Article

Shoreline change, seawalls, and coastal property values

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Abstract

We investigate the effects of shoreline change and protective structures (seawalls) on home values, using data on residences sold between 2000 and 2010 in the coastal towns of Marshfield, Duxbury, and Plymouth, Massachusetts. These towns comprise shorelines that exhibit moderate rates of shoreline change, relative to other shorelines in the state, with extensive armoring. We investigate explicitly the effects of hard structural protection in combination with environmental amenities and hazards (distance to a beach, elevation of a property, location in a flood zone). We find that homeowners pay a premium in housing markets for nearshore properties protected by nature (higher elevations or more stable shorelines) or by humans (seawalls). The average marginal increase in nearshore property values associated with a 1 m rise in elevation is 2 percent, a 1 m (horizontal distance) decrease in the erosion rate is 0.2 percent, and location behind a seawall is 10 percent. The effects of erosion, elevation, and seawalls appear to be limited to properties located in close proximity to water or to oceanfront residences. Overall, the benefits of access to ocean amenities dominate the risks of exposures to hazards associated with shoreline change.

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... Cost-benefit assessment is typically used as a decision-making tool to select the adaptations. The costs of coastal protection, e.g., seawall, breakwater, or beach nourishment, are usually directly determined (Jin et al., 2015), while the benefits of the non-market resources are uneasily computed. Beach is one of the essential coastal resources. ...
... In the studies regarding the economic evaluation of the coastal landscape, some researchers used the hedonic pricing method to find the inherent value of the beaches subjected to properties values (Pompe and Rinehart, 1995;Jin et al., 2015) and found the proximity increases the house prices to the beaches. Recent studies indicate that coastal landscapes, i.e., beaches and sea views, significantly affect hotel room prices (Mendoza-González et al., 2018;Fleischer, 2012). ...
... In addition, many functional forms are also suitable for conducting hedonic estimation, e. g., linear, semi-log, log-log, and Box-Cox linear. According to past literature, the appropriate functional form for hotel room studies is the semi-log function (Jin et al., 2015). ...
Article
An economic assessment for a non-market resource like sandy beaches is always a challenge for Thailand's coastal policy planners due to the lack of data availability, especially on the national scale. While beach tourism in Thailand has been an essential part of the Thai economy, the sandy beaches are probably exposed to the future sea-level rise. Therefore, the need for tourism benefits of the beaches should be conducted. The research attempted to measure the effect of sandy beach characteristics and hotel location on hotel room rates. A sample of 3319 hotel rooms across Thailand's coastal sub-districts, covering the entire sandy beaches in Thailand, was collected through a hotel-booking online database during the country's peak season. The considered variables include hotel room attributes, sandy beach characteristics, hotel locations, and coastal infrastructures. Through a hedonic price model based on geographically weighted regression analysis, the relationship between the dependent variables (hotel room rate) and the independent variables (selected beach variable) was estimated to evaluate the marginal effect and its spatial variations. The tourism benefit was calculated assuming the marginal effect of the hotel's beachfront locations on hotel price. The study suggested that the location in front of the beach raised the average hotel room rates by 13–41%. The results emphasized the significant spatial variability of the effect of beachfront location on the hotel price. In addition, the effect of beach protection structures (i.e., seawall, breakwaters, groins) on the hotel price was also investigated and implied a slight drop by 8–15% of the average price. The other sandy beach variables (such as beach length, width, and slope) effects on hotel price were also investigated. The finding of this study aims to help policymakers select and design proper adaptations to coastal erosion on tourist beaches in Thailand.
... Estimated parameters for cutoff distances greater than 300 m were found to be statistically insignificant. Similarly, Jin et al. (2015) [20] investigated the effects of shoreline changes on home values in coastal Massachusetts, MA, USA. While erosion impact on property values was found to be negative and statistically significant, this effect was estimated to disappear as a property was located away from the shoreline. ...
... Estimated parameters for cutoff distances greater than 300 m were found to be statistically insignificant. Similarly, Jin et al. (2015) [20] investigated the effects of shoreline changes on home values in coastal Massachusetts, MA, USA. While erosion impact on property values was found to be negative and statistically significant, this effect was estimated to disappear as a property was located away from the shoreline. ...
... This parametric model assumes that error terms are normally distributed with zero mean and constant variance. Log-linear function forms have been preferred by the past studies due to nonlinear relationship between home values and independent variables [20,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerated coastal erosion and elevated risks of flooding due to global warming put enormous burden on the ecosystems and economic health of coastal communities. Optimal policies to lessen these negative impacts require an estimation of their costs and benefits. The aim of this paper is to calculate the costs of beach erosion and flood risk through the valuation of property prices in Hilton Head Island, a barrier island located in South Carolina, USA. Spatial lag hedonic pricing was introduced in order to account for spatial autocorrelation in the dataset. The results show that properties that are located within the zone of high, or very high, flood risk experience a 15.6% reduction in value. The implicit price of being located close to an eroded beach is approximately 26% of the price of an oceanfront property. However, this negative impact on property value diminishes with distance from the shoreline.
... Under the mismatches between demand and supply of beach resources in coastal areas, estimating the economic value of beach proximity is highly important for recreation managers to better support their informed policy decisions on beach management. Thus, with respect to the economic dimension, multiple studies have estimated the impact of beach proximity on housing values, typically, with a linear hedonic pricing model (HPM) based on ordinary least squares (OLS) method (Conroy and Milosch 2011;Hamilton and Morgan 2010;Jin et al. 2015;Major and Lusht 2004;Parsons and Powell 2001;Pompe and Rinehart 1994). ...
... Within the context of public beach access, several hedonic property studies have typically estimated the value of beaches by understanding the relationships between beach proximity and housing values (Conroy and Milosch 2011;Hamilton and Morgan 2010;Landry and Hindsley 2011;Parsons and Powell 2001;Pompe and Rinehart 1994;Major and Lusht 2004). Recently, Jin et al. (2015) additionally considered both shoreline change and protective structures (seawalls) to estimate the value of beaches on housing values in Marshfiled, Duxbury and Plymouth in Massachusetts, USA. Table 1 provides a summary of previous beach proximity-based hedonic property studies. ...
... Table 1 provides a summary of previous beach proximity-based hedonic property studies. Despite the lack of considering shoreline change and seawall protection, this study can be distinguished from Jin et al. (2015) study by incorporating Local municipality (e.g., school quality and income levels) Elevation, distance to water, erosion, seawalls, storm damage multiple types of beach proximity that is an effort to respond to Fallon et al. (2017) call for increased attention to economic valuation of shoreline. ...
Article
Despite several studies that have estimated the economic value of beach proximity on housing values, previous linear hedonic pricing models (HPMs) have yet to explore the spatially heterogeneous beach premiums for housing prices. To address the issue, this study demonstrated the feasibility of spatial HPM (S-HPM) using geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis of 152 properties in Jacksonville Beach, Florida. Specifically, this study (1) investigated the spatial associations between multiple beach proximity attributes and housing values, (2) explored local variations in modelling housing values, and (3) assessed whether GWR-based S-HPM outperformed previous linear HPM. Results indicated that the GWR-based S-HPM revealed spatially heterogeneous beach premiums for housing values, with improvements in model performance over the corresponding linear HPM. Findings of this study can contribute to understanding the local patterns of beach premiums for housing prices, ultimately providing guidelines for location-based beach access planning and management.
... The range of other attributes tested in hedonic price models has evolved significantly and varies across studies. Conversely, there are global issues concerning coastlines exacerbated by climate change in recent times (Bin, Poulter, Dumas, & Whitehead, 2009; United Nations Department of Economic & Social Affairs [UNDESA], 2014;Jin, Hoagland, Au, & Qiu, 2015). Understanding tenants and/or homeowners housing welfare and the behaviour of the property market in coastal environment in this context is a primary concern for real estate experts, real estate investors and developers, coastal managers or urban planners, policy makers, and researchers. ...
... Other environmental amenities that were used include water clarity, beach width, distance of house from hill and views of green spaces, mountain and golf course. Conversely, there are global issues concerning coastlines exacerbated by climate change in recent times UNDESA, 2014;Jin et al, 2015). Hence, studies such as and Below et al. (2015) have used flood risk and erosion rate variables respectively to account for in estimation the effect of environmental disamenity on residential property value. ...
... The second phase of research in the coastal housing market is driven by the issue of climate change related threats. There are global climate change issues concerning coastlines which have some attendant spatial features with array of effects upon any development along the axis (Kalaugher, 2007;Bin et al, 2009;Urama & Ozor, 2010;UNDESA, 2014;Jin et al, 2015). So, researches have now begin to explore the effects of coastal disamenities and or negative externalities associated with the coastline on house prices. ...
... One respondent cited empirical data that dated these changes to the mid-1960s. Sea level rise forms intra-trajectory linkages with storm surges, coastal armoring and institutional failures are associated with coastal armoring (Jin et al., 2015;Kriebel et al., 1985). ...
... Anecdotal claims also associated storm surges with seasonal shifts in weather, particularly over the last six years (Respondent B 43; see loop A). This association between seasonal shifts and storm surges provides the basis for distinguishing between erosion associated with seasonal events, e.g., storm surges (Kriebel et al., 1985) and feedbacks induced by anthropogenic and institutional drivers, e.g., coastal armoring (Jin et al., 2015). Additionally, the perspectives of many respondents link seasonal shifts in weather with storm surges and connect these shifts with rough seas and rapid erosion along some beaches and declines in tourism related activities, e.g., bathing. ...
... Coastal armoring as a response measure to erosion caused by storm surges has been linked to institutional failures, e.g., lack of enforcement (Jin et al., 2015). There is regulation in Tobago that prevents construction within 60 meters from the high water mark. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
During the last three decades, coastal management scholarship and practice have been shaped by both social and ecological drivers of change that have served to define different epochs during which the coast has been conceptualized and characterized as; a frontier transition zone, value-laden economic entity, a conservation area and a governance jurisdiction. In line with past conceptualizations, recent shifts in coastal management scholarship define the coast as a social-ecological system (SES) that reflects the linkages between terrestrial and marine subsystems and connections between these subsystems and littoral interests (e.g., interests in tourism, environmental conservation and fisheries). SES perspectives in coastal management highlight the nature and scope of the current and future cumulative impacts from climate and non-climate drivers of change on coastal social and ecological systems. SES perspectives also highlight new approaches for thinking about integration and for advancing integrated coastal management (ICM) research and practice. While current coastal management scholarship acknowledges the value of integration as an underlying core principle. Coastal management scholars also accept that integration has not fulfilled its former promise and that it has been understudied. This claim is evident in the way ICM has been used to frame and analyze the impacts of climate and non-climate drivers of change on coastal social and ecological systems. In an effort to contribute to filling this research gap, in this study, I use the core principle of integration and three surrogate principles (comprehensiveness, harmonization and cooperation and participation), to conceptualize and examine the impacts of coastal water quality decline on coastal SES and the potential for integrated governance responses in coastal water quality management.
... Survenance récente d'un événement Bin et Polasky, 2004 ;Déronzier et Terra, 2006 ;Daniel et al., 2009 ;McKenzie et Levendis, 2010 ;Tobin et Montz, 1994 ;Zhang et Leonard, 2019 Fréquence des événements sur un territoire Tobin et Montz, 1994 ; Bartosova et al., 2000 Système assurantiel en place Skantz et Strickland, 1987 ;Shilling et al., 1985Shilling et al., et 1989Indaco et al., 2019 Zonages de prévention et de maîtrise de l'urbanisation Holway et Burby, 1990 ;Schaefer, 1990 ;Montz, 1993 ;Hubert et al., 2003 ;Caumont, 2014 ;Dachary-Bernard et al., 2014 Information préventive délivrée aux acquéreurs Pope, 2008 ;Caumont, 2014 ; Aménités liées à la proximité de l'eau Longuépée et Zuindeau, 2001 ;Hubert et al., 2003 ;Caumont 2014 ;Eves, 2004 ;Atreya et Czajkowski, 2014 ;Atreya et Czajkowski, 2016 Ouvrages de protection Kriesel et Friedman, 2003 ;Hamilton, 2007 ;Jin et al., 2015Politiques de gestion Landry et al., 2003 acquéreurs Pryce et al., 2011 Connaissance du territoire et des processus naturels par les acquéreurs Landry et al., 2003 ;Below et al., 2015 Ainsi, l'hétérogénéité des résultats peut en partie s'expliquer par la très forte proportion d'études de cas très localisées parmi ces travaux, et ce sur des temporalités très variées. En outre, la diversité des contextes réglementaires (politiques de prévention et systèmes d'indemnisation des risques naturels notamment), culturels et historiques, la survenance plus ou moins récente d'un événement d'ampleur sur le secteur étudié, la conjoncture économique, etc., constituent des facteurs d'explication supplémentaires . ...
