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Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!


Abstract and Figures

Since 2007 Graz University of Technology has undertaken questionnaires on its first- year students. The main goal of that annual survey basically concentrates on the IT- and Web- competences as long as they are related to e-learning. The long-term results display progresses and trends that need to be taken into account for a university ́s e-learning strategy. The results of this year mainly state a tremendous triumph of the application WhatsApp. It ́s influence on the usage of other applications and it ́s relation to Facebook is specially focused. There is no evidence that using WhatsApp has a negative effect on Facebook. Quite the contrary; WhatsApp is another big push on the steady growing usage of modern media for learning purposes.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!
Martin Ebner, Walther Nagler
Information Technology Services / Department of Social Learning Graz University of Technology
Graz, Austria
{martin.ebner, walther.nagler}
Martin Schön
Department of Life Long Learning Graz University of Technology Graz, Austria
Abstract: Since 2007 Graz University of Technology has undertaken questionnaires on its first-
year students. The main goal of that annual survey basically concentrates on the IT- and Web-
competences as long as they are related to e-learning. The long-term results display progresses
and trends that need to be taken into account for a university´s e-learning strategy. The results of
this year mainly state a tremendous triumph of the application WhatsApp. It´s influence on the
usage of other applications and it´s relation to Facebook is specially focused. There is no evidence
that using WhatsApp has a negative effect on Facebook. Quite the contrary; WhatsApp is another
big push on the steady growing usage of modern media for learning purposes.
Technology is changing in an enormous pace over years now. Just few years ago the first iPhone has been
introduced to the mass market, followed by devices using Google’s mobile platform Android. Afterwards different
tablets occurred driven by heady Apple’s iPad. Today we are close to a broad commercialization of Head Mounted
Displays (Google Glass) or so called smart watches. On the other side, web technologies changed in a similar way:
Beginning with simple information systems and Web 2.0 applications fifteen years ago, up to sophisticated social
networks working with APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), to today’s cloud systems. In the same way
technology enhanced learning evolved from computer based and web based training (Maurer & Scerbakov, 1996)
to e-learning 2.0 (Downes, 2005), to cloud based learning (Fang Hao et al, 2009), ubiquitous (Zhan & Jin, 2005),
and mobile learning (Ally et al, 2014). Nowadays seamless learning (Wong & Looi, 2011) or even smart learning
(Koper, 2014) are on the rise.
Bearing this in mind we have to ask seriously, how is our educational system as such is able to take account of these
developments in an appropriate way? How are educational stakeholders especially teachers and learners are
influenced? What impact has the technological driven changing environment on our daily habits in terms of using
technology and of our communication practice? Prensky (2001) has already broached this issue in 2001 when he
asked, whether today’s students are the people our educational system was designed to teach or not? Different
research publications brought up different perspectives on the digital natives (Prensky, 2001), net generation
(Oblinger & Oblinger, 2005), or generation @ (Opaschowski, 1999), and their great digital literacy. In contrast,
empirical studies (Conole et al, 2006) (Bullen et al, 2008) (Margaryan et al, 2011)) identified the big change based
on digital inventions as a myth. Students seem to be handier with those technologies but this did not affect
significantly their learning behavior as such compared to former generations.
In our research work we concentrate on facts that are collected on yearly paper based surveys amongst university’s
freshmen. Our long-time study aims to answer questions about today’s student’s equipment, their communication
behavior, their e-learning experiences, and usage of digital content as well as different Web 2.0 applications and
social networks. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for further investigations on the necessity of digital literacy for
tomorrow’s society.
Eight Years of Survey
Since 2007 Graz University of Technology (TU Graz) has undertaken questionnaires on its first-year students every
year (Nagler & Ebner, 2009) (Ebner & Nagler, 2010) (Ebner et al, 2011) (Ebner et al, 2012) (Ebner et al, 2013)
(Ebner et al, 2014). The main goal of that annual survey basically concentrates on the IT- and Web 2.0-competences
and beyond as long as they are related to e-learning. Over the years the long-term survey has become a unique trend-
indicator for the adapting IT-habits of Austrian freshmen. The questionnaire is carried out by the department for
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Social Learning (DSL) of TU Graz. DSL is responsible for all e-learning services at TU Graz. On base of the results
of that survey DSL optimizes its e-learning services. The survey takes places during the very first days of the near
academic year. Students are asked to reply on a paper pencil questionnaire. The paper form ensures a high return
quote of nearly 50% of all new students. In 2014 the sample results in n=968; till now the sample sums up to overall
n=5962 (n2007=578, n2008=821, n2009=757, n2010=702, n2011=632, n2012=715, n2013=789, and n2014=968).
