rea
r
Left rea
r
1 8:00 39947 39.75 0.2758 0.2758 0.3447 0.3241
11:00 39991 32.18 0.2758 0.2758 0.3447 0.3241
14:00 40025 28.39 0.2758 0.2758 0.3447 0.3241
17:00 40055 24.61 0.2758 0.2758 0.3447 0.3241
2 8:00 40080 75.71 0.2758 0.2758 0.3378 0.3172
11:00 40111 71.92 0.2758 0.2758 0.3378 0.3172
14:00 40141 68.14 0.2758 0.2758 0.3378 0.3172
17:00 40206 60.57 0.2758 0.2758 0.3378 0.3172
rolling resistance makes up a relatively small
percentage of the losses in a typical vehicle; it accounts
for about 4% of a vehicle's energy expenditure at low
speeds and about 7% at highway speeds (Stein, 2006).
Tread wear:
Friction between the tyre and the road
surface causes the tread rubber to wear away over time.
The legal standards prescribe the minimum allowable
tread depth for safe operation. Hillier (1991) suggest
several types of abnormal tread wear as poor wheel
alignment, excessive wear of the innermost or
outermost rims, gravel roads, rocky terrain and other
rough terrain will cause accelerated wear. Over
inflation above the sidewall maximum can cause
excessive wear to the center of the tread. However,
inflating up to the sidewall limit will not cause
excessive wear in the center of the tread. Modern tyres
have steel belts built in to prevent this. Under inflation
causes excessive wear to the outer ribs. Quite often, the
placard pressure is too low and most tyres are
underinflated as a result. Unbalanced wheels can cause
uneven tyre wear, as the rotation may not be perfectly
circular. Tyre manufacturers and car companies have
mutually established standards for tread wear testing
that includes measurement parameters for tread loss
profile, lug count and heeltoe wear. also known as tyre
wear. Tyre wear rates reported in the literature range
between 0.006 and 0.09 g/km per tyre (Rogge et al.,
1993). The actual wear rate is, however, dependent on a
range of factors such as driving style, weather
and tyre and road characteristics (Johnson, 2005).
According to Stalnaker et al. (1996), the wear rate has
been shown to be several times higher during urban
driving than during motorway driving, due to increased
acceleration, braking and cornering in cities. Thus, a
significant part of the worn tread rubber may be emitted
in cities, even though city driving only accounts for a
small part of the tyre mileage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The design used for this study was experiment which
sought to find out the effect of tyre pressure on fuel
consumed by vehicle. Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology (KNUST) campus shuttle buse
terminal was selected for the study. The experiment
was carried out for a period of 3 months using five of
the shuttle buses.
Table 2: Average tyre pressures and the corresponding fuel
consumptions for Vehicle No.1
Average pressure (N/m
m
2
) Fuel consumption (L/km)
0.3051 0.1721
0.3051 0.1114
0.3051 0.1261
0.3017 0.3030
0.3017 0.1221
0.3017 0.1261
0.3017 0.1164
In each day, the 5selected vehicle tyre pressures,
odometer reading and the fuel reading were recorded
for each vehicle. Records were taken at intervals of 3 h.
The results for vehicle with vehicle No.1 readings for
the first two days were tabulated and presented in
Table 1.
From Table 1 the average pressure was found and
the fuel flow, that is, the fuel was divided by the
distance covered and the results were presented in
Table 2.
Readings were taken for three months period of the
experiment for each of the five vehicles and the results
were tabulated and presented in a graphical form. From
Table 2 the pressures were arranged from 0.3017
N/mm
2
upwards with intervals of 0.0055. With the
same pressure, different fuel consumptions were
attained. For instance, at the pressure of 0.3051 N/mm
2
,
the recorded fuel consumptions were, 0.1721, 0.1114
and 0.1261litres/km. Average fuel consumption was
used to represent the corresponding tyre pressure; thus
for 0.3051 N/mm
2
, an average of 0.1365±0.0258
litres/km was obtained. This was done for the other four
vehicles namely Vehicle No.2, Vehicle No.3, Vehicle
No. 4 and Vehicle No.5 and the results were tabulated
and presented in a graphical form in Fig. 4 and 5.
