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During the last few years the popularity for the plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased considerably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the dairy butter, but over the years development in the technologies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These days' different varieties of plant based butters are available in the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter, pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to minimize the conversion of healthful components in to unhealthy components during processing and further storage. Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and storage are the vital factors to be considered in order to have healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article, different plant based butters and their processing methods have been described.
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1 23
Journal of Food Science and
ISSN 0022-1155
Volume 52
Number 7
J Food Sci Technol (2015) 52:3965-3976
DOI 10.1007/s13197-014-1572-7
Plant based butters
Kalyani Gorrepati, S.Balasubramanian
& Pitam Chandra
1 23
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Plant based butters
Kalyani Gorrepati &S. Balasubramanian &Pitam Chandra
Revised: 9 September 2014 /Accepted: 16 September 2014 /Published online: 26 November 2014
#Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2014
Abstract During the last few years the popularity for the
plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased con-
siderably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the
dairy butter, but over the years development in the technolo-
gies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based
butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters
with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of
protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These
daysdifferent varieties of plant based butters are available in
the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter,
pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The
form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts
and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are
generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to
consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is
imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts
and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and
seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to
minimize the conversion of healthful components in to un-
healthy components during processing and further storage.
Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and stor-
age are the vital factors to be considered in order to have
healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article,
different plant based butters and their processing methods
have been described.
Keywords Butter .Plant .Nut .Seed .Peanut .Soy .
Almond .Sesame .Cashew .Pistachio .Sunflower
The mounting health concerns regarding the consumption
of dairy butter due to its fat content has raised an alarm to
search for an alternative plant based butters viz., nut butters
and seed butters. Nuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods
and have been a regular constituent of mankinds diet since
pre-agricultural times (Eaton and Konner 1985). Nuts and
seeds are generally consumed as snack food in roasted form
as they are of good taste, handy and easy to eat. But,
recently with the advent of new technologies, myriad vari-
eties of nut and seed based snacks and processed products
have arrived in the market out of which the form of butter
gained more popularity. So, in this article we have made an
attempt to compile the different nut and seed butters and
their preparation method. Even though the peanuts are
generally considered as legumes for simplicity they are
included as nuts in this article as they are widely identified
as part of the nuts.
Dairy butter
Butter, the word derived from bou-tyron (cowcheese) in
Greek and in usage about 2,000 years before Christ (www. The dairy butter is a water-in-oil emul-
sion, i.e. >80 % fat with tiny water droplets, perhaps some
solids-not-fat (SNF) and with/without salt (www.foodsci. However, animal foods such as
butter are rich in saturated fat. Butter with and without salt
contains 55±2 g/100 g of saturated fat and 222± 2 mg/100 g
cholesterol (Scherr and Ribeiro 2010). The fee fatty acid
content of dairy butter and the fat crystalline network
texture of butter is shown in Figs. 1and 2.
K. Gorrepati (*)
Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research,
Rajgurunagar 410 505 Pune, India
S. Balasubramanian:P. Chandra
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal 462 038, India
J Food Sci Technol (July 2015) 52(7):39653976
DOI 10.1007/s13197-014-1572-7
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Plant based butter/spread
Today, nuts and seeds continue to be enjoyed world-wide in a
variety of ways, as recipe ingredients, spreads, snacks, and as
a delicacy (King et al. 2008). Evidence suggests that nut
consumption, including peanuts, protects against not only
coronary heart disease (CHD) but also against diabetes and
the CHD associated with diabetes, and other metabolic syn-
drome diseases, notably gallstone disease (Jenkins et al.
2008). Generally, nut/seed butters contain generous amounts
of phytochemicals that may be protective against colon, pros-
tate, and breast cancer (Mangels 2001). According to Jiang
et al. (2002), the relative risk of developing diabetes was
reduced 27 % in those who ate nuts five or more times per
week compared with those who rarely or never ate nuts.
Nutritional property of some of the nut/seed butter is presented
in Table 2. Raw nuts have primarily 1 of the 2 unsaturated
types (except coconut and palm kernels), thus leads healthful
source of fatty acids for the production of lower cholesterol
level foods ( At present different
plant based butters/spreads are available in the market. To
name, peanut, almond, cashew, pumpkin seed, pistachio,
soy, sunflower and sesame butter are few. The term plant
based (Nut/Seed) butter refers to a product that contains at
least 90 % nut/seed ingredients whereas, the spread refers to a
spreadable product having at least 40 % nut ingredients which
can be added in various forms, e.g. as nuts, a paste and/or a
slurry (Wilkes 2012).
Different plant based butters
There are several types of plant based butters available in the
market. Some are discussed as below.
Peanut butter
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) butter is creamy, composed of
peanut paste and stabilizer. It may also contain sweetener, salt,
emulsifier and other ingredients. Peanut butter is prepared by
roasting, blanching, grinding and tempering (Fig. 3). The
formulation of a typical peanut butter is shown in Table 3.
Good quality nuts and seed pods are sorted out and destoned
before shelling. Shelled nuts are graded to ensure the sound or
bold or even size nuts. Roasting is a dry heat treatment, carried
out not so much for dehydration but for flavor, color and
texture development (Alamprese et al. 2009). Roasting in-
volves a number of physico-chemical changes including de-
hydration and chemical reactions. However, the development
of flavour and aroma depends upon the temperature and time
of roasting beside the type of nuts and techniques applied
(Shakerardekani et al. 2011). Generally, for peanut butter,
roasting is done at around 160 °C for 4060 min depending
upon the seed size and moisture contents (Pattee et al. 1982).
Roasting reduces water contents to around 1 % followed by
the release of oil from the cytoplasm of the cells which
increases the shelf life of peanuts and helps in developing
flavour for peanut butter ( Ogunsanwo et al.