Results and Findings of 2014 Survey
Which Trends Can be Seen Towards Technological Equipment?
Figure 1 displays a comparison of the usage of devices by first year’s students at TU Graz between 2007 and 2014.
Due to the fact that since 2007 technology in general has made great developments the selections asked in the survey
could have changed during the years. For instance, the selection “Other mobile” had been split into the leading
brands of smartphones after 2010´s questionnaire. In this year´s survey (2014) we introduced the selection “IPTV”
just to catch a trend that has started in German speaking countries at least since three years1. Although the
availability of TV sets with Internet access depends on multiple conditions such as broadband network deployment,
general TV-market trends, and adequate provider offers we can state a 15% usage so far which is slightly more than
for e-readers. According to IT equipment and Internet connection an analysis based on clustering (Ward´s method
with squared Euclidean distances) results in five groups of students that are mainly characterized by the following
Group 1 (35%): using ADSL Internet connection, android mobiles, Windows PC or notebooks
Group 2 (23%): using modem Internet connection, android mobiles, Windows PC or notebooks
Group 3 (18%): using ADSL and/or mobile Internet connection, android mobiles, Windows PC and often
notebooks as well as Linux, and e-readers
Group 4 (16%): using mobile Internet connection, Windows PC and often notebooks, and iPhone
Group 5 (8%): using mobile or ADLS Internet connection, iMac, often iPhone, often iPad
Be sure that there are only little differences among these five groups regarding to Web 2.0 activities in general
which will be discussed later in the paper (compare figure 8).
Figure 1: Comparison of devices used by first year’s students at TU Graz between 2007 and 2014;
The selection “Other mobile” of 2010 includes the selections “M: Symbian” and “M: Windows”;
The selection “IPTV” is new in 2014
1 [December 2014]
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Compared to last year´s survey (2013) we can state an ongoing trend in nearly all selections queried. This trend
mainly has started in 2011 and had signalled a change of equipment usage at that time. Till today we can state a
general increase of IT-equipment usage that comes along with a slight tendency towards (comparable) multiple
devices ownership (from four devices in 2011 to four and a half in 2014 on average). We can outline an increase of
smart tables such as iPad (15%) or similar products (13%) at the expense of workstation PCs and laptops. But there
is no significant impact on MAC and iMAC users or on those using Linux systems. On the other hand, the rise of
small smart tablets affected a break on last year´s (2013) upturn of e-reader usage. Further, the general ongoing
trend can be seen at the comparison of mobile phones usage. The classic mobile (media enriched) phone has shrunk
to 5% (from 35% in 2011) and therefore plays no longer a significant role. Due to the fact that Nokia ended their
Symbian operating system in 2013 that system will not be queried in future questionnaires any longer. The mobile
phone market is dominated by Android systems (63%) and Apple´s iPhone (27%). Both can record small
increments. The overall usage of smartphones (selection “Mobile smart all”) exceeds 90%. Note that this selection is
not the result of the summation of the individual smartphone selections but had to be signed by students separately.
The smartphone has become the most owned device during the last three years. Other small mobile devices are on
the rise as well.
Which Trends Can be Seen Towards Communication Behavior?
This year´s (2014) results according to communication behaviour (compare figure 2) show some interesting details.
Bearing in mind the outstanding boom of Facebook in 2010 (Ebner et al, 2011) which had side-effects on the usage
of instant messaging we introduced the selection “WhatsApp” to this year´s (2014) questionnaire. WhatsApp has
been used extremely small in 2013. That fact completely turned. The boost of WhatsApp even outmatches the one of
Facebook. WhatsApp by now attaches equal importance to our freshmen such as e-mail, SMS, and Facebook.
Looking at side-effects WhatsApp may have on other communication possibilities we find out that other instant
messaging services seems not to suffer from WhatsApp but SMS, Skype, and Newsgroups, if any. But, there is no
negative effect of WhatsApp on the usage of Facebook! It is definitely contrary; students that use Facebook in
general are also using WhatsApp more likely than any other alternative communication option. Even more
interesting is the fact that WhatsApp is strongly considered for learning activities which will be discussed later on in
the paper (compare figures 8, 10, and 11). Furthermore there is a small but constant rise of internet video calls.
