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Abstract

The present investigation reviews Albizia species (Family- Mimosaceae) to tap out the shelf of bioactive constituents that possess pharmacological properties. These species are used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, stomach ache, cough, diarrhea, wounds, anthelmentic etc. In traditional Indian and Chinese medicine, Albizia plants are used therapeutically for insomnia, irritability, wounds, as antidysentric, antiseptic, antitubercular etc. Phytochemical studies on the genus Albizia have inferred them as a source of different group of natural product [triterpenoids, saponins, diterpenoids lignans and pyridine glycosides] active against cytotoxicity and many other diseases. The narrower approach to reveal phytochemical, pharmacological, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmentic, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic properties accompanied with possible number of bioactive constituents isolated from this species is discussed with a detailed description. This piece of report would promote these species for extensive research, to fetch the optimistic utility of phytoconstituents for its therapeutic applications.
Review Article
PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ALBIZIA SPECIES: A REVIEW
KARUPPANNAN KOKILA, SUBRAMANIAN DEEPIKA PRIYADHARSHINI AND VENUGOPAL SUJATHA1*
1Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. Email: chemsujatha@gmail.com
Received: 28 Jun 2013, Revised and Accepted: 10 Aug 2013
ABSTRACT
The present investigation reviews Albizia species (Family- Mimosaceae) to tap out the shelf of bioactive constituents that possess pharmacological
properties. These species are used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, stomach ache, cough, diarrhea, wounds, anthelmentic etc. In
traditional Indian and Chinese medicine, Albizia plants are used therapeutically for insomnia, irritability, wounds, as antidysentric, antiseptic,
antitubercular etc. Phytochemical studies on the genus Albizia have inferred them as a source of different group of natural product [triterpenoids,
saponins, diterpenoids lignans and pyridine glycosides] active against cytotoxicity and many other diseases. The narrower approach to reveal
phytochemical, pharmacological, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmentic, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic properties
accompanied with possible number of bioactive constituents isolated from this species is discussed with a detailed description. This piece of report
would promote these species for extensive research, to fetch the optimistic utility of phytoconstituents for its therapeutic applications.
Keywords: Albizia, Phenolics, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Saponins, Cytotoxicity.
INTRODUCTION
Scientists first started extracting and isolating chemicals from plants
in the 18th century and since that time we have grown a custom of
looking at herbs and their effects in terms of the active constituents
they contain. Encyclopedia provides details of all the main active
constituents of the medicinal herbs featured and explaining their
actions. For the eternal health, longevity and remedy, to remove pain
and discomfort, fragrance, flavor and food mankind all over the
world dependent upon the plant kingdom to meet their all needs.
Among the vast diversity of plants, there are three subfamilies of the
legume family which are Papilionoideae, Caesalpinioideae and
Mimosoideae. Members of the subfamily Mimosoideae have flowers
with radial symmetry, small, inconspicuous corollas and numerous,
showy stamens. The flowers are typically in many-flowered heads or
spikes. This subfamily includes Acacia (wattle), Albizia (silk tree),
Samanea (monkey pod), Prosopis (mesquite) and Calliandra
(powder puff). The genus Albizia comprises approximately 150
species, mostly trees and shrubs native to tropical and subtropical
regions of Asia and Africa. Leaves are bipinnate with leaflets in
numerous pairs or larger in fewer pairs. Petiolar glands are
conspicuous. Flowers are in globose heads or spikes. Stamens
elongate and are usually white. Corolla is funnel-shaped, connate
beyond the middle. Fruit is broadly linear indehiscent or 2- valved,
valves not twisted.
Scientific classification
Kingdom
Plantae
(unranked)
Angiosperms
(unranked)
Eudicots
(unranked)
Rosids
Order
Fabales
Family
Fabaceae
Subfamily
Mimosoideae
Tribe
Ingae
Genus
Albizia
Ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical value
Many Albizia species are endemic to Indian subcontinent. The
flowers are being commonly used to treat anxiety, depression and
insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine. The Indian species Albizia
thomsonii are classified as vulnerable. Albizia species are socially
significant for producing high quality timber and as a valuable
resource for gum yield. Albizia julibrissin, Albizia lebbeck, Albizia
procera and Albizia amara are some importantly considered species
in Ayruvedic medicine. A. lebbeck is an astringent, also used by some
cultures to treat boils, cough, to treat the eye, flu, gingivitis, lung
problems, pectoral problems, is used as a tonic, and is used to treat
abdominal tumors. This information was obtained via
ethnobotanical records, which are a reference to how a plant is used
by indigenous peoples, not verifiable, scientific or medical
evaluation of the effectiveness of these claims. A. lebbeck is also
psychoactive. In ancient Tamil culture, the flowers of the lebbeck
decorated as a crown were used to welcome victorious soldiers. The
leaves are boiled to make a drink, and the bark is cooked with food
in Madagascar. Its sweet-smelling gum or resin is used in cosmetics
in some African countries. The root bark and young shoots are
widely used in traditional medicine. The bark is poisonous but is
used medicinally by the Zulu of South Africa who also sometimes
make a love charm from the plant. They also prepare an infusion
(hot or cold) from the bark and roots to treat skin diseases such as
scabies, inflamed eyes, bronchitis. Seeds of Albizia amara are
regarded as astringent, and used in the treatment of piles, diarrhea
and gonorrhea. Some Albizia species are regarded as a potential
fodder resource. They were also a plant of choice for silviculture and
secondary plantation because of thick foliage and quick growing
nature. Species like A. lebbeck and A.procera have shown high
potential in soil redevelopment process during early phase of mine
spoil restoration in dry tropical environment.
Phytochemical significance
Phytochemical investigation of different species belonging to genus
Albizia afforded different classes of secondary metabolites such as
saponins, terpenes, alkaloids and flavonoids. Some bioactive
compounds isolated and identified from genus Albizia were e.g.
triterpenoid saponins (julibroside J29, julibroside J30, julibroside J31),
novel macrocyclic alkaloids (budmunchiamines A, B and C) and two
flavonol glycosides (quercitrin and isoquercitrin) showed different
biological activities such as antitumor, antiplatelets aggregation and
bactericidal activities. The active constituents of A. lebbeck bark
extract were anthraquinone glycosides that cause the leakage of the
cytoplasmic constituents [1]. Two active saponins, Albiziatrioside A
and B were isolated using bio-assay guided fractionation of a
methanolic extract of A. subdimidiata, which showed significant
cytotoxicity against the A2780 cell line [2]. Two new macrocyclic
spermine alkaloids were isolated as a mixture from the leaves of A.
inopinata. Preliminary studies on A. inopinata indicated that the
compounds shown a possible pharmacological depression activity
on the central nervous system [3].