(2005) reported that the peanut butter prepared by roasting at
160 °C for 30 min was found comparable with the commercial
samples. Blanching of peanuts is done to remove the skin of
the peanut. There are several blanching methods including
dry, water, spin, and air impact. Dry blanching is used primar-
ily in peanut butter production, as it removes the kernel hearts
which affect peanut butter flavor (
After removing the outer skin during blanching, nuts are
Tabl e 1 Composition of
dairy butter
Unsalted butter con-
tains 9 mg sodium per
100 g
Composition Per 100 g
Protein (g) 0.6
Carbohydrate (g) 0.6
Fat (g) 82.2
saturate 52.1
monounsaturate 20.9
polyunsaturate 2.8
trans fatty acid 2.9
Thaimin (mg) Trace
Riboflavin (mg) 0.07
Niacin (mg) Trace
Niacin from Tryptophan
Vitamin B
(mg) Trace
Vitamin B
(μg) 0.3
Folate (Ig) Trace
Pantothenate (mg) 0.05
Biotin (μg) 0.2
Vitamin C (mg) Trace
Retinol (μg) 958
Carotene (μg) 608
Vitamin D (μg) 0.9
Vitamin E (mg) 1.85
Sodium (mg) 606
Potassium (mg) 27
Calcium (mg) 18
Magnesium (mg) 2
Phosphorus (mg) 23
Iron (mg) Trace
Copper (mg) 0.01
Zinc (mg) 0.1
Chloride (mg) 994
Manganese (mg) Trace
Selenium (μg) Trace
Iodine (μg) 38
Energy (kcal) 744
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ground into paste. Peanut butter is usually made by two stage
grinding operations. First grinding reduces the nuts to a
medium size and the second milling uses a very high-speed
grinder cum mixer that has a combination of cutting-shearing
and attrition action and reduces to a fine (less than 0.025 cm)
smooth texture (Industrial Extension Bureau). Due to this
several passes the paste is subjected to excessively high tem-
perature, an elaborative cooling methods need to be utilized to
retain desired flavors in the nut butter. Patent by Connick
(1997) states that accomplishing the grinding steps in the
presence of solid carbon dioxide inhibits the dissolving,
occlusion, and adsorption of free oxygen into the peanut
butter and there by increases the shelf life as well as
improves the flavour. Woodroof (1983)classifiedpeanutbut-
ters into three types based on the texture viz., Smooth (even
texure with no perceptible grainy peanut particles), Regular
(definitely grainy texture with with perceptible peanut parti-
cles not more than 1/16 in. in diameter and Chunky (partially
fine and partially grainy particles with substantial amounts
larger than1/16 in. in diameter). Crippen et al. (1989)reported
that increased grind size (fine, medium and course), decreased
the sensory smoothness, spreadability, adhesiveness and
preference ratings. According to Dzurik et al. (1971) the high
pressure homogenization after initial grinding produces a
paste of smooth, glossy, melts more rapidly in the mouth than
conventional peanut butter. During grinding, the ingredients
like salt, sugar, stabilisers and emulsifiers are added. Addition
of salt (< 1.2 %) increased the ease of swallowing, as well as
consumer preference of texture. Before grinding of nut/seeds,
carbohydrates, protein and other non-fat components will be
in a continuous phase. Fat cells entrapped in non-fat compo-
nents will be in a discontinuous phase. After grinding into
Fig. 1 Structure of dairy butter.
1. Moisture droplets containing
SNF and salt, 2. Fat globules,
partially crystalline, 3. Non-
globular fat, continuous phase
and 4. Fat crystals, semi-
continuous networks. Source:
15.2% 14.9%
2.9% 1.9% 1.6% 0.8% 0.2% 0.1%
Fig. 2 Free fatty acids in dairy
butter. Source: www.webexhibits.
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paste, fat cells ruptured and become continuous and non-fat
constituents form a discontinuous phase. Once the paste is
formed, continuous phase (fat/ oil) will separate from the
nonfat particles. Without stabilizers, paste settles at the bottom
and forms a hard layer while the oil remains on top (Aryana
et al. 2000). Thus, stabilizers in plant based butter prevent
gravitational separation of less dense oil from solid particles
during storage at ambient temperatures (Hinds et al.1994).
Galvez et al. (2006) reported that the peanut butter without
stabilizer exhibited > 2 % oil separation after 12 weeks of
storage. During conditioning to prevent oil separation, mix-
ture is immediately chilled and the hydrogenated oil forms
finely divided and sufficient amount of hard fat crystals. The
amount and nature of the crystals determines the stability of
the product. The rate of cooling determines the size of the
crystals (Francisco et al. 2006). Woodroof (1983)has
discussed the important considerations on type and amount
of stabilizer with respect to the desired consistency and mouth
feel of peanut butter, oil content and particle size. The tem-
perature of paste during the addition of stabilizer should be
more than the melting point of stabilizer to produce a more
homogenized product. Thus, the recommended temperature
for blending of stabilizers is 6074 °C. Totlani and Chinnan
(2007) reported that the addition of 12 % stabilizer was
found to be adequate for peanut butter stored for 3 months at
35 °C. Aryana et al. (2003) and Gills and Resurreccion (2000)
reported that the use of blended hydrogenated rapeseed and
cottonseed oils as stabilizer in peanut butter was superior to
palm oil. Addition of emulsifier in the peanut butter negates
stickiness so that it will not stick to the roof of the mouth.
Suitable emulsifiers include lecithin and fatty mono- and
diglycerides, for example, soybean mono- and diglycerides
(Hunter and Eck 1989). Different emulsifiers affirmed as
GRAS are shown in Table 4. Furthermore, for improved
stability, the peanut butter should be packed at the proper
temperature and it should be tempered for a minimum of
24 h before shipping. This tempering allows time for addi-
tional crystal growth and formation of a good crystalline
network (Woodroof 1983; Francisco et al. 2006).
Woodroof (1983) observed that roasted peanut products
with high moisture content developed an objectionable soggy
nut flavor. Felland and Koehler (1997) found that peanut
Tabl e 4 Some food emulsifiers affirmed as GRAS
Emulsifier US FDA
EEC (E No.)
Diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides
184.1101 E472e
Lecithin 184.1400 E322
Mono-and diglycerides 184.1505 E471
Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono
and diglycerides
Source: Hasenhuett (2008)
Tabl e 2 Nutritional property of nut and seed butter (1 Tbsp)
Product Calorie Protein Fat Calcium Zinc
(g) (g) (mg) (mg)
Almond butter 101 2.4 9.5 43 0.5
Cashew butter 93 2.8 8.0 7 0.8
Hazelnut butter 94 2.0 9.5 ––
Sunflower butter 80 3.0 7.0 ––
Sesame butter 89 2.6 8.0 64 0.7
Peanut butter
natural 94 3.8 8.0 7 0.4
reduced fat 95 4.0 6.0 0.4
Soy butter
sweetened 85 4.0 5.5 50
unsweetened 80 4.0 6.5 30
Soy-peanut butter 50 2.0 1.2 40
1Tbsp=14.19 g
Source: Mangels (2001)
Filling and packing
Addition of
Peanut butter
Fig. 3 A typical flow chart for peanut based butter preparation. Source:
Global Agri systems Pvt. Ltd
Tabl e 3 Formulation of a typical peanut butter
Component Percentage
Peanut paste (~1 % moisture) 90
Hydrogenated vegetable oil 15
Sweetener 16
Salt 11.5
Emulsifier 0.51.5
Source: Akhtar et al. (2014)
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butters with high product moisture develop more rancidity,
off-flavors as compared to low moisture products. Abegaz
(2003) studied the role of moisture in flavor changes of model
peanut confections during storage. Peanut butter with added
moisture resulted in a less intense roasted peanuttycharacter,
also indicated by lower pyrazine concentrations. Oxidative
related attributes such as rancid,painty,andcardboard
were higher in samples. Felland and Koehler (1997)reported
that the peanut butter samples stored for 29 days at 4 °C, 25 °C
and 50 °C showed that peanut butters with 0.56 a
had lowest
roasted aroma and flavor, with more off-odor and off-flavor
than the 0.39 a
and 0.29 a
samples. Muego-Gnanasekharan
and Resurreccion (1992) has reported that peanut butter can be
stored for 1 year at 30 °C storage temperature. St. Angelo and
Ory (1973) measured initial peroxide content of 9 commercial
peanut butters and observed no 2 samples had the same initial
peroxide content. They investigated the causes and prevention
of fatty acid peroxidation in peanut butter with several
additives viz., cupric acetate, boiled peroxidase, boiled
peroxidase plus EDTA, boiled tyrosinase, and water. It was
noticed that water either promote or retard oxidation. The
metal salts cuppric acetate and ferric chloride showed an
increase of 9.5 and 7.2, respectively. Tyrosinase and
peroxidase resulted in increased rates of oxidation but
neither enzyme were as effective a catalyst as the free
copper which had the highest peroxidation. Lipoxygenase,
the primary catalyst of enzymatic oxidation of unsaturated
fatty acids also gave increased peroxidation but it was less
than that caused by metal containing proteins. Young and
Heinis (1989) noted that the addition of honey or corn syrup
altered peanut butter flavors and viscosity. The rheological
properties of two types of commercial peanut butter
(unstabilized suspension consisting of solid peanut particles
in peanut oil referred as 100 % peanutsand the same sus-
pension stabilized with vegetable oil and contains other ingre-
dients such as salt and sugar in very small quantities referred
as smooth) have been studied by Citerne et al. (2001). The
mean volume particle diameter was found to be 6.6 μmwitha
narrow range of distribution. The samples behaved like plastic
material and showed an apparent yield stresses of 24 Pa and
370 Pa, respectively. The stabilized suspension behaved more
like a solid, the elastic modulus being larger than the loss
modulus and almost independent of the frequency. The solid-
like behavior is supposedly caused by strong repulsive forces
induced by the stabilizing agent.
With the aim of increasing peanut butter consumption by
providing peanut butter in the more convenient form of slices,
Diaz (2000) made an attempt to prepare the peanut butter in
the more convenient slice form, much like cheese, ready to be
put on bread with shear thinning texture that could hold its
shape, but become soft when eaten. The best formulation for
peanut butter slices was given as: Peanut butter 95.30 %,
Gellan Gum 2.4 %, paraffin wax 3.07 % and the process
variables are: Temperature 61 °C, cooling rate 22 °C and
storage temperature 4 °C. Adhikary (2001) studied the effect
of various storage conditions on the physical properties of
peanut butter slices for different packaging materials (Saran
wrap, HB1-a high barrier material, DK11- a low barrier ma-
terial, Cheese packaging material Print Pack having 3.0,
4.1075, 24.0 and 6.51 g.m
moisture permeability
and 20.0, 0.5425, 6,920, and 160 ml.m
oxygen per-
meability respectively). Peanut butter slices exhibited good
shelf-life properties of up to 6 months under refrigeration (4±
1 °C, <20%RH) for all packaging materials except DK11,
which provides very low oxygen barrier. Lima et al. (2000)
developed improved peanut flour for a reduced-fat peanut
butter product. A commercial peanut flour (12 % fat) was
mixed with water (30 % w/w), homogenized and drum-dried
in a double drum dryer. Thin dried sheets were milled into
flour which was no longer gritty and mixed with full fat
(52.5 %) paste to obtain a 30 % fat reduction in the peanut
butter product.
About 1.2 billion pounds of peanut butter are consumed
annually in the United States. In 2008 to 2009, an outbreak
involving Salmonella Typhimuriuminpeanutbutterledtoa
recall of over 3,900 products by over 200 companies. More
than 700 people became sick, 100 were hospitalized, and 9
people died from this outbreak (Grasso et al. 2010). Shachar
and Yaron (2006) studied the heat tolerance of Salmonella
enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in
peanut butter and reported that the thermal treatments are
inadequate to consistently destroy Salmonella in highly con-
taminated peanut butter and that the pasteurization process
cannot be improved significantly by longer treatment or
higher temperatures. Similar results were also reported by
Ma et al. (2010), thermal treatments of peanut butter at
90 °C for less than 30 min were not sufficient to kill large
populations (5 log CFU/g) of Salmonella in highly contami-
nated peanut butter. Grasso et al. (2010) examined the efficacy
of high-pressure processing (HPP) to decrease S.
Typhimurium American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
53647 inoculated into peanut butter and model systems and
reported that because of the protective effect of oil HPP may
not help the microbial safety of water-in-oil food emulsions
including peanut butter. Hvizdzak et al. (2010) studied the
effectiveness of electron beam (E-beam) radiation (0 to
3.1 kGy) for the reduction of Salmonella serovars Tennessee
(ATCC 10722) and Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) in creamy
peanut butter. D
-values showed that Salmonella
Typhimurium was more resistant (0.82±0.02 and 0.73 +
0.01 kGy on TSA and XLD. respectively) than was
Salmonella Tennessee (0.72±0.02 and 0.60±0.01 kGy on
TSA and XLD, respectively) to E-beam radiation. E-beam
irradiation is a promising food safety technique for the non-
thermal pasteurization of peanut butter, however future studies
should include sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance
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studies. No changes in total protein content, or total saturated
and unsaturated fatty acid content of peanut butter were ob-
served over a 14-day period at 22 °C when treated with E-
beam irradiation (0, 3.0, 7.0, and 25 kGy) and no significant
changes in spreadability were observed (El-Rawas et al.
2012). Ban and Kang (2014) studied the effect of gamma
irradiation (60Co) treatment (0 to 3 kGy) on peanut butter
product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65
) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella
Typhimurium. Water activity (a
) of peanut butter product
was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival.
When aw is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby
decreasing antimicrobial action. Lightness which was ob-
served by using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0.
Acid values of peanut butter treated with Gamma irradiation
were not significantly different from the control.
Soy butter
Soybeans (Glycine max) are excellent source of high-quality
protein containing 40 g/100 g of high quality protein with all
the essential amino acids needed for growth (Agrahar-
Murugkar et al. 2013a). It contains many essential amino acids
that our body does not have the ability to make. Soy bean and
soy food provide a variety of health benefits including pre-
vention of cardiovascular disease, cancer as well as meno-
pausal treatment (Barret 2006). The popularity and acceptabil-
ity of food products derived from soybeans is increasing due
to their beneficial effects on nutrition and health (Pichel and
Weiss 1967; Rinaldoni et al. 2012). Soy-butter is a relatively
new product with limited commercial availability (Agrahar-
Murugkar et al. 2013a) and it is a healthy alternative to peanut
butter for consumers who are allergic to peanut butter (Glas
2006) and healthier too. Kellogg (1916) mentioned the pro-
cess of soy butter making comprising of removal of skins from
soy beans, roasting beans to a dark brown colour, then reduc-
ing the roasted beans to a fine powder, and then mixing the
powder with an edible vegetable oil to make a paste. Baile
(1927) mentioned an improved method for the preparation of
soy butter as soaking of beans for 12 h, removing the skins and
then boiling in any nut oil until beans attains good brown
colour, making them into fine powder, addition of desired nut
oil to yield a proper viscosity and then salting it. Pichel and
Weiss (1967) described another improved method without
grassyor beanyflavour (Fig. 4). It has been described that
the moisturising step should be controlled so as to avoid the
weakening of the structure of the bean. Such control is assured
by adding only enough moisture to remove grassyor beany
flavour constituents, but not so much moisture that the beans
are saturated with water. Glas (2006) reported that the addition
of low calorie sweetener (sucralose) in homemade soy butter
increased the force, decreased water activity and the overall
quality is comparable with soy butter made with sugar.