Twitter still is no competitive opportunity. All in all, due to WhatsApp the often and daily communication (which is
displayed in figure 2) has increased by a fourth component, which is an extreme high growth!
Figure 2: Comparison of communication behaviour of first year’s students at TU Graz between 2007 and 2014
Values similar to answers given for “often” and “daily use; the selection “WhatsApp” is new in 2014
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Which Trends Can be Seen Towards Internet Access at Study Home?
According to trends towards Internet access at study home we can state some fluctuations that correlate with the
long-term average. The trend to mobile access goes on as well as the one for the usage of modem seems to have
established after four years at all. Long-term results are shown in figure 3. Further, there is no change due to the
usage of one access as the single point of connecting with the Internet: Still modems are more likely to be used than
a mobile access for an Internet connection. Effects of the 4th generation of mobile telephony (LTE) that are just
being introduced to larger Austrian cities cannot be seen yet.
Figure 3: Comparison of Internet access at study home of first year’s student at TU Graz between 2007 and 2014
Which Trends Can be Seen Towards the Usage of IT at Secondary School Level?
The main Learning Management System (LMS) in use at secondary school level in Austria still is Moodle.
Nevertheless, other platforms than Moodle cannot be neglected at all (compare figure 5 “rarely use”) but do not play
an important role. Compared to last year´s (2013) results all usages have increased a bit. Although the growth is very
slowly over the years the daily usage of LMS has quadrupled from 3.5% to 13% as well as the “often” usage
nearly doubled (18% to 33%) since 2009 (see figure 4). And for the first time the overall usage tops the “never”
usage of LMS. Besides the usage of LMS, office software as well as a general usage of PC for learning activities
remain the most important methods of e-learning at secondary school level. Even the international trend on the topic
MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) only slowly touches the learning habits of Austrian first-year students
compare figure 5 selection “Online Course”; about 10% use online courses for their learning activities.
Considering the results shown in figures 1, 8, 9, and 10 a much higher usage of IT and LMS at schools can be
expected. Students are well equipment and do use IT for their learning issues, but schools only moderately take care
of that fact. The disparity between IT usage at schools and at home (in the meaning of private usage) can be
obviously seen in figures 6 and 7 too. We asked the students for their main resource they used for learning during
their last secondary school year: either printed schoolbooks or further material. Furthermore we asked of which kind
those further materials primarily were: either analog or digital. Though the analog version dominates the digital
version of a schoolbook or further learning materials, the portion of those using digital further materials is higher
than the one using digital schoolbooks. In addition, those students who used more alternative learning material
instead of schoolbooks also used more digital materials. Summarised we can conclude that at secondary school level
only a little is done to teach and learn with digital materials. The classic printed schoolbook is still the main
resource. When a student more likely uses different materials, those materials tend to be digital.
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Figure 4 left: Overall comparison of usage of e-learning platforms secondary school level for learning efforts of
first year’s students at TU Graz between 2009 and 2014
Figure 5 right: Comparison of usage of e-learning platforms and PC in general at secondary school level for
learning efforts of first year’s students at TU Graz 2014; the selection “Online Course” is new in 2014
Figure 6 left: Comparison of usage of analog schoolbooks and other learning materials of first year’s students at TU
Graz 2014
Figure 7 right: Comparison of usage of analog and digital learning materials besides schoolbooks of first year’s
students at TU Graz 2014
Which Trends Can Be Seen Towards Web 2.0 Activities According to General Usage and for Learning?
In this part of the survey we asked students to indicate their habits and activities towards Web 2.0 applications and
beyond. Be sure that using the term “application” covers all listed selections even if they are no “apps” in the narrow
sense. Students had to estimate their behavior according to general usage and for learning efforts. For each item they
could choose between “no use”, “rarely use”, “often use”, and “daily use”. If they do not know the application asked
they were able to choose the category “unknown”. Compared to the surveys of the past this year (2014) we
optimized the list of applications on base of the results of the last years (see results in figures 8 and 9). Note that
there are a couple of new applications asked such as “WhatsApp”, “OneDrive”, or “iCloud”. Those applications are
marked in the figure with “*”. Further, we pointed out the difference between general and learning use for the
categories “often” and “daily” (see figure 10). Figure 10 includes the adequate results of 2013 as well. Additionally,
we compared the results of “often” and “daily” usage for learning efforts over the last three years (see figure 11).