Model suitability for the data: This research
concentrates on mathematical models using statistical
method of modelling. According to Stachowiak (1973)
a statistical method of model is a formalization of
relationships between variables in the form of
mathematical equations. A statistical model
describes how one or more random variables are related
to one or more random variables. The model is
statistical as the variables are not deterministically but
stochastically related. In this study, a mathematical
Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 6(1): 123129, 2013
126
Fig. 2: A scatter diagram for Vehicle No.1 showing fuel consumption verses tyre pressure
Vehicle No.1 Vehicle No.3
Vehicle No.3 Vehicle No.4
Fig. 3: A scatter diagrams for Vehicles No. 2, 3, 4 and 5 showing fuel consumption against tyre pressure
Fig. 4: Model values of Vehicle No.1 compared to the
measured value
terms, a statistical model is frequently thought of as a
pair (Y,P) where Y is the set of possible observations
and P the set of possible probability distributions on Y.
It is assumed that there is a distinct element of P which
generates the observed data. Statistical inference
enables us to make statements about which element(s)
of this set are likely to be the true one. For this research
least squares method of estimation for regression was
used to estimate the model. Least squares method is the
simplest and thus very common estimator. It is
conceptually simple and computationally
straightforward. Least squares estimates are commonly
used to analyze both experimental and observational
data.
0.1000
0.1100
0.1200
0.1300
0.1400
0.1500
0.1600
0.1700
0.1800
0.1900
0.2000 0.2200 0.2400 0.2600 0.2800 0.3000 0.3200 0.3400 0.3600 0.3800 0.4000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.1000
0.1100
0.1200
0.1300
0.1400
0.1500
0.1600
0.1700
0.1800
0.1900
0.2000
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.1000
0.1200
0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2000
0.2200
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.1000
0.1200
0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2000
0.2200
0.2000 0.3000 0.4000 0.5000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.1000
0.1200
0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2000
0.2200
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.0000
0.0500
0.1000
0.1500
0.2000
0.2500
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000
Fuel Consumption
(Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm2)
Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 6(1): 123129, 2013
127
Table 3: Substituted values and their summation for Vehicle No. 1 for solving the equation
Tyre pressure (N/mm
2
) (p) Fuel consumption N (L/km) (F) p
2
p
3
p
4
pf p
2
f
0.2723 0.1764 0.0742 0.0202 0.0055 0.0480 0.0131
0.2741 0.1727 0.0751 0.0206 0.0056 0.0473 0.0130
0.2758 0.1689 0.0761 0.0210 0.0058 0.0466 0.0128
0.2775 0.1610 0.0770 0.0214 0.0059 0.0447 0.0124
0.2792 0.1639 0.0780 0.0218 0.0061 0.0458 0.0128
0.2810 0.1587 0.0789 0.0222 0.0062 0.0446 0.0125
0.2827 0.1508 0.0799 0.0226 0.0064 0.0426 0.0121
0.2844 0.1451 0.0809 0.0230 0.0065 0.0413 0.0117
0.2861 0.1445 0.0819 0.0234 0.0067 0.0413 0.0118
0.2879 0.1418 0.0829 0.0239 0.0069 0.0408 0.0118
0.2896 0.1393 0.0839 0.0243 0.0070 0.0403 0.0117
0.3017 0.1383 0.0910 0.0274 0.0083 0.0417 0.0126
0.3034 0.1266 0.0920 0.0279 0.0085 0.0384 0.0116
0.3051 0.1321 0.0931 0.0284 0.0087 0.0403 0.0123
0.3085 0.1305 0.0952 0.0294 0.0091 0.0403 0.0124
0.3103 0.1235 0.0963 0.0299 0.0093 0.0383 0.0119
0.3137 0.1250 0.0984 0.0309 0.0097 0.0392 0.0123
0.3189 0.1255 0.1017 0.0324 0.0103 0.0400 0.0128
0.3254 0.1220 0.1059 0.0345 0.0112 0.0397 0.0129
0.3271 0.1190 0.1070 0.0350 0.0115 0.0389 0.0127
0.3289 0.1218 0.1081 0.0356 0.0117 0.0401 0.0132
0.3306 0.1199 0.1093 0.0361 0.0119 0.0396 0.0131
0.3323 0.1190 0.1104 0.0367 0.0122 0.0396 0.0131
0.3358 0.1175 0.1127 0.0378 0.0127 0.0395 0.0132
0.3478 0.1190 0.1210 0.0421 0.0146 0.0414 0.0144
0.3495 0.1168 0.1222 0.0427 0.0149 0.0408 0.0143
0.3530 0.1163 0.1246 0.0440 0.0155 0.0410 0.0145
0.3737 0.1174 0.1396 0.0522 0.0195 0.0439 0.0164
0.3754 0.1186 0.1409 0.0529 0.0199 0.0445 0.0167
0.3771 0.1185 0.1422 0.0536 0.0202 0.0447 0.0169
0.3788 0.1235 0.1435 0.0544 0.0206 0.0468 0.0177
Summation = 9.7875 4.1741 3.1239 1.0081 0.3289 1.3021 0.4107
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Development of a model using least squares method:
The scatter diagrams for the various collected data for
Vehicle No. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which were collected and
tabulated were plotted as shown in Fig. 3, 4 and 5.