Agrahar-Murugkar et al. (2013b) optimised roasting condition
for preapartion of soy butter as 160 °C Temperature and
90 min time. Agrahar-Murugkar et al. (2013a) preapred soy
butter using sprouted and unsprouted soybeans. Soy-butters
behaved like visco-elastic shear thinning material with pres-
ence of hysteresis. Butter from sprouted beans showed de-
creased particle size, apparent viscosity and flow behavior
index and increased consistency coefficient compared to but-
ter from unsprouted beans. Agrahar-Murugkar et al. (2014)
optimized conditions for soy butter making from sprouted
soybeans. Roasting temperature of 127 °C for 37 min was
the best condition for preparation of butter from sprouted
soybeans and this butter contained 38.0± 1.5 g/100 g of pro-
tein and 34.1±1.82 g/100 g fat on dry matter basis.
In 1998 July, The SoyNut Butter Co., a marketing compa-
ny of Barrington, Illinois, introduced I.M. Healthy SoyNut
Butter in Chunky, Creamy, or 100% Organic. They produce
soy butter with the brand name I.M. Healthy SoyNut Butter
and offer it in different choices like Creamy, Chunky, honey-
sweetened and unsweetened flavors and now there is a Choc-
olate SoyNut Butter with 60% less sugar and 50% more
Whole soybeans
Spraying fine mist of water
(Moisture up to 5-50% based on the weight of soybeans)
Cooking in an edible cooking oil at a temperature of about
(For a time suflicient to volatilize water and grassy and beany flavor
components, yet avoid puffing and expansion of the product)
Cooling to a temperature < 50°C
Adding glycerized oil
(oil content of the mixture to 35-60%)
(At least 97.5% of the oil free solids present in the
product passes a 200-mesh screen)
Soy butter
Fig. 4 Soy butter preparation without grassyor beanyflavour.
Source: Pichel and Weiss (1967)
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protein. It is the Mawoogahalternative to the leading choc-
olate hazelnut spreads. In 2007 October, Hilton Soy Foods of
Staffa, Ontario, Canada launched FreeNut Butter (Soynut
Butter). Hilton Soy Foods is a Canadian company. It is the
leading manufacturer specializing in high quality and unique
peanutty tasting, yet peanut-free, School Safe SoyButter that
tastes, looks and spreads just like Peanut Butter. They
produce soy butter in two variants i.e. wow butter creamy
and wow butter crunchy.
Pistachio butter
Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera) is one of the most delicious and
nutritious nut. The non-split pistachio is used in the produc-
tion of pistachio oil, pistachio butter, pistachio chocolate and
pistachio halva (Shakerardekani et al. 2011). Pistachio butter,
a semi-solid paste, is made from ground and roasted pistachio
kernels with adding some proper flavorants and sweeteners
and is a semi-solid substance that behaves as non-Newtonian
pseudoplastic with yield stress (Taghizadeh and Razavi 2009).
For pistachio butter production, recommended range of
roasting temperature and time for whole-kernel has been
reported as 130140 °C for 3040 min (Shakerardekani
et al. 2011). It is necessary to use proper amount of emulsify-
ing and anti-oxidation agents in its formulation as it contains
high amount of unsaturated oil in such a product (Shaker
2005). Ardakani et al. (2009) investigated the effect of two
emulsifiers (lecithin and mono-di glycerides) in three levels
(0.0, 1.0 and 2.0 %) on the oil leakage and the effect of
antioxidant (BHT) in three levels (0.00, 0.01 and 0.02 %) on
the on the peroxide values of pistachio butter. Samples con-
taining lecithin and mono-diglycerides had the least leakage of
oil after 4 months stored at 20 °C. Adding BHT antioxidant
had a significant effect on peroxide value and shelf life of
pistachio butter. The best formulation for production of pista-
chio butter was 72.9982.99 % roasted pistachio kernels, 15
25 % sugar, 1 % lecithin, 1 % mono di glyceride and 0.01 %
BHT. Roasting of the pistachios at 110 °C for 15 min was the
best condition as determined by taste panelists. Taghizadeh
and Razavi (2009) assessed the effect of different levels of
emulsifier i. e. Lecithin and Mono-diglyceride (Without any
emulsifier, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 %) at different temperatures. The
approximate composition (w/w%) of studied pistachio butter
samples was grounded and roasted pistachio kernels 84 %,
sweeteners such as sugar 10 %, moisture content 3 %, salt 1
2 %, and emulsifying agents 02 %. Pistachio butter contain-
ing 1 % of Mono-diglyceride mixture and lecithin was the
most consistent, coherent and uniform. To respond to the
consumersdemand of the low- calorie version of full fat
pistachio butter, Emadzadeh et al. (2011) has formulated
low- calorie pistachio butter (Fig. 5) and the viscous flow
properties of low- calorie pistachio butter was studied. The
effects of 3 fat replacers (Balangu seed gum, Reihan seed
gum, xanthan) and 2 sweeteners (isomalt and sucrose) on
the rheological parameters of different models (Power law,
Casson, Bingham and Herschel- Bulkley models) were inves-
tigated. All the samples showed a shear thinning behavior.
Emadzadeh et al. (2012) studied the effect of 3 fat replacers
(Xanthan gum (0.060.1 wt.%), Reihan seed gum (0.01
0.023 wt.%), and Balangu seed gum (0.010.04 wt.%)), and
2 sweeteners (sucrose and isomalt) on time-dependent rheo-
logical properties of low-calorie pistachio butter. The steady
shear behavior of all samples was shear thinning. In most
cases, increasing the sweetener level led to a significant de-
crease in consistency coefficients. However, the effect on the
flow behavior index was not significant. The effect of gum
concentration on the rheological parameters was not signifi-
cant, except for formulas prepared using Balangu seed gum.
All formulas studied were stable on shelf. Emadzadeh et al.
