ArticleLiterature Review

Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies

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Abstract

Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

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... • Cognitive rigidity: This construct was employed as a "marker variable" to control or deduct common method bias issues statistically. This construct is not related to this research context (Chin et al., 2013;Podsakoff et al., 2003). ...
... Common method variance (CMV) helps researchers evaluate the ability of a measurement model to capture construct variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003). This study used CMV to minimize biases by following the design remedies recommended by Podsakoff et al. (2003). ...
... Common method variance (CMV) helps researchers evaluate the ability of a measurement model to capture construct variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003). This study used CMV to minimize biases by following the design remedies recommended by Podsakoff et al. (2003). CMV is a procedural remedy that can diminish bias through robust study designs by applying a marker variable after data collection. ...
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Regulatory enforcement is a multifaceted phenomenon that revolves around the concept of discretion of Street-Level Bureaucrats (SLBs). Discretion can be defined as the ability to freely decide how to deliver services to the clients/public. Regulations are enforced by the decisions made by bureaucrats when they interact with clients. By combining street-level bureaucracy and responsive regulation theories, this study is set to examine how different factors shape the discretion of street-level bureaucrats. This study is built on available literature pertaining to SLBs and policy implementation to provide a comprehensive understanding of regulation enforcement in Malaysia. SLBs are the Labor Inspectors responsible for the enforcement of minimum wage in Malaysia. The study’s main contribution is examining how personal characteristics, internal organizational factors, and a multidimensional enforcement style shape the discretion of bureaucrats in Malaysia. The study’s main finding highlights that Labor Inspectors in Malaysia demonstrate a range of enforcement style dimensions when enforcing the minimum wage. The novelty of this thesis highlights two primary constructs; willingness to implement and client meaningfulness, and their importance in shaping policy implementation and its effect on street-level bureaucrats' behavior. These constructs are also likely contributing to the imperfect enforcement of the minimum wage policy. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that enforcement style consists of three dimensions; legal, facilitation, and accommodation. Finally, this study's empirical finding highlights that street-level bureaucrats' discretion is influenced by various factors that ultimately define the enforcement process.
... • Cognitive rigidity: This construct was employed as a "marker variable" to control or deduct common method bias issues statistically. This construct is not related to this research context (Chin et al., 2013;Podsakoff et al., 2003). ...
... Common method variance (CMV) helps researchers evaluate the ability of a measurement model to capture construct variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003). This study used CMV to minimize biases by following the design remedies recommended by Podsakoff et al. (2003). ...
... Common method variance (CMV) helps researchers evaluate the ability of a measurement model to capture construct variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003). This study used CMV to minimize biases by following the design remedies recommended by Podsakoff et al. (2003). CMV is a procedural remedy that can diminish bias through robust study designs by applying a marker variable after data collection. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Regulatory enforcement is a multifaceted phenomenon that revolves around the concept of discretion of Street-Level Bureaucrats (SLBs). Discretion can be defined as the ability to freely decide how to deliver services to the clients/public. Regulations are enforced by the decisions made by bureaucrats when they interact with clients. By combining street-level bureaucracy and responsive regulation theories, this study is set to examine how different factors shape the discretion of street-level bureaucrats. This study is built on available literature pertaining to SLBs and policy implementation to provide a comprehensive understanding of regulation enforcement in Malaysia. SLBs are the Labor Inspectors responsible for the enforcement of minimum wage in Malaysia. The study’s main contribution is examining how personal characteristics, internal organizational factors, and a multidimensional enforcement style shape the discretion of bureaucrats in Malaysia. The study’s main finding highlights that Labor Inspectors in Malaysia demonstrate a range of enforcement style dimensions when enforcing the minimum wage. The novelty of this thesis highlights two primary constructs; willingness to implement and client meaningfulness, and their importance in shaping policy implementation and its effect on street-level bureaucrats' behavior. These constructs are also likely contributing to the imperfect enforcement of the minimum wage policy. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that enforcement style consists of three dimensions; legal, facilitation, and accommodation. Finally, this study's empirical finding highlights that street-level bureaucrats' discretion is influenced by various factors that ultimately define the enforcement process.
... We used various tests to control for common method variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003). First, we compared the research model to a single-factor model (Podsakoff et al., 2003). ...
... We used various tests to control for common method variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003). First, we compared the research model to a single-factor model (Podsakoff et al., 2003). The research model exhibits a significantly better model fit (x 2 /df = 1.69; ...
... The results suggest that common method variance is low. Second, we used the marker variable approach, which is suggested as an appropriate method for controlling the effects of common method variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003). The technique incorporates a theoretically unrelated marker variable in the analysis; however, researchers rarely include unrelated constructs in their surveys and tend to use a variable with a weak correlation with the main study variables (Richardson et al., 2009). ...
Article
Purpose Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) often operate in environments marked by high levels of turbulence. Such firms adopt digital technologies and platforms that provide access to external real-time information and establish digital connectivity between firms to remain competitive. This study aims to focus on SMEs’ downstream and upstream platform-based digital connectivity (PDC). Design/methodology/approach This study examines the effects of PDC on SMEs’ operational performance under conditions of environmental turbulence. The data was gathered from 192 SMEs operating in the manufacturing arena. Findings The results show that the adoption of PDC does not directly affect an SME’s operational performance. However, in highly turbulent environments, PDC can improve operational performance. The results indicate that the performance effects of PDC vary according to the level and type of environmental turbulence. Research limitations/implications This research offers insights into the relationship between PDC among SMEs and operational performance and encourages future research examining other possible conditional effects that could explain the contradictory results found in previous research. Originality/value This study contributes to the knowledge of supply-chain digitalization among SMEs and its performance effects in varying environmental conditions. Further, this study contributes to the prior research by focusing on the interorganizational aspects of digitalization in SMEs.
... Data collected from a single source can be a source of common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). A two-wave data collection procedure was used to mitigate the effect of common Workplace incivility and deviant behaviors method bias on the validity of the data. ...
... A two-wave data collection procedure was used to mitigate the effect of common Workplace incivility and deviant behaviors method bias on the validity of the data. The use of the same Likert scale for all scales can also be a source of common method bias because it makes it easier for the respondents to rate on the standardized format by using less cognitive energy (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Therefore, different Likert scales for the study measures were used to mitigate the occurrence of common method bias. ...
... This study has noteworthy strengths. The first strength of this study is the application of a two-wave data collection technique that serves to mitigate the effect of common method bias on the validity of the data as the data was collected from a single source (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Another strength is that it is conducted in the developing country context of Pakistani organizations, with high power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and collectivist culture thus answering various calls. ...
Article
Purpose-Building on the conservation of resources theory, this research explored the processes underlying the association between perceived workplace incivility and deviant behaviors. Specifically, we tested a mediating mechanism, an interpersonal conflict that has received less consideration in the workplace incivility literature. The authors also tested the organizational climate (i.e. a resource) as a moderator in the perceived workplace incivility-employees' deviant work behavior relationship. Design/methodology/approach-Time-lagged research design was followed to explain the relationship of variables. Survey data were collected at time 1 and time 2 from 220 service sector working professionals to test the proposed model. Findings-The findings suggest that intrapersonal conflict partially mediates the workplace incivility-deviant work behavior relationship. Further, the authors found that the harmful effects of workplace incivility on employees' deviant work behavior attenuate in the presence of organizational climate as a resource. The results shed light on the beneficial consequences of organizational climate on employees' work behavior by attenuating workplace incivility and mitigating their deviant work behaviors. Originality/value-Overall, the study contributed to understanding the mediating role of interpersonal conflict and the moderating role of organizational climate in explaining the workplace incivility-deviant work behavior relationship.
... Data collected from a single source can be a source of common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). A two-wave data collection procedure was used to mitigate the effect of common Workplace incivility and deviant behaviors method bias on the validity of the data. ...
... A two-wave data collection procedure was used to mitigate the effect of common Workplace incivility and deviant behaviors method bias on the validity of the data. The use of the same Likert scale for all scales can also be a source of common method bias because it makes it easier for the respondents to rate on the standardized format by using less cognitive energy (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Therefore, different Likert scales for the study measures were used to mitigate the occurrence of common method bias. ...
... This study has noteworthy strengths. The first strength of this study is the application of a two-wave data collection technique that serves to mitigate the effect of common method bias on the validity of the data as the data was collected from a single source (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Another strength is that it is conducted in the developing country context of Pakistani organizations, with high power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and collectivist culture thus answering various calls. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Building on the conservation of resources theory, this research explored the processes underlying the association between perceived workplace incivility and deviant behaviors. Specifically, we tested a mediating mechanism, an interpersonal conflict that has received less consideration in the workplace incivility literature. The authors also tested the organizational climate (i.e. a resource) as a moderator in the perceived workplace incivility–employees’ deviant work behavior relationship. Design/methodology/approach Time-lagged research design was followed to explain the relationship of variables. Survey data were collected at time 1 and time 2 from 220 service sector working professionals to test the proposed model. Findings The findings suggest that intrapersonal conflict partially mediates the workplace incivility–deviant work behavior relationship. Further, the authors found that the harmful effects of workplace incivility on employees’ deviant work behavior attenuate in the presence of organizational climate as a resource. The results shed light on the beneficial consequences of organizational climate on employees’ work behavior by attenuating workplace incivility and mitigating their deviant work behaviors. Originality/value Overall, the study contributed to understanding the mediating role of interpersonal conflict and the moderating role of organizational climate in explaining the workplace incivility–deviant work behavior relationship.
