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The Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process is a set of person-centered measures, all of which examine the self-reported perspectives of adult consumers regarding strengths/capabilities, needs/goals, preferences and psychosocial characteristics, and expected technology benefit. There are separate measures for general, assistive, educational, workplace, and healthcare technology use; in Ireland, the measures were used to assess outcomes of assistive technology (AT) provision for (a) people throughout the country participating in a new localized AT service delivery process and (b) students transitioning from secondary education. There are companion provider forms so that consumer-provider shared perspectives can be assessed and to ensure that the matching process is a collaborative one; the Irish version assumes collaboration from the start. Each measure can be used when evaluating a person for technology use and as person-centered, ideographic, outcomes measure. The measures have been determined to have good reliability and validity.
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1
Scherer, M.J. & Craddock, G. (2002). Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology &
Disability, Special Issue: The Assessment of Assistive Technology Outcomes, Effects and Costs, 14(3), 125-131.
Matching Person & Technology (MPT)
Assessment Process
1. Purpose
A good match of person and technology requires attention to aspects of the
environments in which the technology will be used, the needs and preferences of the user,
and the functions and features of the technology. If the match is not a quality one from the
standpoint of the consumer, the technology may not be used, or will not be used optimally.
There is a need for an improved person-AT matching and outcomes assessment process
because studies and reports show in general that there is a high level of dissatisfaction and
nonuse of technology by consumers.
An assessment process exists which has been effective in organizing the influences
impacting technology use: the Matching Person & Technology (MPT) Model and
assessment instruments [1]. It consists of instruments which have been validated for use
by persons with disabilities ages 15 and up (a measure targeted to technology use by
infants and children has also been developed: Matching Assistive Technology and CHild
or MATCH as has a version relevant to matching people with service animals). The MPT
is a practical and research resource to identify the most appropriate technology for a
person in light of the user’s needs and goals, barriers that may exist to optimal technology
use, areas to target for training for optimal use, and the type of additional support that may
enhance use. After the person has received the most appropriate technology for his or her
use, the MPT forms are administered at one or more times post AT acquisition to assess
changes in perceived capabilities, quality of life/subjective well-being, and such
psychosocial factors as self-esteem, mood, self-determination, and social participation and
support.
2. Conceptual basis
The Matching Person & Technology model/theory emerged from a grounded theory
research study and it addresses three primary areas to assess: (a) determination of the
milieu/ environment factors influencing use, (b) identification of the consumer's needs and
preferences, and (c) description of the functions and features of the most desirable and
appropriate technology [2,3]. To operationalize the model and theory, an assessment
process consisting of several instruments was developed from the experiences of
technology users and non-users through participatory action research.
3. Description
The Matching Person and Technology (MPT) process is both a personal and
collaborative (user and provider working together) assessment and consists of a series of
paper-and-pencil measures that can also be used as interview guides.. A range of
assessesments are offered from a quick screen, to specialized evaluations (which can be
completed in approximately 15 minutes) to a comprehensive assessment (which can be
completed in 45 minutes by someone trained and experienced in using the forms). The
process and forms are described in Table 1. The MPT process is applicable across a
variety of users and settings.
2
Scherer, M.J. & Craddock, G. (2002). Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology &
Disability, Special Issue: The Assessment of Assistive Technology Outcomes, Effects and Costs, 14(3), 125-131.
Table 1
__________________________________________________________________________________
The Matching Person & Technology Assessment Process and Instruments
__________________________________________________________________________________
Step One: Worksheet for the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) Model is used to
determine initial goals that the professional and the user have established, including possible
alternative goals. Second, potential interventions supportive of these goals are written in the space
provided on the form. Third, any technologies needed to support the attainment of the goals are
recorded.
Step Two: Technology Utilization Worksheet for the Matching Person and Technology (MPT)
Model is used to identify technologies used is the past, satisfaction with those technologies, and those
which are desired and needed but not yet available to the consumer. The professional and consumer
complete this form collaboratively.
Step Three: The consumer is asked to complete his or her version of the appropriate form depending
on the type of technology under consideration (general, assistive, educational, workplace or
healthcare). The user form may serve as a guide for an oral interview, if that seems more appropriate
for the situation. The professional completes the professional version of the same form and identifies
any discrepancies in perspective between the professional’s and the consumer’s responses. These
discrepancies then become a topic for discussion and negotiation.
Step Four: The professional discusses with the user those factors that may indicate problems
with his or her acceptance or appropriate use of the technology.
Step Five: After problem areas have been noted, the professional and consumer work to
identify specific intervention strategies and devise an action plan to address the problems.
Step Six: The strategies and action plans are committed to writing, for experience has shown
that plans that are merely verbalized are not implemented as frequently as written plans. Written
plans also serve as documentation and can provide the justification for any subsequent actions
such as requests for funding or release time for training.
__________________________________________________________________________________
Regarding Step Three in the MPT process, the current version of the Assistive
Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) is the MPT form of interest. The
ATD PA inquires into consumers’ subjective satisfaction with current achievements in a
variety of functional areas (9 items), asks consumers to prioritize aspects of their lives
where the most improvement is desired (12 items) profiles consumers’ psychosocial
characteristics (33 items), and asks for consumers’ views of twelve aspects of using a
particular type of assistive device. Sample items in each of these areas are shown in Table
2. The ATD PA (professional form) allows the professional to determine and evaluate
incentives and disincentives to the use of the device by a particular consumer.