(2013) studied the changes in viscoelastic and textural char-
acteristics that occur due to different types of fat replacers and
sweeteners. The magnitudes of dynamic moduli increased in
Cleaning, Peeling and de-hulling
Pistachio nuts
Pressing the pistachio kernels to achieve
25% oil reduction
Dissolving the hydrocolloid, sweetener,
Potassium sorbate (0.08%) and lecithin
(1.5%) in distilled water
Adding the solution to the pistachio paste
and vanilla (0.05%)
Mixing all the ingredients
Homogenizing the final product using a
high speed blender
Keeping at 4°C for 24 hours
Pistachio butter with reduced-calorie
Fig. 5 Prepartion of reduced-calorie pistachio butter. Source:
Emadzadeh et al. (2011)
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the frequency sweep test with loss tan values <1. The elastic
structure of all samples changed to viscous behavior with
increasing temperature (565 °C), regardless of the type of
fat replacers and sweetenerslevel. The temperature sweep
test on heating and cooling samples resulted in higher visco-
elastic properties and more solid-like behavior.
Shakerardekani et al. (2013) developed Pistachio spreads
using pistachio paste as the main component, icing sugar,
soy protein isolate (SPI), and red palm oil (RPO), at different
ratios and reported that the work of shear for an acceptable
spread as 0 to 11 kg. Presence of RPO had a direct effect on
the viscoelastic behavior of the pistachio spreads.
Cashew butter
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) plays an important role
among tropical nuts, as an edible nut and is a principal
industrialized product too (Chandrasekara and Shahidi
2011). Nagaraja (2003) prepared sweetened and flavoured
spread from cashew kernel baby bits (CKBB). Among the
sweetened spreads prepared with different flavours, carda-
mom spread was the most preferred. Defatting of CKBB did
not affect the organoleptic acceptability of the spread. Lima
et al. (2012) prepared cashew butter by roasting nuts im-
mersed in vegetable oil at 140 °C for 34min.Kernels
(89.9 g/100g), were ground with the other ingredients (refined
cane sugar (8.0 g/100 g), soybean lecithin (2.0 g/100 g) and
sodium chloride salt (0.1 g/100 g)) for 5 min in a food
processor with the use of a stainless steel cutter. Different
grades of kernals (Butts (B), kernels which are broken cross-
wise and are less than 7/8, but not less than 3/8 of a whole
kernel, and whose cotyledons are still naturally attached;
Splits (S), one half of a cashew kernel that has been split
lengthwise, provided that no more than 1/8 of this cotyledon
has been broken off; Pieces (P), pieces passing through sieve
number 22 (8.00 mm opening) and retained on sieve number 4
(4.75 mm opening); Small pieces (SP), pieces passing through
sieve number 4 (4.75 mm opening) and retained on sieve
number 7 (2.80 mm opening); Special small pieces (SSP),
pieces passing through sieve number 7 (2.80 mm opening)
and retained on sieve number 8 (2.36 mm opening); Granules
(G), pieces passing through sieve number 8 (2.36 mm open-
ing) and retained on sieve number 10 (1.70 mm opening))
were tested for best quality butter and reported that the butter
made from B (butts), S (splits) and P (pieces) kernel grades
were of better quality.
Almond butter
Almond (Prunus dulcis) butter has significantly more fibre,
calcium, and potassium than sunflower seed or peanut butter
(Thomas and Gebhardt 2010). Spiller et al. (2003)compared
the lipid-altering effect of roasted salted almonds and roasted
almond butter with that of raw almonds, as part of a plant-
based diet (Table 5). High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
(HDL) did not significantly change with raw or roasted al-
monds but slightly increased with almond butter. HDL cho-
lesterol is the good cholesterol that cruises the bloodstream
and high levels HDL reduces the risk for heart disease.
Sunflower butter
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed butter has more mono-
unsaturated fat, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, iron,
manganese, and vitamin E, Selenium and less saturated fat
than peanut butter (Thomas and Gebhardt 2010). However,
sunflower have fibrous outer layer and associated moisture
retention upon improper roasting. Nutritive properties of sun-
flower butter are equivalent to those of peanut butter and
roasting conditions had a significant effect on nutritional and
sensory quality, color, and spreadability of sunflower butter.
Redness values represented by positive avalues were 1.6, 2.9,
3.3, and 2.9 for sunflower butters made with raw kernels,
conventionally roasted, microwave roasted, and from a health
food store respectively (Dreher et al. 1983). Acceptable color
ranges for sunflower butter to be darker than most commer-
cially prepared peanut butters (Falk and Holm 1981;Limaand
Guraya 2005). The sunflower butter prepared by added 7 %
sugar, 1.1 % salt, 1.8 % stabilizer, and a low roast level has
been reported as best determined by sensory data (Lima and
Guraya 2005). The effect of roast level and stabilizer on
sunflower butter property is shown in Table 6.
Sesame butter
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) butter called as tahina, tehineh,
tahin is produced by milling of mechanically dehulled roasted
Tabl e 5 Composition of raw and processed almods per 100 g edible
Water (g) 4.2 1.3 2.1
Protein (g) 25.3 25.4 24.6
Total lipid (g) 49.5 52.5 55.7
MUFA (g) 30.7 32.1 32.7
PUFA (g) 10.6 11.4 13.8
SFA (g) 3.5 3.7 3.9
Carbohydrate (g) 17.9 18.5 14.5
Dietary fiber (g) 13.9 11.8 10.5
Vitamin E (mg ATE) 25.3 25.5 23.6
Phytosterols (mg) 113.6 125.8 145.1
Sodium (mg) <10 209 <10
ATE Alpha Tocopherol equivalants, Source: Spiller et al. (2003)
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sesame (Kahyaoglu and Kaya 2006;Ciftcietal.2008).
Kahyaoglu and Kaya (2006) studied the effect of heating time
(120 min) and temperatures (120, 150, and 180 °C) on mois-
ture content, color and texture of sesame seeds using conven-
tional method optimized the processing of roasting at 155
170 °C for 4060 min for the production of sesame paste.