... Il consiste à introduire tous les items de mesure de chaque construit dans une analyse factorielle pour déterminer le pourcentage de variance totale expliquée par un seul facteur. Si un biais de méthode commune existe, alors un seul facteur émerge de l'analyse factorielle et/ou le premier facteur va comptabiliser la majorité de la covariance entre les mesures (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Le test d'Harman est critiqué dans la littérature (Baumgartner et al., 2021 ;Podsakoff et al., 2003). ...
... Si un biais de méthode commune existe, alors un seul facteur émerge de l'analyse factorielle et/ou le premier facteur va comptabiliser la majorité de la covariance entre les mesures (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Le test d'Harman est critiqué dans la littérature (Baumgartner et al., 2021 ;Podsakoff et al., 2003). Concernant les variables de contrôle, les résultats du tableau 30 montrent que leurs corrélations avec la variable médiatrice et la variable dépendante sont soit très faibles (r < 0,3), soit non significatives (p > 0,1). ...
Thesis
Avec le changement de paradigme en marketing, la fidélité client est un des enjeux majeurs pour les académiques et praticiens du marketing relationnel. Avec des marchés de plus en plus concurrentiels et interconnectés, il est primordial pour une entreprise de fidéliser ses clients pour rester compétitif et profitable. Néanmoins, aucune entreprise ne peut retenir la totalité de ses clients, plus particulièrement dans le secteur des services dans lequel il est particulièrement difficile de fournir une qualité de service irréprochable en permanence. La majorité des causes de rupture est par ailleurs les échecs de service. C’est dans ce contexte que le management de la reconquête client s’est développé et a attiré l’attention de certains académiques et managers. Cette thèse de doctorat propose d’étudier les stratégies de reconquête des clients partis suite à un échec de service à travers quatre études empiriques. Compte tenu de la rareté des études dans le champ de la reconquête client, notre première étude consiste en une étude exploratoire qualitative. L’objectif est d’étudier les motivations des clients reconquis et leurs conséquences sur la qualité de la relation avec l’entreprise. Cette étude exploratoire ouvre des pistes de recherche que nous investiguons avec trois études quantitatives. La première consiste en une étude terrain auprès d’anciens clients d’une banque française (N = 648). Nos résultats montrent l’effet médiateur de la satisfaction relationnelle entre les causes de rupture et la reconsidération de l’entreprise, ainsi que le rôle modérateur du temps écoulé depuis la rupture. Plus particulièrement, nos résultats montrent que les clients partis pour le prix reconsidèrent plus l’entreprise comparativement aux clients partis suite à un échec de service, lorsque la rupture a eu lieu récemment (moins de deux ans). Notre deuxième étude quantitative consiste en un collecte via questionnaire pour étudier le rôle de la satisfaction à l’égard du concurrent dans le cadre du management de la reconquête (N = 303). Nos résultats montrent dans un premier temps l’influence négative de la satisfaction à l’égard de la concurrence sur la reconsidération de l’entreprise. Puis, nous montrons le rôle modérateur de cette variable sur le lien entre les causes de rupture et la reconsidération de l’entreprise. En effet, les clients partis suite à un échec de service sont plus difficiles à reconquérir comparativement à ceux partis pour des raisons liées au prix, et cette différence s’accroît avec la satisfaction vis-à-vis de la concurrence. Ces deux études nous permettent d’identifier les clients les plus difficiles à reconquérir : ceux partis il y a moins de deux ans suite à un échec de service et qui sont satisfaits du concurrent. Finalement, notre dernière étude consiste en une expérimentation via questionnaire (N = 362). Celle-ci nous permet d’étudier une nouvelle stratégie pour reconquérir ces clients les plus difficiles à récupérer. Nos résultats montrent que la communication post-échec est une stratégie de reconquête efficace pour reconquérir les clients partis suite à un échec de service, il y a moins de deux ans et étant satisfait de la concurrence.
... This study implemented remedies for common-method variance to the extent that it was practical and did not interfere with the goals of the research. Podsakoff et al. (2003) proposed several strategies to reduce potential bias whereby the appropriate method is determined by: (1) whether predictor and criterion values come from different sources; (2) if these values can be measured in different contexts; (3) whether method bias sources can be identified; and (4) if these biases can be measured. The design limitations of this research narrow the choice of remedies to the use of a single common-method factor. ...
... It involves the creation of a single latent method factor with all indicator variables loading onto it equally. Including this factor in the model controls for any systematic variance associated with the method (Podsakoff et al., 2003;). It does not however identify the cause of the method bias, nor does it capture possible interactions between the method factor and other constructs in the model (Bagozzi et al., 1991). ...
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Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) describes a firm’s attitude towards entrepreneurial activity; however, it does not measure the specific behaviors likely to contribute to high growth. This research applies the resource-based and dynamic capabilities views to propose a mediation model between EO and high growth. The theoretical framework is drawn from the strategic management and entrepreneurship literature. Competing models are tested against a sample of Canadian SMEs to validate the proposed explanation for the presence of high-growth firms among the population. The study finds that the relationship between EO and high growth is perfectly mediated by innovation performance, a behavioral measure of innovation. This research contributes to firm growth theory while providing further insight into the drivers of high growth useful to policy makers endeavoring to stimulate, and overcome barriers to, entrepreneurship and innovation. Determining the factors associated with firm growth can have implications for management as well as policy. If a firm’s goal is to grow it must be able to focus its limited resources using a strategy appropriate for growth.
... To ensure the robustness of the study, detailed tests were conducted to examine potential common method bias (CMB) within the dataset (Podsakoff et al. 2003). We followed the most widely accepted methodological approaches to deal with common method bias, both ex-ante and ex-post (Chang et al. 2010;Tourangeau et al. 2000;Hu et al. 2019). ...
... In our study (Table 2), the highest correlation coefficient was 0.73. Harman's single factor test (Shen et al. 2019;Podsakoff et al. 2003) also indicates that no single component accounts for most of the variance. ...
Article
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This article presents a research model that defines how external drivers impact financial performance outcomes, and the role played by strategic practices (especially CSR) in reducing the negative impact of such external influences. Applying strategic orientation theory, risk management theory, and CSR theory as the encompassing theoretical rationale, the conceptual framework defines the research idea and the research model provides the empirically testable model that identifies key variables with valid instrument measures. The results indicate that although external supply chain risk drivers do negatively impact a firm's financial performance, the influence of these risk events can be mitigated if firms adopt focused strategic practices. The results highlight the significant role played by CSR strategic practices in enabling firms to develop resilience from disruption events. In our research model, CSR, as an organizational linkage practice, is positioned in between upfront strategic flow and back-end performance flow. It suggests that CSR success is only possible when CSR is implemented broadly throughout organizational processes. Based on the empirical results, lessons and implications are presented for theoretical and managerial insights and future research.
... All 10 scale items loaded highly on their respective latent factors; factor loadings ranged from a low value of 0.75 to a high value of 0.98. Additionally, we checked for a possible common method variance (CMV) with Harman's single factor test [85]. The results of Harman's single factor test through CFA indicated the poor data fit (CFI = 0.58, TLI = 0.49, RMSEA = 0.24, and SRMR = 0.12). ...
... This issue should be explored further in future research. Finally, because data for both the predictor and criteria measures were collected from the same source at the same time, we are unable to rule out the presence of common source bias in the results [85]. However, the confirmatory factor analysis results and the relatively moderate correlations among the measures provided some assurance that such problems did not materially affect the results. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite increasing attention to workplace mistreatment in organizations, few studies have investigated the consequences of such negative experiences on employees. Using the Canadian Public Service Employee Survey (PSES) data (about 80,000 observations), this study examines the relationships between workplace mistreatment and outcomes at work and the moderating role of organizational efforts in preventing and handling workplace mistreatment among Canadian federal government employees. Empirical results of an OLS regression and logit model document that perceived workplace mistreatment, in terms of workplace harassment and discrimination, is negatively related to job satisfaction and continuance organizational commitment and positively related to turnover intention. The analysis also shows that the linkages between workplace mistreatment and the three outcomes were weaker when organizational efforts aimed at dealing with workplace mistreatment were perceived to be high. Implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
... The current study checked CMB using Harman's single-factor test (Podsakoff et al., 2003). This method considers all items together in a Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) without rotation (ibid.). ...
... The result of the test revealed that seven factors emerged which in total explained 70.22 percent variance while a sole factor explained only 41.37 per cent of total variance which is less than 50 per cent. Therefore, the presence of CMB in the data is ruled out (Podsakoff et al., 2003). ...
Article
Although food wastage across the world is preventable, yet it's an endemic problem affecting organizations and societies across the planet. In a shift from the existing assumptions of holding customers responsible, we base our study on the conscious capitalism perspective to argue that organizations through its employees can lead a paradigm shift towards environmental sustainability. In this direction, we propose and empirically validate a conceptual model based on the data collected from 335 employees of Saudi Arabian restaurants. The results reveal that when organizations enable intrinsic sustainable interventions, such as an empowering green psychological climate, it positively affects its employees' sense of purpose and their green intrinsic motivation, which consequently drive employees' intention to reduce food wastage. The results also reveal that sense of purpose and green intrinsic motivation partially mediate the relationship between green psychological climate and employees' intention to reduce food wastage. By arguing that employees with a higher purpose and intrinsic motivation towards environmental sustainability can contribute in resolving negative food wastage behaviors across societies, our work provides a new meaning to the role that management and organizations can play in societies grappling with the problem of food wastage.
... In the end, 333 complete responses were received (response rate 5 74%) which have been used for final analysis. Further, obtaining data at different intervals also lowers the issue of common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Therefore, temporal design with two-time lags has been used and data was collected at Time-1, Time-2 and Time-3 with the supposition that these times are appropriate with respect to evaluating constructs. ...