The percentages values of all figures are not normalized to 100% but show the actual related values. Figure 8
displays answers given for “rarely”, “often”, and “daily” usage, figure 9 shows those for “no use”, “unknown”, and
skipped ones. When we pick out “WhatsApp” as an example to explain how the figures work, we see (figure 8) that
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
WhatsApp is most used “daily” for general purposes. It is used for learning purposes nearly by half of all students
“often” or “daily” (46%) which is outstanding for a chiefly communication centred application. Only a few use it
rarely or not in general (18%) (see figure 9). The number of those who do not know WhatsApp is diminishingly
small (0.6%). Because WhatsApp was introduced to the survey this year there is no comparison to other results in
figures 10 and 11.
We can state that for learning efforts only office applications and online dictionaries (above all Wikipedia) are of
more interest to students than for general purpose. A couple of applications are used around the same for learning as
well as generally such as “Forum/Newsgroups”, and “Online personal management”; some are slightly more used in
general such as “Google+”, “Blogs”, “Google Drive”, and “Dropbox”. The highest differences between several
usages we can find for “Gaming” selections, communication related applications (for instance “SMS”, “E-Mail”,
“Skype”, and others), and “YouTube”. Compared to last year (2013) we have an increase (6.5%) of the total “often”
and “daily” usage for learning efforts. But this comparison does not include some of the most important applications
for learning, such as “WhatsApp” (46.6%) and “Online personal management” (54%). So, all in all the increase is
much higher. The comparable increase goes back to “YouTube”, “Online dictionaries” (without Wikipedia), and to
the social communities “Facebook” and “Google+” (see figures 10 and 11).
When we take a closer look at the usage of cloud applications, which had a noteworthy increase last year (2013) due
to Dropbox, we see that still Dropbox is increasing for learning efforts though it stagnates for general usage.
Too “Google Drive” is used a bit more than last year (2013) but with no significance. The applications “OneDrive”
and “iCloud” are new to this year´s survey (2014) and therefore cannot be compared. In contrast to the little
representation of Apple equipment (compare figure 1) the usage of iCloud is remarkable. This means that Apple
users more likely tend to use cloud applications than users regarding to any other operating system in general.
This year´s (2014) PCA (Principle Component Analysis) and HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) analysis revealed
that rather less used applications such as “Xing, Etherpad, OneDrive”, Twitter, Blogs”, GoogleDrive,
“Internet-Video-Call”, iCloud, Google+” , andInstant-Messenger” are generally used by a specific group and is
therefore not fairly equally spread over all students. Another cluster of students can be seen towards the general as
well as for learning purpose usage of “SMS, “E-Mail, YouTube, Wikipedia, Facebook, and “WhatsApp”; a
third relation can be found towards “Gaming” and “Skype” users. Finally there is a user group focussing on the
usage of office applications, “Dropbox”, “Online News journals”, and “Online personal management”. For learning
efforts “E-Mail” and “WhatsApp” as well as “Dropbox” play an important role in any of the clusters. Those who do
not use WhatsApp also have a little usage of other applications, but those who rarely use “WhatsApp” often like to
use alternative applications (for instance “Skype”, “Internet Video Call”, or similar) for their purposes.
All in all, for learning efforts still “Wikipedia” (84%) and word processing software (“Text”, 72%) is of highest
interest; followed by “Online personal management” (54%) and “E-Mail” (56%). By “Online personal
management” we think about online calendar, task planner, and similar applications. Furthermore “YouTube” is still
gaining importance for learning efforts too (47%). The outstanding triumph of “WhatsApp” (46.56%) even for
learning purposes was not predictable in such dimension. It clearly has become the most attractive social
communication application in only one year (“SMS with 36%, Facebook with 35%, Skypeonly 13%). Also
remarkable is the quite high usage of “Online news journals” (20%) for learning purpose which is somewhat more
than of comparable applications (“Forum/Newsgroup” 12%, “Blogs” 6%). On the other hand, the following
applications play no important role for learning behavior of TU Graz first-year students “Gaming” (online or
offline), social networks apart from “Facebook” (and “Google+”), cloud applications apart from well known,
“Twitter”, and “Etherpad”.