... Cette décision très médiatisée de la préfecture de (Holway et Burby, 1990 ;Schaefer, 1990 ;Montz, 1993 ;Hubert et al., 2003 ;Caumont, 2014 ;Dachary-Bernard et al., 2014). Les PPRL constituent en effet la principale procédure réglementaire de prise en compte des risques côtiers dans l'aménagement du territoire et visent à maîtriser l'urbanisation dans les zones exposées aux aléas côtiers (Perherin, 2017 (Kriesel et Friedman, 2003 ;Hamilton, 2007 ;Jin et al., 2015). Cette analyse est possible à l'échelle du littoral métropolitain grâce à la mise à disposition récente d'une couche SIG sur le portail GéoLittoral du ...
Thesis
Malgré un accroissement de l’exposition aux aléas côtiers dans le contexte actuel de changement climatique, les territoires littoraux français continuent de faire l’objet d’une très forte attractivité résidentielle. Le « désir de rivage » des acquéreurs participe au maintien très haut des prix du foncier et de l’immobilier pratiqués sur les espaces côtiers. Afin de mieux cerner l’ambivalence de la mer, cette thèse questionne l’influence des risques côtiers sur les prix du foncier et de l’immobilier. Pour ce faire, il se fonde sur l’étude d’un indicateur crucial : les valeurs foncières et immobilières des biens à vocation résidentielle du littoral métropolitain. Cette recherche doctorale s’appuie pour cela sur une démarche exploratoire « mixte », fondée sur une double approche quantitative et qualitative.Une phase quantitative, menée à l’échelle métropolitaine, consiste en l’analyse statistique de la BD DV3F, afin de déterminer l’éventuelle influence des risques côtiers sur les valeurs foncières et immobilières. Une phase qualitative, conduite à l’échelle de trois terrains d’étude de la façade atlantique, repose sur vingt-cinq entretiens semi-directifs avec des professionnels de l’immobilier et des acteurs publics, afin d’apporter un éclairage local, ainsi que des éléments de contextualisation et de compréhension, aux tendances observées à l’échelle nationale. Les résultats de cette thèse sont finalement discutés à travers le prisme des politiques publiques de gestion des risques côtiers et d’adaptation au changement climatique. Ils proposent un éclairage sur les réflexions actuelles visant à initier une régulation publique des marchés immobiliers exposés aux aléas côtiers.
... Coastal areas around the world have been facing many serious problems related to coastal erosion [1]. Erosion is occurring very rapidly due to climate change that causes global warming, leading to inundation and increasing the risk of floods in large waves along the coast [2][3][4]. The problem of coastal erosion is becoming more and more serious because the coasts are becoming more ideal places to concentrate the population and develop production activities such as industry, transportation, tourism, etc. [5]. ...
... While the effectiveness of using gabion groyne dams in sand accumulation and yards creation has been reported in many previous studies [1][2][3][4][5][6][7], the UHPC sheet pile with FRP structure has shown many advantages such as much higher tensile and bending capacities than normal concrete (R t = 18-20 MPa is very suitable for bending problems when mounted and subjected to soil pressure), very high compressive strength (R c = 100-120 MPa is very suitable pile pressing problem) [13], light weight due to the much thinner structure when compared to reinforced concrete piles with same bearing capacity, overcoming the phenomenon of corroded piles when exposed to aggressive environments, reducing the amount of material use, and reducing the transportation and construction costs compared to concrete piles solution. The usage of UHPC contributes to the environmental improvement by reducing a large a mount of flys ash from thermal power plants [14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A new solution using ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) sheet piles was a hard wall structure combined with gabion groyne dams for the purpose of shore protection, sand accretion, and tourist beach creation was proposed in this study. The proposed approach was then applied to meet the both shore protection and sandy beach generation requirements of private Rung Duong resort project in Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Vietnam. The UHPC sheet piles reinforced by fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) installed in form of a vertical wall were designed and constructed for the shore protection purpose. Together with the later built gabion groyne dam system, the combined structure brought a very good coastal protection effect. As a result observed from Rung Duong resort, the shoreline was pushed back out very far from the resort, while sandy beaches in front of the resort were formed and expanded widely.
... Beach width provides both a protective and a recreational value to coastal communities (Jin et al. 2015;Landry et al. 2003;McNamara and Keeler 2013;McNamara et al. 2015;Pompe and Rinehart 1995;Simmons et al. 2002). We extend previous formulations to account for a community's size, modeled as the number of homes in cross-shore. ...
... Typically beachfront properties are most valuable, and properties in each subsequent row inland are less valuable (Fig. 3). This relationship is due to diminished viewership, increased travel cost, and decreased recreational amenity with distance from the beach (Jin et al. 2015;Landry and Hindsley 2011;Pompe and Rinehart 1995). ...
... Among the strategies that were widely discussed over the last half century, however, retreat and relocation options are seen as highly unfavorable on the basis of the financial burden, legal conflicts, and numerous other socio-cultural issues these strategies require [6]. By contrast, on-site adaptation measures are gaining more popularity, since these allow homeowners to keep coastal amenities and local place identity, whilst curbing potential asset and cultural value degradation due to climate change [7][8][9][10]. ...
... Fell and Kousky [41] found that levee-protected commercial properties sell for approximately 8% more than similar properties in 100-year floodplains without such protection. Jin, Hoagland, Au and Qiu [8] indicated that single-family homes located behind a seawall within 160 feet of waterbodies have a 10% price appreciation due to anticipated risk reduction against inundation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines the economic impact of climate change adaptation measures on the housing markets of two representative coastal cities in the United States located along the Atlantic Ocean. The results shed light on how adaptation measures and investments influence housing values and local real estate markets with respect to their place-based and local forms of implementation. Numerous quantitative approaches, with the use of geospatial data, panel-data hedonic regressions, and difference-in-differences analyses, are used to examine changes in property values associated with climate adaptation measures and the dynamics of risk perception. The results also signal how risk perception and hurricane characteristics are reflected in housing markets, thereby shedding light on the effects of anticipatory and reactive adaptation strategies on property values in these coastal communities. Collectively, the study suggests which adaptation strategies and characteristics can contribute to maximizing both community resilience and economic benefits against the weather extremes caused by climate change.
... Goal 18 eligibility thus represents a land-use policy granting a mitigation option that the market is highly attentive to, whereas a temporary loss from an acute flooding or storm event without concurrent policy changes may be more fleeting. Furthermore, the magnitude of our benefit estimates for having an erosion protection option exhibit convergent validity with recent estimates on the protective benefits from beach nourishment (Dundas 2017;Qiu and Gopalakrishnan 2018), seawalls (Jin et al. 2015), and bulkheads (Walsh et al. 2019). 3 Second, our conceptual framework allows us to calculate landowners' implicit subjective erosion risk probabilities of irreversible loss of land. ...
... Dundas (2017) finds the protection value associated with dune and beach nourishment policy ranges from 20 to 26 percent when decomposed from ancillary flows (e.g., ocean views, access).Qiu and Gopalakrishnan (2018) find beach nourishment increases home values in Kitty Hawk, NC by 12 -17 percent andJin et al. (2015) show presence of a seawall may increase housing prices by 10 percent in Massachusetts.Walsh et al. (2019) find price premium for bulkheads and riprap in bayfront properties in Anne Arundel County, Maryland between 12 -21 percent. ...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating non-market benefits for erosion protection can help inform better decision-making and policies for communities to adapt to climate change. We estimate private values for a coastal protection option in an empirical setting subject to irreversible loss from coastal erosion and a land-use policy that provides identifying variation in the parcel-level option to invest in protection. Using post-matching regressions and accounting for potential spillovers, we find evidence that the value of the erosion protection option is between 13 to 22 percent of land price for parcels vulnerable to coastal hazards, implying that owners of oceanfront parcels have a subjective annual probability that they will experience an irreversible loss absent the option to protect between 0.7-1.3 percent. We also find that, because of altered shoreline wave dynamics, a parcel with a private protection option generates a spillover effect on protection-ineligible neighbors, lowering the value of neighboring land by 8 percent.
... The Second Proposition is supported by an emerging body of evidence that adaptation strategies disproportionately benefit the wealthy and increase the vulnerability of poor and historically marginalized communities (e.g., Atteridge and Remling, 2018;Howell and Elliott, 2019;Woroniecki et al., 2019). For instance, shoreline armoring has been observed to extend valuation premiums that benefit wealthier households (Jin et al., 2015), and beach nourishment has been shown to increase the value of oceanfront properties (Qiu and Gopalakrishnan, 2018). Other issues complicating the fair distribution of adaptation actions are methods of post-disaster recovery resource allocation (Howell and Elliott, 2019;Muñoz and Tate, 2016;Tierney, 2006), lack of affordable housing options (Green, 2015), and unequal insurance accessibility (Shively, 2017). ...
... Such correlations are useful for exploring influences and outcomes, but they do not establish causal relationships between decision-making criteria and outcomes. For instance, does a correlation between armoring or nourishment and wealth attributes suggest that armoring and nourishment are bolstering the creation of wealth, as Jin et al. (2015) suggest, or do wealth attributes drive adaptation resource allocation-or both? That is, were seawalls built in front of wealthy homeowners because they were wealthy, or did homeowners become wealthy because seawalls were built to protect their homes? ...
Article
Understanding why and where decision-makers choose to use different climate change adaptation strategies remains an important theoretical and practical question for coastal adaptation. This article provides an exploratory statistical analysis of three adaptation measures (shoreline armoring, property acquisitions, and beach nourishment) and their deployment with respect to metrics of risk exposure, socioeconomic markers, and critical infrastructure in North Carolina (U.S.). This exploratory analysis evaluates two propositions. First, adaptation measures are deployed relative to specific metrics of risk. Second, adaptation choice disproportionately correlates with socioeconomic attributes. The findings support both propositions and reveal that shoreline armoring correlates with higher home values, household incomes, and population density and low racial diversity. Property acquisitions are found to correlate with low home values, household incomes, and population density and high racial diversity. Furthermore, adaptation measures are interconnected. Acquisitions are more likely to occur in areas with low levels of armoring. Beach nourishment occurs exclusively in areas with shoreline armoring. The results find no correlation of adaptation deployment with critical infrastructure. This article provides the foundation for future research into how adaptation decisions are made and trade-offs among adaptation actions considered, whether decisions adequately protect critical infrastructure, and how deployment patterns affect social equity.
... To our knowledge, only handful of papers have studied the effects of hard flood defense structures on property values. Fell and Kousky (2015) examine levee effect on commercial property (Fell and Kousky 2015) and Jin et al. (2015) examine the effect of shoreline change and the seawall on residential properties in Massachusetts. However, very little is known about the pricing effects of hard structures like seawalls, considering changes in people's risk perception and valuation of this type of flood protection in the wake of a large-scale catastrophe. ...
... In support of recognizing flood control benefits of levees, Fell and Kousky (2015) suggest that levee-protected commerical properties are sold at a higher premium relative to properties located in floodplains but unprotected by the levee in St. Louis County, Missouri. Jin et al. (2015) also found that homeowners paid higher premiums for properties protected by the seawall and those by stable shorelines in coastal towns of Massachusetts. However, the effect was estimated significant for nearshore and oceanfront properties. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper estimates the value of seawall protection in the wake of Hurricane Ike using a difference-in-difference and fixed-effects type quasi-experimental approach. The analysis is based on residential housing transactions in Galveston, Texas from 2000 to 2014. The results suggest a positive price premium of up to 22% for seawall protected homes. The positive effect is found to be the highest after the occurrence of Hurricane Ike. Although as memory fades away the effect began decreasing gradually, the price premium of seawall protection still persists six years after Hurricane Ike.