... Limitations and future directions Despite numerous implications for the theory and practice side, this research has some limitations as well. First of all, the information to investigate about underlying supposition has been obtained from a single source that may raise the issues of common method bias but due to the nature of the study and following the time-lagged data collection method reduces the chances of common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). In the future, it is recommended to use experimental design to investigate the causal effect relationship to further lower down this issue. ...
Article
Purpose-In the current dynamic world, organizations required rapid changes to meet the increasing demands of their customers. On the other hand, the practice side claims that the majority of the organizational change attempts fail due to resistance from the employee side. Based on the behavioral theory of leadership, the authors examined the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational change with moderated mediation effect of behavioral resistance to change and commitment to change on the stated relationship. Design/methodology/approach-Data were obtained from 333 employees, selected at random, in three waves (i.e. pre-change, during change and post-change) using survey methods from services sector organizations operating in Pakistan. Findings-The authors found that ethical leadership was positively linked to organizational change and this relation was partially mediated by the commitment to change. Further, behavioral resistance to change weakened the relationship between ethical leadership and commitment to change. Practical implications-The current study illuminates the importance of ethical leaders in the organizational change process, and empirical findings also gave an important direction to build change commitment in employees to reach positive results. Further, change leaders should use ethical practices in the workplace during organizational change initiatives to deal with behavioral resistance to change. Originality/value-This study links ethical leadership with organizational change using the behavioral theory of leadership, an unexplored area in the existing literature that gives a new insight to academia and practice side officials to successfully implement any organizational change initiative.
... In terms of common method bias, Harman's single-factor method was applied in this study (Podsakoff et al., 2003). The seven factors were combined into one factor. ...
... This study concluded that a single factor was responsible for 45.46% of the variation. Considering that this figure was far lower than the recommended threshold of 50% (Podsakoff et al., 2003), the common method bias is not a significant threat to the study. ...
Live stream marketing through social media has attracted the attention of digital retailing marketers in recent years. However, there is a lack of evidence in understanding the influence of in-store live stream on offline purchase intentions. This study aimed to investigate the influence patterns of environmental stimuli on consumers' intention to purchase offline/in-store after watching an in-store live stream session. The Stimuli-Organism-Response (SOR) model was employed as the theoretical framework, and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from individuals who had previous experience with in-store live stream marketing. Structural equation modelling was then applied for data analysis, with a total of 234 valid responses. The findings revealed that environmental stimuli have a significant positive effect on consumers' intentions to make in-store purchases, and the attitudes towards influencers and products substantially mediate the relationship between stimuli and purchase intention. More specifically, consumer attitude towards products has a pronounced effect on whether they will make an in-store purchase. The novelty of this research lies in its investigation of the impact that live stream marketing has on offline or in-store shopping experiences. This contrasts with the majority of existing live stream studies, which focus on consumers’ online shopping experiences. In addition, this study broadens the scope of the application of the SOR model to contribute to the growing body of literature on live stream marketing.
... Variance. According to [87], common method variance (CMV) presence in the study has to be detected first before examining the measurement model to prevent any bias. To detect any bias, this study utilized Harman's single factor test, which stated that if the variance is less than 50%, then it indicated no CMV issue. ...
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The advancement of e-wallet systems, including Alipay, has led consumers to embrace digital payment with financial technologies. Yet, limited research focused on the usage of e-wallets in the context of emerging economies. This research is aimed at investigating the predictors of consumers' use behavior of the Alipay e-wallet system in an emerging market and moderating role of perceived trust and perceived service quality on this relationship. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were applied as the guiding principle. Data gathered via online surveys among 378 Malaysian Alipay users were analyzed using the partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach. The results reveal that all hypotheses were significant towards consumers' intention to use Alipay in an emerging market except for the moderating role of perceived trust. Perceived usefulness was the strongest predictor factor towards consumers' intention to use Alipay in an emerging market. This is followed by perceived ease of use. They heavily emphasize the superiorities of Alipay over other e-wallet systems such as efficiency and convenience for conducting financial activities. This study contributes to the existing literature by proposing a comprehensive integrated research model. The research outcome can serve as a guideline for service providers towards enhancing consumers' adoption of e-wallets for digital payment with financial technologies.
... By utilizing factor analysis, all 41 items of the scales included in the measurement model were forced to form a single dimension. And the AVE value was 0.220, which is much lower than the reference value (<0.50), thus confirms the absence of common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). In order to check non-response bias, early respondents' (top 5%) demographics (e.g. ...
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This study aims to examine the effect of favouritism on competencies through employee silence. The phenomenon of employee silence has been defined as a mediating variable that is affected by favouritism, and which affects employee competencies. Data collected from 420 employees working in hotels in the Thrace Region based on a face-to-face survey method were used to test the research hypotheses with partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The results reveal that favouritism is an obstacle that causes employee silence and, more importantly, reduces the competencies of employees, as they are not treated fairly in terms of their skills, experience, knowledge, and abilities. In addition, it may be concluded that employee silence is a factor that directly reduces competencies. While there is some discussion about the possible impacts of obstacles such as favouritism and employee silence on competencies, it can be observed that there are few studies that address their relationship separately. This research is among the first to empirically reveal employee silence as the mediator between favouritism practices and employee competencies, expanding the understanding of how silence can work as a mediator in the hospitality businesses.
... Furthermore, studies that use single level data set might have the problem of common method bias depending on the social desirability. As suggested by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, and Podsakoff (2003), we conducted Harman's single factor test in order to see if the data set had common method bias. In this context, we calculated the variance explained by the scale items gathered under one factor to be 25.12%. ...
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Building on the relevant national and international literature, we aimed at determining the mediating roles of teacher self-efficacy and cooperation on the relationship between teacher-perceived distributed leadership behaviours and practices of school principals and teacher job satisfaction. A mediated path analysis was conducted on the TALIS (The Teaching and Learning International Survey) 2018 dataset, including nationwide teacher perspectives. Results revealed that (1) distributed leadership is a strong predictor of teacher job satisfaction, (2) teacher self-efficacy and cooperation positively mediated the relationship between distributed leadership and job satisfaction, and (3) the conceptual model accounted for 45% of the total variance within teacher job satisfaction. This study concluded that teachers experience enhanced job satisfaction when availed with a platform to contribute and be responsible in school decision-making processes.
... As the survey was self-report, whereby each respondent completed all the data required in the questionnaire, Harman's single factor analysis was used to detect the potential problem of IHR common method bias. The results from the unrotated exploratory factor analysis showed no evidence of common method bias as the first factor explained 24.43% of the total variance, which is less than the 50% threshold specified by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, and Podsakoff (2003). Besides, a full collinearity assessment (Kock, 2015) was conducted, and variance inflation factor (VIF) values for all latent variables were well below the value of 3.3 (see Table 1); thus, it can be concluded that the data are free from common method bias. ...
Article
Purpose This study evaluates the moderating role of work-based social supports (i.e. supervisor support and co-worker support) in the relationship between job insecurity and job burnout among hospitality employees in Malaysia. Besides, the direct effect between job insecurity and job burnout is examined. Design/methodology/approach The cross-sectional data of this study were based on a total of 220 self-administered questionnaires that have been completed by hospitality employees from three different states in Malaysia. Respondents were recruited based on a snowball sampling approach. The data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was from October 2020 to January 2021. Findings Partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was performed via SmartPLS software. The finding confirmed that job insecurity significantly intensifies employees' job burnout. Supervisor support and co-worker support were found to moderate the link between job insecurity and burnout. As anticipated, the relationship between job insecurity and job burnout increased when supervisor support is low. But high co-worker support was found to strengthen the impact of job insecurity on job burnout instead of the reverse. Originality/value This study supplements the existing literature by clarifying which sources of work-based social support (i.e. co-worker support or supervisor) is more salient in alleviating the adverse impact of job insecurity on job burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic among hospitality employees in Malaysia.
... We checked for common method bias by performing Harman's one-factor test. The results revealed that the one-factor solution only explained 41.103% of the variation, falling far short of the 50% threshold (Podsakoff, 2003). ...
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Purpose Building on stimulus organism response theory, the current study examines the influence of pickup service quality of buy online, pickup in-store (BOPIS) service on the BOPIS users' satisfaction, trust and commitment, subsequently leading to customer citizenship behavior (CCB). It examines the proposed relationships against boundary conditions, product categories and gender. Design/methodology/approach The research is descriptive, quantitative and cross-sectional investigation. It was conducted using data collected from 401 Indian omnichannel shoppers using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The proposed conceptual model was tested using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) and Partial Least Squares-Multi-group analysis (PLS-MGA). Findings The results indicate that pickup service quality in BOPIS positively impacts all the dimensions of relationship quality of the BOPIS users. Satisfaction and commitment directly affect CCB. However, trust impacts CCB indirectly through commitment. The moderating effect of the product category purchased and gender on specified relationships was tested. Results revealed the impact of pickup service quality on BOPIS users' trust and commitment differed across product categories. More impact was seen among users who purchased shopping and specialty goods. The study also found that trust-driven citizenship behavior was seen more among female BOPIS users when compared to males. Research limitations/implications The study is carried out on the Indian population, where omnichannel retailing is still nascent. Originality/value This study addresses the gap to investigate the value co-creation behavior (CCB) in the omnichannel retail context among BOPIS users. This study is the first to show that in-store pickup service quality in BOPIS might affect customer citizenship behavior through relationship quality dimensions, assessed against boundary conditions such as the product category and BOPIS user gender.