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Figure 8: Usage of Web2.0 and Internet offers of first year’s students at TU Graz in 2014, part 1
Figure 9: No Usage of Web2.0 and Internet offers of first year’s students at TU Graz in 2014, part 2
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Figure 10: Comparison of general and learn use for categories “often and daily” as well as for 2013;
*: Applications that are new in 2014
Figure 11: Comparison of “often and daily learn” use of Web2.0 and Internet offers for the years 2011 to 2014;
*: Applications that are new in 2014
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Why Facebook swallowed WhatsApp
WhatsApp is said to be the fastest growing Internet application ever. Since its foundation in 2009 it has gained a
popularity over 600 million users till October 20142. The outstanding rise of WhatsApp especially during the last
year has provoked social media studies and analysis (Schrittwieser et al, 2012). Besides security aspects the takeover
of WhatsApp by Facebook in February 2014 caused a big noise not only among the online media community.
WhatsApp is often said to expose “social missteps”3. But against many predictions and appeals to use alternative
instant messaging applications WhatsApp won the race. Too, our survey states that WhatsApp has not been snapped
up by Facebook because of business competition; there is no influence of WhatsApp on Facebook to be noticed.
Users do not use either this or that but use both instead. The analysis results a correlation of about Pearson r=0.36,
Kendall r=0.33, and Spearman-Rho r=0.37, one of the highest correlations among the total data of the query. Also
multiple regression calculation indicates that those owning a smartphone also use WhatsApp. Only Linux users
might use WhatsApp less, which is pointed out through a high significance of r=-0.97. The reason why WhatsApp
has become that popular might be clear when we consider the main functionalities of both applications: Facebook is
a social community that is not focused primarily on synchronous communication but on asynchronous one. It is
good for sharing same interests and media, alone or in groups. There is chat functionality but it is not promoted that
much nor has it a smart group chat. WhatsApp does that all instead. It focusses on an easy to use synchronous
communication. To run a group chat is as simple as to share media or your geo-location. To share your entire
personal address book seems to be no problem for users. In the near future also calling (Voice over IP) will be
possible with WhatsApp. Already today it can be used by nearly any mobile operating system. The fact that it works
(almost) free of costs over the Internet is a strong argument against all other comparable opportunities that may be
subject to costs, such as SMS or MMS. But the main reason why Facebook bought that application is that they both
have the same users. It is very probably that users will use both. For general usage we mostly can confirm that. For
learning efforts it is even more on the side of WhatsApp. Figure 13 shows that only in one cluster the usage of
WhatsApp for learning reasons is lower than the one of Facebook (follow the green lined cluster). The number in the
figure´s key of the five clusters represents the number of students belonging to that cluster. So 70% of all students
use WhatsApp more intense for learning than Facebook. Especially students from the study fields “Electrical
Engineering and Audio Engineering”, “Geomatics Engineering” and “Teacher Training” are using WhatsApp more
than others. Even the blue lined cluster with 47 members that has a peak at the “alternative instant messaging
selection has the highest value for WhatsApp usage. Future surveys will show whether WhatsApp will oust other
messaging supplier and similar applications or itself will go down as fast as it has risen.
Figure 13: Cluster analysis about the learning usage resulting in five clusters of different usage
2 [December 2014]
9850780.html [December 2014]
Originally published in: Nagler, W., Ebner, M., Schön, M. (2015). Why Facebook Swallowed WhatsApp!. In Proceedings of World Conference
on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2015. pp. 1383-1392 Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
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... Young people continue to utilize these socially-focused spaces for a growing range of reasons that go beyond strict social action and interaction, including news consumption [2], media consumption [8], and shopping [1]. Given the growing range of uses, the strict separation of dedicated social platforms from the rest of the Internet appears to be increasingly moot [15]. Aspects that were once considered essential in separating Social Networking Sites (SNSs) from other spaces online [6] are now questioned, with newer platforms removing aspects such as the need for public profiles or a dedicated list of connections [32]. ...
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Against a backdrop of young people increasingly using an array of social media platforms for a range of social activities [20], accessed through a variety of devices [27], this paper reports upon the findings of a research project considering the effect of these platforms upon the actions and interactions of young people. Reporting on findings from a series of interviews conducted over the course of a year with nine participants, the research discusses the participants' thoughts and impressions of the platforms, their uses of specific features, their social actions and interactions, and the effects of changes in their offline lives and their specific socio- cultural situations upon their online interactions. The findings reveal a range of social media engagements by young people across a wide array of platforms, with the participants' specific concerns and needs shaping how they engaged with social media. It was also found that the platforms played a role in shaping the actions and interactions of the young people, limiting what was possible for them and informing how they approached social interaction on each platform. As such, it was noted that online social interactions are increasingly nuanced and multi-faceted, and therefore an approach towards analyzing interactions online needs to account for the interplay between design and user from which unique and ongoing interactions emerge.
