Article

Norms of Apparent Temperature in Australia

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Abstract

The apparent-temperature model has been refined, and is applied to a range of Australian climate data to analyse the diurnal and annual pattern of normal effects of vapour pressure, wind speed and extra (solar and sky) radiation, and to combine these into maps and charts of apparent temperature. Results show that dry-bulb temperature sometimes over or underestimates the total impact of climatic norms by 10K. Equations are presented to enable calculation of direct and diffuse solar radiation in a clear sky at any time and place on earth. Sunshine is commonly the greatest modifier of dry-bulb temperature in Australia. Daily AT typically reaches its normal maximum before dry-bulb temperature, but seasonal variation of AT lags. -Author

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... Простые термальные показатели включают в себя более одного метеорологического параметра и учитывают комбинированное воздействие на организм человека температуры воздуха, влажности, скорости ветра и др. (эффективная температура воздуха ET, Wet-bulbglobe temperature WBGT, климатический индекс туризма TCI) и другие [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. ...
... Следует отметить, что существует около 200 термальных индексов различной сложности [34][35][36][37][38]42,. Каждый индекс имеет свою численную шкалу с соответствующим словесным описанием теплоощущения человеческого тела и указанием возможных рисков для организма, понятным для широкого круга населения (например, "холодно", "комфортно", "тепло" , "тепловой или солнечный удар", " повышенная утомляемость", "опасность обморожения" и т.д.). ...
... Учитывая, что большинство этих индексов описывается математическими выражениями, между ними обычно имеется высокая корреляционная связь. Однако градации (шкалы) индексов обычно приведены для метеорологических и климатических условий тех стран, где они разработаны (Европа, США, Канада, Австралия, Россия и др.) [34][35][36][37][38]. Поэтому, при подборе того или иного индекса для описания биоклиматической ситуации определенной местности необходимо учитывать адаптированность населения к метеорологическим и климатическим особенностям данной местности. ...
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Представлены результаты статистического анализа среднемесячных данных о значениях эффективной температуры воздуха по Миссенарду (ЕТ) в двух диаметрально противоположно расположенных по широте географических районах Грузии: Автономной Республике Аджария (ниже – Аджария) и Кахетинском регионе (ниже – Кахетия). Период исследования – 1961-2010 гг. Значения ЕТ рассчитывались по данным четырех метеорологических станций Аджарии (Батуми, Кобулети, Хуло, Годердзский перевал) и Кахетии (Телави, Дедоплисцкаро, Кварели, Сагареджо). Изучено внутригодовое распределение значений ЕТ, получена их повторяемость по категориям ЕТ, приведена подробная информация о категориях среднемесячных значений ЕТ, а также их верхних и нижних уровнях 99% доверительного интервала и др. Результаты исследования могут найти практическое применение для биоклиматического районирования территории Грузии, развития курортно-туристической индустрии и др.
... The driving factors [e.g., natural factors, such as high temperatures, humidity, and solar radiation, and human activities, such as urban heat island (UHI) effect, anthropogenic heat (AH), etc.] and physical mechanisms are very different among regions (Seneviratne et al., 2012;Fischer and Knutti, 2013;Ohashi et al., 2014;Steinweg and Gutowski, 2015;Lee and Min, 2018;Lorenz et al., 2019). Furthermore, the commonly used heat stress metrics (Steadman, 1994;Willett and Sherwood, 2012;Buzan et al., 2015), such as apparent temperature and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), are functions of both temperature and humidity. Thus, HS change is determined by the coaction of temperature and humidity changes, which further increases the complexity of HS variation. ...
... Furthermore, additional several commonly used heat stress metrics (Steadman, 1994;Willett and Sherwood, 2012;Buzan et al., 2015), such as Humidex to compute the "feels-like" temperature for humans (Humidex = T c + 5 9 (e − 10)), apparent ...
... Several metrics are utilized to demonstrate the heat stress evolution, as shown in Figure 4. First, three commonly used heat stress metrics (Steadman, 1994;Willett and Sherwood, 2012;Buzan et al., 2015), AT, Humidex, and SWBGT (blue, green, and black curves in Figure 4), could effectively define the heat stress periods in the south and north cities (see the green boxes as shown in Figure 2) and reflect the HS characteristics of high temperature and high humidity. Second, moist enthalpy and moist entropy (H and S, purple and red curves in Figure 4), recently utilized by Lutsko (2021), are evaluative metrics to heat stress, since their evolution follow similar tendencies with other three metrics, except that they have larger value (∼370 K of moist entropy) in magnitude relative to AT, Humidex, and SWBGT (∼50 • C below). ...
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Due to global warming and human activities, heat stress (HS) has become a frequent extreme weather event around the world, especially in megacities. This study aims to quantify the responses of urban HS (UHS) to anthropogenic heat (AH) emission and its antrophogenic sensible heat (ASH)/anthropogenic latent heat (ALH) components and increase in the size of cities in the south and north China for the 2019 summer based on observations and numerical simulations. AH release could aggravate UHS drastically, producing maximal increment in moist entropy (an effective HS metric) above 1 and 2 K over the south and north high-density urban regions mainly through ALH. In contrast, future urban expansion leads to an increase in HS coverage, and it has a larger impact on UHS intensity change (6 and 2 K in south and north China) relative to AH. The city radius of 60 km is a possible threshold to plan to city sprawl. Above that city size, the HS intensity change due to urban expansion tends to slow down in the north and inhibit in the south, and about one-third of the urban regions might be hit by extreme heat stress (EHS), reaching maximal hit ratio. Furthermore, changes in warmest EHS events are more associated with high humidity change responses, irrespective of cities being in the north or south of China, which support the idea that humidity change is the primary driving factor of EHS occurrence. The results of this study serve for effective urban planning and future decision making.
... Apparent temperature (AT) combined ambient temperature, humidity, and wind speed, which can be employed to evaluate the human body reactions to various thermal environments and represent the actual human perception of ambient temperature. Some studies have explored the effects of AT on several health outcomes; nevertheless, only limited evidence exists for the effect modification of AT in air pollution-stroke associations (18). ...
... The AT was calculated by daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure using the following equations (18,22,23): ...
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The epidemiological evidence on relationships between air pollution, temperature, and stroke remains inconclusive. Limited evidence is available for the effect modification by apparent temperature, an indicator reflecting reactions to the thermal environment, on short-term associations between air pollution and hospital admissions for stroke. We used a generalized additive model with Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of stroke admissions in Shanghai, China, between 2014 and 2016 associated with air pollutants, with subgroup analyses by age, sex, apparent temperature, and season. During the study period, changes in the daily number of stroke admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide (at lags 0, 1, 0–1, and 0–2) ranged from 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82%, 2.88%) to 2.24% (95% CI: 0.84%, 3.65%). For each 10 μg/m3 increase in sulfur dioxide concentrations at lags 1, 2, 0–1, and 0–2, the RR of daily stroke admissions increased by 3.34 (95% CI: 0.955%, 5.79%), 0.32 (95% CI: −1.97%, 2.67%), 3.33 (95% CI: 0.38%, 6.37%), and 2.86% (95% CI: −0.45%, 6.28%), respectively. The associations of same-day exposure to nitrogen dioxide with stroke admissions remained significant after adjustment for ozone levels. These associations were not modified by sex, age, apparent temperature, or season. More research is warranted to determine whether apparent temperature modifies the associations between air pollution and stroke admissions.
... It can be considered as a measure of relative discomfort from combined heat and humidity [32]. In its native form, Steadman [38] defines the AT as the dry-bulb temperature (or simply Ta) for thermal equilibrium of an adult walking, assuming moderate humidity in the absence of both wind and solar radiation (SR), and with the same thermal resistance between the skin and the atmosphere as in the given circumstances (see [38][39][40]65] for detailed description on the origins and derivation of AT under multiple arbitrary sets of human physiological and environmental conditions). ...
... While the SET and its earlier forms such as the Effective Temperature and the Corrected Effective Temperature (see Table 3 in [21] for further details) consider all environmental and bodily conditions that affect human thermoregulation, Steadman conceived a scale of a HDI based on a human body exposed to different conditions. The outcome was different versions of AT expanded in 1984 (ATot_NOAA, Equation (2)) [39] and in 1995 (ATot_ABM, Equation (3)) [40], based on Ta, VP, and W. Equations (2) and (3) represent the empirical expressions of AT in outdoor shade conditions. It must be emphasized though that the different versions of AT (Equations (1)-(3)) are not the only formulations found in literature. ...