... Moreover, we conducted a common latent factor test (see also Richardson, Simmering, & Sturman, 2009;Williams, Cote, & Buckley, 1989). Following Podsakoff et al. (2003), we ran our model with and without a common latent factor (Podsakoff et al., 2012;Richardson et al., 2009). As a result, CMB was not a concern since all the observed differences concerning factor loadings for each path were close to zero. ...
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We utilize social exchange theory to investigate how interpersonal factors like trust and commitment influence co-worker relationship quality among a group of 346 Chinese white-collar employees. Our findings suggest that co-worker commitment positively influences co-worker relationship quality. Contrary to our expectations, there is no indication that co-worker trust directly affects co-worker relationship quality. Our findings suggest that commitment, rather than trust, plays a dominant role in co-worker relationship quality in the workplace in China. Further, stronger affective relationships between co-workers have a positive influence on trust and communication. We suggest that co-worker commitment is the central construct contributing to better co-worker relationships, triggered by affective ties, trust, and interpersonal communication. Our study seeks to contribute to the further development of social exchange theory by drawing attention to the social exchange context. To explore the role exchange context plays on co-worker relationships, we recommend future research be designed to enable cross-cultural exploration.
... The results showed that five factors with eigenvalues greater than one were extracted. The amount e of variance explained by the largest common factor obtained without rotation and after rotation was 26.09% and 15.34%, respectively, which were less than the critical criterion of 40% [30]. Therefore, this study was subject to a very low degree of common method bias. ...
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For college athletes who perform dual roles (student and athlete), the academics–athletics conflict is inevitable in daily life. Although existing studies have focused on the adverse effects of this conflict on the well-being of college athletes, they have not yet determined the underlying mechanism and effective measures to alleviate it. To explore the underlying mechanism of academics–athletics conflict, which affects the well-being of college athletes, we constructed a moderated mediating model to examine the critical role of negative emotions and life motivation in the relationship between them. The study randomly selected 802 college athletes from China to examine the relationships between academics–athletics conflict, negative emotions, eudaimonic motives, hedonic motives, and life satisfaction. The results showed that (1) negative emotions played an important mediating role between academics–athletics conflict and college athletes’ life satisfaction, with more than 79% of the effect of academics–athletics conflict being achieved through negative emotions. (2) Eudaimonic motives significantly moderated the first half of the mediation path of negative emotions between academics–athletics conflict and life satisfaction. Individuals with high eudaimonic motives experienced fewer negative emotions in the medium and weak conflict conditions. (3) Hedonic motives had a significant moderating effect on the second half of the mediation path. Individuals with high hedonic motives had greater life satisfaction across negative emotion conditions. This study provides important insights for a comprehensive understanding and in-depth study of the relationship between conflict and the well-being of college athletes, as well as a reference for the quality-of-life enhancement and motivation development for college athletes.
... Finally, in the fourth section, we asked them for sociodemographic variables regarding gender, age, employment, nationality and average income. Moreover, to protect respondents' anonymity and reduce evaluation apprehension, the questionnaire ensured that responses would remain anonymous and that there were no right or wrong answers (Podsakoff et al., 2003). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumers' reactions to a new kind of green food product that is the so-called lab-grown meat (LGM). This kind of meat does not derive from animal or vegetal cultures but is produced on the basis of “tissue-engineering” technologies, by injecting muscle tissue from an animal into a cell culture, allowing cells to “grow” outside the animal's body. By considering the similar nutritional characteristics of traditional types of meat, and the potential in terms of sustainability, the authors investigate the effect of the advertising, communication focus promoting LGM-based meat, on consumers' willingness to buy (WTB) and word-of-mouth (WOM), by shedding light on the moderator role of consumers' environmentalism and status consumption orientation tendency in influencing such relationship. Design/methodology/approach Through an exploratory research design, the authors conducted a study based on a two-cell experiment that manipulated the advertising communication focus by using a hamburger made of synthetic meat related to a fictitious brand called “Gnam”, to manipulate the advertising communication focus (sustainability vs. taste), then evaluating consumers' WTB, WOM, environmentalism and status consumption orientation. Findings Results show that the communication focus (sustainability vs. taste) exerts a positive effect on consumers' WTB and WOM, and how such effect is magnified both by consumers' environmentalism and status consumption orientation, in the attempt to show other a green status and their green consumption tendency. Research limitations/implications Despite the promising results, the study does not consider other consumers' individual differences, i.e. as for the role of age, or cultural differences. Practical implications Practically, this study suggests marketers and managers how to design effective marketing campaigns to incentivise LGM-based food products purchase, and promote positive WOM, on the basis of certain consumers' individual differences useful to segment their clientele in terms of environmentalism, and status consumption orientation tendency. Social implications Socially, this study may contribute to incentivising the use of alternative forms of meat as a food product not deriving from animal or vegetal culture, coherently with recent sustainability worldwide claimed goals. Originality/value This is the first paper to investigate consumers' reactions to LGM-based food products, by shedding light on the fundamental role of consumers' individual differences.
... Because this study used selfreported and cross-sectional methods and included multipoint Likert-type scales, Harman's single factor test for common method bias (CMB) was conducted, and Podsakoff et al.'s [71] criterion requiring total variance extracted by the one factor not exceeding 50% was applied. The obtained result indicated that the total variance extracted was 35.97%; therefore, CMB did not appear to be a problem. ...
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Lately, increasing concern has focused on the incessant and intrusive use of smartphones across a wide range of interpersonal and relational contexts. Of concern is that many people appear to snub someone during face-to-face interactions by focusing more on their smartphone than on their relational partner, namely, phubbing. Individuals with insecure attachment styles may phub their intimate others more often. However, such relationships have not been examined. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine key relationships between insecure attachment styles on phubbing. An online survey was conducted to examine the relationships between the variables of this study ( N = 444 , 72% female: mean age 20). The analyses revealed both anxious-preoccupied and dismissive-avoidant attachment styles to be positively associated with phubbing. Moreover, both insecure attachment styles indirectly predicted phubbing through problematic smartphone use (PSU). Insecure attachment styles appear to impact how often people phub others within intimate relationships, and further, PSU may function as a mechanism linking these insecure attachment styles with phubbing.
... By utilizing factor analysis, all 41 items of the scales included in the measurement model were forced to form a single dimension. And the AVE value was 0.220, which is much lower than the reference value (<0.50), thus confirms the absence of common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). In order to check non-response bias, early respondents' (top 5%) demographics (e.g. ...
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This study aims to examine the effect of favouritism on competencies through employee silence. The phenomenon of employee silence has been defined as a mediating variable that is affected by favouritism, and which affects employee competencies. Data collected from 420 employees working in hotels in the Thrace Region based on a face-to-face survey method were used to test the research hypotheses with partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The results reveal that favouritism is an obstacle that causes employee silence and, more importantly, reduces the competencies of employees, as they are not treated fairly in terms of their skills, experience, knowledge, and abilities. In addition, it may be concluded that employee silence is a factor that directly reduces competencies. While there is some discussion about the possible impacts of obstacles such as favouritism and employee silence on competencies, it can be observed that there are few studies that address their relationship separately. This research is among the first to empirically reveal employee silence as the mediator between favouritism practices and employee competencies, expanding the understanding of how silence can work as a mediator in the hospitality businesses.
... In addition, it was determined that the most common duration for tourists was four to seven days, for the first time, and alone (Table 1). To reduce the possibility of common method variance, the following procedural remedies were adopted from Podsakoff et al. (2003) and appended to the cover page: "Participation is voluntary but encouraged" and "There are no right or wrong responses to the items in the questionnaire." Anonymity and secrecy were guaranteed to all participants. ...
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Aesthetics constitute a fundamental element of the tourist experience and contribute to tourists’ behavioral intention. Yet, empirical research on destination aesthetics is very limited. This study explores whether destination aesthetics affects behavioral intention and whether there is a difference between tourists’ aesthetic judgment and aesthetic distance. Destination aesthetics are determined by comparing the perceived difference between the home environment of the tourist and the destination. Gestalt theory has been adopted to understand the impact of destination aesthetic judgment and aesthetic distance on behavioral intention. Structural equation modeling was the main analytical tool used to assess the results. A t-test was also performed. In this research, the behavioral intention of tourists (word-of-mouth intention, willingness to pay, and revisit intention) is positive when tourists perceive environments of holiday locations to be better kept than their accommodations. It has been determined that aesthetic distance only significantly and negatively affects willingness to pay. Among tourists coming to Istanbul, the research found locale characteristics, scope, and perceived age to be important determining factors of destination aesthetics, whereas with tourists coming to Antalya, the research defined destination aesthetics in terms of scope, upkeep, accord, perceived age, and shape. This study shows how destination managers could leverage the aesthetic experiences of tourists.
... Common method variance (CMV) was tackled by two approaches. First, we used Harmon's single-factor test to detect CMV [66]. Eight factors with an eigenvalue >1 were extracted and collectively accounted for 77.6% of the variances in the data, with the first factor accounting for 19.3% of the variances, which indicates that CVM was not a serious problem. ...
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Nowadays enterprise system(s) (ESs) have become a pervasive digital platform and are widely utilized by firms. However, uncertain environments require firms continuously adapt their ES. ES adaptation involves the postimplementation changes of an ES to meet changing business needs. How firms adapt their ES to facilitate organizational agility remains an understudied issue. Drawing from the literature of organizational mindfulness, this article holds that firms need to foster organizational mindfulness—a firm's willingness and capacity to capture and refine discriminatory details about its environments—to facilitate ES adaptation and organizational agility. We build and test a model based on 138 responses of Taiwanese manufacturing firms. Our findings demonstrate that organizational mindfulness can help firms to achieve better ES adaptation and organizational agility. Specifically, organizational mindfulness can facilitate not only ES adaptation but also entrepreneurial and adaptive agility that is the offensive and defensive dimensions of organizational agility. ES adaptation is mainly related to entrepreneurial agility. This article contributes to the agility literature by proposing and testing a model of how organizational mindfulness affects ES adaptation and organizational agility.