... Beach width provides both a protective and a recreational value to coastal communities (Jin et al., 2015;Landry et al., 2003;McNamara and Keeler, 2013;McNamara et al., 2015;Pompe and Rinehart, 1995;Simmons et al., 2002). We extend previous formulations to account for a community's size, modeled as the number of homes in cross-shore. ...
... Typically beachfront properties are most valuable, and properties in each subsequent row inland are less valuable (Fig. 3). This relationship is due to diminished viewership, increased travel cost, and decreased recreational amenity with distance from the beach (Jin et al., 2015;Landry and Hindsley, 2011;Pompe and Rinehart, 1995). Our model formulation allows for the migration of beachfront benefit if property rows are lost to erosion. ...
... Beach width provides both a protective and a recreational value to coastal communities (Jin et al. 2015;Landry et al. 2003;McNamara and Keeler 2013;McNamara et al. 2015;Pompe and Rinehart 1995;Simmons et al. 2002). We extend previous formulations to account for a community's size, modeled as the number of homes in cross-shore. ...
... Typically beachfront properties are most valuable, and properties in each subsequent row inland are less valuable (Fig. 3). This relationship is due to diminished viewership, increased travel cost, and decreased recreational amenity with distance from the beach (Jin et al. 2015;Landry and Hindsley 2011;Pompe and Rinehart 1995). ...
Poster
Heavily developed coasts require mitigation to protect property and infrastructure from beach erosion. Soft engineering involves external sand placement to widen beaches artificially,termed nourishment or beach fill. Hard engineering involves the construction of immovableobjects, such as shore-perpendicular groins, which slow alongshore currents to deposit sediments locally. While groins accrete sediments updrift, they also limit downdrift sediment supply, exacerbating erosion, often forcing downdrift communities to respond with new engineering measures: groin (e.g. Holgate, NJ), nourishment (West Hampton Dunes, NY), or abandonment (South Cape May, NJ). Our research focuses on these local risks associated with groins. We developed a coupled geo-economic model for a two-community system to explore how wealth and size, the costs of sand/rock, the discount rate, and erosion driven by sea-level rise might affect protection strategy choicesusing cost-benefit analysis. Benefits are a function of beach width and the number of property rows; costs are a function of groin length, groin maintenance, and nourishment volume. Results indicate large, wealthy communities have the funds to maintain beaches via groins or nourishment, while small, poorer communities abandon properties. Higher sand costs make groin construction more feasible, while the opposite is true for higher rock costs. A higher discount rate favors groins because they stabilize beaches better in the short term. Increased erosion rates force communities to nourish more frequently to maintain beach width. This simple model provides a tool to analyze coastal management efficiency along vulnerable coasts under local and global risks, incorporating feedbacks between natural and human processes.
... However, traditional hard structures 6 have to suffer costly maintenance and repair, especially after extreme storm 7 events. In many situations, they are old and poor-maintained, which in-8 creases the coastal vulnerability (Jin et al., 2015). Therefore, investigating 9 and optimizing the characteristics of flexible structures subjected to waves 10 can be a significant research direction. ...
Article
The hydroelastic behavior of a vertical wall in periodic waves is investigated using a fully-coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational solid mechanics (CSM) model. The present numerical model is verified against previous numerical and experimental results on wave evolution and structural displacement. Then the hydrodynamic characteristics and the structural responses of an elastic wall in periodic waves are parametrically investigated. It is demonstrated that wave reflection, run-up, and loading decrease as the wall becomes more flexible. The decreases also occur when the waves become shorter. With nonlinear wave propagation, both the displacement and the stress of the wall are larger in the shoreward direction than those in the seaward direction. The wall displacement has the same frequency as the exciting waves and the stress increases with the decrease of the ratio of the wave frequency to the wall's natural frequency. Considering the effect of flexibility, empirical formulae are proposed for predicting the wave run-up, loading, and maximum displacement of the wall. Besides, the optimization of the flexible wall is conducted by taking into account both the defense performance (i.e., transmission coefficient) and the structural integrity (i.e., maximum von Mises stress). Finally, the effect of the material damping is studied, which shows that the material damping has a negligible effect on the interaction between periodic waves and the elastic structure.
... While a detailed review of seawall effects is beyond the scope of the present study, it is well known that seawalls can be beneficial or injurious, or both, depending on local circumstances. For example, seawalls can protect people and property from flood injury, damage and displacement; preserve or perhaps increase property values; and maintain the local tax base by avoiding retreat [51][52][53][54][55][56]. In contrast, negative effects of seawalls include heightened erosion in areas adjacent to the wall ends, harm to native species, loss of biodiversity, damage to adjacent properties and their values, and adverse changes in flood dynamics [57][58][59][60][61][62]. ...
Article
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In response to increasing threats from sea-level rise and storm surge, the City of Charleston, South Carolina, and the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) propose constructing a seawall around the Charleston peninsula. The proposed seawall will terminate close to lower wealth, predominantly minority communities. These communities are identified as environmental justice (EJ) communities due to their history of inequitable burdens of industrial and urban pollution and proximity to highways and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated Superfund sites. The present study documents community concerns and opinions related to the proposed seawall, existing flooding problems, and other issues. The project was guided by knowledge co-production and participant-observation approaches and included interviews with community members, collection of locality-specific data, GIS mapping to visualize key issues, development of an ArcGIS Story Map, and participation in public meetings. Community concerns are reported in the voices of community members and fell into eight major themes: community connections, drainage, impacts of road infrastructure, displacement, increasing vulnerability, sense of exclusion and isolation, mistrust of government, and civic engagement. Community members were significantly engaged in the study and are the owners of the results. As one of the first US East Coast cities pursuing major structural adaptation for flooding, Charleston is likely to become a model for other cities considering waterfront protection measures. We demonstrate the importance of meaningful engagement to ensure that climate adaptation will benefit all, including marginalized communities, and have as few unintended negative consequences as possible. Bringing more people to the table and creating vibrant, long-term partnerships between academic institutions and community-based organizations that include robust links to governmental organizations should be among the first steps in building inclusive, equitable, and climate resilient cities.
... These losses are impacting the insurance industry and in turn influencing the real estate community, resulting in insurers insuring less real estate in coastal and flood-prone areas (Collier et al., 2021). When they do write policies in these areas it is at a premium (Jin et al., 2015;Moody's, 2018;Urbina, 2016). As a result, insurance companies have the means to minimize the uncertainty associated with climate change (Botzen & van den Bergh, 2009). ...
Article
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Climate change is becoming an increasing concern for many communities, particularly coastal communities subject to tidal and sea-level flooding. As a result, shoreline municipalities walk a fine line between protecting their communities and allowing more development. A prime example of this dilemma is the port city of Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Despite being ground zero for sea-level flooding, the city has seen rapid real estate development growth. This paper analyzes a survey conducted with Urban Land Institute (ULI) members in the Charleston region to understand how the real estate community is coping with and combating flooding impacts. Results show that while residential real estate developers are rethinking their development patterns, commercial developers are slow to recognize the threat of climate change impacts. The paper concludes with suggestions for policies and practices to address these threats, strengthen Charleston’s commercial real estate, and better prepare the city for a safe, prosperous future.
... Shoreline change has been documented in the region since the mid-nineteenth century through the use of plane-table surveys, transits, aerial photography, and light detection and ranging Harris et al., 2009;. Regional and national shoreline and nearshore surveys provide shoreline change rates for this region (Anders et al., 1990;Morton et al., 2006;Harris et al., 2009;Holliday and Miller, 2013;Houston and Dean, 2014;Doyle and Adams, 2015;Jin et al., 2015;Johnson et al., 2015;Thompson et al., 2015;Jackson Jr. et al., 2016;Kratzmann et al., 2017;Antolínez et al., 2018), and Emergency Response Imagery (e.g. "National Geodetic SurveydEmergency Response Imagery Index, n.d.") are now at the point of being useful in high-resolution post-impact shoreline studies (Morgan, 2016). ...
... Shoreline change has been documented in the region since the mid-nineteenth century through the use of plane-table surveys, transits, aerial photography, and light detection and ranging Harris et al., 2009;. Regional and national shoreline and nearshore surveys provide shoreline change rates for this region (Anders et al., 1990;Morton et al., 2006;Harris et al., 2009;Holliday and Miller, 2013;Houston and Dean, 2014;Doyle and Adams, 2015;Jin et al., 2015;Johnson et al., 2015;Thompson et al., 2015;Jackson Jr. et al., 2016;Kratzmann et al., 2017;Antolínez et al., 2018), and Emergency Response Imagery (e.g. "National Geodetic SurveydEmergency Response Imagery Index, n.d.") are now at the point of being useful in high-resolution post-impact shoreline studies (Morgan, 2016). ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the morphodynamics of open-ocean barrier systems, synthesizing classic studies, current scientific knowledge, and future research directions regarding 14 barrier provinces worldwide. Within a coastal tectonic framework, it addresses: (1) Amero-trailing-edge coasts (USA's New England coast, Mid-Atlantic Bight coast, North Carolina Outer Banks, Georgia Bight coast, Florida Atlantic coast; Brazil's Santa Catarina coast; Europe's German Bight coast; Australia's southern and western coasts); (2) marginal-sea coasts (USA's Florida Gulf Coast; Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama; Texas Gulf Coast; Australia's eastern coast); and (3) collision coasts (USA's Alaskan Pacific coast, Japan's and New Zealand's coasts). This chapter also provides a glossary, important conclusions, specific recommendations regarding future coastal research, and a robust, current set of references.
... Of the two benefit coefficients, α reflects the implicit price of a property that reflects its structural characteristics, the local neighborhood, and environmental amenities (Jin et al., 2015). β captures the unique effects of beach width on B, including both recreational benefits and the reduced damages from coastal hazards. ...
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Applying a theoretical geo-economic approach, we examined key factors affecting decisions about the choice of beach width when eroded coastal beaches are being nourished (i.e., when fill is placed to widen a beach). Within this geo-economic framework, optimal beach width is positively related to its values for hazard protection and recreation and negatively related to nourishment costs and the discount rate. Using a dynamic modeling framework, we investigated the time paths of beach width and nourishment that maximized net present value under an accelerating sea level. We then analyzed how environmental uncertainty about expected future beach width, arising from natural shoreline dynamics, intermittent large storms, or sea-level rise, leads to economic choices favoring narrower beaches. Risk aversion can affect a coastal property owner's choice of beach width in contradictory ways: the expected benefits of hazard protection must be balanced against the expected costs of repeated nourishment actions. Recommendations for Resource Managers • Because of environmental uncertainty, coastal protection projects are risky investments. It is important to consider the effects of uncertainty on cost–benefit assessments of these projects. • Without uncertainty, optimal beach width is positively related to its values for hazard protection and recreation and negatively related to nourishment costs and the discount rate. • Uncertainty about future shoreline positions has a negative impact on the choice of an optimal beach width. • Risk aversion can affect a coastal property owner's choice of beach width in contradictory ways: a wider beach to protect their home, and a narrower beach if the effectiveness of nourishment is uncertain.
... Investigations into the intrinsic and external factors, from beach width to tax and insurance subsidies, that influence coastal property values -and the effects those values have on coastal management and policy -comprise another fast-expanding area (Landry et al. 2003;Kriesel and Landry 2004;Bagstad et al. 2007;Bin et al. 2008;Smith et al 2009;Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011;Landry et al. 2011;Jin et al. 2015). Still another underexplored tool for dynamical insight is agent-based modeling with agent behaviors that better capture the psychology of decision-making and adaptive learning, which would represent a departure from agents guided by rule-based optimization of utility functions (Lazarus et al. 2015). ...