From the scatter diagrams, it could be inferred that the
correlation between the fuel consumption and the tyre
pressures are in the form of a polynomial function of a
second degree. Hence a model can be developed using
the least square method of modeling (Fig. 2).
The least square method of regression and
correlation was used to develop the models for the five
vehicles. In the least square method, the equation for
the model is given by F = B
0
+B
1
p+B
2
p
2
+e, where F
represent the fuel consumption, p represent tyre
pressure, B
0
, B
1
and B
2
are constants for the polynomial
which must be derived from the data obtained and e
represent the error in the data. This equation can be
written into three equations as:
∑
∑
∑
(1)
∑
∑
∑
∑
(2)
∑
∑
∑
∑
(3)
Putting the various values for the different vehicles
into these equations and solving for various constants,
B
0
, B
1
and B
2
give the equation for each vehicle. For
instance, for Vehicle No. 1, the tyre pressure values
were tabulated and the summations found as shown in
Table 3. Substituting these values in to the equations
gives:
4.1741=31B
0
+9.7875B
1
+3.1239B
2
(4)
1.3021=9.7875B
0
+3.1239B
1
+1.0081B
2
(5)
0.4107=3.1239B
0
+1.0081B
1
+0.3289B
2
(6)
Solving these equations simultaneously gives B
0
=
3.6285, B
1
= 21.4049 and B
2
= 32.3927. Substituting
the main equation gives F = 3.6285  21.4049p +
32.3927p
2
as the equation for Vehicle No.1. This
procedure was repeated four the other four vehicles and
the equations obtained were tabulated and presented in
Table 4.
Table 4: Various vehicles’ equations for the five vehicles
Vehicle no. Vehicles’ equations
1 F = 3.6285  21.4049p + 32.3927p
2
2 F = 0.6272  2.5941p + 3.3428p
2
3 F = 0.5568 1.7946p + 1.618p
2
4 F = 1.4454  7.9701p + 11.7484p
2
5 F = 0.6402  2.7463p + 3.7853p
2
Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 6(1): 123129, 2013
128
Vehicle No.2 Vehicle No.3
Vehicle No.4 Vehicle No.5
Fig. 5: Model values of Vehicles No. 2, 3, 4, and 5 compared to the measured values respectively
With these equations obtained, the various model
graphs were drawn as shown in Fig. 4 and 5 for Vehicle
No. 1 to 5. In all the graph plotted in Fig. 4 and 5 a
general trend were observed as the tyre inflation
pressure reduces the fuel consumption increased,
perhaps this might be due to a higher rolling resistance
which required much greater force to propelled the
vehicle.
VERIFICATION OF THE MODEL
To verify the model, two steps were carried out.
First of all, the R
2
values were found for all the five
vehicles using the least squares method for correlation.
R
2
values represent the correlation, that is, how closely
the variables are associated, were found using this
equation:
∑
̅
∑
̅
∑
(7)
The values found were substituted into the equation
and the R
2
values were found and the results obtained
were tabulated and presented in Table 5.
