The epidemiological evidence on relationships between air pollution, temperature, and stroke remains inconclusive. Limited evidence is available for the effect modification by apparent temperature, an indicator reflecting reactions to the thermal environment, on short-term associations between air pollution and hospital admissions for stroke. We used a generalized additive model with Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of stroke admissions in Shanghai, China, between 2014 and 2016 associated with air pollutants, with subgroup analyses by age, sex, apparent temperature, and season. During the study period, changes in the daily number of stroke admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide (at lags 0, 1, 0–1, and 0–2) ranged from 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82%, 2.88%) to 2.24% (95% CI: 0.84%, 3.65%). For each 10 μg/m3 increase in sulfur dioxide concentrations at lags 1, 2, 0–1, and 0–2, the RR of daily stroke admissions increased by 3.34 (95% CI: 0.955%, 5.79%), 0.32 (95% CI: −1.97%, 2.67%), 3.33 (95% CI: 0.38%, 6.37%), and 2.86% (95% CI: −0.45%, 6.28%), respectively. The associations of same-day exposure to nitrogen dioxide with stroke admissions remained significant after adjustment for ozone levels. These associations were not modified by sex, age, apparent temperature, or season. More research is warranted to determine whether apparent temperature modifies the associations between air pollution and stroke admissions.