Two new bioactive spermine alkaloids, budmunchiamines L4 and L5
were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the stem bark and
leaves of A. adinocephala. Their extracts were found to inhibit the
malarial enzyme plasmepsin II [4]. The methanolic extract of the
stem bark of Albizia lebbeck, a new cytotoxic saponin was isolated
compound exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against human
aqueous cell carcinoma (HSC-2 and HSC-3) [5]. 3-O--l-
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN- 0975-1491 Vol 5, Suppl 3, 2013
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arabinopyranosyl(1→6)]-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl
echinocystic acid, 3-O--l-arabinopyranosyl(1→2)-α-l-
arabinopyranosyl(l→6)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid, 3-O--
d-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(l→6)] -β- D-
glucopyranosyloleanolic acid isolated from Albizia inundata showed
cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cells (JMAR,
MDA1986) and melanoma cells (B16F10, SKMEL28) [6].
Pharmacological properties
Albizia lebbeck is also used in Indian traditional system and folk
medicine as well as to treat several inflammatory pathologies such
as asthma, arthritis, antiseptic, burns, antidysentric, allergic rhinitis,
learning of mice, bronchitis, leprosy, paralysis and helminth
infections and anti-tubercular activities and burns. The bark and
flowers of the Albizia julibrissin tree are used in China as medicine.
Bark extract is applied to bruises, ulcers, abscesses, boils,
hemorrhoids and fractures, and has displayed cytotoxic activity [7].
Albizia saman and Albizia inundata was found to have good anti-
plasmodial and anti-candida activity [8]. Albizia odoratissima is used
in the treatment of leprosy, ulcers and cough. Albizia mollis is well
known for its sedative and sleeping pill properties [9].
The bark and leaves of Albizia procera were extensively used for the
treatment of variety of wounds and considered useful in pregnancy
and stomachache. Lipophilic extracts of Albizia gummifera revealed
very promising anti-trypanosomal activity [10]. Also used in the
indigenous medical system for various ailments, bacterial infections,
skin diseases, malaria and stomach pains. The seeds of Albizia amara
are used as an astringent, treating piles, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea,
leprosy, leucoderma, erysipelas and abscesses. The leaves and
flowers have been applied to boils, eruptions, and swellings, also
regarded as an emetic and as a remedy for coughs, ulcer, dandruff
and malaria [11]. Albizia schimperiana Oliv. is used as a traditional
medicine for the treatment of bacterial and parasitic infections,
notably pneumonia and malaria, respectively. The alcoholic extract
of A. lebbeck has antihistaminic property, by neutralizing the
histamine directly or due to corticotrophic action as evidenced by
raising cortisol levels in plasma [12]. A. zygia showed high anti-
malarial activity [13]. Lipophilic extracts of Albizia gummifera
revealed very promising anti-trypanosomal activity [14]
Antioxidant properties
There are many reports on the antioxidant property for Albizia
species. A. julibrissin foliage produced an unknown quercetin
derivative, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and quercitrin
(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) that showed excellent antioxidant
activity [15]. Two phenolic glycosides (albibrissinosides A and B)
were isolated from the stem bark of A. julibrissin. The
albibrissinoside B was found to be a radical scavenger on the 1, 1-
diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical [16]. Khatoon et al. [17]
studied the antioxidant activity of Albizia procera leaves through
DPPH, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. Their leaf
extract exhibited an IC50 value of about 90% among that of DPPH
radicals. The aqueous ethanol extract of Albizia anthelmintica
showed its significance for both analgesic and antioxidant activities.
An attempt on isolation of this plant produced quercetin-3-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-
3-O-(6β-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) and quercetin-3-O-(6β-O-
galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) exhibited potent antioxidant
scavenging activity towards diphenyl-picrylhydrazine (DPPH).
Albizia myriophylla [18] showed the highest antioxidant activity on
DPPH radical assay (EC50 value 14.45%), lipid peroxidation assay
(IC50 value 0.70%).
Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound isolated from
the stem bark of A. adianthifolia through antioxidant activity (DPPH)
and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used
to detect the antioxidant activity EC50 values 9.51 μg/ml and 78.81
μg/ml, respectively. The bark extracts of Albizia lebbeck posses free
radical scavenging activity against 1, 1-di diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
radical (DPPH) and reducing power assays. Their results on DPPH
free radical scavenging at 1000 µg/ml indicated maximum
antioxidant activity of 91.82% and 90.08% respectively. Ethanolic
extract of Albizia procera showed strong scavenging activity against
free radicals compared to various standards. These in-vitro assays
indicate that these plant extracts are a better source of natural
antioxidant, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of
various oxidative stresses. Aliyu et al. [19] studied the antioxidant
activity of Albizia chevalieri leaves through DPPH, by exhibiting an
IC50 value of about 94.7% against the standard ascorbic acid
(94.81%). Albizia amara leaves extracts showed highest antioxidant
activity, which were studied by three different methods, 2,2-
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay (IC50 value 164%), nitric
oxide free radical scavenging assay (IC50 value 205%) and reducing
power assay (EC50 value 0.087 µg/ml), when compared to standard
samples.
Anticancer properties
Three triterpenoid saponins (julibroside J29, julibroside J30 and
julibroside J31) from Albizia julibrissin bark, served as anti-tumorals
by the induction of apoptosis in certain cell types (human acute
leukemia junket T-cells) and butanol extract from the bark of Albizia
julibrissin [20]. A new cytotoxic compound, Echinocystic acid 3, 16-
O-bisglycosides from the bark of Albizia procera is worth
mentioning. In contrast to other cytotoxic echinocystic acid
glycosides with N-acetyl glucosamine unit, the new glycosides were
found inactive when assayed by MTT method for their cytotoxicities
against the HEPG2, A549, HT29 and MCF7 cell lines [21]. Three new
oleanane-type triterpene saponins named grandibracteosides A−C
were isolated from the methanolic extract of leaves of A.
grandibracteata showed significant inhibitory activity against KB
and MCF7 tumor cell lines in vitro [22]. Three new saponins from the
bark of A. procera, characterized as 3-O--D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-
α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6) -2- acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-
glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid exhibited cytotoxicity against
HEPG2 cell line with IC50 9.13 μg/ml [23]. Three new oleanane type
triterpene saponins, albizosides A-C were isolated from the stem
bark of A. chinensis. These compounds showed cytotoxic activity
against a small panel of human tumor cell lines as well as hemolytic
activity against rabbit erythrocytes [24].