Table 2
__________________________________________________________________________________
Selected Items from the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment Consumer Form
__________________________________________________________________________________
Name Date of Birth ____________
Primary Goals Today’s Date ____________
_______________________________________________ Form completed by ______
A. How are your current capabilities in the following areas? Please circle the best response for each.
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Scherer, M.J. & Craddock, G. (2002). Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology &
Disability, Special Issue: The Assessment of Assistive Technology Outcomes, Effects and Costs, 14(3), 125-131.
Poor Average Excellent
2. Hearing 1 2 3 4 5
3. Speech 1 2 3 4 5
5. Physical strength/stamina 1 2 3 4 5
6. Lower extremity control 1 2 3 4 5
9. Mobility 1 2 3 4 5
B. How satisfied are you with what you have achieved in the following areas? Circle the best response
for each.
12. Physical comfort & well-being 1 2 3 4 5
13. Overall health 1 2 3 4 5
15. Ability to go where desired (mobility, transportation) 1 2 3 4 5
16. Educational attainment 1 2 3 4 5
17. Employment status/potential 1 2 3 4 5
18. Emotional well-being 1 2 3 4 5
Now put a number beside the ones you most want to see improve over time in terms of their
importance to you (#1 in importance, #2 in importance, etc.). For each, also indicate if the primary
obstacle you are facing is due to environmental barriers [E] or to your disability [D].
C. Please circle all the statements below that describe you.
I am a calm person I find technology interesting I often feel isolated & alone
I am patient & easy-going I am cooperative I accomplish what I set out to do
I prefer a quiet lifestyle I am often depressed I am self-disciplined
I feel the general public accepts me I want/need to go to school or work I am often angry
For Comparing Devices to Meet Desired Outcomes
DIRECTIONS: write the name of each device being considered in the boxes under DEVICE. Read each of the twelve
items below (A-L) and circle the letter of the three that are most important. Now rate each device for the twelve items
(A-L) according to the following scale:
5 = All the time
4 = Often
3 = half the time, neutral or not applicable
2 = Sometimes
1 = Not at all
A. Will the assistance and accommodations exist for successful use of this device?
B. Does the device fit in all desired environments (car, living room, etc.)?
F. Does this device fit in with your accustomed routine?
H. Do you have the capabilities and stamina to use the device without discomfort, stress and fatigue?
J. Will you feel self-conscious using this device around friends?
L. Will you feel self-conscious using this device around the community?
Copyright 2001 M.J. Scherer
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness
The development and validation of the ATD PA followed the recommended steps for
test/measure construction as follows: (1) concept definition and clarification, (2) draft of
items and response scales, (3) pilot testing, and (4) determination of measure quality and
usefulness [4]. Studies related to the psychometric properties of the ATD PA include the
following:
Inter-rater Reliability. Thirty rehabilitation professionals or graduate students rated
videotaped interviews, supplemented with written information, of individuals using ATs.
Item modes were calculated and the differences between the mode and individual rater
responses were computed. The items related to the AT itself and use of the technology
4
Scherer, M.J. & Craddock, G. (2002). Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology &
Disability, Special Issue: The Assessment of Assistive Technology Outcomes, Effects and Costs, 14(3), 125-131.
within the family or workplace received the highest consistency in ratings. Items
concerned with user characteristics and whether each was an incentive or disincentive to
AT use had less consistent agreement [5,6].
Internal Consistency. Twenty persons with newly acquired SCI (10 males and 10
females) completed items from (a) Section B of the ATD PA hypothesized to assess QOL,
(b) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and (c) Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) while
in acute rehabilitation. One month post-discharge, subjects rated their assistive
technology satisfaction. Item analyses were conducted on the hypothesized ATD PA scale
hypothesized to assess QOL. Initially, each item was correlated with the total score for
QOL (with the item removed). All items were retained in the analysis and coefficient
alpha for the QOL subset was .80, which is high [7,8].
In Ireland, the QOL scale also has high internal consistency with a coefficient alpha
above .80. In the from used to assess AT needs and preferences of students transitioning
from secondary education to employment or university, a scale to measure Learner Self
Esteem and Independence has high internal consistency with a coefficient alpha above .80.
Criterion-Related Validity. Older adults (mean age 65) with normal hearing and
comparably aged users of assistive listening devices or ALDs completed the following
measures: (a) Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly, (b) The Communication Profile
for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI), and (c) the ATD PA. Parts of both the CPHI and the
ATD PA produced significant mean differences between ALD users and non-users,
suggesting the value of assessing personality and psychosocial factors involved in
technology use [9]. Users in general attribute more value to ALDs, have higher
psychological readiness for adopting technical assistance, and perceive fewer difficulties
with technology use around family, friends, at work or school than do non-users. Then,
behavioral and audiological data were obtained from 40 subjects 61-81 years of age.
Group A included 20 subjects with normal audiological thresholds. Group B included 20
subjects with mild-to-moderate degrees of high-frequency hearing loss. Each subject
completed a hearing loss screening survey, ATD PA and Profile of Hearing Aid
Performance (PHAP). The PHAP and hearing loss screen were adequate assessments of
self-reported hearing loss, as was the subjective rating of hearing section of the ATD PA.