... Thus "WhatsApp" has become the most used application ever! The reasons for this triumph have been discussed in last year´s survey (Nagler et al, 2015). Even Facebook has turned out to be too clumsy for the needs of the youth. ...
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Starting in 2007, Graz University of Technology has conducted an annual poll amongst its new students about their IT preferences and competences. After ten years of survey it is time to consider the overall results. Based on more than 7700 data records we can obviously state that freshmen have changed significantly according to their IT devices ownership, their communicational behavior using IT devices, as well as their usage of Web 2.0 tools. But there are some facts that have remained unchanged, such as the very low usage of Twitter or the usage of e-learning platforms at secondary school level, which is only slowly rising. Furthermore, the long-time survey tracks and reflects international trends, such as the outstanding hypes of Facebook and WhatsApp, replacing SMS over the last three years. We can conclude, that our students have become mobile, social, smart, and media driven.
The management of risks is part of the management of a company. Today, risk management is a structured process. In many companies it is the basis of corporate management. In customer relationship management, too, the view is increasingly gaining ground that efficient management of a company also requires structured risk management. Effective risk management helps to avoid damage that could endanger the company's existence and has the potential to support the optimal orientation of the company and help reduce the cost of capital. Basis der Unternehmensführung. Auch im Kundenbeziehungsmanagement setzt sich immer mehr die Sichtweise durch, dass eine effiziente Steuerung eines Unternehmens auch ein strukturiertes Management der Risiken bedingt. Ein wirksames Risikomanagement trägt zur Vermeidung bestandsgefährdender Schäden bei und birgt das Potenzial, die optimale Ausrichtung des Unternehmens zu unterstützen und zur Senkung der Kapitalkosten beizutragen.
Este estudo investiga o uso do Facebook e do WhatsApp pelos eleitores de Salvador, no processo de engajamento cívico e participação política, durante as eleições presidenciais em 2014. Mede os níveis de participação on-line e off-line dos eleitores usuários das duas plataformas digitais e a correlação das variáveis sociodemográficas, renda familiar, frequência de acesso à internet, interesse político e preferência partidária com este processo. Os dados foram obtidos através de uma survey realizada em Salvador, em janeiro de 2015, que investigou diversas variáveis sobre o uso das Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação (TICs) no processo decisório eleitoral. Os resultados demostraram que os eleitores usuários do Facebook sobreposto ao WhatsApp foram mais participativos do que os eleitores que usaram separadamente o site de relacionamento ou o dispositivo de mensagens instantâneas. O estudo revelou ainda que o Facebook pode funcionar como uma plataforma alternativa para a participação dos eleitores de faixa etária mais avançada e que seus usuários foram os que mais se expressaram politicamente durante as eleições.
Mobile communication technology is an essential part of life of adolescents nowadays, and those with visual impairments are no exception. In focus group interviews with students from a school for the blind and the visually impaired in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we found that, despite the visual nature of social media, they use and enjoy these resources as much as their sighted peers. These students are aware of the possibilities and constraints that social media might bring to them but, with the help of assistive technology, make the most of it. After listening to their voices, we noticed that it is high time we incorporate social media in our pedagogical practice, in order to develop their learning process and life skills.
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Das Arbeitspapier fokussiert eine neue Form von Lehr- und Lernformaten an Hochschulen, bei denen sog. „analoge“, also herkömmliche Formen des Lernen und Lehren mit digitalen Formen verschmelzen und dabei das Internet sowie die mobilen Geräte der Studierenden genutzt werden. Die Entwicklung kann dabei in zwei Richtungen erfolgen: Bislang rein digitale Lernangebote erfahren Verankerung im Präsenzlehren und -lernen, z.B. wenn Online-Videos in Flipped-Classroom-Arrangements zur Vorbereitung für die Präsenzveran- staltung genutzt werden und die Wissensvertiefung dann in der Präsenzveranstaltung erfolgt. Umgekehrt werden Präsenzveranstaltungen mit digitalen Technologien, z.B. durch die Nutzung von Audience-Response-Systemen mit den Smartphones der Studierenden, zu einem neuartigen Lehrformat erweitert (vgl. Abbildung 1). Eine Reihe von Fragen werden dem Arbeitspapier vorangestellt, so u.a. nach Beispielen für Lehr- und Lernformate an Hochschulen die eine Vorreiterrolle einnehmen oder nach Angeboten zur Kompetenzentwicklung an Hochschulen.