... The ranking was performed based on the extrinsic factors (Location, Ethnicity, Physical Ability, and Labour Union) using a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). To reduce common method variance (CMV) bias, confidentiality was ensured [73,74]. ...
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As the global population raises, developing countries seem to have issues with the productivity of the construction projects due to high demand. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the effect of extrinsic diversity aspects impacting the construction worker efficiency. The data collection was made by a questionnaire sent to construction stakeholders working in the Punjab region of Pakistan. A comparison was drawn based on varied employee characteristics i.e., experiences and ages. It was found that old workers were negatively impacted by the distant location of the construction site. The young employees were most inclined towards holidays when working away from home. The access to basic amenities during a construction project was regarded as a major setback for the workers’ productivity. Experienced workers preferred working within the vicinity and easy access to their houses. Based on the ethnicity factor while selecting the workforce, newcomers faced hurdles while entering the construction sector.
... 0.60). The independence of the results, along with the research project design, suggests that the data used in this analysis may not be inordinately affected by common method variance (Podsakoff et al., 2003(Podsakoff et al., , 2012. We centered the predictor variables first, and then used SPSS 22.0 to run hierarchical moderated regression. ...
... In the current study, all the data were collected using self-report measurements, which might lead to common method bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Thus, a single factor test of Harman was conducted to rule out the common method bias (Harman, 1976). ...
... As the whole data gathered from respondents having almost the same attributes and at the same point in time, the research may be vulnerable to greater CBM (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). Our current research study examined CBM by employing a single-factor Harman's test. ...
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This study investigates the drivers of Islamic Credit Card (ICC) adoption in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan by using the extended Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) model. Particularly, the study examines the impact of subjective norms, attitude, perceived financial cost, knowledge, and social influence on ICC selection. Using a convenient sampling technique, this study relied on self-administered questionnaires that were distributed among Islamic banks’ customers in Kohat and Bannu divisions. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 340 valid questionnaires were selected for the final analysis. The results from the regression analysis indicate that the factors i.e., subjective norm, customer attitudes, knowledge, and social influence have a positive and significant effect on the intentions to use the ICC, but perceived financial cost shows a negative effect on the intentions to use ICC. Among the predictors, the subjective norm was found a very influential driver to forecast the intention to use ICC. Our results provide insights to managers of Islamic banks, policymakers, and Sariah scholars to understand how to promote ICC.
... Our findings should also be considered in the context of the measures used. All the media use and mental health measures were self-reported, and therefore rater bias may have influenced our results 67 . Indeed, previous studies have found that the associations between media use and mental health are stronger for self-reported outcomes compared to outcomes reported by other informants 26,68,69 . ...
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The increase in online media use and mental health problems have prompted investigations into their association, although most literature is focussed on deleterious effects. We assessed the aetiology of media use and mental health associations ( M age = 22.14, SD = 0.85) using twin (n = 4000 pairs) and polygenic score methods (n = 6000 unrelated individuals) in the Twins Early Development Study. Beyond the traditionally explored negative uses of online media (online victimisation and problematic internet use), we investigate general media uses such as posting online and watching videos and distinguish both positive (pro-social behaviour) and negative (anxiety, depression, peer and behaviour problems) mental health measures. Negative media use correlated with poor mental health (r = 0.11–0.32), but general media use correlated with prosocial behaviour ( r = 0.20) and fewer behavioural problems (r = − 0.24). Twin analyses showed that both general and negative media use were moderately heritable (ranging from 20 to 49%) and their associations with mental health were primarily due to genetic influences (44–88%). Genetic sensitivity analysis combining polygenic scores with heritability estimates also suggest genetic confounding. Results indicate research on the mental health impact of media use should adopt genetically informed designs to strengthen causal inference.
... Therefore, common method bias (CMB) is a potential problem in our data. Harman's single-factor test was utilized to investigate potential CMB among the study variables (Podsakoff et al., 2003). The unrotated principal-component factor analysis extracted four factors with eigenvalues greater than 1; the first factor accounted for only 49% of the total variance. ...
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To better understand how to motivate innovative work behavior (IWB) at the individual level in organizations, we investigate the link between perceived psychological safety and IWB and the role of error risk taking and perceived organizational innovation climate in this study. In particular, we hypothesize a moderated mediation model in which (a) perceived psychological safety is positively related to IWB, (b) error risk taking mediates the positive relationship between perceived psychological safety and IWB, and (c) perceived organizational innovation climate strengthens the positive link between error risk taking and IWB and the mediated link between perceived psychological safety and IWB via error risk taking. We tested the hypothesized model using data collected from 315 full-time employees working at six information and communication technology companies in a high-technology business district of Egypt. The findings largely support our hypotheses. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications.
... The questionnaires were distributed to middle and higher-ranking managers. To avoid response bias, the data on demographic factors, UPB, and RMA were gathered first, followed by the data on PE and PWRF after a one-month break (Podsakoff, 2003). The response rate was 66% (330/500). ...
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This study investigates the effects of psychological entitlement and prevention work regulatory focus on unethical pro-organizational behaviors through reflective moral attentiveness. The data was gathered from three hundred managers from services sector of Pakistan and exposed to hierarchical multiple regression and SEM analyses with SPSS version 23. Drawing from social exchange theory, the results show that psychological entitlement and prevention work regulatory focus are significantly positively related with the unethical pro-organizational behaviors and reflective moral attentiveness exhibits significant mediation role. This article discusses the study's findings including practical and theoretical implications and limitations, as well as future directions.
... Second, the coding results were inevitably affected by subjective factors of the coders. However, the coders were trained before implementation and a coding consistency test was used to verify the coding results, which compensated for the influence of coding subjectivity to a certain extent [76]. Third, due to the availability of data, this paper could only focus on analyzing the static relationship between the competency and performance of pediatric residents. ...
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Background Competency-oriented medical education has become a global trend. However, most current studies focus on the independent effects of various competencies and lack an examination of the combined effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the competency configurations of excellent pediatric residents and general pediatric residents and to provide a scientific reference for the talent training and career development of pediatric residents. Methods Behavioral event interviews were conducted with 23 pediatric residents at a children's hospital in Beijing in July and August 2019. Two researchers coded the interview data to summarize the competency of pediatric residents. The research group scored the performance of 23 pediatric residents in various aspects of competency and used the crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis method to explore the competency configurations of excellent pediatric residents and general pediatric residents. Results This study concludes that pediatric residents should have six core competencies: professional spirit, clinical skills, communication ability, learning ability, mental capacity and research ability. There are 4 combinations of competencies for becoming an excellent pediatric resident: the clinical type, scientific research type, all-around development type and high emotional intelligence type. In addition, there are 3 combinations of competencies for becoming a general pediatric resident: the comprehensive ability deficiency type, lack of professionalism and mental capacity type, lack of communication ability type. Conclusions There are differences in competence between excellent and general pediatric residents. Excellent pediatric residents do not need to possess all competencies but should specialize in clinical practice, scientific research or communication skills. This study suggests that training in mental capacity, professional spirit and communication ability should be strengthened during pediatric resident training. Pediatric residents should make career development plans according to their actual situation, and hospitals should arrange suitable positions according to the characteristics of pediatric residents.
... Furthermore, we assumed that developers had the same interpretation of the questions, regardless of their roles in the SDP. To make sure about this assumption, the responses were randomly divided into groups, and single factor analysis was applied to assess common method bias [59]. We used the ANOVA data analysis method available in Excel for this purpose. ...
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Earlier software development processes (SDPs), such as waterfall processes, were mainly focused on process steps and did not address people- and product-related issues. Emergence of Software development methodologies (SDM) has created a new paradigm for developing software systems. A SDM is a special kind of technically engineered framework for organizing SDPs; this framework is expected to specify three main interwoven elements, namely people, products, and process. It has since become evident that it is impossible to provide a general-purpose SDM for developing all the various kinds of software systems, and it has thus become essential to construct the most appropriate methodology for the system development situation in hand, a practice commonly called Situational Method Engineering (SME). The problem with existing SME methods is lack of adequate attention to the role of people who might seek or possess valuable knowledge about the project situation. This knowledge can be tacit information that is hidden in the developer’s mind, or it might be explicitly available. This paper proposes a knowledge management (KM)-driven and DevOps-based SME method as a new integrated multi-view methodological paradigm that satisfies the need for sharing human experience in engineering SDMs. The method has been proposed by reusing general SME practices and complementing them by embedding appropriate KM and DevOps practices to alleviate the weaknesses of previous SME methods. Furthermore, the proposed method has been evaluated through four case studies and also by conducting a criteria-based comparison with eight prominent SME methods.
... Besides that, the respondent's anonymity was ensured, with clear notification provided in the survey letter of invitation. To assess the CMV through statistical measures, Harman's one-factor test was utilized in the study (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Herman's one-factor test was performed by entering all the principal constructs into the principal components factor analysis, and the results are presented in Table 2. Referring to Table 2, the results signified that when all items were forced into one-factor, all factors accounted for 25.86 percent of the variance, far below than the threshold 50 percent of variance. ...