People with high-frequency marginal hearing loss reported less satisfaction with their
independence, reduced emotional well-being, and more limitation from their hearing loss
than those with normal hearing. Discriminant analyses showed that the ATD PA was the
best predictor of membership in Group A or Group B, correctly classifying 85 percent of
the participants and providing psychosocial markers associated with awareness of and
adaptation to hearing loss [10]
Concurrent and Construct Validity. Twenty persons with newly acquired SCI (10
males and 10 females) completed items from (a) Section B of the ATD PA hypothesized
to assess QOL, (b) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and (c) Brief Symptom
Inventory (BSI) while in acute rehabilitation. One month post-discharge, subjects rated
their assistive technology satisfaction. Concurrent validity of the ATD PA’s QOL scale
with the SWLS and construct validity with the BSI depression subscale was assessed
using Spearman correlations. All items on both the SWLS and QOL subset correlate
negatively with the BSI depression subscale. The QOL scale total score and SWLS total
score correlated very highly (.89, p<.01) which suggests that they measure the same
construct, in this case quality of life [8].
Predictive Validity. To determine the usefulness of the ATD PA in determining
reasons for device nonuse or abandonment, 47 persons with mixed diagnoses discharged
from an acute inpatient rehabilitation unit completed the instrument at the time of
discharge and at 3-months postdischarge. Their occupational and physical therapists
5
Scherer, M.J. & Craddock, G. (2002). Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology &
Disability, Special Issue: The Assessment of Assistive Technology Outcomes, Effects and Costs, 14(3), 125-131.
completed the professional form of the ATD PA. Among all participants, 128 devices
were prescribed; of these, 86 were still used at 3-mo follow-up. For those abandoned, the
most frequent reason given was that the device was no longer needed, although functional
improvement (as measured by the FIM) corresponded with device nonuse for just half the
devices. Chi-square comparisons of consumer- and therapist-completed forms showed: 1)
consumers view some ATs more positively than others, the least positive in this study
being walkers; 2) consumers and therapists have different views of the benefits of an AT;
and 3) the adaptations required for use of an AT are not well recognized by consumers.
The results from the ATD PA indicated that consumers have positive expectations of
devices and, if actual performance falls short of expectations, the response may be to
discard use of the device; this may be prevented by longer trial periods with devices in a
variety of situations [11]
In another study, twenty persons with newly acquired SCI (10 males and 10
females) completed items from (a) Section B of the ATD PA hypothesized to assess QOL,
(b) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and (c) Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) while
in acute rehabilitation. Fourteen consumers provided data on their AT satisfaction at 1-
month post acute rehabilitation. Nine (64.3%) of the respondents indicated they were
Satisfied with their AT and 5 (35.7%) reported being Not Satisfied with their AT. An
independent-samples t test was used to evaluate the hypothesis that the QOL scale of the
ATD PA would better discriminate between the two groups than Diener’s SWLS. The
depression subscale of the BSI was not tested because of its low correlation with AT
satisfaction (-.04). Persons not satisfied with their AT (mean = 23.20, SD = 7.59) on
average scored lower on the QOL scale than those satisfied with their AT (mean = 34.56,
SD = 9.27). The effect size was estimated with the eta square index (.34) indicating a
large effect size (an alternate way of presenting this statistic is to say that 34% of the
variance in the modified QOL subset was accounted for by whether a person was satisfied
or not satisfied with their AT 1-month post-discharge) [8].
Based on the results of research studies conducted to date, the ATD PA has been
shown to have good reliability and validity and, thus, it can be concluded that it is a useful
measure both clinically and in outcomes research. This testing of the Matching Person &
Technology model has determined that the model adequately represents the relevant
influences on AT use and non-use or abandonment.
5. Results of application in outcome studies
In addition to the studies reported above, a study conducted in Montreal, Quebec,
Canada showed that items from the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition
Assessment (ATD PA) "focus well on the pertinent factors" related to individuals' decisions
to use or not use an assistive technology [12]. Another study focused on adolescents who
used functional electrical stimulation (FES) to stand and who were administered the ATD
PA and several other measures. The results supported the use of the ATD PA and
highlighted the need to consider psychosocial aspects of matching person and technology
[13]. To assess the effectiveness of a college course on adapted computer use, 14 college
students with disabilities identified factors that influenced them to adopt or reject an AT for
computer access. The results provide evidence of the usefulness of the MPT model and
ATD PA items as applied to computer access technology for college students [14].
MPT results have been used clinically and incorporated into AT funding requests
and justification reports as well as program evaluations. Users of the MPT measures have
reported high satisfaction with the usefulness of the ATD PA in selecting AT options that
match not only the individual’s strengths and participatory needs, but also look at his/her
preferences. This information is then balanced with the characteristics of the environment
6
Scherer, M.J. & Craddock, G. (2002). Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology &
Disability, Special Issue: The Assessment of Assistive Technology Outcomes, Effects and Costs, 14(3), 125-131.
in which the technology will be used along with the features and functions of the
technology itself.
6. Current and future developments
As a result of a research grant to the Institute for Matching Person & Technology
from the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, U.S. National Institutes of
Health, the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment consumer form has
been revised to be more in keeping with the intent of WHO’s ICF and consumer social
participation. Subscales include subjective quality of life, mood and self-esteem, self-
determination, social support, and therapist and program trust. Additionally, up to three
devices can be compared against twelve different criteria. Data on the validity of the
ATD PA in a partnership approach to AT selection, training and outcomes is an on-going
focus of the pioneering model of AT service delivery being used now in Ireland.
MPT users have said that they require more training in how to maximize benefit
from the MPT process and measures and they would like the forms to be scored and
interpreted, with a particular focus on next steps and strategies to pursue with consumers.
Currently, a beta prototype exists of computerized scoring with interpretations of the
results and a CD interactive program which trains users in the comprehensive MPT
process. Updated information about these resources, as well as general developments with
the MPT assessments, can be obtained from the homepage of the Institute for Matching
Person & Technology. The URL is [http://members.aol.com/IMPT97/MPT.html].