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For the ninth time, the Graz University of Technology has carried out a survey amongst its freshmen in order to find out their preferences and habits according to the use of modern IT- and Web- technologies. Besides the remarkable long-term changes in regards to the ownership of technology, the results of this year ́s (2015) survey yielded a sensation. The instant messaging client for smartphones “WhatsApp” has superseded e-mailing from its leading position of being the preferred communication media. E-mailing was displaced on second place for the first time after nine years of survey. A clear trend can be stated in regards to communication media. The influence of WhatsApp on other communication behavior, notably e-mail and SMS, as well as the lasting rise of WhatsApp itself are special focuses of this paper.
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Ziel der Ist-Analyse zu Open Educational Resources (kurz OER) in Deutschland ist es, deren Reichweite innerhalb Deutschlands abzubilden sowie insbesondere die Situation in den Bildungsbereichen Schule, Hochschule, berufliche Bildung und Weiterbildung darzustellen. Unter „OER“ werden dabei in der Studie offene Bildungsressourcen bzw. freie Bildungsmaterialien verstanden, bei denen es allen gestattet ist, das Werk entgeltfrei, ggf. unter Auflagen, zu bearbeiten und weiterzuverbreiten. Dazu müssen die Materialien mit einer freien Lizenz zur Verfügung gestellt worden sein (z.B. CC BY oder CC BY-SA) oder der Gemeinfreiheit unterliegen. Der Ist-Stand zur Situation und Debatte um OER in Deutschland wird anhand existierender Quellen (insbesondere vorhandener Publikationen) abgebildet. Ergänzend werden im Vorfeld durchgeführte (Kurz-) Interviews sowie schriftlich gestellte Anfragen an Expertinnen und Experten präsentiert. Die Darstellung der Situation von OER in den einzelnen Bildungsbereichen greift jeweils deren (fach-)spezifische Besonderheiten auf, die in Bezug auf verwendete Bildungsmaterialien von Bedeutung sind. Die Ist-Analyse richtet sich an Bildungsexpertinnen und -experten, die sich zum Stand der Entwicklung zu OER in Deutschland informieren möchten. Diese Analyse entstand im Projekt Mapping OER - Bildungsmaterialien gemeinsam gestalten. Das Projekt wird durchgeführt von Wikimedia Deutschland und wird gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung.
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E-Learning kommt ein wenig in die Jahre. Doch das ist nicht negativ gemeint, son- dern im Gegenteil erleben wir heute die Bedeutung der Medien an Hochschulen gänzlich anders als noch um die Jahrtausendwende. Mit dem Aufkommen des In- ternets und damit verbunden der ersten Informationssysteme um 2000 war die Entwicklung und die Integration von Lernmanagementsystemen im Fokus der Wis- senschaftler/innen (SCHULMEISTER, 2001; BAUMGARTNER, HÄFELE & MAIER-HÄFELE, 2002; BÄUMER, MALYS & WOSKO, 2004) sowie der ver- antwortlichen Hochschulleiter/innen. Niemand konnte prognostizieren, wie sich die digitale Hochschullandschaft im Jahr 2015 präsentieren wird. Wir haben einen rasanten Innovationsschub auf Seiten der Technologien miterleben dürfen. Smart- phones, Breitband, E-Reader gehören heute schon zur Standardausstattung der Studierenden (EBNER, NAGLER & SCHÖN, 2014), verbunden mit einer Vielzahl an (mobilen) Applikationen (EBNER, NAGLER & SCHÖN, 2015). Und dieser Höhenflug ist bei weitem noch nicht abgeschlossen, wenn man an Datenbrillen, digitale Uhren und andere Wearables denkt.