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Meteorological human discomfort indices or bioclimatic indices are important metrics to gauge potential risks to human health under varying environmental thermal exposures. Derived using sub-daily meteorological variables from a quality-controlled reanalysis data product (Global Land Data Assimilation System—GLDAS), a new high-resolution global dataset referred to as “HDI_0p25_1970_2018” is presented in this study. The dataset includes the following daily indices at 0.25° × 0.25° gridded resolution: (i) Apparent Temperature indoors (ATind); (ii) two variants of Apparent Temperature outdoors in shade (ATot); (iii) Heat Index (HI); (iv) Humidex (HDEX); (v) Wet Bulb Temperature (WBT); (vi) two variants of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT); (vii) Thom Discomfort Index (DI); and (viii) Windchill Temperature (WCT). Spanning 49 years over the period 1970–2018, HDI_0p25_1970_2018 fills gaps in existing climate indices datasets by being the only high-resolution historical global-gridded daily time-series of multiple human discomfort indices based on different meteorological parameters, thus offering applications in wide-ranging climate zones and thermal-comfort environments.
... If the analysis is limited to days with maximum temperatures above 30 • C, in Brisbane, the time spent outdoors at higher maximum temperatures actually decreased somewhat. An analogous evaluation for a thermal index, the apparent temperature [33,34], essentially also yielded these results. The same applies if the deviations from the seasonal average values are used instead of the absolute values of the meteorological variables. ...
... Up to a certain optimal driving temperature, the volume of cycling increases with the Apparent Temperature (AT). The AT is a thermal index, which, in addition to the air temperature, takes into account the effect of air humidity and wind speed [33,34]. Beyond the optimal AT, the volume of bicycle use decreases with increasing temperature. ...
Article
Climate-related changes in human sun exposure behavior can be an important influence on future ultraviolet radiation (UVR) related disease risks. In particular, active leisure mobility and leisure activities are more dependent on weather conditions than routine activities. However, the direction and extent of the effects vary. For temperate and cold climates, the available studies provide indications that a possible increase in UVR exposure would primarily result from a reduction in clothing and only secondarily from changes in the time spent outdoors. Existing studies suggest a nonlinear, bell-shaped relationship with threshold value effects for the relationship between outdoor time and thermal conditions. If the local climate is already very warm and there are only minor seasonal differences, there is no statistically significant evidence of changes in behavior. If there is significant warm discomfort, there is a tendency to avoid being outdoors or in the sun. It is not justified to simply transfer and generalize results and conclusions to different climates and seasons and between different leisure activities and forms of active mobility. The geographical context must be considered also in terms of cultures and habits, adaptations , traffic and land use (urban, rural). In addition, changes in behavior can develop differently depending on individual characteristics of people such as heat affinity, leisure type, age and gender. Differentiated analyses are required that take into account and balance opposing effects.
... It should be noted that, however, it is a simple bioclimatic index and there are some more sophisticated bioclimatic indices such as UTCI and PET [50,51]. Apparent temperature especially has different clothing thermal insulation assumptions compared to the advanced clothing model in UTCI, which is affected by relative humidity, wind speed, and air temperature [52]. ...
... It should be noted that, however, it is a simple bioclimatic index and there are some more sophisticated bioclimatic indices such as UTCI and PET [50,51]. Apparent temperature especially has different clothing thermal insulation assumptions compared to the advanced clothing model in UTCI, which is affected by relative humidity, wind speed, and air temperature [52]. where AT is the apparent temperature in °C, Ta is the dry bulb temperature in °C; ρ is the water vapor pressure; v is the wind speed (m/s); and rh is the relative humidity. ...
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Previous studies have demonstrated that vegetation and increased air flow can mitigate air temperature by employing numerical models, satellite remote sensing or Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. This study aimed to examine how layouts of vegetation space and wind flow affect microclimate air temperature, which directly affects city dwellers’ thermal comfort in summer, in a real apartment housing complex in Seoul, South Korea. To do this, a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes model was utilized, combined with a finite volume method CFD simulation, and which measured transpirational cooling effects of vegetation by comprehensively considering air humidity by transpiration, as well as wind flow of the surroundings, to reflect actual conditions of urban environments. Based on the computational model, nine scenarios including elevated building designs were simulated. The findings of this study are as follows: First, different layouts of vegetation and wind flow clearly affected microclimate air temperature in the housing complex. Second, when the total area of vegetation was the same, it was more effective to reduce air temperature by placing it in small units rather than concentrating it in one place, and placing small vegetation spaces close to buildings was better than locating them between buildings. Third, it was apparent that an elevated space works as a wind path, leading to increasing wind velocity. However, it was revealed that wind flow does not always positively affect hot temperatures.
... Complementing this, we utilise weather station data from six of the most heavily impacted regional towns in northwest and central Queensland that experienced wide-spread cattle losses and infrastructure damage (see Table 1 for weather station information and Fig. 3 for approximate locations). Using the 9am and 3pm station temperature observations, we use the method of Steadman (1994) to compute apparent temperatures from the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. We utilise daily atmospheric fields of mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and 850-hPa winds from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis 1 (NNR; Kalnay et al., 1996), and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's polar-orbiting satellites. ...
... Comms.). However, we note that the apparent temperature calculation of Steadman (1994) was derived using the heat balance of the human body, not cattle, and it is likely that cattle standing in mud with wet coats experienced even greater heat losses and stress than indicated by these temperatures (Ferguson et al., 2008). The relatively cold conditions where maximum temperatures fell below 27 � C extended from 1 February (east coast) to 7 February (inland Gulf stations), after which temperatures rapidly rose to above 31 � C from 8 February (Fig. 5b) as the monsoon depression weakened and migrated eastwards. ...
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From late January to early February 2019, a quasi-stationary monsoon depression situated over northeast Australia caused devastating floods, killing an estimated 625,000 head of cattle in northwest Queensland, and inundating over 3 000 homes in the coastal city of Townsville. The monsoon depression lasted ~10 days, driving daily rainfall accumulations exceeding 200 mm/day, maximum temperatures 8–10 °C below normal, and wind gusts above 70 km/h. In this study, the atmospheric conditions during the event and its predictability on the weekly to subseasonal range are investigated. Results show that during the event, the tropical convective signal of the Madden-Julian Oscillation was over the western Pacific, and likely contributed to the heavy rainfall, however the El Niño-Southern Oscillation was not in the usual phase for increased rainfall over Queensland. Over the northern Tasman Sea, an anticyclone helped maintain a positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode and promote onshore easterly flow. Somewhat consistent with these climate drivers, the monthly rainfall outlook for February issued by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology on 31 January provided no indication of the event, yet forecasts, not available to the public, of weekly-averaged conditions by the Bureau's dynamical subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction system were more successful. For the week of 31 January to 6 February the prediction system forecast a more than doubling of the probability of extreme (highest quintile) weekly rainfall a week prior to the event, along with increased probabilities of extremely low (lowest quintile) maximum temperatures and extreme (highest quintile) wind speeds. Ensemble-mean weekly rainfall amounts, however, were considerably underestimated by the prediction system, even in forecasts initialised at the start of the peak flooding week, consistent with other state-of-the-art dynamical S2S prediction systems. Despite this, one of the individual ensemble members of the Bureau's prediction system did manage to forecast close to 85% of the magnitude of the rainfall across the most heavily impacted region of northwest Queensland a week before the event. Predicting this exceptional event beyond two weeks appears beyond our current capability despite the dynamical system forecasts showing good skill in forecasting the broad-scale atmospheric conditions north of Australia a week prior. Keywords: Extreme, Rainfall, Temperature, Flood, Forecast, Skill, Madden-Julian Oscillation, Subseasonal
... where rh = relative humidity (%). Currently, no comprehensive relationships between AT or temperature ranges and their effect on human health are available for Africa [28]. Therefore, an international symptom table developed by the United States National Weather Service (USNWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will be used in this study. ...
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Climate models predict that the global average temperature of Earth will rise in the future. Studies show that high classroom temperatures can affect the ability of the student to learn and function. It is important to understand the impact that heat will have on the health, wellbeing, and academic performance of learners, as they spend a significant amount of time in classrooms compared to any other environment. A follow-up panel study among 20 public primary schools in the Gauteng province (South Africa) will be carried out, in which Grade 4 learners will be selected to complete an hourly heat-health symptom questionnaire. A Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) test will be used to determine their memory and attention span. A nursing practitioner will measure body weight, height, and temperature. Lascar data loggers will be used to measure indoor classroom temperature. School principals will complete a questionnaire on existing school coping mechanisms and policies in place that help deal with hot weather conditions. This is the first study to quantitatively assess the effects of heat on learners’ health, well-being and school performance in South Africa. The outcomes of this study will enable policymakers and public officials to develop appropriate school heat adaptation and mitigation measures and will assist in channeling their resources where it is most needed.