Besides color, texture is another important control parameter
for roasting. A faster moisture loss is occurred as roasting
temperature increased. During roasting, sesame seeds become
more crumble and brittle, which are typical characteristics of
roasted products. EI-Adawy and Mansour (2005)reportedthat
the tahina prepared by hot air roasting (130 °C for 1 h) and
Tabl e 6 Effect of different stabi-
lizers and roasting on sunflower
butter property
Dritex-C (hydrogenated cotton-
seed and rapeseed oils); PST (hy-
drogenated palm oil); Roast
levels: 1: low, 2: medium-low, 3:
medium-high, 4: high
Source: Lima and Guraya (2005)
Stabilizer (%) Roast
depth (mm)
Hardness (N) Oil separation
La b
Dritex-C 1.8 3 17.6 2,989 2.2 39.9 10.8 34.6
1.6 3 20.3 1,343 3.6 39.9 10.7 34.3
PST 1.8 3 17.6 2,444 2.0 39.9 10.6 34.3
1.6 3 18.5 1,779 3.3 39.9 10.5 34.0
Dritex-C 1.8 4 21.0 2,007 3.1 38.8 11.1 34.6
1.8 2 21.7 1,464 3.6 42.7 9.1 33.8
1.8 1 20.7 1,891 2.7 43.1 8.8 33.4
Mixture of dry ingredients consisting of pumpkin seed
press-cake (54.8%), maltodextrin (1.6%), sugar
(3.2%), salt (0.6%), and chia seeds flour (4.2%)
Blending thoroughly using a laboratory mixer
Storage at ambient temperature for 24 h
Dry mix
Adding hemp oil and high oleic sunflower oil which
made up 33.7% (w/w) of the total formulation
Heating (70-80oC)
Adding commercial stabilizer (Dritex RC, 0.8-1.6%
w/w) and emulsifier (Myvatex Monoset K, 0.7%,
w/w) to the heated oil blend until complete
Adding liquid oil phase slowly to the dry mix
Blending for 4 minutes at the low speed
Homogenizing in a double-wall vessel (kept at
80oC with hot water flowing) with a high-shear
Filling hot spreads into polypropylene
containers (150 g) by tapping to remove air
Spread from hull-less pumpkin seed oil press-
Fig. 6 Preparation of spread
from hull-less pumpkin seed oil
press-cake. Source: Radocaj et al.
J Food Sci Technol (July 2015) 52(7):39653976 3973
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vacuum roasting (100 °C for 1 h) had higher panel scores than
the steam roasted (100 °C for 3 h) and hot plate roasted
(130 °C for 1 h) for the tested sensory properties. Although
sesame paste is shelf stable with respect to chemical deterio-
rative reactions, but its colloidal instability is a main problem
during storage (Isa 2001). Both particle size and storage
temperature had significant effect on the sesame paste stabil-
ity. Higher particle sized (mean particle size 129.11 μm) ses-
ame paste lost the stability at a higher rate than the smaller
ones (mean particle size 14.23 μm). As the storage tempera-
ture was increased (20 to 40 °C), the colloidal stability of
samples decreased due to the low viscosities of oil at high
temperature (Ciftci et al. 2008).
Pumpkin seed butter
Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds, commonly known as
pepitas, are flat, encased in yellow-white husk (Amin and
Thakur 2013; Abdel-Rahman 2006). Pumpkin seeds are nu-
tritionally very good. They are rich source of proteins, fatty
acids and minerals (Magnesium, Copper and Zinc). Pumpkin
seeds are rich not only in proteins but also a rich source of
antioxidants vitamins such as carotenoids and tocopherols and
minerals, and low in fats and calories (Amin and Thakur
2013). The nutritional value of pumpkin seeds is based on
high protein content (2551 %) (Abdel-Rahman 2006).
Pumpkin seeds could be utilized successfully as a good
sources of edible protein (320 g/kg) and oil (450 g/kg) for
human consumption, as well as animal food; at the same time,
it minimizes waste pollution (El-Soukkary 2001). Pumpkin
seeds are popular snack that are found hulled/semi-hulled
(Amin and Thakur 2013). Recently the pumpkin seed butter
has gained more popularity due to its high nutritional proper-
ties. Radocaj et al. (2011) optimized spread formulation from
hull-less pumpkin seed oil press-cake. Hull-less pumpkin seed
press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process,
was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled
commercial peanut butter, both in the appearance and in
texture. Method followed for reparation of spread is shown
in Fig. 6. The components content was optimized for the
minimum values of hardness and ad-hesiveness, with a target
for maximum values of cohesiveness, with a stability of the
spreads similar to peanut butter. Samples with 1.0 % stabilizer/
40 % hemp oil content and 1.2 % stabi-lizer/20 % hemp oil
content were closest to the instrumental texture of the peanut
butter sample.
Butter with combination of nuts
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(<50 %) in peanut butter to make a healthier nut spread and
found that the firmness increased with the increase ofsoy bean
addition. Mazaheri-Tehrani et al. (2009) studied the
physicochemical and sensory properties of peanut spreads
fortified with soy flour. Adhesiveness increased, cohesiveness
decreased with incorporation of soy flour in peanut spreads.
Different nut and seed butters or spreads are prepared by
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stabilizers and emulsifiers. Optimum roasting conditions are
necessary for getting the nut and seed butters with better
flavour. Degree of grinding and process followed for grinding
effects the smoothness and mouth feel of the butter. Optimi-
zation of different quantities of sugar, salt, stabilizers and
emulsifiers is needed for getting improved tasty, stabilized
butter without any oil separation during storage. As con-
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need to optimize the processes for producing low fat nut and
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3976 J Food Sci Technol (July 2015) 52(7):39653976
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Plant-based (PB) diets are associated with good health and environmental sustainability. However, the definition of a PB diet, the prevalence and demographics of those consuming PB diets (or PB foods within an omnivorous diet) and the nutritional role of PB diets is not widely studied. While PB dietary indexes exist and provide information on the associations between PB diets and health outcomes, there remains a need to understand the role of PB foods for nutritional adequacy and status in populations currently accustomed to consuming a primarily omnivorous diet. This study aimed to develop a systematic methodology to identify the PB component of a diet, by using two extremes of PB diet definitions: Plant-Based (all) (PB-A) and Plant-Based (healthful) (PB-H). A novel 23-step protocol based on the best available literature was developed which outlines the (a) exclusion and (b) inclusion criteria under each food group for both PB-A and PB-H diet definitions. It is proposed that this systematic methodology be considered as a standardised approach to improve cross-study comparison and will be useful for researchers, health care professionals, policymakers and the food industry to understand the role of PB foods within the diet of populations or individuals.
In this study, the evaluation of the use of melon seeds, which is an important waste in domestic and industrial production, as a source and ingredient for the production of spreadable butter was investigated. After the cleaning, roasting and grinding processes applied to the melon seeds, different amounts (10% and 20% sugar, glucose and honey) of were added during the sweetening phase. Physical, chemical and texture analyzes were performed for melon butter. According to the results obtained, the highest hardness (3124.76 g) and work of shear (1405.33 gs) values were obtained in the mixtures using Glucose20. The lowest hardness values were obtained in Sugar10 (261.61 g) and Honey10 (202.53 g) mixtures, which were not statistically different, and the lowest work of shear values were obtained in sugar and honey products. Considering the results, it was concluded that Sugar10 is the most suitable for the production of melon butter production.