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In recent years, the concept of a circular economy (CE) has gained importance and attracted significant attention among scholars and practitioners. Research that examines the firm’s supply chain capabilities and orientation for performance is well established nonetheless still lacking in supporting the transition from a linear economy to a circular economy. The firms can foster a closed-loop supply chain orientation (CLSCO) through strategic green capabilities as an alternative obtainable to SC firms to achieve CE performance. Thus, this study is interested to examine the antecedents and outcomes of CLSCO by applying the Resource-Based View and Natural Resource-Based View theories. In total, 150 Malaysian manufacturers responded to the survey and were analysed using the SEM Lisrel method. Among the hypotheses tested, only one had no direct effect on CLSCO, and that was the recovery capacities. The remaining hypothesis indicates that CLSCO is positively affected by integration and production capabilities. In contrast, the results of CLSCO indicate that the extent of a company's CLSCO does affect its success in the circular economy. The study concludes, based on the RBV and NRBV principles, that the success of firms in optimising their resources would enable them to use the CLSCO and attain CE performance. Thus, there are numerous ways in which this study can provide practitioners with valuable research insights.
... To remedy this concern, the author took several steps "ex ante." Following (Podsakoff et al., 2003), participants were assured anonymity of the study and that there are no right or wrong answers. Further, the survey included questions with varying end-points. ...
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This study, examined the impact of (a) consumer knowledge about green products on green identity and (b) the introduction of a disposable plastic bag fee on consumer attitude (i.e., store identification, store brand preference, and store brand loyalty). Findings indicate that consumers showed medium levels of knowledge about green products and the plastic bag fee increased consumer identification with the store. These results suggest that appealing to consumer needs for self-definition can help grocery stores maintain long-term relationships (i.e., increase consumer identification with store) if they foster an environmentally-friendly image. To this end, grocery stores should promote sustainability and communicate their progress to customers. Findings further suggest that informed consumers are more likely to value social responsibility than customer service, even if they incur a minor cost. Shedding light on why few individuals who define themselves as "green" behave in ways that are congruent with this label, these findings can benefit marketing scholars, brand managers, and the economic health of various organizations.
... It has been argued that data gathered through a common method like a questionnaire is usually characterised by a common bias. Thus, to ascertain whether a single factor was responsible for the variation in the data for this study, Harman's single-factor test was performed using principal component analysis in SPSS (Podsakoff et al., 2003). The results indicated that a single factor did not emerge. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to determine whether civic education has a positive impact on voting intentions among the electorate; second, to establish whether attitudes towards voting behaviour (ATVB) mediate the relationship between civic education and voting intentions; and third, to determine whether educational level moderates the relationship between civic education and voting intentions. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a survey research design and a quantitative approach. Data were collected from a sample of 1,450 registered voters from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. A regression-based approach was adopted to test the study hypotheses using Hayes-PROCESS Macro 3.5. Findings The results indicate that civic education is positively associated with voting intentions. Further analysis reveals that ATVB significantly mediates the association between civic education and voting intentions. Additionally, educational level positively moderates the relationship between civic education and voting intentions. Practical implications The findings offer implications for governments and democratic institutions. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to provide empirical evidence of the mediating effect of ATVB and the moderating effect of educational level on the relationship between civic education and voting intentions. This study provides useful insights into the factors that influence voting intentions.
... Inverse, negative, or reverse-coded items can be defined as those having a directionality as opposed to the logic of the construct being measured [84]. We agreed with the suggestion and inverted two of the four items as this can help to mitigate acquiescence bias [85], which can occur when participants tend to agree with statements without regard for their actual content, or due to laziness, indifference, or automatic accommodation to a response pattern [86]. The item I feel at home in the group was changed to I don't feel at home in the group. ...
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The sense of belonging to a community is a basic human need that impacts an individuals behavior, long-term engagement, and job satisfaction, as revealed by research in disciplines such as psychology, healthcare, and education. Despite much research on how to retain developers in Open Source Software projects and other virtual, peer-production communities, there is a paucity of research investigating what might contribute to a sense of belonging in these communities. To that end, we develop a theoretical model that seeks to understand the link between OSS developer motives and a Sense of Virtual Community. We test the model with a dataset collected in the Linux Kernel developer community, using structural equation modeling techniques. Our results for this case study show that intrinsic motivations - social or hedonic motives - are positively associated with a sense of virtual community, but living in an authoritative country and being paid to contribute can reduce the sense of virtual community. Based on these results, we offer suggestions for open source projects to foster a sense of virtual community, with a view to retaining contributors and improving projects sustainability.
... Standard method variance (CMV) is a similar variance that can be assigned to constructs and the instrument category [74]. In some circumstances, the field data can be exaggerated or prevent the level of studied relationships and thus prompt challenges [75,76]. ...
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The sustainable building concept must be implemented throughout the project lifecycle to achieve the highest proceeds without lowering the standard. Although implementing green walls in emerging nations is partial, such studies have concentrated on drivers for implementing green walls. Conversely, there is less proof to comprehensively study the impact of implementing green walls' overall sustainable success (OSS) concerning the lifecycle of projects. This research focuses on the green wall adoption barriers in construction projects in third-world nations. It assesses the effect of addressing green wall (GW) adoption obstacles on OSS throughout the project lifespan. Therefore, a broader review of the literature is needed for conceptual model development. Structural equation modelling and partial least square (SEM-PLS) have been developed employing a survey evaluation tool (i.e., questionnaire). Information was derived from one hundred and five building professionals in Nigeria. The model output revealed that eradicating GWs barriers had a slight to intermediate influence on OSS during the construction scheme's lifespan. These results offer the foundation for policymaking in third-world nations regarding successful project completion through evading barriers to green wall adoption. Similarly, green walls implementation will enhance the building project's success.
... However, Harman's single-factor test can be conducted to assess the presence of any common method bias. Test results confirmed that the first factor explained 25.24% of the variance and that several factors had eigenvalues of more than one, indicating common method bias is not an issue in the study data (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). ...
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Social media (SM) is a popular and powerful tool used in the tourism industry to connect tourists with specific experiences. In this study, we explore the relationship between SM and revisit intention (RI), the formation of electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) networks, tourist satisfaction (TS), and ultimately, the development of the tourism sector (e.g., tourism development (TD)) based on the social learning theory. We used a structural equation model to identify direct and mediating relationships between variables. The model was based on perspectives provided by 395 individuals who had visited tourist destinations in Bangladesh. We confirmed that SM exerts a substantial direct and positive effect on TS, e-WOM, and TD, although we did not find an association between SM and RI. Likewise, e-WOM networks directly and positively impact RI, TS, and TD. RI, in turn, positively impacts TD, as TS also exerts a significant direct effect on RI and TD. TS and RI mediate the relationship between SM and TD, SM and RI, e-WOM and TD, as well as that of e-WOM and TD, TS and TD respectively. We were unable to identify a mediating role for TS in the relationship between e-WOM to RI, or for e-WOM in the SM and TS relationship. The relationships identified in this study are not merely of theoretical interest as relevant industry practitioners could use these insights to develop plans and guidelines for the use of SM networks to develop the sector.
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To remain competitive, organizations tend to change their established ways of working, their strategy, the core values, and the organizational structure. Such thorough changes are referred to as transformational change. Unfortunately, transformational change is often unsuccessful because organizational members do not always welcome the change. Although organizations often expect their supervisors to be successful role‐models and change‐agents during the transformational change process, we argue that initiating transformational change could increase supervisors' hindrance stress levels, which may result in abusive behaviors towards employees. More specifically, in a multi‐source survey and an experimental study, we find evidence that transformational change is associated with supervisors' experienced hindrance stress, which subsequently led to more abusive behaviors towards employees.
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Purpose The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic provides the scope to conduct online classes in the university teaching methods. This study aims to investigate the impact of technology self-efficacy on students' behavioral intention on the effectiveness of online learning. Design/methodology/approach This study was conducted with 323 university students using the online survey platform. Data analysis was acquired by implementing the partial least squares technique to obtain the results. Findings The findings revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic affects technology self-efficacy. Technology self-efficacy has a significance on perceived usefulness (PU) and ease of use, which influences students' behavioral intention to use online learning effectively. The results identified that user innovativeness facilitated the relationship between PU and behavioral intention to use online learning efficiency. Originality/value This study has a significant insight into the higher educational institutes and academia that lessons from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on technology self-efficacy toward online learning effectiveness.
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Driven by dynamic competitive conditions, companies' information technology (IT) functions adopt agile practices and build ambidextrous organizational structures, which, in turn, affect the work environment of individual IT employees. Based on the fundamental assumption of person-environment fit theory that people seek out environments which allow them to behaviorally manifest their traits, this research aims to shift the focus in organizational design choices towards an individual-level perspective. We study whether and how personality traits and work environment characteristics, measured at the individual level of ambidexterity, relate and impact person-job fit (P-J fit). The results of a survey of 279 IT workers show that personality traits (operationalized by the Five Factor Model) significantly differ across exploitative and explorative work environments. Furthermore, the data suggests that the relationship between extraversion, conscientiousness and openness to experience on P-J fit is moderated by the level of ambidexterity.
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For brands to succeed, they often need consumers to trust them. This has prompted marketing and consumer behaviour researchers to examine what makes certain brands more trusted and how brands can identify themselves as trustworthy. For over 25 years, experimental economists, behavioural scientists and others have examined interpersonal trust using an exercise—the trust game—where participants put money at risk based on how trustworthy they think other people are. This research has remained largely separate from work on brand trust, but this critical review aims to identify findings and concepts from trust game‐based research that are relevant to brand trust, and starts to develop an integrated research agenda for the future. In particular, it looks at how brand trust is measured, how brand trust might (or might not) be distinguished from transactional risk, and the heuristics and biases behind brand trust judgements and how these relate to brands' attempts to signal their trustworthiness.