A new oleanane-type saponin coriariosides A, along with known
saponin was isolated from the roots of A. coriaria. These compounds
when tested for cytotoxicity against two colorectal human cancer
cells, showed excellent activities viz. HCT 116 (IC50 4.2 μM) and HT-
29 (IC50 6.7 μM) cell lines [25]. Albizia harveyi showed a significant
cytotoxic activity on the RT-4 cell line (percentage survival 23%) at
10μg/ml. It showed a weak cytotoxic activity on the HT-29 cell line.
Two diastereomeric saponins, julibrosides J1 (1) and J9 (2), both of
which show cytotoxic activity, were obtained from the stem bark of
Albizia julibrissin Durazz. A new triterpenoidal saponin (Julibroside)
with a xylopyranosyl moiety located at its C-21 side chain was
isolated from Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Leguminosae). This
Julibroside showed marked inhibitory action against Bel-7402
cancer cell line at 10 micro/ml [26]. Two active cytotoxic saponins
viz. Albiziatrioside A and B from methanolic extract of Albizia
subdimidiata showed significant effects against A2780 cell line [27].
Albizia gummifera led to the isolation of three new cytotoxic
oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gummiferaosides, showing
cytotoxicity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line with
IC50 values of 0.8, 1.5 and 0.6 μg/ml respectively.
Antidiabetic properties
Two flavonol glycosides, quercitrin and isoquercitrin from the
flowers of A. julibrissin showed diabetic activity [28].
Anti-inflammatory properties
A novel flavonol glycoside of A. procera stem showed moderate anti-
inflammatory action on albino rats by using non-immunological
carrageen an induced hind paw edema method. Albizia lebbeck benth
seed the ethanolic extract showed highest anti-inflammatory activity
was observed at 200 mg/kg dose. The aqueous ethanol extract of
Albizia anthelmintica showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity.
Antibacterial properties
The bark of Albizia lebbeck has acrid taste and its extract showed
antimicrobial activity. Novel macrocyclic alkaloids (budmunchiamines
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Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 5, Suppl 3, 70-73
72
A, B and C were isolated from A. amara. They were also found to have
antiplatelets aggregation and bactericidal activity [29]. A new
biologically active flavonol glycoside 3, 5, 4’-trihydroxy, 7, 3’-
dimethoxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-xylopyranoside from
the seeds of A. julibrissin was fairly active against gram positive and
gram negative bacteria. The extracts of Albizia ferruginea were also
reported to have significant anti-microbial activity on selected micro-
organisms. Three flavonoids such as 4', 7-dihydroxyflavanone, 3', 4', 7-
trihydroxyflavone, 3-O-methylfisetin (3',4',7-trihydroxy-3-
methoxyflavone, isolated for the first time from the Sudanese
medicinal plant, Albizia zygia, when tested against Plasmodium
falciparum.
Hepatoprotective effect
Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Albizia inopinata and Albizia amara,
seem to exhibit potent hepatoprotective activity along with various
pharmacological activities such as CNS activity, cardiotonic activity,
lipid-lowering activity, antioxidant activity, hypoglycemic activity
etc. [30] [31].
Bioactive constituents
Genus Albizia has been known to contain substantial amounts of
saponins. Lebbekanin E was isolated from A. lebbeck [32]. Three
saponins were also isolated from the seeds of A. lucida were
established as 3-O--D-xylopyranosyl (1→2)- α-L-arabinopyranosyl
(1→6)] -D-glucopyranosyl (1→2) ]-β-D-glucopyranosyl
echinocystic acid, 3-O--L-arabinopyranosyl (1→6)][ β-D-
glucopyranosyl (1→2)]- β-D-glucopyranosyl echinocystic acid and 3-
O--Dxylopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-fucopyranosyl (1→6)-2- acetamido-
2-deoxy-β-Dglucopyranosyl echinocystic acid. In addition, three
main saponins were isolated from the bark of A. lebbeck and named
albiziasaponins A, B and C. The stem bark of A. gummifera yields
oleanane saponins: vitalboside-A and vitalboside-A 2’-
methylglucuronate. Moreover, albiziahexoside a new
hexaglycosylated saponin, was isolated from the leaves of A. lebbeck.
Two new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, adianthifoliosides A
and B were also isolated from an ethanolic extract of roots of A.
adianthifolia.
A new monoterpene conjugated triterpene from the stem bark of A.
julibrissin was isolated. The new terpene was identified as 21-[4-
(ethylidene)-2- tetra hydro furan methacryloyl] mechaerinic acid.
Lupeol and acacic acid lactone were isolated from A. versicolor.
Moreover, the stem bark of A. gummifera has yielded three
triterpenes such as lupeol, lupenone and vitalboside-A. A novel
macrocyclic spermidine alkaloid, albizzine-A was isolated from stem
bark of A. myriophylla. Budmunchiamines L1-L3 was isolated from
the methanol extract of seeds of A. lebbeck. In addition, a new
ceramide and its glycoside were isolated from the flower of A.
julibrissin were established as (2S, 3S, 4R, 8E)-2-[(2’R)-
hydroxyhexadecanoylamino-8-tetra-cosene-1, 3, 4-triol and 1-O-β-
D- glucopyranosyl- (2S, 3S, 4R, 8E)-2- [(2’R)-
hydroxyhexadecanoylamino-8-tetracosene-1, 3, 4-triol on basis of
chemical and spectroscopic studies [33] and also the four new
glycosides and icariside E5 were isolated from the dried stem bark of
A. julibrissin. From Albizia bark powder (A. myriophylla and A.
kalkora) 12 phenolic acids were qualitatively isolated viz. gallic acid,
gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid,
syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, quercetin,
eugenol and kaempferol.