... Colocar los datos de esta forma en una carta bioclimática resulta beneficioso a la hora de buscar soluciones; Baruch Givoni propone una serie de recursos en su libro Man, climate and architecture (Givoni, 1969) para varias situaciones y combinaciones de temperaturas y humedades, tal como se puede observar en la figura 3. Para hacer más acertada la apreciación del confort térmico de los posibles usuarios en un sitio determinado es necesario realizar algún cálculo de sensación térmica que tome en cuenta la presión atmosférica y el viento, por lo cual se utilizó un modelo matemático publicado por Orbert G. Steadman en 1994, aunque lo hace sin tomar en cuenta la radiación solar en el balance térmico del cuerpo humano (Steadman, 1994) Dichos datos obtenidos se catalogaron de acuerdo a sus características de temperatura y humedad, como se puede observar en la figura 4, en comparación con los parámetros de confort térmico de Olgyay. Estos datos nos permiten observar que solamente se tienen condiciones climáticas de confort durante el 4.73% del año, ubicadas esencialmente en las primeras y últimas semanas del año, entre las 14:00 y las 17:00 horas. ...
Article
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The need for people’s comfort has always led us to modify our environment, within this search for comfort we find thermal comfort, of a state of mental satisfaction with the environment. In places with warm-humid climate, such thermal comfort is difficult to achieve during several seasons of the year, due to the high temperatures that are accompanied by high levels of humidity, causing hot flashes. This essay is focused on expressing some of the problems that appear in the implementation of some passive air conditioning systems for housing projects with the climate in question, as well as some possible solutions to be analyzed. A simple methodology of passive design strategies, or low power consumption, to reduce temperatures and humidity is exposed. In the case study, Villahermosa, Tabasco, only ideal conditions are available approximately 4.73% of the time, while the high humidity levels remain throughout most of the year. The strategies analyzed in the article are: solar protection, natural and mechanical ventilation, passive and active low enthalpy geothermal, desiccant panels and the collection of water from dehumidification. The implementation of Peltier cells in dehumidification processes is proposed, which help to condense the water vapor contained in the air, so that when entering the homes it is more comfortable.
... JONSWAP, Joint North Sea Wave Project; LS-SVM, least square support vector machine; PV, photovoltaic [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]where T A is apparent temperature ( • C), T db is dry bulb temperature ( o C), v is the wind speed at 10-m height (m/s), p v is the vapor pressure of air (hPa) and can andbe computed from Equation (33).26 ...
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The purpose of this study is to model, simulate, and compare the performance of a photovoltaics system on land and at sea. To be able to have a fair comparison the effect of sea waves, wind speed and relative humidity are considered in this model. The sea waves are modeled in the frequency domain, using a wave spectrum. The irradiation on a tilted surface for a floating system is calculated considering the tilt angle that is affected by the sea waves. Moreover, the temperature is estimated based on heat transfer theory and the natural cooling system for both floating and land‐based photovoltaic systems. Actual measured weather data from two different locations, one located at Utrecht University campus and the other one on the North Sea, are used to simulate the systems, thus making the comparison possible. Energy yield is calculated for these weather conditions. The results show that the relative annual average output energy is about 12.96% higher at sea compared with land. However, in some months, this relative output energy increases up to 18% higher energy yield at sea. Modeling, simulation, and comparison for the performance of floating and land‐based PV systems. The effect of sea waves is considered to compute the irradiation on a varying tilted surface for the FPV system and wind speed is considered for computing the effect of the natural cooling system for both systems. The computed energy yields show that relative annual average output energy is about 12.96% higher at sea.
... Para analizar estas estrategias y hacer un estudio más detallado del costo que implicaría, se tomarán dos días representativos del caso de estudio: el día más caluroso (4 de mayo de 2017, tabla 1) y el día más húmedo (10 de septiembre de 2017, tabla 2) con los siguientes datos: Figura 3. Estrategias bioclimáticas para lograr condiciones higrotérmicas de confort. (Givoni, 1969) Con esos datos podemos calcular la sensación térmica, con un modelo matemático publicado por Robert G. Steadman en 1994, que toma en cuenta el impacto de la temperatura, la humedad, la velocidad del viento y la radiación, en el balance térmico del cuerpo humano (Steadman, 1994). Existen dos versiones, una que toma en consideración la radiación solar y otra que considera un ambiente en sombra total. ...
Article
Este artículo se enfoca en expresar algunas problemáticas con las que se encuentra la implementación de algunos sistemas de climatización pasiva para proyectos habitacionales ubicados en zonas climáticas cálido-húmedas, ya que la mayor parte del tiempo las condiciones climáticas son de disconfort térmico. El mayor problema es que las altas temperaturas están acompañadas de altos niveles de humedad, haciendo necesaria la implementación de más de dos estrategias de refrigeración, las que siendo efectivas, no logran ser suficientes para mantener niveles de confort la mayor parte del tiempo y hacen necesario el uso de sistemas activos que consumen bastante energía. En el desarrollo del artículo se analizan por separado algunas estrategias de climatización pasiva propuestas por Givoni en su carta bioclimática (Givoni, 1969) para conocer su grado de efectividad en un caso de estudio propuesto con clima cálido húmedo con lluvias todo el año. Con las estrategias estudiadas se busca disminuir la temperatura así como la humedad al interior de una habitación estándar.
... The following equation clarifies the process. (Steadman 1995 ...
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Climate change and air pollution are two independent risk factors to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Few studies investigated their interaction and potential effect modification of one another in developing countries. Individual level CVD hospital admission (ICD10: I00-I99) data for 1 January 2011 to 31 October 2016 were obtained from seven private hospitals in Cape Town. NO2, SO2, PM10, temperature and relative humidity data were obtained from the South African Weather Services and the City of Cape Town. A case-crossover epidemiological study design and conditional logistic regression model were applied. Various cut-off values were applied to classify cold and warm days. In total, 54,818 CVD hospital admissions were included in the study. In general, on warm and cold days the 15–64 years old group was more at risk for CVD hospitalization with increasing air pollution levels compared to all ages combined or the ≥ 65 years old group. Females appeared to be more at risk than males with increasing PM10 levels. In contrast, males were more vulnerable to the effects of NO2 and SO2 than females. The study showed the modification effect of temperature on air pollution associated with CVD hospital admissions. The consideration of such interaction will help in policy making and public health interventions dealing with climate change-related health risks.
... We used a generalized version of Steadman AT to measure the outdoor thermal comfort under shaded condition (Steadman 1994), including the effects of temperature, humidity, and wind speed (equation (4)). This index is designed to quantify the potential health effects of meteorological conditions and is suitable for both cold and hot temperature regimes. ...
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Urban land use land cover (LULC) change raises ambient temperature and modifies atmospheric moisture, which increases heat-related health risks in cities. Greenspace and bluespace commonly coexist in urban landscapes and are nature-based heat mitigation strategies. Yet, their interactive effects on urban thermal environments are rarely assessed and it remains unclear how extreme heat events (EHEs) affect their ability to regulate human thermal comfort. Using multi-year observations from a dense urban observational network in Madison, WI, we found that green and blue spaces jointly modify the intraurban spatiotemporal variability of temperature and humidity, and the resultant effects on thermal comfort show diurnal and seasonal asymmetry. Greenspace is more effective at cooling throughout the year, particularly at night. Accelerated cooling efficiency is found in areas with dominant greenspace coverage and little co-influence from bluespace. The thermal comfort benefit due to greenspaces can be offset by bluespaces because of intensified nighttime warming and humidifying effects during the warm months, although a weak daytime cooling of bluespace is observed. EHEs enhance bluespace cooling, but the overall joint thermal regulation remains the same due to the enhanced moisture effect. Our findings suggest that diverse outcomes of green and blue spaces cross multiple temporal scales should be holistically assessed in urban planning. The analysis framework based on generalized additive models is robust and transferable to other cities and applications to disentangle the nonlinear co-influences of different drivers of urban environmental phenomena.
... The monitoring campaign consists of three recording sessions carried out during the same day, i.e. 2 nd August 2017, at different time, i.e. 8 A.M., 2 P.M., 6 P.M. and following the same pre-defined monitoring 150 path.Collected air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity data are used to calculate the apparent 152 temperature -a heat index based on a mathematical model given by Robert G. Steadman that account 153 for these parameter on the human heat balance-by the formula given below[6]: humidity [%], and WS is the wind speed [m/s]. ...