Finally, the Institute for Matching Person & Technology is a partner in the recently
formed Consortium for Assistive Technology Outcomes Research (CATOR). The
National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), U.S. Department of
Education Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services Research, established
CATOR as a result of the funding of a Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project
(DRRP) on Assistive Technology Outcomes and Impacts. Over the course of its five-year
funding, CATOR will undertake activities consistent with NIDRR’s objective to:
“Establish multiple research projects on AT outcomes and impacts to determine the
efficacy and utility of AT and the implications for abandonment of AT devices”. This
involvement will no doubt result in further modification to the MPT assessment process,
its component measures, and the methods in which individuals administer, score, and use
them. Additionally, CATOR brings an international perspective through its alliance with
the Assistive Technology International Outcomes Consortium (ATIOC) comprised of AT
measure developers in the U.S., Canada, and European Union. ATIOC was formed under
the joint auspices of the Association for the Advancement of Assistive Technology in
Europe (AAATE) and the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of
North America (RESNA). Thus, modifications localized for use by organizations
throughout Europe and Canada can also be expected.
Acknowledgements
Research results from studies conducted in the U.S. with persons with spinal cord injuries were supported by
grant 266 from the American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Psychologists and Social Workers. The
National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health supported results from U.S. studies with persons
with hearing loss.
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Scherer, M.J. & Craddock, G. (2002). Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process. Technology &
Disability, Special Issue: The Assessment of Assistive Technology Outcomes, Effects and Costs, 14(3), 125-131.
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... In this study we aim to present how these concepts of UX and UCD inform the process of selecting and assigning assistive technologies (ATs) for people with disabilities (PWD) according to the Matching Person & Technology (MPT) model and assessments [13,14]. To make technology the solution to the PWD's needs, the MPT was developed as an international measure evidence-based tool to assess the best match between person and technology, where the user remains the main actor in all the selection, adaptation, and assignment process (user/consumer-driven model) [15]. ...
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Chapter
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To fully model the perceived experience of a user, practitioners should include a set of repeated objective and subjective measures in their evaluation protocols to enable satisfaction and benefit analysis as a “subjective sum of the interactive experience.” It is also well known that if the UX of a product is assessed at the end of the design process, product changes are much more expensive than if the same evaluation were conducted throughout the development process. In this study, we aim to present how these concepts of UX and UCD inform the process of selecting and assigning assistive technologies (ATs) for people with disabilities (PWD) according to the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) model and assessments. To make technology the solution to the PWD’s needs, the MPT was developed as an international measure evidence-based tool to assess the best match between person and technology, where the user remains the main actor in all the selection, adaptation, and assignment process (user-driven model). The MPT model and tools assume that the characteristics of the person, environment, and technology should be considered as interacting when selecting the most appropriate AT for a particular person’s use. It has demonstrated good qualitative and quantitative psychometric properties for measuring UX, realization of benefit and satisfaction and, therefore, it is a useful resource to help prevent the needs and preferences of the users from being met and can reduce early technology abandonment and the consequent waste of money and energy.
... In de J Alves AC, Matsukura TS, (2016), an effort has been carried out in order to investigate the state-of-the-art related to the identification of conceptual models used for recommendations and implementation of assistive technology devices. From this literature review, it emerged that few efforts have been carried out during the latest years, and that the conceptual model Matching Person and Technology -MPT (Scherer and Craddock 2002) was the most mentioned. An attempt to make a step forward has been made through the Assistive Technology Service Method (ATSM) which provides a cross-disability, interdisciplinary and trans-environmental process standard ). ...
... An attempt to make a step forward has been made through the Assistive Technology Service Method (ATSM) which provides a cross-disability, interdisciplinary and trans-environmental process standard ). In the attempt to pursue the ; and (e) the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) models (Scherer and Craddock 2002). ...
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This article introduces the Integrated Quality assurance framework implemented in the Maestro project. This framework aims to support both seniors and their carers to select health related solutions to improve personal quality of life and well-being by using an ICT platform. Maestro enables seniors to view a selection of products that are recommended according to their needs and identified by applying profiling and assessment methodologies. It focuses on several functionalities offered by the Maestro platform, particularly a repository of products organized according to a taxonomy based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) developed during the project. Through a specific example of an assistive solution, it describes profiling functions for both products and end-users, and an assessment function provided by qualified users. The paper also reports on feedback from users who tested the platform, and provides insight on the market potentiality of the platform derived by different stakeholders.
... In other words, new technology already developed contains built-in accessibility features, such as screen readers on smartphones (WAIS, 2018). In the classroom, this means that technology can be utilized to support students with primary functional tasks (Scherer & Craddock, 2002). Research on AT that focuses on text readers has found that reading pens and textto-speech software improve reading fluency and comprehension in students with specific learning difficulties (SPLDs; Lange et al., 2006;Schmitt et al., 2011;S. ...
... New technology devices are being produced with accessibility features such as screen readers already built in (WAIS, 2018). In the classroom, this means that technology can be utilized to support students with primary functional tasks-if a student has a specific literacy difficulty, then technology can be used to support them with reading materials presented in a history lesson, which would allow them to have the same experience as their peers and increase their access to learning (Scherer & Craddock, 2002). For example, research has found reading pens and text-to-speech software to be effective in improving reading fluency and reading comprehension in students with SPLDs compared with students who did not receive the intervention (Lange et al., 2006;Schmitt et al., 2018;S. ...