Table 1: Some isolated phytoconstituents
Species
Plant Parts
Phytoconstituents
A. subdimidiata
Whole plant
Albiziatrioside A and B
A. julibrissin
Bark
Flowers
Julibroside J29, J30 and J31
quercitrin and isoquercitrin
3, 5, 4’-trihydroxy, 7, 3- dimethoxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl- α-L-xylopyranoside
A. grandibracteata
Leaves
Grandibracteosides A−C
A. procera
Bark
3-O--Dxylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl- (1→6)-2 acetamido-2- deoxy-β-Dglucopyranosyl]
echinocystic acid, 5,2’, 4’-trihydroxy-3,7,5’- trimethoxyflavonol-2’-O- β-D-galactopyranosyl- (1→4)-O-β D-
glucopyranoside
A. chinensis
Bark
Leaves
Albizosides A-C
Kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, Luteolin, Kaempferol,
Quercetin
A. gummifera
Bark
Stem bark
Vitalboside-A, vitalboside-A, 2’- methylglucuronate
3-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl(142)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl(146)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl}-oleanolic acid
A. lebbeck
Seeds
Leaves
Bark
Budmunchiamines L1-L3.
Quercetin, kaempferol, 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)-β-glucopyranosyl(1→6)-β-galactopyranosides.
Albiziasaponins A, B and C
A. myriophylla
Bark
Stem
Albizzine A
Albiziasaponins A-E
A. inopinata
Leaves
Felipealbizine A, felipealbizine B
A. versicolor
Whole plant
Lupeol, acacic acid, lactone
A. mollis
Bark
Molliside A-B, Concinnoside A, Albiziasaponin A
A. odoratissima
Root bark
7,8-Dimethoxy-39,49 methylenedioxyflavone, 7,29,49-Trimethoxyflavone
A. falcataria
Bark
Syringaresinol
DISCUSSION
The traditional medicine all over the world is nowadays revalued by
an extensive activity of research on different plant species and their
therapeutic principles. Herbal drugs are rapidly becoming popular
in recent years as an alternative therapy. Numerous polyherbal
formulations, which are combinations of different herbal
extracts/fractions, are used for the treatment of liver diseases. The
small fraction of flowering plants that have so far been investigated
have yielded about 120 therapeutic agents of known structure from
about 90 species of plants. Some of the useful plant drugs include
vinblastine, vincristine, taxol, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin,
digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin, digoxigenin, tubocurarine, morphine,
codeine, aspirin, atropine, pilocarpine, capscicine, allicin, curcumin,
artemesinin and ephedrine among others. In some cases, the crude
extract of medicinal plants may be used as medicaments. For
developing a satisfactory antioxidant herbal formulation, there is a
need to evaluate the formulation for desired properties such as
antioxidant activity [34]. On the other hand, the isolation and
identification of the active principles and elucidation of the
mechanism of action of a drug is of paramount importance. Hence,
works in both mixture of traditional medicine and single active
compounds are very important.
It has been estimated that in developed countries such as United
States, plant drugs constitute as much as 25% of the total drugs,
while in fast developing countries such as China and India, the
contribution is as much as 80%. Thus, the economic importance of
medicinal plants is much more to countries such as India than to rest
of the world. Today this system of medicine is being practised in
countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan,
while the traditional system of medicine in the other countries like
Sujatha et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 5, Suppl 3, 70-73
73
Tibet, Mongolia and Thailand appear to be derived from Ayurveda. A
great deal of information is now available showing that several
natural products are endowed with potent anticancer activity [35].
Among the plant species, Albizia seem to possess numerous
pharmacological properties. Bioactive compounds such as saponins,
alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds highly active against
cytotoxicity, tumor cancer cells. They are widely used as anti-
asthma, anti-septic, anti-dysentric, anti-tubercular, antioxidant
activity, anti-microbial agents. It may be concluded that Albizia
species shall be considered as a promising plant with various
therapeutic properties and can be further explored
pharmacologically against various ailments and for free- radical
mediated diseases. And this review would open-up a refreshing
study about the immense utility of Albizia and encourages the
phytochemists to drive on the rest of the species. Apart from the
huge number of research studies in the field of synthetic chemistry,
the field of phytochemistry still needs more attention from scientists
around the world for the evolution of preventive/ precautionary
health care without any harmful toxic effects.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The ‘University Grants Commission’ is gratefully acknowledged for
the award of ‘Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship’ [UGC-RGNF] [F1-
17.1/2011-12/12195/SA-III/website] to S. D and DST-INSPIRE
[IF.120748] fellowship to K.K.
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... In addition, seeds, bark, pods, and leaves were applied for cytotoxic activity in colon, cervical, hepatic, breast, and larynx cancer [104]. Parts of Albizia lebbeck such as flowers, roots, bark, and seeds are utilized for the treatment of edema, poisoning, bone fracture [257,258], arthritis [259], skin disease, cough, and cold, wound healing, pruritis [53], malaria [258], abscess, abdominal tumors, leprosy, boils, and gonorrhea [260] in traditional medicine. Traditionally, the leaves of A. lebbeck were used for cancer treatment [261], and the pods also showed anticancer activity [168]. ...
... In addition, seeds, bark, pods, and leaves were applied for cytotoxic activity in colon, cervical, hepatic, breast, and larynx cancer [104]. Parts of Albizia lebbeck such as flowers, roots, bark, and seeds are utilized for the treatment of edema, poisoning, bone fracture [257,258], arthritis [259], skin disease, cough, and cold, wound healing, pruritis [53], malaria [258], abscess, abdominal tumors, leprosy, boils, and gonorrhea [260] in traditional medicine. Traditionally, the leaves of A. lebbeck were used for cancer treatment [261], and the pods also showed anticancer activity [168]. ...
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Cancer is a serious and significantly progressive disease. Next to cardiovascular disease, cancer has become the most common cause of mortality in the entire world. Several factors, such as environmental factors, habitual activities, genetic factors, etc., are responsible for cancer. Many cancer patients seek alternative and/or complementary treatments because of the high death rate linked with cancer and the adverse side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Traditional medicine has a long history that begins with the hunt for botanicals to heal various diseases, including cancer. In the traditional medicinal system, several plants used to treat diseases have many bioactive compounds with curative capability, thereby also helping in disease prevention. Plants also significantly contributed to the modern pharmaceutical industry throughout the world. In the present review, we have listed 33 medicinal plants with active and significant anticancer activity, as well as their anticancer compounds. This article will provide a basic set of information for researchers interested in developing a safe and nontoxic active medicinal plant-based treatment for cancer. The research will give a scientific foundation for the traditional usage of these medicinal herbs to treat cancer.
