Improving quality of teaching in MOOCs: A practical analysis of the new instructor role in the sMOOC model proposed by the European ECO project (ELEARNING, COMMUNICATION AND OPEN-DATA: mASSIVE, MOBILE, UBIQUITOUS AND OPEN LEARNING)

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Conference: Edulearn 2015, Volume: Complete paper EDULEARN15 Proceedings/ ISBN: 978-84-606-8243-1/Abstract: http://library.iated.org/view/CASTRILLODELARRETAAZELAIN2015IMP/
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Abstract
The disruptive emergence of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in 2011 has led to a redefinition of the educational landscape in online instruction. MOOCs constitute a natural evolution of former learning models –based on social networks-, and premises put forward by the OER (Open Educational Resources) movement. Consequently, the need has arisen to investigate the role and competences of the educator in these new virtual environments. Such is the interest in the field, that it has become an emerging area of enquiry, putting it in relation with the two original types of MOOCs: cMOOCs (connectivist, network based MOOCs), and xMOOCs (content based MOOCs, much closer to formal models of Higher Education). It is in this context that the ECO Project has been devised. It proposes an innovative MOOC model that aims to improve quality, access and equity in education: the sMOOC, a social and seamless MOOC typology. It is ‘social’ because it is based on network learning practices and ‘seamless’ because it intends to transcend both real-life and conceptual boundaries, enabling a wide spectrum of approaches and contexts related to the different languages, cultures, settings, pedagogies and technologies. Thus, this paper will provide a practical analysis of the new instructor role and competences in this innovative sMOOC model, which combines the content based typology with the participation and debate through social networks. Keywords: elearning, open learning, social learning, massive open online courses.
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Competitiveness and Innovation FrameworkProgramme (CIP)
Project no.: 621127
Improving quality of teaching in MOOCs:
A practical analysis of the new instructor
role in the sMOOC model proposed by the
European ECO project
(ELEARNING, COMMUNICATION AND OPEN-
DATA: MASSIVE, MOBILE, UBIQUITOUS AND
OPEN LEARNING)
María Dolores Castrillo de Larreta-Azelain
& Elena Martín-Monje
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
(SPAIN)
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. The ECO sMOOC: An innovative social & seamless
MOOC model
1. Instructional design for an sMOOC
2. Technological issues
3. Pedagogical redefinition of roles
3. Practical application: OER MOOC
4. Conclusions
5. References
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
1. Introduction
MOOCs appeared in 2008 & became popular in 2011
Natural evolution of OER movement
Google Trends plot of relative interest in MOOCs and OERs (Weller 2015:1)
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
1. Introduction
Main features of MOOCs:
Massive
Open
Online
Courses
2 basic types: xMOOC & cMOOC
xMOOC most popular
3 new challenges (Sharples el al., 2015)
1. Technologicallly
2. Educationally
3. Socially
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
2. The ECO sMOOC
Aims of EU-funded ECO project
MOOCs should be inclusive & cater for those in risk
of exclusion, making use of latest technology
sMOOC:
Social: learning marked by social interaction &
participation
Seamless:
Accessible from different platforms
Accessible through mobile devices
Integrating participants’ real life experiences through contextualization
of content (apps & gamification)
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
2.1. Instructional design for an sMOOC
More akin to European standards for Higher Education (e.g.
credentials through ECTS)
Latest definition:
MOOCs are courses designed for large numbers of participants that
can be accessed by anyone anywhere as long as they have an
internet connection, are open to everyone without entry
qualifications, and offer a full/complete course experience online
for free.
HOME, OpenupEd & ECO Project, 2015: 1
sMOOC approach aims at adding value to this definition:
Inclusion/accessibility/ubiquity/mobility
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
2.1. Instructional design for an sMOOC
Guideliness for sMOOC model (Morgado, Teixeira & Jansen,
2015):
-Openness
-Facilitators team
-Duration (six week)
-Boot camp (first week dedicated to familiarization with the sMOOC format)
-Resources and learning materials
-Supporting learning (learning guide and detailed guidelines)
-Activities and tasks
- Gamification
-ECO sMOOC learning virtual environment (enhanced with social features)
-Non formal certificate of completion
-Formal creditation
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
2.2. Technological issues
Checklist developed (Ortega et al., 2014):
1. Introduction to evaluation: its purpose was to gather information
about the profile of the evaluator of that specific platform.
2. General information: first impressions on the platform.
3. Economic structural factors: platform’s economic model
profit/non-profit.
4. Technology
5. Accessibility
6. Communication and interaction: teacher-learner and learner-
learner.