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Trust is considered essential to interfirm knowledge acquisition across borders. However, recent studies indicate that interfirm collaboration can thrive even in low trust situations. This study proposes that low trust can facilitate supplier knowledge acquisition (SKA) across borders if it is aligned with the other party's trust. Rather than high trust from a single party, trust congruence—similar levels of trust from buyers and suppliers regardless of their levels—may be more predictive of successful knowledge acquisition across borders. We further propose that different types of trust congruence have distinct effects on SKA across borders. Last, we propose that the influence of trust congruence on SKA is conditional on the presence of effective knowledge appropriability mechanisms (KAMs) and institutional distance between buyer and supplier home countries in cross‐border transactions. Data are collected from 648 managers working for 162 matched dyads of manufacturing suppliers in China and buyers from 24 OECD countries. The findings support the propositions and suggest that supply chain managers should pay attention to aligning trust levels with their partners in cross‐border transactions, and especially do so when lacking effective KAMs and when buyers and suppliers are from similar institutional environments. To maximize supplier knowledge acquisition (SKA) across borders, buyers and suppliers should align their trust with one another rather than relying on a single party's trust. If buyers and suppliers trust each other at similar levels, alignment at higher trust levels facilitates SKA more than alignment at lower trust levels does. When it's difficult to prevent a partner from misappropriating knowledge in cross‐border transactions and when buyers and suppliers are from similar institutional environments, aligning trust levels in the relationship is particularly important.
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Although emerging actor-centric research has revealed that performing morally laden behaviors shapes how employees behave subsequently, less is known about what work behaviors may emerge following employees' unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB)-a unique behavior with competing moral connotations. We integrate the moral self-regulation literature with research on micro corporate social responsibility (CSR) to develop and test a theoretical framework articulating how perceived CSR initiatives reconcile the morally paradoxical nature of UPB and how people respond to such behavior. We propose that given its dual moral nature, performing UPB simultaneously increases feelings of moral deficit (which triggers moral cleansing) and psychological entitlement (which triggers moral licensing). Importantly, perceived CSR initiatives moderate these countervailing psychological experiences by strengthening feelings of moral deficit while weakening psychological entitlement, which respectively result in increased service-oriented helping behavior and decreased deviant behavior. Results from a scenario-based lab study, an online experiment, and two field studies largely corroborate our propositions. This research provides a finer-grained understanding of the complex moral self-regulation processes that employees experience at work and highlights why and how organizations' CSR initiatives affect employees' moral mindsets and behaviors.
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The objective of this paper is to analyze the mediating effect of new product development capability on the relationship between learning orientation and financial performance. The research was applied in SMEs that belong to the Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Industry in Brazil. There are 226 cases in the sample and the method used to test the relations between the hypotheses was the Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed us that learning orientation positively influences financial performance; there is a significant positive relationship between learning orientation and new product development capability; new product development capability has a positive influence on the financial performance; and there is a partial mediating effect of the new product development capability on the relationship between learning orientation and financial performance.
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Ausgehend vom sogenannten Pisa-Schock im Jahr 2000, also dem unerwartet schlechten Abschneiden deutscher Schüler*innen im ersten internationalen Kompetenztest, hat sich das Thema Kompetenzorientierung – im Windschatten der Bildungswissenschaften – auch in verschiedenen sportbezogenen Bildungssettings angesiedelt. Nach anfänglichen Diskussionen und Ansätzen im Bereich des Sportunterrichts (u. a. Gogoll, 2013; Messmer, 2013), die in der Folge bildungspolitischer Forderungen nach Bildungsstandards zu Beginn der 2000er Jahre entstanden sind, wird Kompetenzorientierung mittlerweile auch intensiv im Bereich der Sportlehrkräftebildung beforscht (Heemsoth & Wibowo, 2020; Meier, 2018). Die Trainer*innenbildung – eher ein Bildungssetting am Rande sportpädagogischer Forschungen – hat bereits 2005 kompetenzorientierte Rahmenrichtlinien als verbindliche Grundlage für Qualifizierungen unter dem Dach des Deutschen Olympischen Sportbundes gesetzt (DSB, 2005). Die im Rahmen der kumulativen Habilitation eingebrachten Beiträge können als Mosaikbausteine angesehen werden, die das Bild von Kompetenzorientierung in den Bildungssettings der sportunterrichtlichen Schüler*innen-, Trainer*innen- und Sportlehrkräftebildung schärfen. Die Zielgruppe der fachfremden Primar-Sportlehrkräfte und deren Kompetenzen bilden innerhalb der Beiträge einen vertiefenden Schwerpunkt.
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The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the mediating role of vengeance in the relationship between self-enhancement and negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) intention, (b) to examine the moderated mediation role of helping other consumers, and (c) to test moderated moderation role of gender. The study employs Process Macro software to achieve research aims with the sample of 767 consumers. The results show that (a) vengeance has a partial mediating role in the relationship between self-enhancement and NWOM intention, (b) helping other consumers has a moderated mediation role in this indirect relationship, and (c) the moderated mediation role of helping other consumers is moderated by gender (difference for females) only in the effect of self-enhancement on vengeance. Research is important to understand the antecedents of NWOM.
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Our research examines the importance of ethics‐related mentoring, its measurement and potential role in promoting protégé ethical behaviours. In Study 1, 25 interviews with mentoring experts generated 40 items for a new measure of ethics‐related mentoring. Across studies 2 and 3, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, using data collected from 114 and 152 protégés, respectively, reduced these to 15 items and supported its confirmatory and discriminant validity. Study 4, a scenario‐based experiment, confirmed that protégé perceptions of their ethics‐related mentoring increases their organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) whilst reducing their counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). Drawing on social learning theory and moral identity theory, we demonstrate that both moral identity and moral self‐efficacy mediate the relationship with CWB, but only moral identity mediates the relationship with OCB. We found limited support for a moderating role of mentor prototypicality. Overall, we present strong evidence for the reliability and validity of our new ethics‐related mentoring measure and a new theoretical framework explaining its potential role in promoting protégé ethical behaviours.
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The leader-member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader-member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership.
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The central goal of asking questions in a survey is to obtain reliable information about characteristics of the respondent. Asking, and consequently answering questions, however, never occurs in a vacuum. Rather, it occurs in a specific social and cognitive context that may influence responses in undesired ways (e.g., Schuman & Presser, 1981). Thus, a change in the answer to a particular question may not necessarily reflect an attitude change on the part of the respondent but simply may be the influence of a different context. Schuman, Presser, and Ludwig (1981), for example, found that divergent responses toward abortion, as measured in two consecutive surveys, were caused not by a change of opinion over time but by the presence or absence of a particular question before the target question.
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Three models are developed for the effects of social desirability (SD) on organizational behavior research results. SD can act as (a) an unmeasured variable that produces spurious correlations between study variables, (b) a suppressor variable that hides relationships, or (c) a moderator variable that conditions the relationship between two other variable.
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The dimensionality of the original Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and a revision were investigated. Factor analyses of two data sets identified six dimensions underlying the original JDS. Five of the factors correspond to the pattern expected for the JDS items; the sixth was identified as a measurement artifact. Five of the JDS items were subsequently rewritten to eliminate the artifact. The revised survey was administered to employees of a printing company (N = 134) and the a priori five-factor solution was obtained with no artifact factor. Scale–factor correlations were also computed. The resulting coefficients suggest that the revised JDS scales are measuring their underlying constructs with reasonable accuracy. As a result of the measurement artifact in the original JDS, it is recommended that the revised JDS should be used in future research concerned with task characteristics. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Though research has addressed relationships between social power bases and several work-related variables, processes that may underlie such relationships have generally not been examined. The present study considered relationships between bases of social power and subordinates' affective work reactions, hypothesizing that procedural justice would mediate such relationships. Two samples, one drawn from two service-oriented companies and one collected from a hospital, were used to test a mediational model reflecting this hypothesis. Using theoretically grounded measures of social power and procedural justice, support was found for full mediation effects in connection with subordinates' affective work reactions. Implications regarding the development of social power bases are discussed.
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Cross-sectional studies of attitude-behavior relationships are vulnerable to the inflation of correlations by common method variance (CMV). Here, a model is presented that allows partial correlation analysis to adjust the observed correlations for CMV contamination and determine if conclusions about the statistical and practical significance of a predictor have been influenced by the presence of CMV. This method also suggests procedures for designing questionnaires to increase the precision of this adjustment.
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The correlated trait-correlated method (CT-CM) and correlated uniqueness (CU) confirmatory factor analysis models for multitrait-multimethod data are critiqued. Although the CU model often returns convergent and admissible factor solutions when the CT-CM model does not, the CU model is shown to have theoretical and substantive shortcomings. On the basis of this critique, the authors recommend that the CT-CM model be regarded as the generally preferred model and that the CU model be invoked only when the CT-CM model fails.
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Interpretation of observed relations between job stressors and job strains in cross-sectional surveys is often ambiguous because of possible 3rd variables (both stable background factors, such as personality, and transitory occasion factors, such as mood). In this longitudinal study, negative affectivity (NA) and strains were assessed both in college and later on the job. Stressors were assessed only on the job. Evidence was found that some background factors affected measures of job stressors and job strains in that college measures were significantly related to subsequent measures on the job. Relations between job stressors and job strains, however, were in most cases not affected significantly when prior strains and NA were controlled for. Furthermore, the results suggested that NA measures are subject to occasion factors.
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Attitudes can be seen as object evaluations stored in memory. Accordingly, attitude structure may be seen as a memory structure with dynamic implications for information processing. In this article, an associative network model for the representation of stored attitudes was assumed, and 2 manifestations of the notion of spreading activation within the confines of such a model were examined. Study 1 demonstrated that giving one attitude response could facilitate a 2nd attitude response if the 2 shared a structural link in long-term memory. Studies 2 and 3 showed that spreading activation could also result in polarization of attitude responses, so that answering questions on 1 attitude issue might result in more extreme responses to a 2nd linked attitude issue. These results have implications not only for theories about attitudes but also for measurement issues in political survey research.