... It is used as firewood, although it burns quickly, and is also used to make charcoal. For cosmetic use, the results obtained are similar to those obtained by Sujatha et al. (2013). For these authors the gum contained in the bark of some species of genus Albizia is sometimes used locally in cosmetics. ...
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People use goods and services related to Leguminosae-Mimosoideae resources to satisfy multiple needs in Cameroon. Despite some work already done, information on these goods and services remains insufficient. To date, the contribution of these plants to the needs of the population is also unknown. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the uses of Leguminosae-Mimosoideae by rural and urban populations in Cameroon. Focus was on the genera Albizia, Parkia and Tetrapleura. Socio-economic and ethnobotanical data were collected throughout the study area based on semi-structured individual interviews of 173 respondents. Analysis of the data consisted of statistical and descriptive analyses, to study the position and dispersion characteristics of the data and inferential/decisional analyses consisting of parametric and non-parametric tests. Species vulnerability risk index was also calculated. Six parameters were used to assess economic value of the most requested species. The results show that seven species out of nineteen divided into three genera, are used in Cameroon and have ethnobotanical values. For Albizia, we noted that the species A. adianthifolia, A. laurentii, A. lebbeck, A. zygia have been identified, while for Parkia we have the species P. bicolor and P. biglobosa and finally, the species Tetrapleura tetraptera, for the genus Tetrapleura. Results showed that the Leguminosae-Mimosoideae have an ethnobotanical potential to be valorized, even outside Cameroon. The promotion of these species would increase their exploitation potential basis and increase income of rural and urban populations.
... A. procera possesses several pharmacological properties including CNS depressants, cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antihypoglycemic, analgesic, spermicidal, anti-inflammatory, hemolytic, antibacterial, anti-HIV, and immunomodulatory properties [15][16][17][18]. It has been reported that this tree possesses various secondary metabolites such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, total phenol and glycosides. A. procera contains different compounds such as 5,2′,4′-trihydroxy-3,7,5′trimethoxyflavonol-2′-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β D-glucopyranoside, 4-di-0methyl-D-galactose, disaccharide, 3-O-(β-Dxylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-2acetamido-2-deoxy-β-Dglucopyranosyl) echinocystic acid, machaerinic acid, Procera acide, proceraosides A−D, Perceragenin, and aldobiuronic acid [19,20]. A digestibility investigation of the leaves shows they are furnished with 65% acid detergent and 64% neutral fiber, 42% lignin, 4% ash, and 5.5% lipids [20]. ...
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Agricultural production depends heavily on the application of synthetic herbicides. Using these herbicides results in the development of herbicide-resistant weeds, poses hazards to human and animal health, and pollutes the environment. To solve these problems, developing and using bioherbicides must be increased. Although different uses of Albizia procera have been well reported, its allelopathic activity against weeds and crop species has not. Hence, we evaluated the allelopathic activity of the A. procera plant and isolated its allelopathic compounds. Extracts of A. procera significantly suppressed the seedling growth of the tested species (cabbage, alfalfa, lettuce, barnyard grass, timothy, and Italian ryegrass). The seedling growth decreased with increasing extract concentrations. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition (I50 value) of the tested plants were 0.0225-0.4935 mg/mL. The A. procera extracts were separated using different column chromatography , and two active fractions (AP-5 and AP-7) were isolated. Cress seedling growth was completely restricted by fraction AP-5, and fraction AP-7 restricted the cress shoots to 83.10% and roots to 85.65% of the control treatment. The findings of this study indicate that A. procera extracts have allelopathic activity and these fractions might contribute to the activity.
... The anticancer potential of medicinal plants has been associated with the presence of several active secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenes, flavonoids, and reducing sugars, pentoses, & general carbohydrates, anthraquinone, its derivative & ketones [8][9][10]. Meanwhile, studies by [11,12] revealed that phytochemical constituents in a plant are affected by several factors such as plant species soil mineral content & pH, methods, altitude, annual rainfall & seasonal patterns, storage conditions, and annual temperature variations, relative humidity, and extraction. Thus, the phytochemical profiles reported in other parts of the world for the same species may not be a total reflection of those harvested from the Elgon sub-region due to differences in habitat conditions. ...
... Leaves close when touched and at night (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2021a). The bark and flowers of A. julibrissin are used as a medicinal herb (Chen and Hsieh, 2010;Kokila et al., 2013). A. julibrissin is distributed in the Northeast, and southern portions of the Midwest, South Central, and Southeast. ...
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Albizia julibrissin (mimosa tree) and Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) are drought-tolerant landscape plants; however, salinity responses of these two species are not well documented. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of these two species to three salinity levels in greenhouse conditions. Two studies were conducted in the summer/early fall of 2020 and the spring of 2021. In 2020, uniform plants were irrigated weekly for the first 2 weeks and every other day for the following 3 weeks with a nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m ⁻¹ as a control or saline solution at ECs of 5.0 or 10.0 dS·m ⁻¹ . In 2021, plants were irrigated weekly for 8 weeks with the same treatment solutions as described previously. Albizia julibrissin and S. japonica survived in both experiments with minimal foliar salt damage (leaf burn or necrosis). Irrigation water at ECs of 5.0 and 10.0 dS·m ⁻¹ reduced plant height and dry weight (DW) of both species. In the fall experiment, A. julibrissin irrigated with a saline solution at an EC of 10.0 dS·m ⁻¹ had the highest reduction in plant height (61%) compared with the control. Albizia julibrissin and S. japonica irrigated with a saline solution at an EC of 10.0 dS·m ⁻¹ had 52% and 47% reductions in shoot DW compared with the control, respectively. In the spring experiment, compared with the control, there were 72% and 45% reductions in height of A. julibrissin and S. japonica , respectively, when irrigated with saline solution at an EC of 10.0 dS·m ⁻¹ . In addition, compared with the control, A. julibrissin and S. japonica had 58% and 64% reductions in shoot DW, respectively, when irrigated with saline solution at an EC of 10.0 dS·m ⁻¹ . Increasing salinity levels in the irrigation water also reduced leaf greenness [Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD)], leaf net photosynthesis rate (P n ), stomatal conductance ( g S ), and transpiration rate ( E ) of both species. Furthermore, sodium (Na ⁺ ) and chloride (Cl ⁻ ) concentrations in leaves were affected by elevated salinity levels in the irrigation water. Visual score, P n , g S , and E negatively correlated to Na ⁺ and Cl ⁻ concentrations in leaves. But Cl ⁻ accumulation had more impact on the growth of A. julibrissin and S. japonica . In summary, both species were tolerant to saline solution irrigation up to 5.0 dS⋅m ⁻¹ and moderately tolerant to saline solution irrigation up to 10.0 dS⋅m ⁻¹ .