Preprint
There are nearly 300 barrier islands between Maine and Texas, and of these, at least 70 are intensively developed. Mean population density along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts are the highest in the country. Such concentrated development exists and continues despite the fact that barrier islands are transient landscapes, not only over geologic time scales of millennia but also within human and economic time scales of centuries to decades. Populated barrier islands are inherently vulnerable to natural hazards such as sea-level rise, cumulative erosion, and storm events; this vulnerability drives humans to actively modify barrier geometry and environments. The most common manipulations are beach nourishment, to mitigate shoreline erosion, and increases to dune height or seawall construction to prevent flooding and damage from overwash during storm events. Over time scales of years to decades, hazard-mitigation actions impact natural, spatio-temporal barrier processes such as washover deposition and planform transgression, which in turn affect future efforts to manage, control, or prevent barrier change. Through their maintenance and persistence, interventions against coastal hazards represent a significant dynamical component of developed barrier-island system evolution, such that, within the past century, human actions and natural barrier-island processes have become dynamically coupled. This coupling leads to steady-state barrier island behaviors that are fundamentally new. The only way to understand how developed barrier islands will respond to climate change over decadal time scales is to treat these settings as strongly coupled human–natural systems. Over time scales longer than centuries, human interventions may be coupled only weakly to long-term barrier dynamics. Short of major technological advancements or sweeping decisions to transform these environments into comprehensively geoengineered terrains, high-density development on U.S. barrier islands will likely cease to exist in its current configuration.
... Consequently, rising sea levels and both the average level of water and wave height will increase during the utmost weather conditions. This process induces erosion of soils from shores resulting in beach intrusion and the impact on human activities (Jin et al., 2015). ...
Article
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When someone decides to buy a house or any other estate near the shoreline, they do not think that in future nature will impact the value of their asset significantly. Further to the risks of hurricanes or any other natural hazards (such as tsunami), waves are gradually shifting the coastlines by displacing soil from a location to various areas. In recent decades, coasts have been affected by a significant deterioration due to weather conditions, waves, and coastal soil erosion. Hence, it needs precise environmental consideration, and preserves coasts for leisure, specifying reasons that promoted effective technologies from immersed structures to coastal nourishing. Therefore, by constructing sea-walls should prevent shoreline environments, especially the mechanism of sedimentation, long-shore transfer of sand, altering the coasts to the significant proportion which results from weathering and sea waves sever. In this paper, an overview submitted to the kinds of seawalls and specifications needed to sustain the seawalls. There explained the positive and negative effects of seawalls on coastal area, and the required factors to enhance seawalls stabilization against overturning and sliding failure. Also, the developed types of seawall structures have been identified that, in addition to the more practical vertical model, the stepped, rubble-mound, and curves have also been designed. It is recommended to coastal structure designer and engineers, in the pre-construction stage should precisely be studied on the coast situation and weathering conditions in the area, that is essential to make sustainable decisions and designs for construction of these structures.
... A survey of coastal landowners suggests they perceive armoring to be a cost-effective and durable option to combat shoreline erosion and that neighboring shoreline conditions are a strong predictor of current land use (Scyphers et al. 2015). Both the existence of shoreline armoring structures (Jin et al. 2015;Walsh et al. 2019) and the option to install one (Dundas and Lewis 2020) have been recently shown to capitalize into housing values. The presence of spatial discontinuities in property rights related to armoring also has potential to impact housing markets (Dundas and Lewis 2020). ...
Article
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A primary conduit for coastal adaptation to climate change on private land is the hardening, or armoring, of the shoreline to mitigate the effects of erosion and sea-level rise (SLR). When such decisions are made at the parcel-level, there is potential for spatial spillovers, including externalities due to deflected wave action and peer effects. We estimate a discrete choice model of landowner armoring choices from 1990 to 2015 in the U.S. state of Oregon that suggests the impacts of spatial spillovers are highly influential determinants in these private adaptation decisions. Our landscape simulations excluding spatial spillovers may under-predict future armoring by 37–97 percent. From scenario-based simulations, we then demonstrate the primacy of policy, as a removal of a current land-use regulation that limits armoring has potential to significantly increase future armoring by 69 percent. Furthermore, inclusion of SLR projections suggests armoring would increase an additional 5.4 percent within four decades.
... Because coastal zones are populated, economically active, and desired by tourists, coastal erosion can result in large losses of lives as well as property China has a long history of fighting for coastal defense (Charlier and Finkl 2018 the 21st century, hard structures, such as dikes, breakwaters and seawalls, were widely used to address coastal erosion in China. However, it was gradually recognized that this kind of measure could not solve the erosion problem but aggravated erosion in front of the dike and on the adjacent coast (Third Institute of Oceanography 2010; Aerts et al. 2014;Jin et al. 2015). With rapid social and economic development in the past four decades, reclamation has been a major way to gain land space in coastal areas and a large number of natural coastlines have been hardened, resulting in both serious erosion of natural coastlines and a significant increase in the proportion of artificial coastlines, which has been called the "Great Wall of Steel" in the new century (Ma et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Beach nourishment has been widely used for beach protection around the world. However, there is limited information about beach nourishment in China. This study offers an overview of beach nourishment practices, status and technological advances in China, based on the literature, reports, and personal communications. The results demonstrate that beach nourishment has been recognized as an effective and environmentally friendly measure to combat coastal erosion and has been increasingly adopted in China, especially in the past decade. The unique characteristics of coastal China resulted in a difference in beach nourishment between China and Western developed countries in terms of the types, objectives, and shapes of beach nourishment. For the types of nourishments in China, there were approximately the same number of restored beaches and newly constructed beaches. For fill sediment, homogeneous fill and heterogeneous fill comprised 51.1% and 48.9% of projects, respectively. The objective of beach nourishment was mainly to promote coastal tourism, and the shape of nourished beaches was dominated by headland bays. This study also indicated that China has achieved a number of technological advances in beach nourishment, including methods of beach nourishment on severely eroded coasts and muddy coasts, an optimized design of drain pipes involved in urban beaches, and ecological design considerations. From the past decade of practices, four aspects were proposed as considerations for future nourishment: sand sources, technique advances, ecological effects, and management of beach nourishments.
... With this increased frequency and intensity of storms, along with rising seas, it follows logically that many low-lying coastal regions of the US can be expected to become cost centers in coming decades. Under such a scenario, the market value of existing coastal assets will be negatively impacted, as has already been observed and documented (Bin et al. 2011;Fu et al. 2016;Jin et al. 2015;Rambaldi et al. 2013). Consequently, an alternative approach, the cost centered case against coastal development, is suggested. ...
Chapter
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a cost-centric policy approach to coastal resiliency planning. Current policy dynamics in many countries treat risky coastal areas as revenue centers. This results in coastal resiliency policies that are focused on maintaining the economic value of increasingly risky coastal assets. As a counter proposal, this paper presents a policy framework that acknowledges the evolving risks of coastal living, identifies existing asset value, and then works to transfer that existing value away from risky coastal areas to inland areas that are prioritized as net migration centers and areas for economic development. The main mechanism for value transfer is a transfer development right, or TDR. Using the United States as an example, this paper outlines how this process would work in action and how it differentiates from current coastal policy dynamics. Finally, it identifies a number of implementation issues for further consideration. The goal is to provide an example of how new policy can be developed to counteract the perverse incentives embedded in existing policy paradigms that collectively prohibit meaningful adaptation planning in an era of climate-induced sea level rise.
... In the context of flood risk reduction however, this is difficult as flood risk benefits are not consistently reflected in coastal real estate markets 2 (Beltrán et al., 2018), and investments in coastal infrastructure may even have a negative effect on real estate and tourism markets as they decrease coastal amenity values e.g. accessibility of beach or landscape quality (Jin et al., 2015;Rangel-Buitrago et al., 2018). NBFD can resolve this opposition between flood risk and amenity value by providing flood risk reduction while maintaining or increasing amenity value. ...
Article
Nature-based flood defences (NBFD) are receiving considerable attention in the coastal adaptation field. Advocates of NBFD point to their cost-effectiveness, flexibility and the range of co-benefits they produce beside flood risk reduction. However, NBFD are not yet common practice. One reason for this may be found in financial barriers. To date, there has been little attention for financial aspects of NBFD, as the literature has focused on design, effectiveness and socio-economic impact of such projects. We address this gap by analysing the financial attractiveness of real-world NBFD from the perspective of the public actor. We address the following research questions: through which mechanisms can public investments in NBFD projects be leveraged? and ii) what are the enabling conditions for these mechanisms? We find two types of revenue generating mechanisms: value capture, in which the public actor generates revenues from private beneficiaries through taxes; and co-investment, in which the project attracts in-kind or cash contributions from other actors. We illustrate the potential of these leveraging mechanisms in four case studies and find that NBFD can generate significant tax revenues in locations with high demand for certain co-benefits, whereas project size, type, timing and beneficiaries of co-benefits determine the potential for co-investment.
... In Yoshida's study [2], designed beach widths of 10, 20, and 30 m serve specific purposes such as preventing disasters, preserving the coastal ecosystem, and tourism, respectively. Designed beach widths are normally related to beach benefits; some studies used the cost-benefit analysis to design an optimum beach width [38]. However, the determination of the beach benefits remains a challenge for coastal management planners [14], especially in Thailand because there are very few studies that investigate beach benefits, especially on the national scale. ...
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A recent study suggested that significant beach loss may take place on the coasts of Thailand by the end of the 21st century as per projections of sea-level rise by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The present study adapts a framework and provides broad estimations for sand volumes and costs required to apply beach nourishment to each coastal zone in Thailand using a technique based on the Bruun rule assumption. Results indicate that a minimum of USD 2981 million (the best scenario) to a maximum of USD 11,409 million (the worst scenario) would be required to maintain all sandy beaches at their present width. Further, the effect of filling particle size on beach nourishment was analyzed in this study. The cost of beach nourishment ranges between USD 1983 and 14,208 million when considering filling particle size diameters of 0.5 and 0.2 mm. A zonal sand volume map for all 51 sandy beach zones in Thailand was created for use as an overview to help decision makers develop a more feasible adaptation plan to deal with the future sea-level rise for Thailand.
... Similarly, housing markets can reflect the value of risk mitigation measures such as increasing elevation of the structure, construction of seawalls, and windstorm resistance measures (Simmons et al. 2002;Rambaldi et al. 2013;Jin et al. 2015). Empirical analysis on the impact of federal expenditures on disaster management also shows that investment in ex ante mitigation projects provides larger benefits through risk reduction relative to ex post recovery spending (Davlasheridze et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Beaches are natural capital stocks that provide value through localized storm protection, recreational amenities, and ecosystem services at regional and global scales. In response to increased storm risks and sea-level rise, coastal communities invest in shoreline stabilization by rebuilding eroding sections of the coast through periodic re-nourishment. While conceptual models of the coastal-economic system provide a capital-theoretic framework to study beach management, empirical analysis of the drivers of beach nourishment policy is limited. Using data from 21 coastal towns in North Carolina, we examine the geophysical and economic factors that reflect coastal vulnerability and influence the frequency of beach nourishment investments. We find that beach towns with access to periodically replenishable sand deposits from inlets and river channels nourish more frequently. Beaches that rely on offshore sand reserves are nourished less frequently. Our results provide new insights into the heterogeneous risks that local communities face with higher costs, limited sand reserves and the growing nourishment demand driven by climate change and increased vulnerability.
... The evidence in the literature supporting this premise is substantial (Church et al. 2013;Clark et al. 2016;Levermann et al. 2013;Mengel et al. 2018). An ancillary premise is that, without value transfer, the erosion of the market value of coastal assets will result in a significant loss of capital invested (Bin et al. 2011;Fu et al. 2016;Jin et al. 2015;Rambaldi et al. 2012). In other words, money invested towards developing and maintaining risky coastal assets today will be unavailable for alternate uses in a tomorrow where the value of those risky coastal assets approaches zero. ...
Article
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Coastal property is becoming more dynamic as it is subjected to the forces of climate change. This is particularly true for low-lying coastal areas, where climate-induced change is altering long-standing public policies associated with coastal development. In the US, attempts to address the new reality of climate change from a programmatic standpoint are generally referred to as resiliency planning. This article explores the concept of resiliency planning from a cost-orientated approach, viewing low-lying coastal property as areas of evolving risk. From this viewpoint, we develop a value transfer framework proposal that attempts to identify and quantify existing coastal asset values and engage in a transfer of the value to less risky inland areas that have been identified as economic development priority areas. The goal is to provide a risk-based, “cost center” approach to land use and related policymaking in risky coastal areas. This proposal attempts to highlight an example of a hazard-based policy intervention that maximizes opportunities to reduce coastal hazard risk, optimizes the social and economic utility of existing coastal investment through a transfer of development rights approach that is designed to build and enhance coastal resiliency. Future work can improve and build upon the principles set forth in the following framework proposal.