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Smart learning environments (SLEs) are defined in this paper as physical environments that are enriched with digital, context-aware and adaptive devices, to promote better and faster learning. In order to identify the requirements for 'better and faster learning', the idea of Human Learning Interfaces (HLI) is presented, i.e. the set of learning related interaction mechanisms that humans expose to the outside world that can be used to control, stimulate and facilitate their learning processes. It is assumed that humans have and use these HLIs for all types of learning, and that others, such as parents, teachers, friends, and digital devices can interact with the interface to help a person to learn something. Three basic HLIs are identified that represent three distinct types of learning: learning to deal with new situations (identification), learning to behave in a social group (socialization) and learning by creating something (creation). These three HLIs involve a change in cognitive representations and behavior. Performance can be increased using the practice HLI, and meta-cognitive development is supported by the reflection HLI. This analysis of HLIs is used to identify the conditions for the development of effective smart learning environments and a research agenda for SLEs.
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In summer 2013 the discussion about security and Internet peaked when the ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden uncovered secret details about his former employer NSA. Since then bad news and stories about government surveillance have come along daily worldwide. But did they change anything according to our way of working and living with the Internet? We wanted to know, whether there is a change of Internet behavior to be determined among freshmen coming to Graz University of Technology. On base of an annual questionnaire that is carried out by the Department of Social Learning at TU Graz since 2007 we found out that although a quarter of polled students are influenced by those disclosures there is no decrease in Internet usage to be realized compared to former years results; quite the reverse: applications working on cloud-principle like Dropbox are strongly upcoming. Apart from that, the long term survey generally mirrors new media competences and Internet usage of TU Graz freshmen. This paper discusses this year´s results and progressions of the survey.
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Recent statistics on the use of mobile technology proclaim that the world is becoming mobile. People use their phones to socialize, to conduct business, to search for information, and more. For the first time in history, people around the world have the potential to learn from any location at their own convenience. But first, education systems must change, to facilitate mobile access to education. As this article describes, the most important change will be training teachers, both in pre-service programmes and through professional development, to use the technology to design and deliver education and to create bridges to informal learning. The article also describes some projects around the world that are helping to prepare teachers for the mobile world, and some pilot projects using the technology. Most such research, however, is limited to short-term studies focusing on learners’ satisfaction with mobile learning. Future studies must consider its long-term benefits and its impacts on performance and retention. As mobile technologies emerge, teachers have to keep up with the changes so that they can take advantage of the power of the technology to design and deliver education.
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It is envisaged that services and applications will migrate to a cloud-computing paradigm where thin-clients on user-devices access, over the network, applications hosted in data centers by application service providers. Examples are cloud-based gaming applications and cloud-supported virtual desktops. For good performance and efficiency, it is critical that these services are delivered from locations that are the best for the current (dynamically changing) set of users. To achieve this, we expect that services will be hosted on virtual machines in interconnected data centers and that these virtual machines will migrate dynamically to locations best-suited for the current user population. A basic network infrastructure need then is the ability to migrate virtual machines across multiple networks without losing service continuity. In this paper, we develop mechanisms to accomplish this using a network-virtualization architecture that relies on a set of distributed forwarding elements with centralized control (borrowing on several recent proposals in a similar vein). We describe a preliminary prototype system, built using Openflow components, that demonstrates the feasibility of this architecture in enabling seamless migration of virtual machines and in enhancing delivery of cloud-based services.
Conference Paper
This paper outlines a new model of ubiquitous computing technology support learning (uLearning). In the uLearning, in order to facilitate the awareness of other helpful learners, increase the availability of the mutual and friendly support in the learning process, and enhance learners’ communication skills, the authors offer a serial of services. These services are designed as dynamic group construction service, social intercommunion facilitation service, service of navigating learner to get out of difficulty, etc.
This study investigated the extent and nature of university students’ use of digital technologies for learning and socialising. The findings show that students use a limited range of mainly established technologies. Use of collaborative knowledge creation tools, virtual worlds, and social networking sites was low. ‘Digital natives’ and students of a technical discipline (Engineering) used more technology tools when compared to ‘digital immigrants’ and students of a non-technical discipline (Social Work). This relationship may be mediated by the finding that Engineering courses required more intensive and extensive access to technology than Social Work courses. However, the use of technology between these groups is only quantitatively rather than qualitatively different. The study did not find evidence to support popular claims that young people adopt radically different learning styles. Their attitudes to learning appear to be influenced by lecturers’ teaching approaches. Students appear to conform to traditional pedagogies, albeit with minor uses of tools delivering content. The outcomes suggest that although the calls for transformations in education may be legitimate it would be misleading to ground the arguments for such change in students’ shifting patterns of learning and technology use.