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This article presents the data collected through an extensive research work conducted in a historic hilly town in central Italy during the period 2016-2017. Data concern two different datasets: long-term hygrothermal histories collected in two specific positions of the town object of the research, and three environmental transects collected following on foot the same designed path at three different time of the same day, i.e. during a heat wave event in summer. The short-term monitoring campaign is carried out by means of an innovative wearable weather station specifically developed by the authors and settled upon a bike helmet. Data provided within the short-term monitoring campaign are analysed by computing the apparent temperature, a direct indicator of human thermal comfort in the outdoors. All provided environmental data are geo-referenced. These data are used in order to examine the intra-urban microclimate variability. Outcomes from both long- and short-term monitoring campaigns allow to confirm the existing correlation between the urban forms and functionalities and the corresponding local microclimate conditions, also generated by anthropogenic actions. In detail, higher fractions of built surfaces are associated to generally higher temperatures as emerges by comparing the two long-term air temperature data series, i.e. temperature collected at point 1 is higher than temperature collated at point 2 for the 75% of the monitored period with an average of +2.8 °C. Furthermore, gathered environmental transects demonstrate the high variability of the main environmental parameters below the Urban Canopy. Diversification of the urban thermal behaviour leads to a computed apparent temperature range in between 33.2 °C and 46.7 °C at 2 PM along the monitoring path. Reuse of these data may be helpful for further investigating interesting correlations among urban configuration, anthropogenic actions and microclimate variables affecting outdoor comfort. Additionally, the proposed dataset may be compared to other similar datasets collected in other urban contexts around the world. Finally, it can be compared to other monitoring methodologies such as weather stations and satellite measurements available in the location at the same time.
... The Steadman apparent temperature (SAT, Steadman 1994) is defined as the temperature that (at a reference level of RH without wind speed) would produce the same level of discomfort in such as the current combination of ambient T, RH, and wind chill. The monthly averaged SAT (Steadman 1994;Karandeev 2015) in our work is determined for the following combination of parameters: average Uh and average T; the average Uh and minimum T; maximum Uh and the average T; maximum Uh and minimum T. The results were interpreted as follows: T \ -50°C for the dangerous conditions (frostbite in uncovered skin in less than 5 min of exposure), -50°C \ T \ -38 for the extreme caution (frostbite in uncovered skin after 10-15 min of exposure), -38°C \ T\-28°C to be cautious (frostbite in uncovered skin after 20-30 min of exposure; T [ -28°C being not to danger to a person dressed properly for the weather). ...
Article
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Student morbidity during adaptation to the weather and climate conditions of the Baltic Sea is evaluated from 2012 to 2017 in this study. The research used the Steadman apparent temperature method to analyse the health impact of physical factors and investigated student morbidity in three Kaliningrad universities that had different percentage responses to the local climate change. Apparent temperatures (T) with different combinations of meteorological parameters significantly deviated from monthly average temperatures. For the average temperature and maximum wind speed, apparent temperatures were found to be negative from September to March. In January and February, they were 7.8–16.8 times lower than the average T. With humidity (e.g., RH) unchanged, different combinations of physical factor posed no danger to a person dressed for the weather conditions. In January, at the minimum T and maximum wind speed (Uh), frostbite was possible after 20–30 of exposure. Apparent T close to the threshold value was observed in December and February. The climate of the Kaliningrad enclave is not the best for human health conditions. In the winter, there are serious risks of frostbite in uncovered parts of the body when threshold conditions were not met. Results suggested that disease susceptibility in non-local students representing all the universities was 1.2–1.7 times higher than these of locals students. Also, a relationship between morbidity and percentage of non-local students is obtained, suggesting that the weather and climate conditions will likely adversely affect human health during climate change adaptation that can likely increase the morbidity rate, particularly among the students.
... Essentially, it is an arrangement of the air temperature based on the humidity level and the wind chilling effect, but it does not include the solar radiation contribute in the formula adopted in the current work since the human body net radiation is not an available data according to the monitoring system configuration. The formula to calculate this index is reported below (4) and it is applicable to hot weather conditions (Australian Government-Bureau of Meteorology, 2010; Steadman, 1994): ...
Article
Microclimate change related events affect cities total environment and therefore citizens' wellbeing. In a framework of urban resilience challenge, it is important to guarantee thermally comfortable conditions to dwellers in outdoors but also to preserve cultural heritage masterpieces for tourism and local socio-cultural identity. This work couples an innovative field monitoring at multiple scales and a validated numerical modelling effort to identify indoor and outdoor critical conditions at the present time and in the future, according to IPCC climate change forecast scenarios. The authors focused the attention on the overheating risk of Gubbio historical city center, in central Italy. Experimental data analysis highlights the microclimate granularity of the case study with detected temperature discrepancies up to 2.5 °C observed at pedestrian height during the hottest hour, i.e. 2p.m. Collected data are then used to validate the numerical models of (i) the most significant building of the city and (ii) its surroundings to investigate indoor/outdoor thermal comfort stress due to climate change and local overheating. The combined analysis shows that indoor operative temperature reaches 32 °C on average in 80 years, compared to the current 29 °C value. In the outdoors, apparent temperature increases by about 10 °C on 2100, being responsible for a serious threat compromising socio-cultural life, human health and outdoor and recreational activities.
... Index (UTCI) [7], apparent temperature (AT) [8] and Colombia's IDEAM index [9] were calculated for each data-vector using temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. For each index, the standard deviation in each cluster is calculated and averaged across the solution. ...
Conference Paper
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Our goal is to develop a climatic classification system that extends understanding of human comfort and guides the design of buildings to provide greater thermal comfort to occupants and buildings that consume less energy. We propose that using k-means clustering with multivariate climate data a classification system can be defined to objectively represent comfort zones in the tropics. Our study focuses on Colombia, but the approach extends to other countries located in the tropics.
... At 3 °C, a wind of only 6 km/h creates a wind chill below freezing. 57 Chacma baboons on the southern coast of South Africa, exposed to average minimum temperatures of 3 °C in the austral winter, show elevated cortisol levels, indicating physiological stress. 58 Temperature regulation in the infant of a small-bodied hominin like H. naledi 31 exposed to such conditions would indeed be a challenge and would predispose to respiratory disease. ...
Article
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Discovery of a new hominin (Homo naledi) in the same geographical area as Australopithecus africanus creates the opportunity to compare developmental dental stress in higher latitude hominins with low that in latitude apes, among whom repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) recurs seasonally at about 6 or 12 months. In contrast to equatorial Africa, a single rainy/dry cycle occurs annually in non-coastal southern Africa. It is predicted that LEH will recur annually but not differ in duration between ancient and more recent hominins. Data were collected from epoxy casts of anterior teeth attributed to H. naledi (18 incisors, 13 canines) and A. africanus (29 incisors, 8 canines) using a digital microscope, surface scanner and scanning electron microscope. The location, number, width, depth and distance between defects (including perikymata counts and spatial measurements) of 136 LEH events were compared among crown moieties (deciles 4–6 and 7–9), tooth types and taxa. Enamel defects are concentrated in the cervical half of anterior crowns, and in similar numbers in each taxon. Contrary to expectations, H. naledi show bimodal LEH durations reconstructed at about 2 and 8 weeks compared to just 4 weeks in A. africanus. Both taxa show bimodally recurrent episodes of LEH centring on 2 and, more commonly and severely, 6 months. A combination of two independent annual stressor types, one disease and one seasonal, could explain the observations. These estimations of duration and recurrence of developmental stress require evaluation using actual perikymata periodicity for H. naledi and more refined understanding of palaeoenvironments for both taxa. Significance: • Seasonal stress is a central concern in the biological and health sciences. Because of the innate way that enamel is deposited, the timing of stress in the childhood of apes, modern humans and their fossil ancestors can be measured with a precision of about 1 week. • Application of this method to South African Pliocene Australopithecus africanus and Mid-Pleistocene Homo naledi reveals that, unexpectedly, both forms show semi-annual stress – a finding that is tentatively attributed to two independent annual stressors, possibly disease and malnutrition.
... The combination of the proposed methods was able to reduce the AOA up to 35% and indoor air temperature about 6 °C without using mechanical ventilation. A 6 °C drop in a dry temperature with 77% relative humidity during the day is actually equal to a 10 °C decrease in the RealFeel temperature (Steadman 1994). In the studied region, it was observed that roof coating color is less important, but the roof window on the leeward side was found to be the most important factor when the prevailing wind blows at one side for a long time. ...
Article
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Natural ventilation or self-ventilation is an economical way to improve indoor air quality. Climate factors such as temperature, received radiation, humidity, and wind flow can significantly affect natural ventilation of the buildings. This study aimed to investigate the performance of some commonly known strategies such as building orientation, aperture area, and coating color to promote natural ventilation on the hot and humid climate of southern Caspian Sea, north of Iran. These techniques are traditionally used without any specific knowledge on their individual importance and mutual effects. As an advanced modeling tool for energy assessment, Design-Builder was used along with computational fluid dynamics tab to numerically evaluate the results of each change. Among the many possible cases, seven scenarios were investigated by developing a comprehensive computer simulation model. The results show that thermal comfort can be increased up to 30% and suitable airflow can be achieved by increasing the space on the windward side, roof window on the leeward side, and employing light-colored coating for the rooftop. Applying these factors decreased the apparent temperature up to 10 °C in the summer design week.