... The genus Albizia belongs to the Mimosaceae plant family. It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa and comprises of about 150 species which are mostly trees and shrubs [12]. In traditional medicine, different parts of Albizia zygia (bark, fruit, flowers and leaves) have been reported as useful medicinal remedies, especially for the management of painful conditions associated with tropical diseases. ...
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Objective: Malaria and COVID-19 are two different diseases, but the first symptoms of malaria (including: fever, headache, and chills) are similar/common to symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019. This study was designed to isolate some phytochemicals from the hydroalcoholic extract of Albizia zygia leaves and assess their antimalarial activity and perform molecular docking studies to explore a possible inhibitor against plasmepsin II (a key enzyme in the life cycle of malarial parasite) and main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (a key enzyme contributing to the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle). Methods: The 90% methanolic leaf extract of Albizia zygia, used in Nigerian folk medicine as remedy against arthritis, sprain and fever/malaria, was subjected to solvent partitioning and column chromatography analysis to obtain three known metabolites, a phytosterol and its phytosterone and glucopyranoside derivative (1A, 1B and 2C). Structures were confirmed by comparison of 1D and 2D spectral data with literature data. Results: The crude extract and compound 2C showed a level of antimalarial chemo-suppression which was a little lower than chloroquine (the standard drug used in this study) on early malarial infection. The molecular docking results indicated that in the case of plasmepsin II, the docked compounds have a lower binding affinity (-7.9,-8.0,-8.1 kcal/mol) relative to the native ligand (also a known inhibitor) (-9.9 kcal/mol) and also interacted less with the protein compared to the native ligand. However, the test compounds possess a better pharmacokinetic profile and may eventually possess some moderate antimalarial properties if administered orally. The glycosylated steroid 2C exhibited the best binding affinity to the SARS-COV-2 main protease enzyme in terms of low binding energy (− 7.2 kcal/mol) (the native ligand had a binding energy of-6.1 kcal/mol) and the most polar contacts relative to the native ligand and other test ligands. 1A and 1B have binding energies of-6.3 and-6.5 kcal/mol respectively. The observed better binding affinity of the test ligands compared to the known inhibitor (N3) (especially compound 2C that has more polar interactions with the protein) suggests that the test compounds may be likely inhibitors of the SARS-COV-2 main protease and possible leads in the drug discovery effort for the management of the COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: The research lends support to the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in combating malarial infections and shows the potential of its use in the treatment of COVID-19 infection and identification of leads for further drug discovery efforts. 19
... The genus Albizia belongs to the Mimosaceae plant family. It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa and comprises of about 150 species which are mostly trees and shrubs [12]. In traditional medicine, different parts of Albizia zygia (bark, fruit, flowers and leaves) have been reported as useful medicinal remedies, especially for the management of painful conditions associated with tropical diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Malaria and COVID-19 are two different diseases, but the first symptoms of malaria (including: fever, headache, and chills) are similar/common to symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019. This study was designed to isolate some phytochemicals from the hydroalcoholic extract of Albizia zygia leaves and assess their antimalarial activity and perform molecular docking studies to explore a possible inhibitor against plasmepsin II (a key enzyme in the life cycle of malarial parasite) and main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (a key enzyme contributing to the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle). Methods: The 90% methanolic leaf extract of Albizia zygia, used in Nigerian folk medicine as remedy against arthritis, sprain and fever/malaria, was subjected to solvent partitioning and column chromatography analysis to obtain three known metabolites, a phytosterol and its phytosterone and glucopyranoside derivative (1A, 1B and 2C). Structures were confirmed by comparison of 1D and 2D spectral data with literature data. Results: The crude extract and compound 2C showed a level of antimalarial chemo-suppression which was a little lower than chloroquine (the standard drug used in this study) on early malarial infection. The molecular docking results indicated that in the case of plasmepsin II, the docked compounds have a lower binding affinity (-7.9,-8.0,-8.1 kcal/mol) relative to the native ligand (also a known inhibitor) (-9.9 kcal/mol) and also interacted less with the protein compared to the native ligand. However, the test compounds possess a better pharmacokinetic profile and may eventually possess some moderate antimalarial properties if administered orally. The glycosylated steroid 2C exhibited the best binding affinity to the SARS-COV-2 main protease enzyme in terms of low binding energy (− 7.2 kcal/mol) (the native ligand had a binding energy of-6.1 kcal/mol) and the most polar contacts relative to the native ligand and other test ligands. 1A and 1B have binding energies of-6.3 and-6.5 kcal/mol respectively. The observed better binding affinity of the test ligands compared to the known inhibitor (N3) (especially compound 2C that has more polar interactions with the protein) suggests that the test compounds may be likely inhibitors of the SARS-COV-2 main protease and possible leads in the drug discovery effort for the management of the COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: The research lends support to the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in combating malarial infections and shows the potential of its use in the treatment of COVID-19 infection and identification of leads for further drug discovery efforts. 19
... Volatile oil from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus is also used topically to treat sore muscles and rheumatism while combination of eucalyptus and peppermint showed promise as an analgesic (Del et al., 2009). Albizia species are widely used for asthma, as anti-septic, anti-dysenteric, antitubercular, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial agent (Kokila et al., 2013). Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Albizia chevalieri revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids (Andrew et al., 2013). ...
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The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The extract at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibition of writhing induced by acetic acid. In the hot plate method the extract at all doses also produced a significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent increase in latency of pain. In formalin induced pain the extract exhibited significant (P<0.05) analgesic activities in both first and second phase of the formalin induced pain at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The ethanolic extract significantly (P<0.05) and dose dependently reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan. The present study suggests that RTF contains bioactive constituents that possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, the former being mediated centrally and peripherally justifying its ethnomedicinal use in pain and inflammation associated with rheumatism.