Thesis
Purpose: This thesis explores information technology (IT) use amongst educational psychologists (EPs) in the United Kingdom, specifically the IT used with and recommended to children and young people (CYP), the availability of devices, and how information is shared with service users. Factors that could influence IT use were also explored, including EPs’ personal variables (age, demographics, disability), service variables, comfort levels with IT, and the impact of COVID-19. Bronfenbrenner’s ecosystemic theoretical framework was used to conceptualize IT use amongst EPs. Methods: A mixed-methods research approach was used to analyse the data. Quantitative research surveys were administered and collected across two phases (before and after March 2020); 65 EPs completed the first survey and 37 completed the second. Qualitative data were also collected in two phases and involved in-depth interviews with three EP innovators to explore the enablers of IT usage and 10 further interviews to explore IT use after the COVID-19 lockdown. Results: The results indicate that EPs employ IT most frequently in their administrative tasks. Most EPs do not have access to IT-mediated assessments, whereas many frequently use IT to score assessments. Service factors were additionally found to influence IT usage, including senior leadership’s openness to IT and the compatibility of IT with the EP service. Senior leadership impacts the frequency of IT use, availability of up-to-date devices, IT usage policies, availability of IT-mediated assessments, and time allocated to explore IT and develop competence. Planning by senior leadership was often related to comfort levels with IT. Since COVID-19, there has been a shift in the use of videoconferencing to communicate with service users and other EPs. EPs reported that videoconferencing was efficient for some meetings in terms of time spent travelling and flexibility for working parents. This research also found that remote working can negatively impact mental health; however, it is moderated by social networking and opportunities to gather virtually as a team. Most EPs do not use any IT with CYP directly. EPs most often recommend IT to support CYP’s literacy development, mental health, and augmentative and alternative communication. EPs frequently utilize laptops and smartphones in their practice for administrative tasks and communication. Availability of devices influences the frequency of usage; self-employed EPs frequently employ tablets, whereas EPs in other services reported not utilizing them. Implications: EPs must be supported to effectively utilize IT by being provided with the appropriate devices (and resources) and allocated time to learn and experiment with IT. Services must audit IT skills within teams and available resources. Additionally, services must develop IT use policies that enable an open exchange of ideas and new ways of working. CYP will utilize IT in their schooling and future work and will need to be supported to ensure that they have access. There are currently no resources or training for EPs on IT use. As such, it might be premature to explore how the availability of technology impacts IT use when very few EPs are using IT directly with CYP. This thesis seeks to begin the discourse on IT use in the hope that EPs and trainee EPs will continue to explore the role of IT and its potential for evolving practice.
... An individual may have difficulty using a specific BCI system, and may demonstrate better performance when a different interface or control signal is trialed, or with modifications to display parameters. This is consistent with the concept of feature matching, widely used in the AAC and assistive technology fields to guide the selection of devices best suited to an individual's unique strengths, challenges, and preferences (Scherer and Craddock, 2002). A wide variety of AAC-BCI systems have been developed and investigated, including both implantable and non-invasive systems with a diverse array of interface types and control signals (Akcakaya Peters et al. . ...
Article
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Augmentative and alternative communication brain-computer interface (AAC-BCI) systems are intended to offer communication access to people with severe speech and physical impairment (SSPI) without requiring volitional movement. As the field moves toward clinical implementation of AAC-BCI systems, research involving participants with SSPI is essential. Research has demonstrated variability in AAC-BCI system performance across users, and mixed results for comparisons of performance for users with and without disabilities. The aims of this systematic review were to (1) describe study, system, and participant characteristics reported in BCI research, (2) summarize the communication task performance of participants with disabilities using AAC-BCI systems, and (3) explore any differences in performance for participants with and without disabilities. Electronic databases were searched in May, 2018, and March, 2021, identifying 6065 records, of which 73 met inclusion criteria. Non-experimental study designs were common and sample sizes were typically small, with approximately half of studies involving five or fewer participants with disabilities. There was considerable variability in participant characteristics, and in how those characteristics were reported. Over 60% of studies reported an average selection accuracy ≤70% for participants with disabilities in at least one tested condition. However, some studies excluded participants who did not reach a specific system performance criterion, and others did not state whether any participants were excluded based on performance. Twenty-nine studies included participants both with and without disabilities, but few reported statistical analyses comparing performance between the two groups. Results suggest that AAC-BCI systems show promise for supporting communication for people with SSPI, but they remain ineffective for some individuals. The lack of standards in reporting outcome measures makes it difficult to synthesize data across studies. Further research is needed to demonstrate efficacy of AAC-BCI systems for people who experience SSPI of varying etiologies and severity levels, and these individuals should be included in system design and testing. Consensus in terminology and consistent participant, protocol, and performance description will facilitate the exploration of user and system characteristics that positively or negatively affect AAC-BCI use, and support innovations that will make this technology more useful to a broader group of people. Clinical trial registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42018095345 , PROSPERO: CRD42018095345.
... The process of technological development has to identify and integrate needs and values of future users in order to create useful and accepted technological solutions (Scherer & Craddock, 2002). User-centered development approaches such as value sensitive design (VSD) collect users' needs and values systematically to integrate them into technology development (Friedman et al., 2008). ...