Book
Examines the psychological processes involved in answering different types of survey questions. The book proposes a theory about how respondents answer questions in surveys, reviews the relevant psychological and survey literatures, and traces out the implications of the theories and findings for survey practice. Individual chapters cover the comprehension of questions, recall of autobiographical memories, event dating, questions about behavioral frequency, retrieval and judgment for attitude questions, the translation of judgments into responses, special processes relevant to the questions about sensitive topics, and models of data collection. The text is intended for: (1) social psychologists, political scientists, and others who study public opinion or who use data from public opinion surveys; (2) cognitive psychologists and other researchers who are interested in everyday memory and judgment processes; and (3) survey researchers, methodologists, and statisticians who are involved in designing and carrying out surveys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We examined the effects of computerized interviewing on applicant responses within the context of a laboratory simulation in which subjects were interviewed for either a low- or high-status position (clerk or management trainee) under one of four interview conditions: computerized, paper-and-pencil, or face-to-face with a warm or a cold behaving interviewer. The results indicated that subjects in nonsocial (computer or paper-and-pencil) interview conditions both scored lower on the Marlowe-Crowne measure of socially desirable responding (SDR) and reported their grade point averages and scholastic aptitude scores more accurately (with less inflation) than those in the face-to-face interview conditions. However, the use of nonsocial screening interviews for the high-status position engendered significantly higher levels of applicant resentment about the interview, relative to the conditions in which the interview procedure was appropriate (or more than appropriate) for the position level. This unintended behavioral consequence suggests one of the bounds that may influence the effectiveness of computerized interviewing. Contrary to expectations, we did not find the interpersonal style of the interviewer to significantly affect applicant resentment or SDR.
Article
Recent research in the area of organizational behavior on social desirability and negative affectivity as potential sources of artifactual covariance is reviewed. Next, an example of a latent-variable structural equation approach is presented as a more appropriate strategy for analyzing method effects that circumvents problems associated with prior statistical techniques. This example illustrates the specification of a structural equation model with and without method effects and describes the sequence of model comparisons that provides direct tests for the presence of method effects and for the impact of these effects on estimates of substantive relationships. Finally, this latent-variable approach is discussed with regard to other potential applications involving method effects.
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The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of "citizenship" behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.
Article
The extent to which negative affectivity (NA), the tendency to experience a wide range of negative emotions, inflated correlations between chronic job stressors and strains was examined in this study. NA was found to account for a large proportion of shared variance between stressors and physical strains (as indicated by absence, doctor visits, and physical symptoms). Contrary to the results of Brief, Burke, George, Robinson, and Webster (1988), NA did not account for much of the variance shared by stressors and affective strains (job satisfaction, anger, and feelings of stress and frustration). Reasons for the failure of this and several earlier studies to successfully replicate Brief et al.'s results are explored.
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1. Introduction. 2. Methods for Determining Cognitive Processes and Questionnaire Problems. 3. Answering a Survey Question: Cognitive and Communicative Processes. 4. Psychological Sources of Context Effects in Survey Measurement. 5. The Direction of Context Effects: What Determines Assimilation or Contrast in Attitude Measurement. 6. Order Effects Within a Question: Presenting Categorical Response Alternatives. 7. Autobiographical Memory. 8. Event Dating. 9. Counting and Estimation. 10. Proxy Reporting. 11. Implications for Questionnaire Design and the Conceptualization of the Survey Interview.
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This study examined the role of subordinate voice in creating positive attitudes in the performance appraisal context. Two aspects of voice, instrumental and non-instrumental, were assessed. Both aspects of voice were related to satisfaction with the appraisal, while only non-instrumental voice had an impact on attitudes toward the manager. Implications for procedural justice and performance appraisal are discussed.
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First-order confirmatory factor analytic models have had widespread use in the analysis of multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data. In contrast to the usual first-order confirmatory factor analytic model for the analysis of MTMM data, other covariance structure models have recently been proposed and advocated. Two such models are Wothke's covariance component analysis model and Browne's direct product model. The authors provide a conceptual and analytic discussion of those alternative procedures and compare them with the conventional first-order confirmatory factor analytic model. They consider the relationship between method factors and trait factors assumed under each model specification. General remarks about the nature of method factors and the likely reasons for lack of fit and ill-defined solutions frequently encountered with use of first-order factor models are presented. The authors also attempt to integrate the various approaches to modeling MTMM data and in so doing provide some perspective on selection of a particular covariance structure model for use in applied research.
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The research objective was to examine the relative impact of "organizational citizenship behaviors" (OCBs) and objective sales productivity on sales managers' evaluations of the performance of their sales personnel. Objective measures of sales productivity were obtained for three diverse sales samples: (1) 261 multiline insurance agents, (2) 204 petrochemical sales representatives, and (3) 108 district sales managers working for a large pharmaceutical company. Managerial evaluations of organizational citizenship behavior and overall performance were also obtained for each of these people. The results indicate that (1) managers do recognize several different dimensions of "citizenship" behavior, and these OCBs are distinct from objective sales productivity, (2) the combination of OCBs and objective sales productivity accounts for substantially more variance in managers' overall evaluations than typically is accounted for by sales productivity alone, and (3) the OCBs (taken as a group) consistently account for a larger portion of the variance in managerial evaluations than does sales productivity. The implications of these findings for salesforce motivation and evaluation are discussed.
Article
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are defined as discretionary, extra-role behaviors on the part of a salesperson that have been shown to influence managers' evaluations of performance. It has been suggested that one reason managers value OCBs is that they believe OCBs contribute to organizational success. The authors' purpose is to investigate the impact of OCBs on objective unit performance and compare this effect with the impact that OCBs have on managerial evaluations. First, the impact of OCBs on overall performance evaluations is examined. Second, the aggregate effects of unit-level OCBs on agency performance are examined using objective performance data for 116 agencies in a major insurance company. The results show that OCBs make an important contribution to overall agency performance; however, some citizenship behaviors appear to help and others hinder agency performance. Finally, a comparison of the results of the two studies suggests that managers tend to overvalue some citizenship behaviors and undervalue others.
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A need-satisfaction theoretical model has been ubiquitous in studies and writings on job attitudes and, by extension, motivation, job design, and other organizational performance improvement issues. An examination of such need models indicates that they are frequently formulated so as to be almost impossible to refute, and the research testing them has been beset with consistency and priming artifacts. Furthermore, available empirical data fails to support many of the crucial elements of need-satisfaction theories. An examination of the components of need-satisfaction models-needs, job characteristics, and job attitudes-indicates that all three have been incompletely considered. Need models may have persisted in part because of perceptual biases, their consistency with other theories of rational choice behavior, and because of what they seem to imply about human behavior. The models appear to deny, however, that people have the capacity to provide their own satisfactions by cognitively reconstructing situations.
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A persistent theme in discussions of professionals in organizations concerns the alienating effect of formalization. It is traditionally argued that structural formalization arouses conflict between administrative imperatives and professional norms. A case is presented for possible compensatory effects, and thus a more benign view, of formalization. Path analysis of data from 247 engineers and scientists in three organizations supported this notion. The effects of formalization in reducing role ambiguity and in enhancing identification with the organization offset the effect of inducing role conflict: the net effect of formalization was to reduce alienation.
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This study of the relationship of the received role (that is, a person's perceptions of what other organization members expect of him) to satisfaction with one's job presents four plausible models based on four variables: role accuracy, compliance, performance evaluation, satisfaction. These models are evaluated by the Simon-Blalock technique according to how well they fit correlational data from a field study. Compliance and performance evaluation are shown to be important variables mediating the relationship between role accuracy and satisfaction. A revised model is presented that treats rewards and performance separately.
Article
Contradictory forces of dissent and consensus building attend the strategic decision process. Taking an information-processing perspective, we argue that two factors that affect perceptions of trustworthiness within strategic decision-making teams - loyalty and competence - play different roles in enabling dissent to enhance decision quality and build decision commitment. Results from a sample of 86 strategic decision-making teams in U.S. hospitals indicate that perceptions of loyalty within teams strengthen the relationship between dissent and decision quality. Perceptions of within-team competence strengthen the relationship between dissent and decision commitment.
Article
Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of four situational moderators on relationships between participation and five outcomes. Results based on 118 correlation coefficients indicate that, with the influence of percept-percept research procedures controlled, group size, task interdppendence, task complexity, and performance standards exert a few statistically significant moderating effects, and that participation typically has only modest influence on task performance, decision performance, motivation, satisfaction, and acceptance. Combined with evidence from another recent meta-analysis by Miller and Monge, the results suggest that methodological artifacts explain many of the noteworthy positive findings published in research on relationships between participation and its outcomes.
Article
P. Spector (see record 1987-33304-001) concluded that there was little evidence of method variance in multitrait–multimethod data from 10 studies of self-reported affect and perceptions at work, but L. J. Williams et al (see record 1989-31744-001) concluded that method variance was prevalent. These studies were extended by examining several important but often neglected issues in assessing method variance. A direct-product model is described that can represent multiplicative method effects and propose that model assumptions, individual parameters, and diagnostic indicators, as well as overall model fits, be carefully examined. Reanalyses indicate that method variance in these studies is more prevalent than Spector concluded but less prevalent than Williams et al asserted. The methods can have multiplicative effects, supporting the claim made by D. T. Campbell and E. J. O'Connell (1967, 1982). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)