... Half-hourly weather data recorded at the closest weather station to each match venue in each city were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for the entire length of the season. Apparent temperature (a function of ambient temperature, humidity and wind speed) (Steadman, 1994) was determined at the start time of each match along with the amount of rainfall for the ∼2.5 h duration of the match. Rainfall and wind speed were set to zero for matches played at the roofed Marvel Stadium. ...
Article
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Introduction: Accurate interpretation of activity profile data requires an understanding of the variables influencing player movement during matches. Methods: Over 65,000 stints (player rotations) from all 207 matches of the 2018 Australian Football League (AFL) season were evaluated. The relative activity profile including total distance per minute (TD), high-speed running distance per minute (HSR) and Player LoadTM per minute (PL) was determined for each stint and analysed against a range of match-related, player-related and environment-related predictor variables using multivariate linear mixed modelling. Effect size statistics along with the uncertainty in the estimates (95% confidence interval) were used to interpret the findings. Results: The smallest important effects on TD, HSR, and PL were calculated as 1.5%, 5.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. Stint duration had small to moderate negative effects on TD (-6%), PL (-7.7%), and HSR (-13%), while recovery duration between stints had a small positive effect on HSR (+7%). There were moderate reductions in TD (-8%), HSR (-23%), and PL (-9.6%) in the last quarter compared to the first quarter of matches, while similar reductions existed in subsequent stints compared to the first stint in each quarter. Moderate to large differences of up to 9% in TD, 48% in HSR and 12% in PL existed between positions. The TD of less experienced players was slightly higher than their more experienced counterparts (2-3%). A 5% increase in body mass was associated with a small reduction in HSR (-5.5%). There were small reductions in TD (-2%), HSR (-10%), and PL (-3%) during the Finals Series compared to the Premiership Season. Moderate levels of rainfall during matches and higher apparent temperatures had small negative effects on TD (-2%) and HSR (-6 and -9%). The number of days break between matches, score margin, match outcome, ground hardness, ground size, and traveling for the current or the previous match had trivial effects on the activity profile. Conclusion: Player position and stage of the match (quarter) had the largest effects on match activity profile while stint duration, recovery duration, stint timing, professional experience, body mass, stage of the season, and weather conditions also had substantial effects.
... Apparent temperature, a biometeorological index proposed by Steadman, seems to characterize more objectively the human perception of atmospheric temperature. This index is characterized by a combination of meteorological factors such as ambient temperature, humidity, and, optionally, solar radiation and wind speed [46,47]. A few studies have analyzed the association between apparent temperature and the incidence of ACS, and the results have varied. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Several studies have found that air pollution and climate change can have an impact on acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the leading cause of death worldwide. We synthesized the latest information about the impact of air pollution and climate change on ACS, the latest data about the pathophysiological mechanisms of meteorological factors and atmospheric pollutants on atherosclerotic disease, and an overall image of air pollution and coronary heart disease in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent Findings The variation of meteorological factors in different seasons increased the risk of ACS. Both the increase and the decrease in apparent temperature were found to be risk factors for ACS admissions. It was also demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants, especially particulate matter, increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Summary Climate change as well as increased emissions of air pollutants have a major impact on ACS. The industrialization era and the growing population cause a constant increase in air pollution worldwide. Thus, the number of ACS favored by air pollution and the variations in meteorological factors is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years.
... SWBGT was designed to estimate heat stress in sports medicine, as a measure to prevent heat-related injuries during training, and represents realistic conditions of hard exertion where some but not all skin is wet and exposed (American College of Sports Medicine, 1984;Buzan et al., 2015;Ma et al., 2017). AT was developed to measure thermal comfort and thermal responses in humans and applies to general conditions where a person is fully clothed and not perspiring much (Buzan et al., 2015;Ma et al., 2017;Steadman, 1994). HU-MIDEX was developed for the Meteorological Service of Canada and describes the "feels-like" temperature for humans (Buzan et al., 2015;Ma et al., 2017;Masterton & Richardson, 1979). ...
Article
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The effectiveness of urban hydrological processes in mitigating the urban heat island (UHI) effect and human thermal stress in the megacity of Nanjing during an extreme heat wave event (6th–10th August 2013) was assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting Single-Layer Urban Canopy Models. The inclusion of urban hydrological processes improved model performance, with more reasonable diurnal cycles and smaller mean errors, root mean square errors, and normalized root mean square errors for meteorological variables. Through evaporative cooling, urban hydrological processes can greatly increase specific and relative humidity, while reducing near-surface and surface temperatures, wind speed, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, and the cooling and wetting effects could affect the entire PBL, especially in low-intensity residential areas. Urban hydrological processes can effectively mitigate both the near-surface and surface UHI effect. The city-wide mitigation effectiveness of near-surface UHI ranged between 0.9°C and 1.1°C throughout the day, while the city-wide mitigation effectiveness of surface UHI at noon reached ∼5°C. The maximum reduction of near-surface and surface UHI in low-intensity residential areas reached 1.3°C and 10.0°C, respectively. Changes in heat stress indices indicate that the cooling effect improves human thermal comfort at night, while the increased humidity outweighs the cooling effect and exacerbates human thermal discomfort during daytime. The city-wide thermal stress increased by up to 0.4°C, 0.2°C, and 0.5°C during daytime and decreased by up to 0.4°C, 0.3°C, and 0.6°C at night for wet-bulb globe temperature, apparent temperature, and humidity index, respectively.
... The differences in the daily average minimum temperature between plots within the woodland (plots 3-8) and the control plots for each month were also graphically examined. In addition, the difference in apparent temperature between control and sheltered plots was calculated using the method of Steadman (1994). Apparent temperature takes into account temperature, wind speed and relative humidity and is therefore a good measure of a range of microclimatic conditions. ...
Article
The retention of native woodland remnants in agricultural landscapes provides a range of benefits, many of which are linked to the ameliorative effects of trees on local microclimatic conditions. We monitored the reduction in wind speed and extreme temperatures that occurred in and around two native eucalypt woodland remnants in the Tasmanian Midlands and discuss the role of woodland remnants in providing both agricultural and environmental benefits. Monitoring wind speed, temperature and relative humidity every 30 min for over a year showed that an average wind speed reduction of 50% occurred within the woodland remnants as well as higher minimum temperatures by up to 0.5 C. The structural characteristics of the woodland remnants mediated the effects observed, with a 50% reduction in wind speed occurring when there was the equivalent of 20 large trees blocking the wind. This demonstrates that areas with low numbers of trees per hectare can have significant impacts on microclimatic conditions. The microclimatic changes observed will likely benefit agricultural productivity, farm aesthetics and ecological processes.
... Apparent temperature (AP) can be a significant signal of the human thermal comfort level. AP which is a metric used to quantify thermal comfort or discomfort (Jacobs et al. 2013) is commonly deemed to have a close relationship with air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and other climatic factors (Steadman 1984;Steadman 1994). The effect of strong wind in cold conditions (wind chill) and high atmospheric humidity in hot conditions (heat stress) have been analyzed to further the understanding of thermal comfort and apparent temperature (Quayle and Steadman 1998;Delworth et al. 1999;Kovats and Hajat 2008). ...
Article
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In this study, a stepwise-clustered statistical downscaling model is established to simulate future apparent temperatures based on NCEP reanalysis data and four global climate models (GCMs). AP is a metric used to quantify thermal comfort or discomfort. The model can express nonlinear relationships between variables at large scale and local scale. The model is employed for projecting future apparent temperature changes over the Pearl River Delta (PRD), on the south coast of China, under three representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios. The cluster tree generated for the daily apparent temperature is calibrated for the period 1971–1990 and validated for the period 1991–2000. The R2 values obtained for the validation period at eight selected cities for four GCMs (i.e., CanESM2, CNRM-CM5, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, and IPSL-CM5A-LR) are 0.88, 0.87, 0.86, and 0.87, respectively. The results reflected that apparent temperature is projected to have a constant increment over the PRD in the future period (2035–2095). Moreover, the monthly apparent temperature in April has the largest expected increment in the future period, while the smallest increment is found in January. The results also indicated that the apparent temperature increases faster than the air temperature under the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 scenarios in the PRD. The findings illuminate that the expected increase in apparent temperature over the PRD can be mainly explained by increasing air temperatures and decreasing wind speeds. The results can provide decision makers with useful information for urban health risk assessments.