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The number of people with dementia is increasing worldwide. At the same time, family and professional caregivers' resources are limited. A promising approach to relieve these carers' burden and assist people with dementia is assistive technology. In order to be useful and accepted, such technologies need to respect the values and needs of their intended users. We applied the value sensitive design approach to identify values and needs of patients with dementia and family and professional car-egivers in respect to assistive technologies to assist people with dementia in institutionalized care. Based on semi-structured interviews of residents/patients with cognitive impairment, relatives, and healthcare professionals (10 each), we identified 44 values summarized by 18 core values. From these values, we created a values' network to demonstrate the interplay between the values. The core of this network was caring and empathy as most strongly interacting value. Furthermore, we found 36 needs for assistance belonging to the four action fields of activity, care, management/administration, and nursing. Based on these values and needs for assistance, we created possible use cases for assistive technologies in each of the identified four action fields. All these use cases already are technologically feasible today but are not currently being used in healthcare facilities. This underlines the need for development of value-based technologies to ensure not only technological feasibility but also acceptance and implementation of assistive technologies. Our results help balance conflicting values and provide concrete suggestions for how engineers and designers can incorporate values into assistive technologies.
... A nemzetközi színtéren széles körben használatos például a megalapozott elméleten alapuló, felnőtt fogyatékos emberek által validált Matching Person & Technology (MPT) Model and Assessment Process (lásd M.J.Scherer & Craddock, 2002). ...
Thesis
A disszertáció célja annak körüljárása, hogy miként jellemezhető a társadalombiztosítási rendszeren keresztül támogatott gyógyászati segédeszközök hozzáférhetősége Magyarországon, a felhasználók választási szabadsága szempontjából. A feltáró elemzés elméleti kerete az Amartya Sen nevéhez kötődő képességszemlélet (Capability Approach), a jóllét és a fejlődés normatív elmélete, ami a fejlődést az emberek képességeinek és arra való tényleges lehetőségeinek – szabadságainak – bővülésében látja, hogy olyan életet éljenek, amilyet okkal tartanak értékesnek. A segédeszköz elosztást amentén vizsgáltam, hogy az mennyiben személyre szabott, és mennyiben bővíti a felhasználók tényleges lehetőségeit a számukra értékesnek tartott, jó életre: a segédeszközhöz jutás folyamatában mennyiben jelennek meg az érintettek véleményei, értékei, hangja, a „semmit rólunk nélkülünk” elv, milyen garanciákat vállal a jogalkotó és a folyamatban résztvevő többi szereplő annak érdekében, hogy az érintettek tudatában legyenek a valódi választási lehetőségeiknek. A kutatás során – szociálpolitikai alapelveken, nemzetközi tapasztalatokon, három európai tanulmányúton és a képességszemléleten alapulva – elemzési indikátorrendszer készült. A szakirodalom áttekintésén és a jogszabályelemzésen túl, a támogatórendszer gyakorlati működését szakértői és érintetti interjúk (n=52) segítettek feltárni. Magyarországon nincs nemzeti stratégia vagy program, ami bizonyos mértékben biztosítéka volna a támogató technológia hozzáférhetőségének. Több mint ötven jogszabály érinti a gyógyászati segédeszközöket, ezek ugyanakkor kevésbé védik a felhasználókat. A jogalkotó elsődleges célja, hogy megelőzze a túlköltekezést. A gyógyászati segédeszközök mellől elmaradnak a kapcsolódó szolgáltatások, ami nem csak az egyén szintjén teremt problémát, és eredményezi sok esetben az eszközök kihasználatlanságát, hanem csökkenti a gazdaságilag racionális működés valószínűségét is. A támogatott gyógyászati segédeszközök rendszerének jelenlegi működésében az akadályozottság orvosi-medikális modelljének jegyei fedezhetők fel: a szakemberek dominanciája mellett az érintettek valódi részvétele, és valódi választási szabadsága esetleges. Kulcsszavak: Támogató-segítő eszközök és technológia; asszisztív megoldások; képességszemlélet, a fogyatékosság, egészség és jóllét emberi fejlődés modellje
Background: Assistive technologies (ATs) are resources to promote the independence and participation of people with a disability. The use of standardized tools, based on outcome measures, is essential for guaranteeing high-quality rates. The Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with AT–2.0 (QUEST) is a scale to assess the satisfaction of people using any AT. Objectives: To translate and culturally validate the QUEST–2.0 for the Spanish population (QUEST 2.0-ES). Methods: A validation cross-design and descriptive study. The test–retest reliability, validity, and internal consistency of QUEST 2.0-ES were studied. It was divided into two phases: Sample 1 was formed by 26 persons; in sample 2, 30 persons participated. The conditions included neurological conditions, amputations, rare diseases, and deafness. Results: Thirty-five men and 21 women participated in total. The majority of AT used were those for mobility. QUEST 2.0-ES analysis showed internal consistency values between the test (α = 0.87) and retest versions (α = 0.89). The internal consistency was high for AT (test, α = 0.83; retest, α = 0.87) and Service (test, α = 0.80; retest, α = 0.80). The temporal reliability (1–2 weeks) for test–retest was 0.88. Conclusion: QUEST 2.0-ES showed good psychometric properties in terms of validity and test–retest reliability, and it is a good tool to assess the user’s satisfaction with ATs and services.