... La estimación de beneficios a partir del valor de las propiedades generalmente utiliza el método de precios hedónicos que se basa en descomponer el valor de la propiedad entre sus distintos atributos incluyendo, por ejemplo, la distancia a la playa (Jin et al., 2015). El método del costo de viaje utiliza este costo como un precio pagado por el servicio recreativo, que generalmente es gratuito en el caso de las playas. ...
... La estimación de beneficios a partir del valor de las propiedades generalmente utiliza el método de precios hedónicos que se basa en descomponer el valor de la propiedad entre sus distintos atributos incluyendo, por ejemplo, la distancia a la playa (Jin et al., 2015). El método del costo de viaje utiliza este costo como un precio pagado por el servicio recreativo, que generalmente es gratuito en el caso de las playas. ...
... La estimación de beneficios a partir del valor de las propiedades generalmente utiliza el método de precios hedónicos que se basa en descomponer el valor de la propiedad entre sus distintos atributos incluyendo, por ejemplo, la distancia a la playa (Jin et al., 2015). El método del costo de viaje utiliza este costo como un precio pagado por el servicio recreativo, que generalmente es gratuito en el caso de las playas. ...
Technical Report
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El estudio Determinación del riesgo de los impactos del Cambio Climático en las costas de Chile busca generar información de proyecciones de la amenaza, exposición, vulnerabilidad y riesgo de los sistemas humanos y naturales de la zona costera ubicados en 104 comunas de Chile continental, además de Rapa Nui y el Archipiélago Juan Fernández. El objetivo de este estudio es sentar las bases para el diseño de políticas e implementación de medidas de adaptación. El estudio se desarrolló entre octubre de 2019 y octubre de 2019 y se presenta mediante un resumen ejecutivo, 8 volúmenes temáticos y un Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG). El equipo desarrollador consiste en 21 investigadores de 5 universidades (PUC, UV, UPLA, PUCV y UCM) y 3 centros de investigación (CCG-UC, CIGIDEN y COSTAR-UV). El estudio de amenaza se basa en el análisis histórico del oleaje y del nivel medio del mar (NMM), además de una proyección para el período 2026-2045 de estas variables y de la cota de inundación. En primer lugar, se analiza el comportamiento histórico del oleaje obtenido a partir un modelo numérico (WWIII) cada 2° de latitud (1980-2015). El análisis de clima medio del oleaje concluye que ha habido un incremento leve en la altura y el período, además de un giro al sur del oleaje, probablemente asociados a la migración al sur del Anticiclón Permanente del Pacífico Sur. El análisis de clima extremo demuestra en todo Chile se ha registrado un aumento en la cantidad de marejadas de 0.1 a 0.3 eventos más por año, dependiendo de la latitud. El estudio de NMM, basado en el análisis de 11 mareógrafos con más de 30 años de data, muestra que no existe una tendencia clara de aumento en Chile, lo que puede atribuirse a las deformaciones de la corteza producto del ciclo sísmico. En particular, en el norte existe un descenso del NMM probablemente asociado al acoplamiento de las placas tectónicas luego del terremoto de 1877. En segundo lugar, el estudio busca evaluar los cambios del oleaje (marejadas), NMM y cota de inundación entre el período histórico (1985-2004) y la proyección (2026-2045) correspondiente al escenario de emisiones RCP 8.5 del IPCC. El estudio de oleaje basa en el forzamiento del modelo WWIII mediante 6 modelos de viento en toda la cuenca del Pacífico. El modelo es calibrado y validado con registros de boyas direccionales y altimetría satelital entre 1980 y 2015. El estudio de clima medio concluye que la altura de ola y el período seguirán incrementándose levemente y el oleaje girará más al sur, también en forma moderada. Los eventos extremos, no obstante, serán más frecuentes e intensos, sobretodo en la zona central de Chile, lo que seguramente aumentará los daños en la infraestructura costera. El estudio de NMM, por su parte, se basa en 21 modelos disponibles en el CMIP5 los cuales se analizan cada 5 [km] en forma latitudinal. El estudio concluye que en todo Chile, incluidas Rapa Nui y Juan Fernández, se espera un ascenso de 0.15 a 0.18 [m], con un rango de incertidumbre del orden de ±0.1 [m] para la proyección. A fines de siglo, no obstante, el incremento sería del orden de 0.65 ±0.3 [m]. La cota de inundación, calculada a partir del oleaje, el NMM, la marea astronómica y la marea meteorológica, presenta valores de 2.5 [m] NRS en el extremo norte a 3.5 [m] NRS en el Canal Chacao para el escenario histórico y de entre 2.8 a 3.8 [m] NRS para ambos extremos. El aumento de la cota de inundación abarca desde +0.23 a +0.29 [m] en los extremos sur y norte, respectivamente. El estudio de exposición consiste en elaborar un modelo de elevación digital (DEM) en 106 comunas a partir de tres fuentes satelitales (ASTER GDEM-2, ALOS WORLD 3D y ALOS PALSAR). A partir del DEM se elabora un inventario de exposición de los sistemas humanos y naturales ubicados bajo los 10 metros sobre el nivel del mar (msnm). El inventario es generado a partir de información disponible en los servicios públicos, levantamientos en terreno y talleres efectuados en Antofagasta, Valparaíso y Concepción. Luego de un proceso de limpieza de 174.746 registros identificados inicialmente, se llega a un inventario con 18.376 entradas, separadas en 6 categorías (población, infraestructura, equipamiento, economía, sistemas naturales y otros), subdivididas a su vez en 76 tipos de entidades. La información más relevante del inventario es presentada a nivel nacional, regional y comunal. En síntesis, el inventario identifica un total de 972.623 personas habitando en los primeros 10 msnm y que en dicha área se ubican 546 caletas de pescadores, 1692 humedales, 256 campos dunares, 1172 playas, 156 lugares de interés para la biodiversidad, 1198 equipamientos (colegios, jardines infantiles, carabineros, entre otros), 171 terminales marítimos, 475 elementos de infraestructura costera y 477 asentamientos, entre otros elementos (Tabla 22, Volumen 1). A partir inventario y mediante el juicio experto, se definen 12 comunas críticas en las que se utilizan planos de borde costero del SHOA para refinar el cálculo de la vulnerabilidad. Las comunas críticas son Antofagasta, Coquimbo, Viña del Mar, Valparaíso, Pichilemu, Talcahuano, Coronel, Arauco, Puerto Saavedra, Valdivia, Rapa Nui y el Archipiélago Juan Fernández; ambas últimas que se detallan en el volumen de vulnerabilidad y riesgo en islas oceánicas. El estudio de vulnerabilidad se orienta a los sistemas humanos y naturales identificados en el estudio de exposición. Dada la gran cantidad y complejidad de categorías (6) y entidades existentes (76), el análisis se reduce a evaluar si cada objeto del inventario de exposición será o no inundado durante la proyección (2026-2045) bajo el escenario RCP 8.5. Las líneas de inundación para el período histórico y la proyección se presentan en el SIG. El estudio concluye que 589 manzanas censales, 46357 personas y 18338 viviendas pasarían a ubicarse en zonas de inundación. Lo mismo ocurriría 17 puentes, 4245 puntos de la red vial, 8 centros de distribución de energía por hidrocarburos, 1 central termoeléctrica, 2 subestaciones y 53 elementos de infraestructura sanitaria. Con respecto al equipamiento comunal, 10 edificaciones de bomberos, 7 establecimientos de salud, 49 de educación y 5 de policía se ubicarían en zonas inundables. Por último, se identifican 358 elementos asociados al turismo en dichas zonas. Adicionalmente, y en volúmenes separados, se caracteriza la vulnerabilidad (y cuando es posible el riesgo) de playas, caletas, puertos y humedales, proponiendo también medidas de adaptación específicas para estos sistemas. En el estudio de vulnerabilidad en playas se determinan los cambios en la posición de la línea litoral para 35 playas en las regiones de Antofagasta, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, O’Higgins y Biobío. Para ello se usa el software DSAS, fotografías aéreas, imágenes satelitales y levantamientos topográficos. El análisis cubre desde 39 años (La Serena) a sólo 3 años (Lebu-Tirúa), pero en 33 playas exceden los 20 años. Los resultados integrados en el SIG indican que el 9% de estas playas presenta erosión alta (mayor a 1.5 m anuales), el 71% erosión, el 11% un estado estable y solo un 9% acreción. Los casos de mayor erosión corresponden a extensos litorales arenosos, asociados a campos dunares y humedales. El estudio histórico no establece las causas que explican la erosión generalizadas, que pueden ser de origen oceanográfico, geofísico, antrópico o hidrológico. En el estudio de riesgo en playas se estima, en forma general, que aquellas playas ubicadas entre Arica y el Canal Chacao experimentarán retrocesos medios de entre 3 y 23 [m] por efecto de cambios en oleaje y nivel del mar en el escenario RCP 8.5 en el período 20262045. La tendencia es que playas largas experimenten erosión en sus extremos sur y acreción en sus extremos norte debido a un leve cambio en la dirección del oleaje. La estimación del daño económico calculado en forma específica para 6 playas en la Región de Valparaíso permite estimar una pérdida cercana a los 500 mil dólares anuales producto del riesgo de erosión causada por cambio climático. En el estudio de vulnerabilidad en puertos se analiza el impacto histórico asociado a la pérdida de disponibilidad de sitios de atraque debido a oleaje (downtime). A partir de los certificados de cierre de puerto (2015 a 2017) y una base de datos de SERVIMET (2007 a 2014) se concluye que, entre 2008 y 2017, se registraron 9097 cierres de puerto en 19 capitanías expuestas al Océano Pacífico de las cuales se contó con información. Los puertos con mayor cantidad de cierres son Arica (850), Tocopilla (802) y Quintero (761). El estudio de riesgo en puertos se evalúa el downtime operacional en 9 puertos en Chile (Arica, Iquique, Mejillones, Antofagasta, Coquimbo, Quintero, Valparaíso, San Antonio y San Vicente). El oleaje en aguas profundas se transfiere a cada puerto utilizando un modelo numérico (SWAN). Luego, el downtime, expresado en horas de cierre por año, se calcula comparando el clima del oleaje local con límites operacionales definidos en la ROM 3.1-99 (PPEE, 2000) para el período histórico (1985-2004) y la proyección (2026-2045). Se concluye que algunos puertos mejorarán y otros empeorarán su operatividad y que el clima extremo será más severo a mediados de siglo. La mejora operativa puede explicarse por el giro al sur del oleaje que mejoraría las condiciones de abrigo de puertos ubicados en el extremo sur de las bahías. En términos económicos, el análisis a nivel agregado para los 9 puertos se traduce en pérdidas de US$ 4,12 millones anuales y ganancias por US$ 6,34 millones anuales, dando como resultado unas ganancias netas de US$ 2,22 millones anuales como efecto del cambio climático. El aumento del NMM, sumado al incremento en la frecuencia e intensidad de las marejadas, no obstante, significará un aumento significativo del sobrepaso y del daño estructural de obras portuarias. Se proponen medidas de adaptación para mejorar las condiciones operacionales y para la gestión de la infraestructura en un contexto de clima futuro más severo que el actual. Dada su similitud operacional, el estudio de vulnerabilidad en caletas equivale al de puertos y busca mostrar que estas han experimentado numerosos cierres debido a marejadas en la última década. En el estudio de riesgo en caletas de pescadores se evalúa el downtime operacional de las 546 caletas agrupadas cada 2° de latitud para el período histórico (1985-2004) y la proyección (2026-2045), considerando los límites operacionales definidos en base a focus groups y encuestas para diferentes actividades (buzos, recolectores, embarcaciones de eslora inferior y superior a 12 m). El oleaje en aguas profundas se transfiere a la costa utilizando una metodología simplificada que rescata la física fundamental de la zona de aproximación a la costa, pero no las condiciones locales de cada caleta. El análisis concluye que un 23% de los registros pesqueros artesanales se encuentran en zonas con predicciones de aumento en downtime de pesca (19°S a 34S). Hacia el sur, las condiciones operacionales asociadas al oleaje mejorarían en la proyección. Considerando los valores de desembarque y de precios en playa del año 2017, se estima una pérdida a nivel agregado que podría fluctuar entre los US$ 1,3 y 7,6 millones anuales para las caletas ubicadas entre los 19°S y 34°S, dependiendo del escenario. Las pérdidas en desembarque representan alrededor de un 2-5% de capturas actuales. El estudio de vulnerabilidad de humedales presenta la distribución comunal de 1692 humedales costeros. A nivel específico y dependiendo de la disponibilidad de información y levantamientos en terreno, se identifica una tendencia general a la reducción del área de los espejos de agua (18 de 21 casos analizados) que podría explicarse por la reducción de los caudales (100% de 30 ríos analizados). Debido al incremento histórico de la frecuencia e intensidad de las marejadas extremas, los episodios de sobrepaso que aportan agua salada a los humedales podrían generar cambios en el patrón de dominancia de las especies vegetales levantadas en los humedales costeros. No obstante, los cambios identificados en los humedales podrían deberse a otros factores no estudiados como la influencia de perturbaciones naturales provenientes de la cuenca (aluviones), al efecto del pastoreo ejercido por vacas y caballos, al pisoteo de turistas y al efecto combinado de dichos factores, tsunamis y tormentas marinas.