... T data result from the elaboration of hourly surface air temperatures, retrieved from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast ERA5 reanalysis [16] , having a horizontal resolution of ∼31 km from 1979 onwards. Similarly, AT values are calculated from the ERA5 database, following Steadman [26] and Buzan et al. [8] criteria ( Fig. 1 ). ...
Article
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This study presents an approach developed to derive a Delayed-Multivariate Exposure-Response Model (D-MERF) useful to assess the short-term influence of temperature on mortality, accounting also for the effect of air pollution (O3 and PM10). By using Distributed, lag non-linear models (DLNM) we explain how city-specific exposure-response functions are derived for the municipality of Rome, which is taken as an example. The steps illustrated can be replicated to other cities while the statistical model presented here can be further extended to other exposure variables. We derive the mortality relative-risk (RR) curve averaged over the period 2004-2015, which accounts for city-specific climate and pollution conditions. Key aspects of customization are as follows: ● This study reports the steps followed to derive a combined, multivariate exposure-response model aimed at translating climatic and air pollution effects into mortality risk. ● Integration of climate and air pollution parameters to derive RR values. ● A specific interest is devoted to the investigation of delayed effects on mortality in the presence of different exposure factors.
... In this study, we examine the changes in eight different heat stress metrics across China. These are (see also Table S2): Apparent Temperature (AT) (Steadman, 1994), Discomfort Index (DI) (Epstein & Moran, 2006), Effective Temperature (ET) (Gagge, 1971), the US National Weather Service Heat Index (HI) (Rothfusz, 1990), Humidex (HX) (Masterson & Richardson, 1979), Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) (NOAA, 1976), simplified Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (sWBGT) (Willett & Sherwood, 2012), and Wet-Bulb Temperature (WBT) (Stipanuk, 1973 subregions of China on the absolute magnitudes of heat stress. The anomaly in a month is calculated by subtracting the climatological mean (as obtained by averaging all values in 30 calendar months of the reference period 1971-2000) from the original value in that month. ...
Article
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More than half of the total population in China are living in cities. Especially, the people in highly developed and spatially integrated city clusters, i.e., urban agglomerations (UAs), are facing increasing human-perceived heat stress that describes the combined effects of hot temperature, high humidity, and lowered surface wind speed. By analyzing multiple indicators over 20 major UAs across China, we demonstrate that summer heat stress has been significantly intensifying in nearly all UAs during 1971‒2014. This intensification is more profound in northern than southern regions and is especially stronger in more urbanized and densely populated areas (e.g., Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta). Based on a dynamic classification of weather stations using time-varying land use/land cover maps, we find that urban core areas exhibit distinctly stronger increasing heat stress trends than their surrounding rural areas. On average, urbanization contributes to approximately one-quarter of the total increase in mean heat stress over urban core areas of UAs and nearly half of the total increase in extreme heat events. The urbanization effect is also dependent on the geographical region within China. Urbanization tends to have stronger intensifying effects on heat stress in UAs with higher population density in low-altitude areas, while it has a relatively weaker intensifying and even weakening effect in some arid and high-altitude regions. Moreover, as various heat stress metrics may yield different estimations of long-term trend and urbanization contribution, the particular choice of heat stress indicator is of critical importance for investigations on this subject matter.
... For the sensitivity analysis, we also investigated the effect of minimum, maximum and apparent temperatures on daily ED visits. 29 Missing values on a specific day were imputed with the average of the measure in that specific year. Weekly data on ILI notifications were taken from the National Health Service Sentinel System (InfluNet). ...
Article
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Objectives: The emergency department (ED) is one of the most critical areas in any hospital. Recently, many countries have seen a rise in the number of ED visits, with an increase in length of stay and a detrimental effect on quality of care. Being able to forecast future demands would be a valuable support for hospitals to prevent high demand, particularly in a system with limited resources where use of ED services for non-urgent visits is an important issue. Design: Time-series cohort study. Setting: We collected all ED visits between January 2014 and December 2019 in the five larger hospitals in Milan. To predict daily volumes, we used a regression model with autoregressive integrated moving average errors. Predictors included were day of the week and year-round seasonality, meteorological and environmental variables, information on influenza epidemics and festivities. Accuracy of prediction was evaluated with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Primary outcome measures: Daily all-cause EDs visits. Results: In the study period, we observed 2 223 479 visits. ED visits were most likely to occur on weekends for children and on Mondays for adults and seniors. Results confirmed the role of meteorological and environmental variables and the presence of day of the week and year-round seasonality effects. We found high correlation between observed and predicted values with a MAPE globally smaller than 8.1%. Conclusions: Results were used to establish an ED warning system based on past observations and indicators of high demand. This is important in any health system that regularly faces scarcity of resources, and it is crucial in a system where use of ED services for non-urgent visits is still high.
... Within the literature, models including AT and assessing the impact on health of meteorological conditions combined with air pollutants are performed on different Italian and European cities (Analitis et al., 2018). The calculation used derives from Steadman (1994) and Buzan et al. (2015) and follows Eq. (1): ...
Article
Heat and cold temperatures associated with exposure to poor air quality lead to increased mortality. Using a generalized linear model with Poisson regression for overdispersion, this study quantifies the natural-caused mortality burden attributable to heat/cold temperatures and PM10 and O3 air pollutants in Rome and Milan, the two most populated Italian cities. We calculate local-specific mortality relative risks (RRs) for the period 2004–2015 considering the overall population and the most vulnerable age category (≥85 years). Combining a regional climate model with a chemistry-transport model under future climate and air pollution scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5), we then project mortality to 2050. Results show that for historical mortality the burden is much larger for cold than for warm temperatures. RR peaks during wintertime in Milan and summertime in Rome, highlighting the relevance of accounting for the effects of air pollution besides that of climate, in particular PM10 for Milan and O3 for Rome. Overall, Milan reports higher RRs while, in both cities, the elderly appear more susceptible to heat/cold and air pollution events than the average population. Two counterbalancing effects shape mortality in the future: an increase associated with higher and more frequent warmer daily temperatures – especially in the case of climate inaction – and a decrease due to declining cold-mortality burden. The outcomes highlight the urgent need to adopt more stringent and integrated climate and air quality policies to reduce the temperature and air pollution combined effects on health.
... The level of thermal sensation is also affected by acclimatisation/adaptation. Studies show that people who originate from hot climates are comfortable at higher temperatures than those coming from in cooler climates [16][17][18]. The mathematical model of heat balance in the human body should include the effects of temperature, humidity, wind speed and radiation [19]. ...
Chapter
The operational management of a smart city environment using IoT data is a challenge. Resource descriptor framework (RDF) techniques interpret relationships in activity profiles to generate better situationally aware operational information. The data analysis uses a system process approach, to create an effective smart city monitoring and management system. The two-year project uses a LoRaWAN network of sensor nodes across a 127-ha campus, using customised sensors, producing a daily operational record of three important criteria: (a) human traffic count, (b) temperature and (c) humidity, at each of the seventy-one carefully selected locations. An ontology-based semantic framework is used to describe, in process-driven operational terms, campus-related activity, including before, during and in the waning days of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper shows how the technology is used on the Macquarie University Campus and environs, process optimization methods tried, predictive techniques developed to improve operational effectiveness in an evolving smart city environment.
... To control the combined effect of temperature and humidity on humans, we calculated a composite indicator, apparent temperature (AT, • C), based on mean temperature ( • C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (m/s), using the following formulas [14]: ...
Article
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Temperature change is an important meteorological indicator reflecting weather stability. This study aimed to examine the effects of ambient temperature change on non-accidental mortality using diurnal temperature change (DTR) and temperature change between neighboring days (TCN) from two perspectives, intra-day and inter-day temperature change, and further, to explore seasonal variations of mortality, identify the susceptible population and investigate the interaction between temperature change and apparent temperature (AT). We collected daily data on cause-specific mortality, air pollutants and meteorological indicators in Shenzhen, China, from 1 January 2013 to 29 December 2017. A Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) were conducted to estimate the effects of season on temperature change-related mortality. In addition, a non-parametric bivariate response surface model was used to explore the interaction between temperature change and AT. The cumulative effect of DTR was a U-shaped curve for non-accidental mortality, whereas the curve for TCN was nearly monotonic. The overall relative risks (RRs) of non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality were 1.407 (95% CI: 1.233–1.606), 1.470 (95% CI: 1.220–1.771) and 1.741 (95% CI: 1.157–2.620) from exposure to extreme large DTR (99th) in cold seasons. However, no statistically significant effects were observed in warm seasons. As for TCN, the effects were higher in cold seasons than warm seasons, with the largest RR of 1.611 (95% CI: 1.384–1.876). The elderly and females were more sensitive, and low apparent temperature had a higher effect on temperature change-related non-accidental mortality. Temperature change was positively correlated with an increased risk of non-accidental mortality in Shenzhen. Both female and elderly people are more vulnerable to the potential adverse effects, especially in cold seasons. Low AT may enhance the effects of temperature change.