Flaxseed has recently gained interest as a functional food. The bioactive properties of deoiled flaxseed protein hydrolysates make them suitable for use as preservatives in natural food products. Spreads made from nuts and seeds have recently been used as a substitute for dairy butter. In this study, production, physical properties, oxidative stabilities, antioxidant activities, and storage stabilities of flaxseed‐based spreads were investigated. Germinated deoiled flaxseed flour, raw deoiled flaxseed protein hydrolysate, and their combination may be regarded as novel functional food ingredients for spread production. Results showed that the raw deoiled flaxseed protein hydrolysate spread had higher oxidative stabilities. The total phenolic content (24.41 ± 0.17 mgGAE/g), total flavonoid content (18.34 ± 0.03 mgCE/g), and antioxidant activities of raw deoiled flaxseed protein hydrolysate spread had also significantly higher than the other spreadable products. These results indicated that the raw deoiled flaxseed protein hydrolysate could be a good nutritive ingredient to produce spread. In this study, germinated deoiled flaxseed flour, raw deoiled flaxseed flour protein hydrolysate, and a combination of both had been considered as novel functional food ingredients for spread production. This study provides detailed information about the oxidative stability and antioxidant activity of these plant‐based spreads during storage conditions. In addition, this study also identified the functional group of the spreads by FTIR analysis.
A concise understanding of technical aspects underpinning successful peanut butter production is critical for the peanut butter industry. This paper reviews the critical technical drivers of quality peanut butter production. The synergetic relationship between roasting, grinding and stabilisation processes and corresponding physiochemical changes and their influence on peanut butter colour, flavour, texture, storage stability, shelf life and overall consumer product acceptance is discussed. Potential of promising novel technologies like infrared, microwave roasting and some novel peanut butter stabilization methods is evaluated. Quality of peanut butter is by far determined by temperature‐time profile used in roasting, fineness of grind, type(s) and amount of added ingredients. The synergistic relationships between production technical aspects and resultant quality of peanut butter is far complex than what is usually assumed. Further research on the novel technologies like infrared and microwave roasting is still required for them to be fully adopted in the peanut butter industry.
The study was designed to explore potential of almond skin in improving storage stability of almond paste. A concentration‐dependent increase in phenolic content, and antioxidant potential, was observed for the skin‐fortified samples. Skin fortification at 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75% & 5% level in pastes resulted in corresponding increase in TPC by 114%, 311%, 445% and 633% compared to control. Lipid oxidation was measured in terms of peroxide value, Thiobarbituric Acid value, and Free Fatty Acids content over a 28 days storage at accelerated storage temperature (60°C). TBA value for the control was higher (0.013 to 0.194 mg malonaldehyde/kg) compared to that of fortified samples with values ranging from 0.011 to 0.183 mg malonaldehyde/kg, indicating role of skin fortification in the prevention of oxidation. Almond skin at 5% effectively inhibited lipid oxidation throughout the entire storage. Therefore, almond skin supplementation could be effective in preventing the oxidation of fat‐rich food products.
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Common “glanded” (Gd) cottonseeds contain the toxic compound gossypol that restricts human consumption of the derived products. The “glandless” (Gl) cottonseeds of a new cotton variety, in contrast, show a trace gossypol content, indicating the great potential of cottonseed for agro-food applications. This work comparatively evaluated the chemical composition and thermogravimetric behaviors of the two types of cottonseed kernels. In contrast to the high gossypol content (3.75 g kg−1) observed in Gd kernels, the gossypol level detected in Gl kernels was only 0.06 g kg−1, meeting the FDA’s criteria as human food. While the gossypol gland dots in Gd kernels were visually observed, scanning electron microcopy was not able to distinguish the microstructural difference between ground Gd and Gl samples. Chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Gl kernels and Gd kernels had similar chemical components and mineral contents, but the former was slightly higher in protein, starch, and phosphorus contents. Thermogravimetric (TG) processes of both kernels and their residues after hexane and ethanol extraction were based on three stages of drying, de-volatilization, and char formation. TG-FTIR analysis revealed apparent spectral differences between Gd and Gl samples, as well as between raw and extracted cottonseed kernel samples, indicating that some components in Gd kernels were more susceptible to thermal decomposition than Gl kernels. The TG and TG-FTIR observations suggested that the Gl kernels could be heat treated (e.g., frying and roasting) at an optimal temperature of 140–150 °C for food applications. On the other hand, optimal pyrolysis temperatures would be much higher (350–500 °C) for Gd cottonseed and its defatted residues for non-food bio-oil and biochar production. The findings from this research enhance the potential utilization of Gd and Gl cottonseed kernels for food applications.
A wide variety of surfactants are available in the market with different Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values; therefore, one must choose suitable surfactants and their concentration to give maximum effect in the final product in an early stage of formulation development. The required HLB value of the oil phase was determined by experiments and the emulsifier selected of the same HLB value reduced the number of formulations with increased stability and minimum quantity of emulsifier. This study reviews the importance of the required HLB system and methods of determining it. Further, it also provides the surfactants application in the production of coconut oil emulsion with butter-like properties. The Griffin approach does the conventional way of determining the required HLB value of the oil phase. Various emulsions were prepared with emulsifier blends of Span and Tween, covering all the HLB range as per the final product and emulsion type, and observed regarding their separating/emulsifying properties with variable time or concentration. Interfacial Tension (IFT), Droplet Size, Zeta potential, centrifugal separation measurements of the emulsion prepared with food-grade emulsifiers like Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), Distilled Monoglycerides (DMG), and Lecithin, was carried out to identify the best suitable emulsifier and its concentration which gives better emulsion stability. The coconut and sunflower oil blend (70:30, w/w) shows, the required HLB value is 3.7 when it emulsified with 60% of water and found that PGPR + DMG blend gives maximum emulsion stability at 3% of emulsifier concentration.
Pachira aquatica Aubl. (munguba) seeds represent a rich source of lipids and biocompounds with potential for sustainable exploitation. This work evaluated the feasibility of using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to obtain a lipid-rich fraction and extracts rich in biocompounds from munguba seeds. The SFE at 30 MPa/60 °C/120 min was the best condition for munguba seed oil (MSO) extraction (52 g 100 g−1), providing 95% extraction efficiency compared to Soxhlet with n-hexane. The MSO was composed mainly of palmitic (76.93%), oleic (9.66%), and linoleic (8.15%) fatty acids. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that the SFE does not significantly affect the crystallization and melting patterns of MSO, which presents a solid-state below 35 °C, regardless of the extraction conditions used. Thermogravimetric analysis showed high thermal stability for MSO (up to 249 °C), associated with palmitic acid’s high content. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed wrinkled, globular, and irregular structures on the defatted munguba seed cake from SFE. These morphological conditions helped obtain PLE-extracts with a significant content of total phenolic compounds ranging from 53.66 to 350.29 mg GAE 100 g−1. The extracts also presented in vitro antioxidant activity measured by chemical (ferric reducing antioxidant power - FRAP of 2.04-28.41 mM Fe2+ 100 g−1; inhibition of DPPH between 8.45-61.58%), and biological-based (inhibition of lipid peroxidation from 25.47-49.45%) methods. This sequential process based on non-toxic solvents is a high yield alternative to recover the rich oil and the phenolic fractions from munguba seeds.