7. Goals, content and resources.
8. Assignments
9. Assessments
10. Pedagogical principles
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
2.2. Technological issues
Analysis of platforms:
OpenMOOC (http://demo.openmooc.org), Open edX
(http://studio.sandbox.m.sandbox.edx.org), weMOOC
(http://wemooc.com/en/zona-demo), iMOOC
(http://eco.imooc.uab.pt/elgg/) , LogiAssist (http://test.logiassist.de)
and ARLearn (http://ou.nl/arlearn)
Common characteristics of chosen platforms
a) Collaboration tools
b) Lesson-based contents
c) Support of different formats (video, text, images, etc.)
d) Tracking system both for learners and teacher
e) Integration of OER (Open Educational Resources)
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
2.3. Pedagogical redefinition of roles
New teacher role:
Course
stage Teacher roles MOOC characteristics
Before
MOOC Administrator, manager
-
Technologist
-Researcher
MOOC structure designer-
developer/ Organizer Agenda, timeline
Content expert/ Content
creator/ Content facilitator Short subtitled videos
Quizzes
Aid and supporting materials
Assessment designer/
Evaluator Peer-and self-assessment
Communication tools and
structure designer Email, forums, questions and answers tool,
blog, wiki.
During Facilitators Facilitating discourse
Curators Providing direct instruction
After Researcher LearningAnalytics
Teacher Roles in Massive Open Online Language Courses (Castrillo, 2014:72)
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
2.3. Pedagogical redefinition of roles
New student role:
Participantsprofile (Daly, 2014):
Mainly men (60%), University qualifications, late twenties
Mostly from developed countries
Not coincident with MOOC original philosophy
New engagement profiles (Anderson et al., 2014):
Viewers
Solvers
All-rounders
Collectors
Bystanders
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
3. Practical application: OER MOOC
ECO 1st iteration:
10 sMOOCs
108 teachers
+ 3600 users
6 languages
“Recursos Educativos abiertos. Aplicaciones pedagógicas y
comunicativas”: potential of OER for Eduaction
556 participants
Final survey reflecting on:
Course materials
Learning methods
Student support
Assessment
Communication & interaction
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
3. Practical application: OER MOOC
Results. Focus on instructor role:
Learning methods:
Course well designed
Course encourages debate & personal reflection
It promotes participants’ implication, interaction & creativity
Student support
Participants felt supported
Complaint about platform technical difficulties
Assessment
Reluctance to peer-assessment
Communication & interaction
Course encourages peer communication & interaction
Participants miss stronger instructor presence
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
4. Conclusions
Concept of sMOOC presented
Pedagogical framework closer to European Higher
Education than American typology
sMOOCs aim at being inclusive & reaching those
traditionally left out of higher education
Must-have features of sMOOCs
Pedagogical redefinition of roles:
Insight into teacher roles
New taxonomy of student participation
Evidence from 1st edition of sMOOC “Recursos Educativos
Abiertos. Aplicaciones pedagógicas y comunicativas”
Redesign of some features of sMOOC, paying attention to
P2P tasks & communication, for 2nd edition
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
5. References
Anderson, A., Huttenlocher, D., Kleinberg, J. y Leskovec, J. (2014). Engaging with
massive online courses. In WWW’14 Proceedings of the 23rd international
conference on World wide web (pp. 687-698). New York: ACM.
Castrillo de Larreta-Azelain, MD (2014) Language Teaching in MOOCs: the Integral
Role of the Instructor In: Martín-Monje, E. (Ed.) and Bárcena, E. (Ed.) Language
MOOCs. Providing Learning, Transcending Boundaries, pp. 67-90. Berlin: De
Gruyter Open. Retrieved from http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/455678
Daly, J. (2014). HarvardX’s and MITx’s MOOC Data Visualized and Mapped.
http://www.edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2014/02/harvardxs-and-mitxs-
mooc-data-visualized-and-mapped
Morgado, L., Teixeira, A. & Jansen, D. (2015). D2.3 Instructional design and
scenarios for MOOCs version 2. ECO Project Deliverable.
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
5. References
HOME, OpenupEd & ECO Project (2015). Definition Massive Open Online Courses
(MOOCs). Retrieved from
http://www.openuped.eu/images/docs/Definition_Massive_Open_Online_Cours
es.pdf
Morgado, L., Teixeira, A. & Jansen, D. (2015). D2.3 Instructional design and
scenarios for MOOCs version 2. ECO Project Deliverable.
Sharples, M et al (2015) Mobile and Accessible Learning for MOOCs. Journal of
Interactive Media in Education, 2015(1): 4, 1-8, DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/jime.ai
Weller, M. (2015). MOOCs and The Silicon Valley Narrative. Journal of Interactive
Media in Education, 2015(1): 5, 1-7, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/jime.am
Elearning, Communication and Open-data:
Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning
Thank you!
M. Dolores Castrillo Elena Martín Monje
mcastrillo@flog.uned.es emartin@flog.uned.es
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