... Two forms are in use by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology: one includes radiation and one does not. The AT index used here is based on a mathematical model of an adult walking outdoors in the shade 37 and thus does not include radiation: ...
Article
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Thermal stress poses a major public health threat in a warming world, especially to disadvantaged communities. At the population group level, human thermal stress is heavily affected by landscape heterogeneities such as terrain, surface water, and vegetation. High-spatial-resolution thermal-stress indices, containing more detailed spatial information, are greatly needed to characterize the spatial pattern of thermal stress to enable a better understanding of its impacts on public health, tourism, and study and work performance. Here, we present a 0.1° × 0.1° gridded dataset of multiple thermal stress indices derived from the newly available ECMWF ERA5-Land and ERA5 reanalysis products over South and East Asia from 1981 to 2019. This high-spatial-resolution database of human thermal stress indices over South and East Asia (HiTiSEA), which contains the daily mean, maximum, and minimum values of UTCI, MRT, and eight other widely adopted indices, is suitable for both indoor and outdoor applications and allows researchers and practitioners to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of human thermal stress and its impacts on densely populated regions over South and East Asia at a finer scale.
... Compared to the WBGT, the AT also includes the effect of wind into consideration. The formula of AT ( • C) from Steadman (1994) is defined as: ...
Article
One-size-fits-all approach is common in climate-sensitive urban design due to neglecting spatial heterogeneities in urban form and urban climate. This study explores a spatially-varied climate-sensitive urban design based on the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area (GBA). Three thermal indices, the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), the Apparent Temperature (AT), and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) are used to assess the outdoor thermal environments. The local climate zone (LCZ) classification system is used to map urban form including built and land-cover types. Moreover, incorporating spatial effects, geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used to account for spatially-varied thermal variations due to urban form changes. Our findings indicate that the large low-rise type (LCZ 8) needs more attention in built-up planning for thermal mitigation, and urban low plants type (LCZ D) should be a more effective nature-based climate mitigation strategy compared with the water bodies (LCZ G). The GWR results show a stronger consistency between UTCI and LCZ 8 and LCZ D, compared with WBGT and AT. UTCI is thus suggested for application in future urban climate studies. More importantly, the spatially-varied relationship between UTCI and urban form specifies the strategies and appropriate locations for thermal mitigation in climate-sensitive urban design.
Article
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In a series of three companion papers published in this Journal, we identify and validate the available thermal stress indicators (TSIs). In this first paper of the series, we conducted a systematic review (registration: INPLASY202090088) to identify all TSIs and provide reliable information regarding their use (funded by EU Horizon 2020; HEAT-SHIELD). Eight databases (PubMed, Agricultural and Environmental Science Collection, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Russian Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar) were searched from database inception to 15 April 2020. No restrictions on language or study design were applied. Of the 879 publications identified, 232 records were considered for further analysis. This search identified 340 instruments and indicators developed between 200 BC and 2019 AD. Of these, 153 are nomograms, instruments, and/or require detailed non-meteorological information, while 187 can be mathematically calculated utilizing only meteorological data. Of these meteorology-based TSIs, 127 were developed for people who are physically active, and 61 of those are eligible for use in occupational settings. Information regarding the equation, operating range, interpretation categories, required input data, as well as a free software to calculate all 187 meteorology-based TSIs is provided. The information presented in this systematic review should be adopted by those interested in performing on-site monitoring and/or big data analytics for climate services to ensure appropriate use of the meteorology-based TSIs. Studies two and three in this series of companion papers present guidance on the application and validation of these TSIs, to guide end users of these indicators for more effective use.
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The impact of sunlight on the income derived from spending and donations in a coastal charitable facility is examined. Data consisted of income during 2017 and 2018, together with daily sunshine hours and apparent temperature, and a linear regression model was employed to determine the importance of these meteorological variables on income. Results indicated that income increased with both increasing sunshine hours and apparent temperature, but with an interaction effect (negative coefficient) between sunlight and apparent temperature such that the effect of sunlight on income is positive at lower apparent temperatures and negative at higher apparent temperatures. So, besides its many direct and indirect effects on man, it appears that sunlight also acts as a positive driver in adventitious giving and buying. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Ongoing climate crisis increase people's outdoor thermal stress, discouraging outside activities and increasing indoor consumptions. Amelioration of urban microclimates is necessary to safeguard citizens from thermal strokes without energy-intensive strategies, ensuring future cities’ sustainable development. More than 200 calculation methods can be adopted with the purpose to design thermally comfortable public spaces, but existing literature lacks selection criteria to justifiably choose the appropriate ones. As resolution, the Metamatrix of Thermal Comfort has been developed. It's a graphical methodology, addressed to academicians and practitioners, that allows to rapidly comprehend and compare the specificities of 65 renowned thermal comfort indices and thermo-physiological models, explaining their mutual interactions. To promote practicality in thermal comfort studies, relying on calculation tools, an Operational version, including only 22 indices and models integrated in computer programs, is presented. A qualitative evaluation by approximately 30 criteria, such as climatic and physical factors, meteorological conditions, solar exposure and type of environment, allows to select thermal comfort calculation methods compatible to specific needs. To find appropriate computational tools, the Metamatrix of Software can be consulted. An application example is provided, proving the suitability of this graphical methodology as a powerful asset to apply outdoor thermal comfort-driven design to urban planning.
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This study attempts to measure the spatial correlation length (SCL) of summer extreme heat stress in any location by using a characterized scale identification method. Daily datasets of multiple meteorological variables from 2134 observation stations over eastern China during 1961‐2010 were used. Three types of heat indexes (a total of 7 indexes) were applied to characterize the heat stress. The first type used a single variable, that is, daily maximum temperature (Tmax) or daily minimum temperature (Tmin), while the second used mean temperature (T) and relative humidity, and the third used T, vapor pressure, and 10‐m wind speed. A 90th percentile of the climatology of local heat stress was applied to identify hot days. The SCLs of heat stress were analyzed in three regions: North China (NC), the Yangtze River Valley (YRV), and South China (SC). Results showed that the trend changes in heat stress had obvious temporal and geographical characteristics, especially in NC and YRV. Generally, the SCLs of heat stress in NC were the largest, reaching more than 440 km for Tmax, with YRV second, about 350 km, and SC the smallest, only about 185 km. This phenomenon could be found for almost all indexes. Moreover, the SCLs of the first two types of heat indexes (except Tmin) for the three regions were greater than that of the third one, particularly in NC and YRV, which was related to inconsistent changes in the variables used and the primary role of which one characterized the heat stress. The spatial distributions of high SCLs for all indexes were in line with that of the major urban agglomeration in eastern China. The SCL of heat stress for a location was related not only to the changes themselves, but also to the surroundings, involving the number and spatial distribution of hot days.
Preprint
Prolonged periods of extreme heat also known as heatwaves are a growing concern in a changing climate. Over the Sahel, a hot and semi-arid region in West Africa, they are still relatively poorly understood and managed. In this research, five multivariate thermal indices derived from the ERA-Interim database were used to characterize Sahelian heatwaves for statistical analysis and as a sampling basis to investigate their underlying physical processes. Results show that on average most locations in the Sahel suffer from one or two heatwaves a year lasting three to five days but with severe magnitude. The eastern Sahel is more at risk than the west, experiencing more frequent and longer lasting events. Despite similar statistics of intensity, duration and frequency across the heatwave indices, for a given diurnal phase, there is surprisingly low agreement in the timing of events. Furthermore daytime and nighttime heatwaves have little synchronicity. In terms of associated physical processes temperature advection and the greenhouse effect of water vapour and clouds are identified as the main causes of Sahelian heatwaves. The processes are nevertheless sensitive to the indices, consequence of the distinctness of their respective samples. Therefore attention should be given to the choice of either index in operational monitoring and forecasting of heatwaves. This will allow to effectively target different exposed socioeconomic groups and resultantly enhance the efficiency of early warning systems. Abstract 8 Prolonged periods of extreme heat also known as heatwaves are a growing concern in a changing climate. Over 9 the Sahel, a hot and semi-arid region in West Africa, they are still relatively poorly understood and managed. In 10 this research, five multivariate thermal indices derived from the ERA-Interim database were used to characterize 11 Sahelian heatwaves for statistical analysis and as a sampling basis to investigate their underlying physical 12 processes. Results show that on average most locations in the Sahel suffer from one or two heatwaves a year 13 lasting three to five days but with severe magnitude. The eastern Sahel is more at risk than the west, experiencing 14 more frequent and longer lasting events. Despite similar statistics of intensity, duration and frequency across the 15 heatwave indices, for a given diurnal phase, there is surprisingly low agreement in the timing of events. 16 Furthermore daytime and nighttime heatwaves have little synchronicity. In terms of associated physical processes 17 temperature advection and the greenhouse effect of water vapour and clouds are identified as the main causes of 18 Sahelian heatwaves. The processes are nevertheless sensitive to the indices, consequence of the distinctness of 19 their respective samples. Therefore attention should be given to the choice of either index in operational 20 monitoring and forecasting of heatwaves. This will allow to effectively target different exposed socioeconomic 21 groups and resultantly enhance the efficiency of early warning systems. 22 23
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Evidence has emerged regarding the role of seasonality and several meteorological parameters on bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and depression. We investigated the relationship between ambient and apparent temperature and hospital admissions of major psychiatric diseases in a psychiatric clinic of a General Hospital situated in Northern Greece during 2013–19. Data about temperature was provided by the National Observatory of Athens and diagnosis for psychotic, schizophrenic, manic and bipolar and unipolar depression were retrieved from medical records. A total of 783 admissions were recorded. Poisson regression models adjusted for time trends were applied to analyze the impact of temperature on monthly admissions. A summer peak was observed for the bipolar disorder, irrespectively of substance/alcohol use status. Seasonality emerged also for psychotic and schizophrenic patients with a through in winter. An increase of 1 °C in either ambient or apparent temperature was associated with an increase 1–2% in the monthly admissions in most outcomes under investigation. Alcohol and drug abuse did not modify this effect. Although our results indicate effects of temperature on psychiatric admissions, they are not consistent across subgroups populations and need to be replicated by other methodologically superior studies.