Almonds (Prunus dulcis) are one of the high-value nuts facing insect pest infestation predicaments during post-harvest operations and subsequent storage. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an economically important and notorious insect pest that globally infest almonds thereby resulting in high storage losses. Currently, the fumigants (hydrogen phosphide and propylene oxide) commonly used during almond storage pose a health hazard to the applicator and consumer as well as the environment. Other disadvantages of chemical methods include chemical residue, high exposure time (2–4 days), pest resistance, the demise of beneficial insects and incomplete disinfestation of the egg stage of the target pest. Among other physical disinfestation methods, the use of microwave as a disinfestation technique offer advantages of less processing time, lower energy consumption, clean technology, and no residues. Therefore to test the efficacy of microwave in pest control of stored almonds, we exposed life stages of T. castaneum to microwave irradiation at different power levels (120–600 W) and durations (30–90 s). Hundred percent mortality of all selected life stages was achieved at 480 and 600 W when infested almonds exposed for 90 and 60 s respectively. The quality attributes of treated almonds such as color difference, water activity, hardness, peroxide value, free fatty acid, and iodine value were measured and found to be acceptable. The fatty acid composition and sensory analysis demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in control and microwave treated almonds. The storage studies revealed that microwave treated almonds were free from infestation and rancidity for up to 12 months, whereas untreated almonds were spoiled within 3 months.
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To examine the effect of pumpkin seeds on citral-induced hyperplasia of the prostate in Wistar rats
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in elderly men. Although it is a nonmalignant disease, it can have a significant impact on the quality of life of elderly men. The pumpkin seed is claimed to be useful in the management of BPH. This investigation analysed the chemical composition of pumpkin seeds and examined its effect on citral-induced hyperplasia of the prostate in Wistar rats. Citral was administered orally into stomachs of male rats to induce BPH to all rats except negative control group. A rat from each group was sacrificed after 15 days from study, protein binding prostate was determined in ventral prostate gland in order to ensure that BPH has been induced. Fifty adult Wistar male rats were divided into five groups as follows: negative control group that have no BPH and fed on basal diet (C-), positive group rats have BPH and fed on basal diet only (C+), the remaining groups had BPH and were fed on different level of pumpkin seeds, 2.5, 5 and 10%. Four weeks later all rats were sacrificed and several investigations have been conducted such as ventral prostatic growth, protein binding prostate (PBP) and the histology of testis. Citral significantly increased prostate weight (P<0.05). However, pumpkin seeds significantly inhibited enlarged prostate especially at high concentrations seed dose (10%) (P < 0.02). Results indicate that pumpkin seeds can alleviate the signs of BPH such as decrease of PBP levels, weight of ventral prostate size, improve histology of testis that may be beneficial in the management of mild stage of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For the first time we found a link between BPH and testis histopathology that needs more investigation.
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Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20-40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase) produced desirable spreads.
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The legume Arachis hypogaea, commonly known as peanut or groundnut, is a very important food crop throughout the tropics and subtropics. Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste, and it occupies a rank of major oilseed crop in the world. It has been recognized as a functional food due to its role in a health promoting effect. Peanut oil contains a well-balanced fatty acid and antioxidant profile that provide protection against harmful substances especially free radicals. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on phytochemical and functional properties of peanut oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, peanut oil has found, recently, its place on the highly competitive international edible oil market.
Sweetened and flavoured spread has been prepared from cashew kernel baby bits (CKBB). Among the sweetened spreads prepared with different flavours, cardamom flavoured spread was the most preferred. Defatting of CKBB did not affect the organoleptic acceptability of the spread. Mixing of CKBB with groundnut kernels in equal proportion did not affect the organoleptic acceptability of the spread. Almond spread was preferred over spread from CKBB.
The total solids required for yogurt preparation were obtained by soy milk microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Inulin was incorporated at the level of 20-70 g/L, and the soy milk containing inulin was fermented using conventional microorganisms. The chemical, physical and sensory properties of the products were evaluated. The membrane concentration of soy proteins leads to yogurts with an increase of 59 g/L of proteins and 15 g/L of vegetable fats, reducing ash and anti-nutrients content. The clot had high stability and protein concentration generated a buffer effect smoothing the acidity and the flavor obtained is more agreeable. In addition, the proteins were concentrated without thermal treatment. As the inulin content increased, creaminess and viscosity increased as well. The products prepared presented nice smell, flavor and color, being the sample with higher global acceptability the yogurt with 50 g/L of inulin (P < 0.05).
Context Nuts are high in unsaturated (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) fat and other nutrients that may improve glucose and insulin homeostasis.Objective To examine prospectively the relationship between nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study of 83 818 women from 11 states in the Nurses' Health Study. The women were aged 34 to 59 years, had no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline in 1980, and were followed up for 16 years.Main Outcome Measure Incident cases of type 2 diabetes.Results We documented 3206 new cases of type 2 diabetes. Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and total energy intake. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) across categories of nut consumption (never/almost never, <once/week, 1-4 times/week, and ≥5 times/week) for a 28-g (1 oz) serving size were 1.0, 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-1.00), 0.84 (0.95% CI, 0.76-0.93), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.89) (P for trend <.001). Further adjustment for intakes of dietary fats, cereal fiber, and other dietary factors did not appreciably change the results. The inverse association persisted within strata defined by levels of BMI, smoking, alcohol use, and other diabetes risk factors. Consumption of peanut butter was also inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. The multivariate RR was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.91; P for trend <.001) in women consuming peanut butter 5 times or more a week (equivalent to ≥140 g [5 oz] of peanuts/week) compared with those who never/almost never ate peanut butter.Conclusions Our findings suggest potential benefits of higher nut and peanut butter consumption in lowering risk of type 2 diabetes in women. To avoid increasing caloric intake, regular nut consumption can be recommended as a replacement for consumption of refined grain products or red or processed meats.
This work aimed at evaluating the influence of cashew nut kernel grades and qualities in the characteristics of butter obtained by grinding kernels (89.9 g/100 g) with sugar (8.0 g/100 g), salt (0.1 g/100 g) and soy lecithin (2.0 g/100 g). Kernels and butter were analyzed for physical chemical characteristics (water activity, acid value, pH, moisture, ash, protein and fat contents) and microbiological quality (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus, mesophilic count, yeast and mold). Minor differences were observed among the different grades and qualities. Nut kernels and corresponding butter showed high nutritive food value containing 18.3-26.9 g/100 g of protein and 35.7-52.6 g/100 g of oil. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella sp. or coagulase positive Staphylococcus, were not detected. Sensory acceptability and sensory profile of the butter were also performed. Fourteen sensory descriptors were developed: appearance (caramel color, shiny, visual graininess and visual thickness), aroma (nutty, roasted and rancidity), flavor (nutty, sweet, salty, roasted and rancidity) and texture (consistency and graininess). Although all scores of sensory acceptability were among the acceptance range of the scale, the descriptive analysis found the butter made from B (butts), S (splits) and P (pieces) kernel grades to be of better quality.