... After obtaining the unique plant list, active phytochemicals of these plants were mined from literature and published databases (Akhila and Vijayalakshmi, 2015;Bisht et al., 2021;Boeing et al., 2021;Chandra et al., 2016;Elayabalan et al., 2017;Florence et al., 2012;Hussain, 2020;Jones and Kinghorn, 2008;Kaunda and Zhang, 2019;Kokila et al., 2013;Mohanraj et al., 2018;Nawaz et al., 2019;Pancharoen et al., 2000;Parmar et al., 1997;Patiño et al., 2012;Perme et al., 2015;Ramesh et al., 2001;Rastogi et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2018;Zahran et al., 2020;Ma et al., 2011). Major focus was placed on the detailed list of phytochemicals present in the plant, rather than broad classifications. ...
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The rich biodiversity of North East India is one of the recognized biodiversity hotspots of the world. This region comprises of eight states (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura) with diverse ethnic communities having invaluable traditional knowledge/practices, passed through genesis. The medicinal plants in this region are rich in natural products/phytochemicals and have been used extensively by pharmaceutical industries. The present study is an attempt to develop a comprehensive resource of the medicinal plants with a quantitative analysis of the phytochemicals which can enhance knowledge on therapeutic indications and contribute in drug discovery and development. The database is a collection of 561 unique plants comprising of 9225 phytochemicals. The physiochemical properties of the phytochemicals were analyzed using indigenous python scripts whereas for the ADMET properties, open access servers were used. The data available in NEI-MPDB will help to connect the cutting-edge approach of various research groups and will help to translate the information into economic wealth by the pharmaceutical industries. The database is openly accessible at https://neist.res.in/neimpdb/.
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Plant–microbe interactions are remarkably diverse and dynamic. These interactions can be in the form of endophytic association. Colonization of endophytic microflora in crop plants improves crop health leading to crop enhancement. They stimulate the overall growth of plants by facilitating nutrient uptake and regulating various hormones. This eventually improves the plant biomass and grain yield. Owing to the assistance of the endophytes to the host plants, augmentation of crop plants with potential fungal endophytes or their extracted bioactive compound can upsurge the overall crop production and provide promising solutions for environmentally sustainable agriculture. In this light, the present study deals with the prospects of bioactive metabolites produced by endophytic fungi in Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth, a medicinal native plant of Rajasthan. The metabolomic analysis of a partially purified extract of Aspergillus niger (isolate 29) showed the presence of a total of 919 compounds using UHPLC-MS/MS. The metabolic pathway analysis revealed that these compounds were influencing super pathway of gibberellin and isoflavonoid biosynthesis. Significant increase in seed germination percentage (73–93%), seed vigour index (834.44–1498.21) and germination index (2.54–3.67 seeds/day) was found in treated seeds compared to untreated. There was a significant improvement in root (45–185%) and shoot length (215–295%) of wheat, barley and millet and a significant increase in root number (38–97%) in wheat and barley. Positive correlation was observed in the growth parameters of all the crops upon treatment. Overall, the results indicated that the partially purified fraction of A. niger (isolate 29) improved seed germination and promoted plant growth in cash crops. The results emphasize towards the importance of secondary metabolites in seed germination and enhancement of plant growth. These results also suggest a probable mutualistic role of endophyte with the host plant.
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Two new macrocyclic spermine alkaloids were isolated as a mixture from the leaves of Albizia inopinata. These alkaloids are being reported here for the first time and were given the trivial names felipealbizine A and felipealbizine B. They were identified on the basis of spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR experiments, as well as by comparison with related compounds from previous reports. Preliminary studies indicated that the compounds shown a possible pharmacological depressor activity on the central nervous system.
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Antioxidant evaluation of Albizia chevalieri used in Northern Nigerian traditional medicine, was carried out using the free radical scavenging activity of the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), total phenolics content and reducing power assay on the methanol leave extract. The results of the DPPH scavenging activity study indicate a concentration dependent antioxidant activity with 59.588, 68.477, 77.240, 85.925 and 94.732% of various concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 125 and 250µg/ml of the extract respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 60.20 mg/g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and the reducing power of 0.071±0.03nm was obtained. The DPPH scavenging activity of the extract was found to be promising. There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the antioxidant activity between the extract and those of the standard ascorbic and Gallic acids at 50, 125 and 250µgml-1 concentrations. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins and saponins. It indicates that the methanol leave extract of the plant has the potency of scavenging free radicals in vitro and may provide leads in the ongoing search for natural antioxidants from Nigerian medicinal plants to be used in treating diseases related to free radical reactions.
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Three flavonoids were isolated for the first time from the Sudanese medicinal plants Albizia zygia. Compounds 1-3 were identified by interpretation of ESI mass data, (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR as well as by comparison with published data as 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone (1) 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (2), 3-O-methylfisetin (3',4',7-trihydroxy-3-methoxyflavone, 3). All flavonoids were tested against Plasmodium falciparum, and only compound 2 showed high antimalarial activity (IC50 0.078 µg/ml).
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A new cytotoxic saponin(1), Julibrosides J27, was isolated from the stem barks of Alibizia, julibrissin by chromatography, and the structure was elucidated as 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β -D- fucopyranosyl - (1→6) -β - D-glucopyranosyl - 21-O-[(6S)-2 -trans-2-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-6-O- [4-O-((6S)-2-trans-2-hydroxylmethy 6- methyl - 6- hydroxy)-2,7-octadienoyl-β-D-quinovopy-ranosyl]-2,7-octadienoyl}- acacic acid- 28 -O-β-D-glucopranosyl-(1→3)-[(α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→4)]- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyrnosyl ester based on spectral and chemical evidences.
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Three pyridoxine derivatives have been isolated from the fresh stem bark of Albizzia julibrissin DURAZZ.. One of them, named julibrin II, was found to exhibit arrhythmic-inducing action. However, neither the others having the same aglycone nor some glycosides having the same sugar unit showed the action.