... Methods for detecting human impacts along coastal zones include, e. g., shoreline evaluation of erosion/accretion patterns, which is normally detected through (a) topographic profiles analysis (e.g., Dally & Dean, 1984;Fanos, 1995;Jara, Gonz� alez, & Medina, 2015) considering cross-shore morphology and the balance between destructive and constructive forces acting on a beach, (b) shoreline change rates, e.g., end point rate (EPR), average of rates (AOR), minimum description length (MDL), ordinary least squares (OLS) (e.g. Cenci et al., 2018;Dolan, Fenster, & Holme, 1991;Genz, Flethcer, Dunn, Frazer, & Rooney, 2007;Jin, Hoagland, Au, & Qiu, 2015;Rosskopf, Di Paola, Atkinson, Rodríguez, & Walker, 2018), and (c), Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) monitoring combined with shoreline change rates that take advantage of GIS visualization, which has been considered as a successful alternative approach for human impacts detection (e.g., Ghoneim, Mashaly, Gamble, Halls, & AbuBakr, 2015;Guneroglu, 2015). In some cases, the weakness of methods (a), (b), and (c) occur when the human impacts focus only in one variable, making the interpretation rather difficult and tedious hence requiring integration that can be achieved by the fuzzy models (Zadeh, 1965), which enable the inclusion of more socio-economic components such as settlement, population growth, tourism activities, fisheries habitats, and commercial enterprises data, among others (Feng et al., 2006). ...
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Current approaches for obtaining shoreline change rates suffer from inability to give a specialist interpretation of the numerical results represented by velocities (m/yr). This study proposes a fuzzy model for coastal zone human impact classification that integrates shoreline changes, NDVI, and settlement influences to enhance numerical-linguistic fuzzy classification through Geographical Information System (GIS)'s graphical visualization prowess. The model output representing scores are numbers ranging from zero to one, which are convertible into fuzzy linguistic classification variables; i.e., low, moderate, and high on the one hand. On the other hand, use of GIS through NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) provides enhancement through graphic visualiza-tion. Using Itamaraca Island in Brazil as an example, multi-temporal satellite images are processed to provide all the required input variables. The resulting output divides the entire island into five sectors representing both quantitative and qualitative outcomes (i.e., fuzzy classification composed of both scores and maps), showcasing the capability of the proposed approach to complement shoreline change analysis through physical (map) interpretation in addition to the frequently used numbers. The proposed fuzzy model is validated using random in-situ samples and high resolution image data that has been classified by a coastal geomorphology specialist. The accuracy of the interpretation show 81% of matches are achievable compared to the results of the fuzzy model. The final results delivered by the proposed fuzzy approach show the complex behavior of the local dynamics, thereby adding useful and substantial information for environmental issues and Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
... The local actions can be implemented through the construction of shore protections, which can interfere in different ways with the coastal sediment transport, in order to reduce the impact on the coast of extreme events as storms and high tides and to facilitate deposition mechanisms [10][11]. Nevertheless, it has been seen during the last decades that many sea defences have not reached the expected results despite of high construction and maintenance costs, and in some cases, they have further deteriorated the sediment balance in the surrounding areas [12]. ...
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To guarantee the proper functioning of sea defences over a medium-long period, the knowledge of the complex interaction between tidal currents and nearshore wave field is fundamental in order to estimate the longshore sediment transport. In particular, the morphological evolution of coastal environments close to river mouths is deeply affected also by the riverine sediment transport, which can contribute to the overall coastal balance of erosion and deposition processes. Groynes are commonly used to intercept the longshore sediment transport and to stabilize the littorals, as the case of Lignano beach near the Tagliamento river mouth. In particular, the groyne closest to the river has been shortened in the recent years, influencing in this manner the coastline balance. In this study, a numerical model coupling a morphodynamic model and a wave generation spectral model has been used to study the effects of the variation of the groyne length on the beach. Results are presented and discussed, showing that the numerical modelling can be used for the sea defences design to improve the integrated coastal zone planning and management.
... House prices are directly related to beach width (Pompe & Rinehart 1994) and other environmental attributes, such as the open/green space provided by wetlands, which can positively influence prices in urban areas (Mahan et al. 2000) and negatively influence them in rural areas (Bin & Polasky 2005). Additionally, house prices are influenced by perceived risk to flooding and erosion (Jin et al. 2015). ...
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Human population growth and accelerating coastal development have been the drivers for unprecedented construction of artificial structures along shorelines globally. Construction has been recently amplified by societal responses to reduce flood and erosion risks from rising sea levels and more extreme storms resulting from climate change. Such structures, leading to highly modified shorelines, deliver societal benefits, but they also create significant socioeconomic and environmental challenges. The planning, design and deployment of these coastal structures should aim to provide multiple goals through the application of ecoengineering to shoreline development. Such developments should be designed and built with the overarching objective of reducing negative impacts on nature, using hard, soft and hybrid ecological engineering approaches. The design of ecologically sensitive shorelines should be context-dependent and combine engineering, environmental and socioeconomic considerations. The costs and benefits of ecoengineered shoreline design options should be considered across all three of these disciplinary domains when setting objectives, informing plans for their subsequent maintenance and management and ultimately monitoring and evaluating their success. To date, successful ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders (e.g. architects, engineers, ecologists, coastal/port managers and the general public) during their conception and construction, but few have evaluated engineering, ecological and socioeconomic outcomes in a comprehensive manner. Increasing global awareness of climate change impacts (increased frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events and sea level rise), coupled with future predictions for coastal development (due to population growth leading to urban development and renewal, land reclamation and establishment of renewable energy infrastructure in the sea) will increase the demand for adaptive techniques to protect coastlines. In this review, we present an overview of current ecoengineered shoreline design options, the drivers and constraints that influence implementation and factors to consider when evaluating the success of such ecologically engineered shorelines
... House prices are directly related to beach width (Pompe & Rinehart 1994) and other environmental attributes, such as the open/green space provided by wetlands, which can positively influence prices in urban areas (Mahan et al. 2000) and negatively influence them in rural areas (Bin & Polasky 2005). Additionally, house prices are influenced by perceived risk to flooding and erosion (Jin et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
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Human population growth and accelerating coastal development have been the drivers for unprecedented construction of artificial structures along shorelines globally. Construction has been recently amplified by societal responses to reduce flood and erosion risks from rising sea levels and more extreme storms resulting from climate change. Such structures, leading to highly modified shorelines, deliver societal benefits, but they also create significant socioeconomic and environmental challenges. The planning, design and deployment of these coastal structures should aim to provide multiple goals through the application of ecoengineering to shoreline development. Such developments should be designed and built with the overarching objective of reducing negative impacts on nature, using hard, soft and hybrid ecological engineering approaches. The design of ecologically sensitive shorelines should be context-dependent and combine engineering, environmental and socioeconomic considerations. The costs and benefits of ecoengineered shoreline design options should be considered across all three of these disciplinary domains when setting objectives, informing plans for their subsequent maintenance and management and ultimately monitoring and evaluating their success. To date, successful ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders (e.g. architects, engineers, ecologists, coastal/port managers and the general public) during their conception and construction, but few have evaluated engineering, ecological and socioeconomic outcomes in a comprehensive manner. Increasing global awareness of climate change impacts (increased frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events and sea level rise), coupled with future predictions for coastal development (due to population growth leading to urban development and renewal, land reclamation and establishment of renewable energy infrastructure in the sea) will increase the demand for adaptive techniques to protect coastlines. In this review, we present an overview of current ecoengineered shoreline design options, the drivers and constraints that influence implementation and factors to consider when evaluating the success of such ecologically engineered shorelines.
... The estimated coefficient of the number of rooms was 0.1155, reaching the 5% significance level and indicating that housing prices increased by 11.55% with each additional room. The number of rooms had a significant positive effect on housing prices, which corresponded to results reported by Jin et al. (2015), who found that with each additional room, housing prices increase by 8.1%. The estimated coefficient of the number of living rooms was 0.1082, reaching the 5% significance level and indicating that with each additional living room, housing prices increased by 10.82%. ...
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As housing prices are largely affected by location characteristics, the failure to consider the spatial dependence of housing prices may result in overvaluation. In view of this issue, the first objective of this study was to combine the difference-in-difference and spatial econometrics methods to estimate the impact of urban renewal on neighborhood housing prices. The second objective of this study was to estimate and compare the impact of urban renewal on neighborhood housing prices by dividing the urban renewal process into two phases, with the aim of observing whether expectations prior to the completion of urban renewal can have an impact on housing prices. The empirical results indicated that the influence of urban renewal was found to have already caused a continuous response in terms of neighborhood housing prices even prior to the completion of reconstruction.
... This loss of strength increases the variability of structural change [1] (Diagne, 2007). Table 1 shows the rapid increase in residential areas near Morong River [5] (NSO, Bataan QUICKSTAT 2006 -2015). Urban runoff or surface runoff caused by heavy rainfall may deposit sediments of land or property in a built-up environment especially when observed in near bodies of water such as Morong River affecting both upstream and the outlet region.Urbanization and human activity within an urban system produces many destructive and irreversible effects on natural environments such as climate change, air pollution, sediment and soil erosion, increased flooding magnitude, and loss of habitat [3] (Fernandes, 2007). ...
Article
Remote sensing offers fast, cheap and reliable method in detecting river and coastal changes. In this study, satellite imageries of Morong river and coastlines from 2006 to 2016 were collected and analyzed to monitor changes. Field measurements were also done using South Total Station (NTS-362R6L) in 2016 for comparison and validation of data. Results showed that the river outlet and the riverbank increased in width size due to erosion brought about by torrential rains and urban run-offs. Coastlines near the river narrowed in size or shifted landward due to coastal erosion and sea level rise. An interview was conducted to locals residing nearby the river and coast where strong typhoons were reported which cause geophysical changes in the area. The residents also observed sea level rise, coastal and river erosion which caused narrowing of the coastlines and widening of the river, respectively. Records of high tides and low tides collected were projected in annual average levels per month. The average level of low tides increased per year which can be a result of sea level rise. The computed RMSE between field and remote sensing measurements ranged from 0.1m to 0.67m which indicated positional accuracy of Google Earth in the area.
... Housing markets respond both to differences in risk and to the information that is provided about the presence or severity of natural hazards. Coastal erosion presents a risk of capital loss that is not insurable, and property values have been found to decline with erosion risk (Kriesel, Randall, and Lichtkoppler 1993;Dorfman, Keeler, and Kriesel 1996;Jin et al. 2015). Other risks related to storm and floods are insurable, and empirical studies, often using location in a flood zone as the source of risk information, have found housing values decline with flood risk (MacDonald, Murdoch, and White 1987;Bin and Polasky 2004). ...