Article
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Resumen Los productos y tecnologías de apoyo son una estrategia habitual de intervención para personas que presentan parálisis cerebral. Son muchos los profesionales que emplean en su clínica diaria productos de apoyo de bajo coste, e incluso el uso de nuevas tecnologías como la impresión 3D para su elabo-ración. El diseño de este estudio es no experimental trasversal correlacional, con un total de 8 partici-pantes pertenecientes a ASPACE-ASTURIAS. Los instrumentos empleados fueron la escala PIADS, el ATD-PA, y un Ad-hoc, además se empleó el modelo Wisconsin Assistive Technology Iniative como guía. La mayor parte de los PA obtuvieron una puntuación positiva en cuanto al impacto psicosocial percibi-do, salvo el producto de apoyo tipo licornio. Es necesario realizar estudios en medidas de resultados en productos de apoyo de bajo coste para mejorar los servicios de atención a personas con discapacidad y mejorar los servicios de asesoramiento, evaluación y creación de productos de apoyo. Palabras clave: tecnología asistiva, productos de apoyo, parálisis cerebral, innovación en 3D. Abstract Assistive products and technologies are a common intervention strategy for people with cerebral palsy. There are many professionals who use low-cost assistive technologies in their daily clinical activities, as well as new technologies such as 3D printing for making the products. This study is of a non-experimental correlational transversal design, involving a total of 8 participants belonging to the Association for the aid of people with Cerebral Palsy (ASPACE) in Oviedo, Spain. The instruments used were the PIADS scale, the ATD-PA, and an ad-hoc instrument; and the Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative model was used as a guide. Most PAs obtained positive scores with regard to the psychosocial impact perceived, except for the licorin-like assistive technology. Studies on the outcome measures of low-cost assistive technologies are necessary for improving care services for people with disabilities and for improving consultancy, assessment and product creation services.
Conference Paper
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Facilitation of universal access to Assistive Technology (AT) is an entitlement enshrined in the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). Access to an appropriate, effective and timely delivery of AT, has been identified as a key driver to the realization of the United Nation’s (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and an essential right for empowering and supporting the needs of the population. To promote effective access to AT, an AT passport was proposed as a tool aimed at promoting access to AT products and services. This paper presents a review of literature of the concept ‘passport’ as a user led-system in use within the health and social care setting. The findings from the review are aimed at informing the conceptualization of the AT passport and recommendations for further research and development. Approach: The paper utilised a scoping literature search of the health passport concept followed by a descriptive review of data presented in a matrix table. The matrix table presented data from 29 identified sources under the following headings; source of document, the title, population and type of document, the main concept/purpose of the passport, the format/mode of the passport and its attributes, reported and/or anticipated outcomes and the implication of the individually reviewed document on the AT passport conceptualization. Emergent recurring themes across the reviewed documents were thematically identified. Findings: Eight themes emerged from the review articles that are of relevance to AT passport conceptualization. These were enhancing communication, participatory service development process, transition management, within and between agencies; promotion of continuity of care; selfadvocacy and personal empowerment; person-centred, contextual and personal social needs; user-led systems operating within existing wider system and effective and timely access to Services. Conclusion: The application of the systems thinking approach to the themes emerging from the review offers an important and pragmatic conceptualisation of the AT passport, rooted in a framework of user ownership and empowerment. The idea of an AT passport should to be researched and developed for application within what are likely 490 to be changing and diverse community contexts, supported by national policy and that also reflects global AT policy recommendations.
Article
Assistive technologies promise improved functionality for people with disabilities, but their use and adoption are complicated. Previous research has identified several reasons why people with disabilities choose to abandon their assistive technologies. However, less is known about the adoption of assistive technologies that are permanent and user perceptions of these technologies. This study builds upon existing assistive technology, disability, identity, and stigma literature by examining the role of perceptions of cochlear implants, an assistive technology that permanently renders an invisible disability visible, among the single-sided deaf community. Analysis of survey data from 332 single-sided deaf individuals with cochlear implants all over the world revealed that the perceived visibility of assistive technology is positively associated with self-stigma and social interaction anxiety. Results from this study highlight the centrality of sociotechnical perceptions of assistive technologies to the experience of stigma, rather than the objective characteristics and features of technology, and problematize the existing dichotomous approach (visible v. invisible) to understanding assistive technologies. This study also illuminates the importance of studying assistive technologies on an intragroup level as well as focusing on how specific stigmatized niche communities may perceive and use their assistive technologies.
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In order to understand better the nature of the success or failure of a recommendation of a technical aid, a group of occupational therapists from Québec became interested in an American assessment called “Assistive technology device predisposition assessment”. This assessment is based on the “Matching Person and Technology” model proposed by Scherer in 1994. The model describes 40 factors that can influence the use (or the non use) of technical aids. A participative and qualitative study was conducted with the collaboration of 10 francophone occupational therapists, in order to verify if the tool can be adapted to Québec's context. Each had to reconstruct two case studies following the recommendation of a technical aid: the first showing a satisfactory use of a technical aid and the second, a non use of a technical aid. According to the participants' experience, the results show that the American assessment focuses well on the pertinent factors of technical aids, providing that seven other specific factors are added. This article describes four of the case studies that show the importance of considering different influential factors that could render other significant results. Finally, the study generated two proposals for further research in the area of technical aids.
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The results from many research efforts on the use of assistive devices are reviewed and summarized. Further, conceptual and methodological issues related to the use and abandonment of assistive technologies are discussed. Overall, this review should be helpful to professionals making device recommendations, documenting the need for a device, and assessing short- and long-term device utilization. The available literature lends support to a model of matching person and technology that considers environments of device use, characteristics of the user's preferences and expectations, and device features and functions. To ensure that assistive technologies enhance users' quality of life, future emphases should focus on consumer involvement in the selection and evaluation of appropriate assistive technology, and ways to make technologies more widely available and affordable.