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Cancer is a biomedically complex group of diseases involving cell transformation, dysregulation of apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The developing knowledge of cancer biology suggests that administering cytotoxic drug therapy at very high doses is not always appropriate.An alternative approach is to administer lower doses of synergestic organic chemicals which already exist in myriad botanicals. A potential advantage of phytochemicals and other compounds derived from natural products is that they may act through multiple cell-signaling pathways and reduce the development of resistance by cancer cells. New drugs with milder side effects are needed desperately to replace and improve existing medicine and to provide new avenues for treating cancer that resist treatment with current drugs. A great deal of information is now available showing that several natural products are endowed with potent anticancer activity. It has been seen that most natural products with anticancer activity act as strong antioxidants and/or modify the activity of one or more protein kinases involved in cell cycle control. This review focuses on the anticancer and antioxidant activity of Croton, one of the largest genera of flowering plants.
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Objective: Solanum erianthum (Solanaceae) is native to parts of Northern America and distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. The present study was carried out to characterize the composition of some constituents, GC-MS analysis and antioxidant activities of S.erianthum leaves and stem. Materials and Methods: Various solvent extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol) of both the parts were assessed for total content of phenolic, flavonoid, carbohydrate, protein contents, five different in vitro antioxidant assays viz. DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide- radical scavenging assays, Ferric reducing power activity (FRAP) and inhibition lipid peroxidation (TBARS) assay using standard phytochemical methods. GC-MS analyses were performed to identify the constituents present in the plant that stand behind such activities. Results: Ethyl acetate extract showed richer carbohydrate and protein contents in both leaves and stem. Whereas, in phenolic and flavonoid content, acetone extract was significant in leaves and methanol in stem. As expected, on the basis of the chemical analyses performed on the contents, S.erianthum leaves have shown to possess a better activity with respect to stem in all in vitro assays evidenced through the SC50/EC50/IC50 values. By GC-MS analysis some important fatty acids were identified. This appeared to be responsible for such excellent antioxidant activity together with other unidentified compounds. Conclusion: This work has contributed to clarify some particular characteristics of S.erianthum and the specific antioxidant power of leaves and stem. Hence, introduction of S.erianthum in therapeutics may be of undoubted utility to protect human health and well-being.
Article
The methanolic extract of the stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck, a new cytotoxic saponin is isolated and characterized with the help of FABMS, 13 C NMR and chemical studies. The isolated compound exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against human aqueous cell carcinoma [HSC-2 and HSC-3]. The genus Albizza of the Mimoseae comprises over 150 species. Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Mimoseae) is a tree and reported to have antiseptic, antidysentric and antitubercular activities 1 . A survey of literature revealed that different workers 2-5 have isolated e-chinocystic acid, β-sitosterol, friedelon-3-one, γ-sitosterol from the stem bark and seed and saponins from leaves and seeds of Albizzia lebbeck, but there is no report on isolation of saponins from stem bark. This prompted us to investigate stem bark of this plant for saponins. This paper described the isolation and characterization of a new oleanolic acid based bisglycoside from the methanolic extract of the bark of Albizzia lebbeck along with cytotoxic activity. Results and Discussion Column chromatography of the saponin mixture of the stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck gave compound 1 (positive to the characteristic test for triterpenic saponin). It also gave sugar [glucose and rhamnose (Co-Pc)] on complete hydrolysis with 7% alcoholic sulphuric acid. Thus, the compound was anticipated to be a triterpenic saponin, which was later confirmed by spectral (1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, EIMS and FABMS) and hydrolytic studies. The 1 H NMR spectrum of 1 showed the presence of seven tertiary methyls (δ 0.88, 0.96, 1.07 and 1.27), one secondary methyl (1.78, d, J = 6.2 Hz), an olefinic proton (5.44) and four anomeric proton (6.09, d, J = 8.1Hz; 4.92, d, J = 7.7Hz; 6.57, s; 4.97, d, J = 7.7Hz). The EIMS of this compound showed intense peaks at m/z 456 (C 30 H 48 O 3), 248 and 207, thereby indicating that 1 would be a glycoside of oleanolic acid or ursolic acid 6 . The 13 C NMR spectrum exhibited the presence of 54 carbons, among which the peaks at δ 125.6 (d) and 144.3 (s) suggested that the aglycone could be oleanolic acid 7 . Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed a molecular peak at m/z 1112 (M+Na+H) + , thereby indicating the molecular weight to be 1088 (C 54 H 88 O 22). Thus on the basis of hydrolytic and spectral data 1 was an oleanolic acid tetraglycoside. The sugar moieties consist of one rhamnose (δ 1.78 due to secondary methyl) and three glucoses. Alkaline hydrolysis of 1 gave a product whose 1 H NMR spectrum revealed the presence of three anomeric protons (6.09 d, J = 8.09 Hz; 6.57, s; 4.97 d, J = 7.7Hz) along with secondary methyl protons (δ 1.78) were observed, therefore, the product may be oleanolic acid triglycoside. The sugar moieties consisted of one rhamnose (δ 1.78 due to secondary methyl) and two glucoses. Compound 1 was completely hydrolysed with 7% H 2 SO 4 in MeOH to afford a colourless product whose 1 H NMR spectrum revealed the presence of one anomeric proton at δ 6.02 (1H, d, J = 8.1Hz) but no secondary methyl protons were observed (rhamnose absent). Therefore, the product was identified as oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Compound 1 was partially hydrolysed (1% MeOH-H 2 SO 4) to lucyoside (3-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl 28-O-β-D-glycopyranoside of oleanolic acid) 8 . The 13 C NMR of 1 was very similar to that of lucyoside 9 . However in the 13 C NMR spectrum of 1, some additional signals assignable to sugar moieties attached to the C-3 hydroxyl group were also observed. By subtracting the chemical shifts due to the oleanolic acid substituted at C-28 by a glucose (94.8, 75.8, 75.2, 72.2, 78.2 and 63.1, corresponding to C-1', C-2', C-3', C-4', C-5', and C-6' respectively), the remaining 18 peaks were attributed to three sugars, two glucoses and a rhamnose. The signal at δ 106.9 (d), 101.3 (d) and 105.3 could be assigned to anomeric carbons of a glucose etherified with C-3 hydroxyl of oleanolic acid, rhamnose and an etherified glucose, respectievely 8 . The signal at 69.5 (t) indicate that one of the C-6 hydroxyl group of the glucose was etherified 9 .