Article
Analysis of coastal climate change adaptation requires combining environmental and resource economics with other disciplines. Sea level rise, ocean warming and acidification, and increased storminess threaten to alter or intensify biophysical coastal changes. Communities respond in ways that neither maximize total economic value nor apply the appropriate spatial scale of policy response. Focusing on coastline change, particularly in North Carolina, we synthesize modeling approaches and empirical studies to identify research that is needed to support coastal climate adaptation policy. Modeling coastlines as coupled human–natural systems explains historical patterns of coastline change, clarifies the need for empirical estimates, and provides a roadmap for interdisciplinary policy analysis. Despite the extensive literature on coastal amenities, hazards, and ex post policy evaluation, more empirical information is needed to parameterize coupled models of complex coastal environments facing climate change. Extending coupled models of coastal adaptation to incorporate spatial dynamics and market and nonmarket values highlights fundamental problems with current governance structures. We conclude that to maximize total economic value in the coastal zone, adaptation will require governance coordination across multiple levels, attention to intensive and extensive margins of adaptation, and trade-offs across market and nonmarket values. These findings echo recent advances in fisheries bioeconomics.
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Barrier islands are especially vulnerable to hurricanes and other large storms, owing to their mobile composition, low elevations, and detachment from the mainland. Conceptual models of barrier‐island evolution emphasize ocean‐side processes that drive landward migration through overwash, inlet migration, and aeolian transport. In contrast, we found that the impact of Hurricane Dorian (2019) on North Core Banks, a 36‐km barrier island on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, was primarily driven by inundation of the island from Pamlico Sound, as evidenced by storm‐surge model results and observations of high‐water marks and wrack lines. Analysis of photogrammetry products from aerial imagery collected before and after the storm indicate the loss of about 18% of the subaerial volume of the island through the formation of over 80 erosional washout channels extending from the marsh and washover platform, through gaps in the foredunes, to the shoreline. The washout channels were largely co‐located with washover fans deposited by earlier events. Net seaward export of sediment resulted in the formation of deltaic bars offshore of the channels, which became part of the post‐storm berm recovery by onshore bar migration and partial filling of the washouts with washover deposits within 2 months. This event represents a volumetric setback in the overwash/rollover behavior required for barrier transgression, but the new ponds and lowland habitats may provide beneficial habit for endangered species and will likely persist for years.
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One of the most used measures to counteract coastal erosion is beach nourishment. It has advantages with respect to the use of rigid structures that sometimes entail non desired impacts on the surrounding areas. However, beach nourishments are often unsuccessful, requiring frequent refills due to the use of sediments that are not suitable. In this paper, a methodological framework for increasing the probability of success of beach nourishment projects is presented. First, this framework consists of detecting potential borrowing areas, by analysing shoreline evolution and selecting the stretch that shows a more accretive character. Once the borrowing area has been identified, several sand extraction options are defined. The beach response (in terms of erosion and flooding) to each sand extraction alternative is analysed by using two numerical models, which simulate the hydro-morphodynamic patterns in the studied area. The numerical model results allow to find the best extraction alternative, which is that producing the least impact in the borrow area. As an example, the methodology is applied to a stretch of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) to illustrate its potential. The proposed methodology shows to be a useful tool for helping coastal managers to optimize their available resources.
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Tidal marshes are important ecological systems that are responding to sea level rise-driven changes in tidal regimes. Human development along the coastline creates barriers to marsh migration, moderating tidal marsh distributions. This study shows that in the Chesapeake Bay, USA an estuarine system with geographic and development variability, overall estuarine tidal marshes are projected to decline by approximately half over the next century. Tidal freshwater and oligohaline habitats, which are found in the upper reaches of the estuary and are typically backed by high elevation shorelines are particularly vulnerable. Due to their geological setting, losses of large extents of tidal freshwater habitat seem inevitable under sea level rise. However, in the meso/poly/euhaline zones that (in passive margin estuaries) are typically low relief areas, tidal marshes are capable of undergoing expansion. These areas should be prime management targets to maximize future tidal marsh extent. Redirecting new development to areas above 3 m in elevation and actively removing impervious surfaces as they become tidally inundated results in the maximum sustainability of natural coastal habitats. Under increasing sea levels and flooding, the future of tidal marshes will rely heavily on the policy decisions made, and the balance of human and natural landscapes in the consideration of future development.
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Revealed and stated preference survey data from North Carolina households are utilized to estimate structural micro-econometric models of recreation demand and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for coastal erosion management among beach visitors and non-visitors. We test for and reject weak complementarity, implying existence values associated with management of North Carolina's beaches. We find stronger preferences for shoreline retreat (median WTP = $22.20 per household, per year) as a management strategy relative to beach nourishment (WTP = $7.91), and we find substantially weaker preferences for shoreline armoring (WTP = $0.09). Shoreline retreat exhibits much larger estimates of existence values, whereas existence values for shoreline armoring are negative. Our data permit estimates of marginal value of incremental beach width accruing to beach users and non-users (which range from $0.23 and $0.48 per meter).
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This article presents an examination of (1) key factors that are likely to influence the establishment and implementation of property acquisition and transferable development rights (TDR) programmes, for the purposes of enabling managed retreat from coastal hazard areas; and (2), local government attitudes to and perceptions of the potential extent to which these factors are likely to influence the successful implementation of such programmes. This research identifies various challenges that will need to be overcome if these programmes are to be successfully implemented by local government to enable managed retreat and potential solutions for resolving these challenges.
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The discipline of coastal climate adaptation in Australia has been increasingly practiced as communities become more aware of the likely future impacts of sea level rise. As a result, a number of coastal adaptation plans, strategies and guidelines and have been developed for coastal urban communities around the Australian coastline over the last decade. Given that a number of plans have been developed for different communities facing the same issues, it is timely to compare and contrast these plans. To this end a set of these coastal adaptation plans developed for Australian communities were compared in order to consider the variability in the recommended adaptation responses and general consistency of the plans. The adaptation responses proposed in the plans were also assessed for their ability to be implemented. Despite the similarity in the cities and towns considered in the analysis and the commonality of risk arising from sea level rise, no consistent set of adaptation recommendations arose that was common across the communities. This lack of consistency suggests a lack of understanding of the effectiveness and implement-ability of many of the proposed adaptation responses. This lack of consistency is explored here and it appears that many, if not most of the plans considered contained adaptation recommendations which will be difficult to implement.
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The customary mode of flat rate-property taxation used in the United States and many other Anglospheric countries encourages the consumption of ever greater volumes of energy and materials by relatively affluent households and exacerbates social inequalities. Transition from an invariable tax rate on residential real estate to a graduated schedule could enhance local sustainability by ameliorating the trend toward larger houses and associated increases in resource appropriation. This form of progressive property taxation was most notably implemented in New Zealand during the latter years of the nineteenth century, and has periodically attracted attention as a way to discourage the amassing of large landholdings in rural areas and to maintain housing affordability in cities. This paper considers the design and implementation challenges of a graduated property tax which, by dampening demand for outsized dwellings, could be a useful part of a comprehensive package of climate-change policies for local governments.
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Estimates of the true economic cost that might be attributed to greenhouse-induced sea-level rise on the developed coastline of the United States are offered for the range of trajectories that is now thought to be most likely. Along a 50-cm sea level rise trajectory (through 2100), for example, transient costs in 2065 (a year frequently anticipated for doubling of greenhouse-gas concentrations) are estimated to be roughly 70 million (undiscounted, but measured in constant 199070 million (undiscounted, but measured in constant 1990). More generally and carefully cast in the appropriate context of protection decisions for developed property, the results reported here are nearly an order of magnitude lower than estimates published prior to 1994. They are based upon a calculus that reflects rising values for coastal property as the future unfolds, but also includes the cost-reducing potential of natural, market-based adaptation in anticipation of the threat of rising seas and/or the efficiency of discrete decisions to protect or not to protect small tracts of property that will be made when necessary and on the (then current) basis of their individual economic merit.
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The authors attempt to estimate the "coastal premium"-additional value conferred on a residence from being located near the coast-of single family homes in San Diego County, while controlling for other locational and structural characteristics. A previous investigation published in 2001 for south Orange County found that moving away from the coast by one mile was associated with a $42,000 lower housing price. Intrigued by this finding, we investigate whether (a) a similar coastal premium exists for all of San Diego County and (b) the premium varies by incremental distance from the coast (e. g., for 500-feet increments). Using data from 9,755 San Diego County home sales in 2006, results presented here suggest that for a median-priced home ($540,000) at the mean distance from the coast (approximately 9 miles-and considerably farther than the Orange County estimate) a one-mile increase in distance from the coast would reduce the sale price by approximately $8,680. Specifying by specific distance increments, we find that the coastal premium is approximately 101.9% for houses within 500 feet of the coast (i. e., their value is 101.9% higher than similar homes located beyond six miles of the coast), falling to 62.8% for homes between 500 and 1,000 feet, declining to approximately 3.3% for homes located between five and six miles of the coast, disappearing entirely beyond around six miles. Since average comparisons of the sort initially considered in this analysis can be very misleading, researchers should consider the nonlinear incremental distance effects in model specifications.
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The priority for France’s “Grenelle II” environmental legislation is to reduce the consumption of space caused by urbanisation. The best tool for achieving this goal is zoning within a territorial planning framework. Yet zoning also tends to increase property values, due to the scarcity effects it provokes (restricting the supply of land) as well as its amenity effects (the capitalisation of land use externalities in housing pricing).\r\nThe present article studies the impact on property prices of the distance to regulated zones located on Arcachon Bay near Bordeaux in Southwest France – a region that is particularly conducive to this kind of analysis because it combines exceptional landscape quality and strong urban pressures. We have estimated a hedonic model corrected for spatial self-correlation. Heteroscedasticity is corrected using Bayesian simulation methods, as suggested by Le Sage and Parent (2006).\r\nThe findings reveal tension between urban and natural amenities in the determination of property prices. Proximity to facilities and coastal amenities increase prices. The impact on housing prices of zoning materialising through Land Use Plans (LUP) is corroborated. Protected natural zones tend to raise prices as long as long they are not used for agricultural or forestry activities. Conversely, proximity to zones of future urbanisation tends to lower housing prices.
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Beach nourishment projects are common methods for coastal states to protect beaches and property from the natural erosive process. However, while the beneficiaries of beach nourishment tend to be local property owners and recreators, projects are typically funded at the state level. Based on the benefit principle, as local residents receive more of the erosion protection benefits of the nourishment projects, we estimate a value capture tax, designed to levy the financing burden in a manner that approximates the distribution of benefits. The benefits of nourishment projects to coastal property owners are estimated using the results from a spatial-lag hedonic model that controls for viewshed effects. Key Words:
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We estimate the cost over the next 50 years of allowing Delaware's ocean beaches to retreat inland. Since most of the costs are expected to be land and capital loss, especially in housing, we focus our attention on measuring t hat value. We use a hedonic price regressi on to estimate the value of land and structures in the region using a dat a set on recent housing sales. Then, using historical rat es of erosion along the coast and an inventory of all housing and commercial structures in the threatened coastal area, we predict the value of the land and capital loss assuming that beaches migrate inland at these historic rates. We purge the losses of any amenity values due to proximity to the coast , because these are merely transferred to properties further inland. If erosion rates remain at historic levels, our estimate of the cost of retreat over the next 50 years in present value terms is about $291 million (2000$). The number rises if we assume higher rates of erosion. We compare these estimates to the current costs of nourishing beaches and conclude that nourishment make economic sense, at least over this time period.
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Coastal amenities and risk are so highly correlated that separate identification within the hedonic framework is potentially challenging. In this study, we construct a three-dimensional measure of ocean view, viewscape, accounting for natural topography and built obstruction that varies independent of risk classification to disentangle these spatially integrated housing characteristics. A spatial autoregressive hedonic model is developed to provide consistent estimates of the willingness to pay for coastal amenities and risk. Our findings suggest that incorporating the GIS-based view measures can be successful in isolating risk factors from spatial amenities.