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Two consecutive studies addressed device use post-discharge in relation to functional status among 47 persons with mixed diagnoses discharged from an acute inpatient rehabilitation unit. Telephone interviews were used to ascertain device use; functional status was obtained using the telephone version of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Among all participants, 128 devices were prescribed; of these, 86 devices were still used at 3-month follow-up. The four types of devices most frequently abandoned were adapted grooming aids (55% nonuse), quad canes (43%), walkers (36%), and manual wheelchairs (36%). The most frequent reason given for nonuse was that the device was no longer needed. In study two, it was found that functional improvement (at follow-up) corresponded with device nonuse for about half the devices. The study also documented discrepancies in perception between therapists and consumers regarding utility and aesthetic aspects of devices. Strategies to maximize appropriate use of devices are presented.
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The influence of marginal hearing loss on subjective well-being was studied in order to assess the audiological rehabilitation needs of older individuals. Behavioral and audiological data were obtained from 40 subjects 61-81 years of age. Group A included 20 subjects with normal audiometric thresholds. Group B included 20 subjects with mild-to-moderate degrees of high-frequency hearing loss. Each subject completed a hearing loss screening survey, an Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) and a Profile of Hearing Aid Performance (PHAP). The PHAP and hearing loss screen were adequate assessments of self-reported hearing loss, as was the subjective rating of hearing section of the ATD PA. People with high-frequency marginal hearing loss reported on the ATD PA less satisfaction with their independence, reduced emotional well-being, and more limitation from their hearing loss than those with normal hearing. It is concluded that marginal degrees of hearing loss in older persons can influence subjective well-being, which suggests the importance of a renewed emphasis on audiological rehabilitation for this population.
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Assesses the validity of a subset of items of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) as a measure of quality of life (QOL) for persons with new spinal cord injury. Subjects completed the ATD PA QOL subset, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) while in acute rehabilitation. The internal reliability of the QOL subset of the ATD PA was assessed. Concurrent validity of the ATD PA's QOL subset with the SWLS and construct validity with the BSI depression subscale was assessed using Spearman correlations. Subjects were recruited while acute rehabilitation inpatients in a general hospital and consisted of twenty persons with newly acquired SCI (10 males and 10 females). Significant positive correlations between the ATD PA's QOL subset and SWLS (and significant negative correlations with the BSI depression subscale) suggest the QOL subset has concurrent and construct validity. The ATD PA's QOL subset appears to be a valid measure and, thus, it can be useful both in identifying subjective quality of life and predispositions to AT use early in rehabilitation.
Article
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Fourteen college students with disabilities identified factors that influenced them to adopt or reject Assistive Technology (AT) for the personal computer in order to assess the effectiveness of a college course on adapted computer use. Forty-eight items were developed for a Q sort to represent both positive and negative statements in each of the three areas of Scherer's' model (milieu, person and technology). The model was modified to include specific statements about the training experience. A series of three interviews were administered to the students during the year following completion of the class. Factor analysis of the Q sorts indicated that the participants had a unanimously positive experience. Three factors ('a positive experience', 'I'm OK, you're not OK', and 'support') emerged from the Q sort analysis. The training programme, the technology provided, and the characteristics of the individuals in the class all seemed to contribute to the success of the experience. Seventy-five percent of the students who took the class adopted at least some of the AT a year later. This study supports the need for specific training programmes and course work for college students with disabilities who are interested in improving computer access skills.
Article
Functional Electrical Stimulation [FES]-augmented in-home standing is a life-changing and time consuming assistive technology with the significant potential for increasing the independence of persons with Spinal Cord Injury [SCI]. Although positive psychological benefits are often cited as expected outcomes, little is known of the psychologically related effects of participation in FES research applications. To investigate these variables, four older adolescents/young adults with SCI who used FES to stand in their home environments were recruited. This study explores the age specific constructs of self-image, the disability specific constructs of personal independence and handicap, and the person-specific construct of device match for these older adolescents. Results are described in light of disabled adolescents' needs, and future research areas are identified.
Article
Validity and reliability data are presented for two instruments for assessing the predispositions that people have toward the use of assistive and educational technologies. The two instruments, the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATDPA) and the Educational Technology Predisposition Assessment (ETPA), are self-report checklists with a consumer form and a version to be completed by professionals. The instruments are designed to identify for consumers of technology, their families, and advocates likely sources of mismatches between the user and the technology. Criterion-related validity was assessed for the ATDPA by asking 12 older adults with hearing loss and 8 members of a continuing education group to complete the instrument and a battery of 8 other tests. Results suggest the ATDPA's value in assessing factors involved in device use. The criterion-related validity of the ETPA was supported by results with 52 college students (26 hearing impaired), including an evaluation of hypercard use. The interrater reliability of the ATDPA was studied with 30 professionals rating 3 potential users, and that of the ETPA was studied through responses of 24 raters (music education undergraduates) rating 2 potential users. Both instruments seem to do a good job assessing the predispositions toward technology use of potential consumers. Six tables present study findings. There is a three-item list of references and an appendix containing the interview questions for the ETPA criterion-related validity study. (SLD)
Article
This article outlines the development of an Assistive Technology (AT) service delivery model and suggests that a client-focused social and participatory service delivery model in AT can achieve the best results for people with disabilities and their carers. It draws on case studies, which are part of the final evaluation report of the Aphrodite (European Horizon funded project 1998-2000) project to illustrate the success of a client-focused service. The aim of the project was to provide people with disabilities access to a local technical resource in the form of Technology Liaison Officers (TLOs). TLO's are people with physical disabilities, who have been trained in AT and who have achieved a certificate in AT, to act as a liaison between users and potential users of AT and the Central Remedial Clinic's (CRC) Client Technical Services (CTS) Department.