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Urban heat island (UHI) is the best acknowledged climate-change related phenomenon also because it affects population health conditions in dense urban areas, even exacerbated during heat waves. While most of field studies are performed by means of permanent weather stations, this paper presents an intra-urban microclimate analysis through wearable sensing techniques for monitoring and characterizing granular peculiarities as perceived by urban pedestrians. The study is implemented in four areas of New York City presenting already mitigation techniques. These strategies are specifically analyzed from the pedestrians' perspective, who may walk along parks and sidewalks, to better study real boundary conditions responsible for thermal perception, even in those areas where vehicles are not allowed. A novel cluster analysis procedure is then carried out to perform data-driven identification of urban microclimate peculiarities in relation to its morphology (e.g. urban canyons etc.). Results show a non-negligible dependency from urban configuration both in winter and in summer. Measurements in the high-packed district winter daytime show a drop off of 0.6 °C in air temperature close to small parks. The packed low-rise district presents highest values of CO2, with respect to the other monitored areas both in winter and in summer. The same areas are automatically recognized through the data-driven clustering process. The data-driven approach may be therefore successfully integrated into classic measurements to investigate UHI and heat stress in dense anthropized areas.
Chapter
Higher accuracy, high sensitivity, immune to environmental dust, rain, snow, etc. of ultrasonic sensors, make it popular for industrial applications. It can accurately measure the distance of an object regardless of shape, surface texture, etc. In this paper, ultrasonic sensor is used to measure the distance of the float of Rotameter in order to measure the flow rate. Rotameter, an indicating type linear flow meter, is modified with the help of ultrasonic sensor so that it can transmit information in remote location in the form of electrical signal. Here, the flow rate of the liquid is converted into voltage using ultrasonic sensor, microcontroller, signal conditioning circuit and current to voltage converter. The whole system is reported in the paper.
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Background This study investigated the relationship between apparent temperature (AT) and the incidence of acute excessive drinking in Shenzhen, China, and estimated attributable risk fraction and absolute excess number for different apparent temperature ranges and subgroups. Methods We conducted a time-series analysis of data on the daily incidence of acute excessive drinking from 2013 to 2017 using a Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model. Subgroup analysis by gender and age was also conducted. Results This study included 85,833 acute excessive drinkers. Both high and low AT showed significantly non-linear and delayed risk effects on excessive drinking; high AT showed acute and strong effects and low AT showed delayed and mild effects. The total attributable risk fraction (AF) contributed by non-optimum ATs was 10.15% (95% empirical CI [eCI]: 5.32–14.38); the AF was the highest in mild heat (75th–95th percentiles) (4.21%, 95% eCI: 1.74–6.30). The absolute excess number (EN) of excessive drinkers were the highest in extreme cold (≤1st percentile) and extreme heat (≥99th percentile) (205, 95% eCI: 39–335 and 356, 95% eCI: 175–509, respectively). Conclusions Both high and low AT had the positive association with the risk of acute excessive drinking. Extreme ATs led to the greatest excess number of acute excessive drinkers.
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Limited evidence is available on apparent temperature (AT) and hospital admissions for acute cardiac events. We examined the associations of AT with admissions for acute cardiac events and acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and explored the effect difference between ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction ACS (NSTE-ACS). Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to examine the temperature-lag-admission associations. Stratified analyses were performed by gender and age-groups for acute cardiac events. A total of 11,657 acute cardiac events admissions were collected from hospital-based chest pain centers in Beijing, during 2017–2019. The single day effect of low AT (− 11 °C, 2.5th percentile) appeared on the 2nd day and persisted until the 11th day, with estimated relative risk (RR) ranging from 1.44 (95% CI: 1.159, 1.790) to 1.084 (95% CI: 1.022, 1.150) for acute cardiac events and from 1.034 (95% CI: 1.010, 1.059) to 1.006 (95% CI: 1.000, 1.011) for ACS. The single day effect of high AT (34 °C, 97.5th percentile) was only observed on the current day. The cold effect on acute cardiac events was more pronounced among female and older patients. The cumulative effect of high AT on STEMI admissions and low AT on NSTE-ACS reached a peak RR peak of 2.545 (95% CI: 1.016, 6.375) and 3.71 (95% CI: 1.315, 10.469) on lag 0–6 days, respectively. Both high and low ATs were associated with increased risk of acute cardiac events and ACS admissions. STEMI admissions may be more sensitive to high AT while NSTE-ACS to low AT.
Article
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Prolonged periods of extreme heat also known as heatwaves are a growing concern in a changing climate. Over the Sahel, a hot and semi-arid region in West Africa, they are still relatively poorly understood and managed. In this research, five multivariate thermal indices derived from the ERA5 database were used to characterize Sahelian heatwaves for statistical analysis and as a sampling basis to investigate their underlying thermodynamic causes. Results show that on average most locations in the Sahel suffer from one or two heatwaves a year lasting 3–5 days but with severe magnitude. The eastern Sahel is more at risk than the west, experiencing more frequent and longer lasting events. Despite similar statistics of intensity, duration and frequency across the heatwave indices, for a given diurnal phase, there is surprisingly low agreement in the timing of events. Furthermore daytime and nighttime heatwaves have little synchronicity. In terms of associated thermodynamic processes, heat advection and the greenhouse effect of moisture are identified as the main causes of Sahelian heatwaves. The processes are nevertheless sensitive to the indices, consequence of the distinctness of their respective samples. Therefore attention should be given to the choice of either index in operational monitoring and forecasting of heatwaves. This will allow to effectively target different exposed socio-economic groups and resultantly enhance the efficiency of early warning systems.
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More frequent and intense heatwaves in the last decade have challenged humanitarian, health and meteorological authorities to mitigate impact. Meteorological heatwave monitoring and prediction services vary between heatwave definitions which either include humidity or are based only on temperature. Incorporation of humidity into human health heatwave studies and warning services has been variable. Whilst higher humidity is a known stressor during heatwaves, humidity is known to confound interpretation of heatwave data and can be difficult to monitor and forecast. This study examines the effect of humidity on diagnosed heatwave severity across Australia’s diverse climate zones. Dry bulb temperature is used as the only input into the Bureau of Meteorology’s current operational Excess Heat Factor (EHF) index. Alternative humidity-affected temperature indices (Apparent Temperature, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature and Heat Index) are examined for suitability as input to EHF to compare the incidence of dry and humidity-affected heatwave severity within Australia. This paper uses maximum and minimum dry and humidity affected temperature indices extracted from Australia’s Bureau of Meteorology Atmospheric high-resolution Regional Reanalysis for Australia (BARRA). Our investigation demonstrates Australia’s operational temperature-only percentile-based heatwave severity service provides effective heatwave warning guidance for five of Australia’s six diverse climate zones. However, rare very dry or very humid heatwaves in the tropics require both dry bulb temperature-only and Heat Index versions of Excess Heat Factor (EHF) severity index to provide competent operational heatwave early warning guidance.
Chapter
This article provides an overview of the various aspects of floating photovoltaic (FPV) system components and design, both for onshore and offshore applications. These include global growth, market, and potential. Special attention is given to experimental and modeled performance advantages as well as to the role of FPV systems in hybrid renewable energy systems.
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