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Previous empirical research on housing markets has demonstrated that coastal housing values capitalize the quality of nearby beaches. Recent papers document a number of important findings, including: i) a proximity effect, in which distance from the beach plays a key role in capitalization; ii) mis-measurement issues stemming from the dynamic nature of beaches; and iii) the possibility of endogenous beach width if housing values are used in Benefit-Cost Analysis to decide which beaches should be nourished and how much sand should be added. Focusing on Dare County, North Carolina (a community whose beaches which had not been nourished at the time of analysis), we explore each of these issues, testing for errors-in-variables stemming from beach dynamics. Statistical evidence supports hedonic specifications that account for proximity to the shoreline, as capitalization of beach width occurs in close proximity (1000-2000 feet) to the shore. Using distance to the depth of closure as an instrumental variable for beach width, we find general evidence of errors-in-variables for standard GMM estimates, but not for GMM spatial regression estimates. Lower bound estimates of willingness to pay for maintaining beaches ranges from $199 million to $436 million.
Conference Paper
We estimate the economic costs of the risks posed by shoreline change in Sandwich, Massachusetts, an historic town with approximately eight miles of shoreline located on Upper Cape Cod. We examine the relationship to assessed property values of two types of independent variables: (1) structural characteristics describing the physical qualities of a building, and (2) environmental characteristics measuring the risk posed to coastal properties by shoreline change. We find that six of seven environmental variables help to explain variations in assessed value, including a measure of erosion risk. Results are compared to previously published results from other US east coast locations. We estimate that the annual costs of shoreline change in Sandwich are on the order of $1-2 million, but the physical losses of land and structures account for only about three percent of those costs. The application of our results to the selection of mitigation measures is discussed.
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Recent flood disasters in the United States (2005, 2008, 2012); the Philippines (2012, 2013); and Britain (2014) illustrate how vulnerable coastal cities are to storm surge flooding (1). Floods caused the largest portion of insured losses among all catastrophes around the world in 2013 (2). Population density in flood-prone coastal zones and megacities is expected to grow by 25% by 2050; projected climate change and sea level rise may further increase the frequency and/or severity of large-scale floods (3–7).
Book
Until now there has been a substantial gap between the elegant definition of welfare change and benefit derived from theoretical welfare economics and the ad hoc empirical techniques used by some researchers to estimate the benefits of environmental improvements stemming from air and water pollution control. In this book Freeman bridges this gap with a unified theoretical treatment of the concepts of benefits and the empirical techniques appropriate for their measurement. He describes the techniques for estimating various forms of benefits, shows how they are related to underlying economic-welfare theory, and discusses some of the pitfalls and problems in applying the techniques. Individual-preference theory is used as a yardstick against which the theoretical adequacy of empirical estimating techniques can be measured. Freeman includes a systematic analysis of how interactions between demands for public goods and private goods can be used to derive conceptually sound estimates of benefits from market behavior. He also discusses nonmarket approaches such as surveys and bidding games. With the objective of helping practitioners select the appropriate technique for a particular purpose, Freeman examines those techniques that have a sound empirical foundation.
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Costs of controlling shoreline erosion are not allocated equitably. Using estimates from Seabrook Island, South Carolina, we provide a method to set fees based on proximity to the beach. Equitable fees will encourage efficient beach protection policy. This method is also applicable to other areas that require beach maintenance.
Article
This study estimates the impact of sea‐level rise on coastal real estate in North Carolina using a unique integration of geospatial and hedonic property data. With rates of sea‐level rise approximately double the global average, North Carolina has one of the most vulnerable coastlines in the United States. A range of modest sea‐level rise scenarios based on the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report projections (2007) are considered for four counties of North Carolina - New Hanover, Dare, Carteret, and Bertie - which represent a cross‐section of the state's coastline in geographical distribution and economic development. High‐resolution topographic LIDAR (light detection and ranging) data are used to provide accurate inundation maps for the properties that will be at risk under six different sea‐level rise scenarios. A simulation approach based on spatial hedonic models is used to provide consistent estimates of the property value losses. Considering just four coastal counties in North Carolina, the value of residential property loss without discounting in 2030 (2080) is estimated to be about $179 ($526) million for the mid‐range sea‐level rise scenarios. Low‐lying and heavily developed areas in the northern coastline are comparatively more vulnerable to the effect of sea‐level rise than the other areas.
Article
This paper explores the influence of beach quality on coastal property values. We hypothesize that beach and dune width provide local public goods in the form of recreation potential and storm/erosion protection, but services are limited by distance from the shoreline. Our findings support this hypothesis, as extending the influence of beach quality beyond 300 m from the shore generally results in statistically insignificant parameter estimates. For houses within this proximity bound, beach and dune widths increase property value. We argue that interpretation of marginal willingness to pay for beach quality depends upon individual understanding of coastal processes and expectations of management intervention.
Article
Beach nourishment is a policy used to rebuild eroding beaches with sand dredged from other locations. Previous studies indicate that beach width positively affects coastal property values, but these studies ignore the dynamic features of beaches and the feedback that nourishment has on shoreline retreat. We correct for the resulting attenuation and endogeneity bias in a hedonic property value model by instrumenting for beach width using spatially varying coastal geological features. We find that the beach width coefficient is nearly five times larger than the OLS estimate, suggesting that beach width is a much larger portion of property value than previously thought. We use the empirical results to parameterize a dynamic optimization model of beach nourishment decisions and show that the predicted interval between nourishment projects is closer to what we observe in the data when we use the estimate from the instrumental variables model rather than OLS. As coastal communities adapt to climate change, we find that the long-term net value of coastal residential property can fall by as much as 52% when erosion rate triples and cost of nourishment sand quadruples.
Article
The impact of climate change on tourism has been examined in terms of changes in a destination's climate; the impact of ancillary effects such as sea-level rise has been neglected. In this study the role that coastal and other landscape features have on the attractiveness of tourist destinations is examined using the hedonic price technique. The average price of accommodation in the coastal districts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany is explained using landscape and other characteristics of these districts. As parts of the coastline of Schleswig-Holstein are protected by dikes, adaptation measures as well as natural coastal features are represented in the dataset. The analysis shows that an increase in the length of dikes in a given district would result in a reduction in the average price of accommodation. An increase in the length of open coast results in an increase in the average price of accommodation. For two districts, the impact of sea-level rise is examined through a comparison of the costs of different coastal protection measures compared to the resulting changes in revenue from accommodation. The costs of dike construction along with the effect of reduced accommodation prices favour the use of beach nourishment to protect the coast.
Article
The marginal implicit price of a wider beach is estimated using housing price data from Surfside Beach and Garden City, South Carolina. A wider beach would offer a combination of storm protection and recreational benefits to the property owner, benefits that would be capitalized in the market price of the property. The analysis presented here suggests that housing prices are directly related to wider beaches.
Article
This paper explores how the economic value of recreation at local public beaches can be estimated from nearby property values. The negative effect of distance from the nearest public beach on coastal property values was used to reveal recreational value. Estimates of recreational value were also compared to the costs of beach nourishment that were calculated from a simulation of beach erosion caused, in part, by increases in relative sea-level. Although a complete benefit-cost analysis was not feasible, the results suggest that potential losses of recreational value by local users alone could establish the efficiency of beach nourishment projects.
Article
We propose and apply a value capture property tax for financing beach nourishment projects. Our application is to beaches in the state of Delaware. Using a hedonic price function we estimate the implicit value ofproximity to the beach. Using these results we then infer a property tax schedule that taxes homeowners roughly in proportion to the benefits they receive from the projects. We argue that the tax is equitable in the sense that tax burden and project benefits are aligned. We argue that it is efficient in the sense that homeowners face the real cost ofmaintaining beaches that protect and improve their property.
Article
Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 31 (2004): L05203, doi:10.1029/2003GL018933. We construct a high-resolution relative sea-level record for the past 700 years by dating basal salt-marsh peat samples above a glacial erratic in an eastern Connecticut salt marsh, to test whether or not the apparent recent acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise (SLR) is coeval with climate warming. The data reveal an average SLR rate of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm/year from about 1300 to 1850 A.D. Coupling of the regional tide-gauge data (1856 to present) with this marsh-based record indicates that the nearly three-fold increase in the regional rate of SLR to modern levels likely occurred in the later half of the 19th century. Thus the timing of the observed SLR rate increase is coincident with the onset of climate warming, indicating a possible link between historic SLR increases and recent temperature increases. A Research Initiative Grant from the NOSAMS facility at WHOI funded the C-14 analysis. The Postdoctoral Scholar Program at WHOI (with funding provided by the U.S.G.S.), The John E. and Anne W. Sawyer Endowed Fund, and The J. Lamar Worzel Assistant Scientist Fund provided support to J. Donnelly.
Article
This paper examines the relative economic efficiency of three distinct beach erosion management policies — beach nourishment with shoreline armoring, beach nourishment without armoring, and shoreline retreat. The analysis focuses on (i) the recreational benefits of beaches, (ii) the property value effects of beach management, and (iii) the costs associated with the three management scenarios. Assuming the removal of shoreline armoring improves overall beach quality, beach nourishment with shoreline armoring is the least desirable of the three alternatives. The countervailing property losses under a retreat strategy are of the same order of magnitude as the foregone management costs when the beneficial effects of retreat — higher values of housing services for those houses not lost to erosion — are considered. The relative desirability of these alternative strategies depends upon the realized erosion rate and how management costs change over time.
Article
This study examines the impact of flood hazard zone location on residential property values. The study utilises data from over 2,000 private residential property sales occurred during 2006 in North Shore City, New Zealand. A spatial autoregressive hedonic model is developed to provide efficient estimates of the marginal effect of flood prone risks on property values. Our results suggest that a property located within a flood hazard zone sells for 4.3% less than an equivalent property located outside the flood hazard zone. Given the median house price, estimated discount associated with flood risks is approximately NZ$22,000.
Housing Price Response to the Interaction of Positive Coastal Amenities and Negative Flood Risks. Working Paper # 2014-09. Risk Management and Decision Processes Center
  • A Atreya
  • J Czajkowski
Atreya, A., Czajkowski, J., 2014. Housing Price Response to the Interaction of Positive Coastal Amenities and Negative Flood Risks. Working Paper # 2014-09. Risk Management and Decision Processes Center, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.
The Economic Effects of Shoreline Change on Housing Prices in Coastal Massachusetts
  • D K Au
Au, D.K., 2011. The Economic Effects of Shoreline Change on Housing Prices in Coastal Massachusetts (M.S. thesis). Department of Economics, Tufts University, Medford, MA.
The value of disappearing beaches: a hedonic pricing model with endogenous beach width
  • S Gopalakrishnan
  • M D Smith
  • J M Slott
  • A B Murray
Gopalakrishnan, S., Smith, M.D., Slott, J.M., Murray, A.B., 2011. The value of disappearing beaches: a hedonic pricing model with endogenous beach width. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2010.09.003.
Econometric Analysis, seventh ed
  • W H Greene
Greene, W.H., 2012. Econometric Analysis, seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Boston, MA.
Coastal Hazards and Economic Externality: Implications for Beach Management Policies in the American Southeast
  • W Kreisel
  • R Friedman
Kreisel, W., Friedman, R., 2002. Coastal Hazards and Economic Externality: Implications for Beach Management Policies in the American Southeast. Heinz Center Discussion Paper. The Heinz Center, Washington (May).
Coping with coastal erosiondevidence for community-wide impacts
  • W Kreisel
  • R Friedman
Kreisel, W., Friedman, R., 2003. Coping with coastal erosiondevidence for community-wide impacts. Shore Beach 71, 19e23.
Coastal Erosion Hazards: the University of Georgia's Results. App. D(i) in Evaluation of Erosion Hazards
  • W Kriesel
  • C Landry
  • A Keeler
Kriesel, W., Landry, C., Keeler, A., 2000. Coastal Erosion Hazards: the University of Georgia's Results. App. D(i) in Evaluation of Erosion Hazards. H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment, Washington (April).
Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-level Rise: a Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research
  • J G Titus
  • K E Anderson
  • D R Cahoon
  • D B Gesch
  • S K Gill
  • B T Gutierrez
  • E R Thieler
  • S J Williams
Titus, J.G., Anderson, K.E., Cahoon, D.R., Gesch, D.B., Gill, S.K., Gutierrez, B.T., Thieler, E.R., Williams, S.J., 2009. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-level Rise: a Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Washington D.C.