Comparing the R
2
values with the model values of
the five vehicles, it could be seen that, the equation for
Table 5: The various correlations or R
2
values for the five vehicles
Vehicle Vehicles’ equations R
2
/1 – R
2
/
1 F = 3.6285  21.4049p + 32.3927p
2
1.54 0.54
2 F = 0.6272  2.5941p + 3.3428p
2
0.93 0.07
3 F = 0.5568 1.7946p + 1.618p
2
0.90 0.10
4 F = 1.4454  7.9701p + 11.7484p
2
1.39 0.39
5 F = 0.6402  2.7463p + 3.7853p
2
0.53 0.47
Table 6: Comparing the R
2
values when using the vehicles own equation and
when using the model
Using vehicles own equation

Using the model

Vehicle R
2
/1 – R
2
/ R
2
/1 – R
2
/
1 1.54 0.54 0.73 0.27
2 0.93 0.07 0.93 0.07
3 0.90 0.10 0.46 0.54
4 1.39 0.39 1.12 0.12
5 0.53 0.47 0.64 0.36
Table 7: Error values for the other four vehicles when using the
model
Vehicle Error values
1 ±0.025
3 ±0.025
4 ±0.018
5 ±0.0295
vehicle No.2 was the better and could be used as the
model. This vehicle has R
2
value of 0.93 and the fuel
consumption model values deviate by ±5 which is
within experimental error. So, the equation F = 0.6272
0.1000
0.1100
0.1200
0.1300
0.1400
0.1500
0.1600
0.1700
0.1800
0.1900
0.2000
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.1000
0.1200
0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2000
0.2200
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.1000
0.1200
0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2000
0.2200
0.2400
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000 0.4500
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
0.1000
0.1200
0.1400
0.1600
0.1800
0.2000
0.2200
0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000
Fuel Consumption (Litres/Km)
Tyre Pressure (N/mm
2
)
Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 6(1): 123129, 2013
129
2.5941p+ 3.3428p
2
withR
2
= 0.93can be accepted as the
model for predicting vehicle fuel consumption. Using
this model with the recommended tyre pressure will
reduce the fuel consumption by 17.6% and this will safe
cost of fuel.
Secondly, this model was tested using the data for
the other four vehicles and the results obtained for the
R
2
values were presented in Table 6.
From Table 6, it could be inferred that using the
model gives better R
2
than using the vehicles own
equation. Which means that the model gives better fuel
consumption values compared with using the vehicles
own equation. Only Vehicle No.3 has better R
2
value
when using its own equation than using the model but
the rest shows the opposite. This means that, the model
can be used for all the five vehicles and by extension all
vehicles if possible. But from the general equation
using least square method, there is an error value ‘e’
which has to be found when error values exceed ±5.
Using the general model equation for the other four
vehicles it could be seen that the error values exceed
that value and so the error value ‘e’ of the equation has
to be found for the four vehicles and the least value
taken. Using 95% confidence, the equation gives:
F = 0.6272  2.5941p + 3.3428p
2
± 1.96
(8)
where, σ
represent standard deviation of the error
values:
σ
is given by
∑
̅
(9)
where,
N = The number of values taken
These summations were substituted into the
equation and errors found were tabulated and presented
in Table 7. Taken the least gives the final general
equation of F = 3.3428p
2 
2.5941p + 0.6272 ± 0.018.
Since ±0.018 is the least it can be used, because using
the largest error value will mean that the error for the
other vehicles will be increased.
CONCLUSION
An experiment was conducted to develop a model
for the relationship between the tyre pressure and its
corresponding fuel consumed. The model obtained was
F = 0.6272  2.5941p + 3.3428p
2
±0.018 which can also
be used to predict the amount of fuel consumed. The
model was validated with its own data which showed a
deviation of ±5% which is within experimental error.
Using the recommended tyre pressures reduce the fuel
consumption by 17.6% thus reducing cost. It also
minimized emissions thereby making movement safe
and desirable. It is recommend that there should be a
massive public education or awareness about the need
to keep recommended tyre pressure at all times because
when tyre pressure falls below the recommended value,
the decrease in the pressure invariably leads to an
increase in fuel consumption. Also underscoring this
need is the fact that most drivers or car owners fail to
regularly check the level of their tyre pressure.
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