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Teaching Games with Inner Sense: Exploring Movement Consciousness in Women's Volleyball

2011, Vol. 3, No. 2
Teaching Games with Inner Sense:
Exploring Movement Consciousness in Women's Volleyball
Enseignement de jeux par le biais des sensations corporelles internes:
Exploration de la conscience du mouvement en volleyball féminin
Rebecca J. Lloyd,
University of Ottawa
The intention of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore movement
consciousness within the realm of games and sport pedagogy. Situated within the
context of a women‟s volleyball team who regularly received technical,
externally oriented coaching on skill development and tactical plays, questions of
what is it like to become aware of internal bodily sensations of breath, balance
and rhythm were explored. Players responded favorably to the kinaesthetic
intervention as they described improvements in skill performance and feelings of
connection to teammates. The most significant contribution of this inquiry is that
it provides evidence for furthering research into a model of games pedagogy that
aims to dissolve socially constructed boundaries between the mechanics of the
external body and the inner sensations of movement, hence, a model that attends
to teaching games with inner sense.
Cette recherche phénoménologique avait pour but d’explorer la conscience du
mouvement dans un contexte de jeux et de pédagogie sportive. Située dans le
contexte d’une équipe féminine de volleyball l’entraînement et le
perfectionnement des habiletés techniques et tactiques étaient le plus souvent
menés et dirigés par des ressources externes (réactions de l’entraîneur, activité
réussie ou non, environnement) nous avons exploré diverses questions touchant
les sensations corporelles internes telles la respiration, l’équilibre et le rythme.
Les joueuses ont réagi positivement à l’intervention kinesthésique, ayant constaté
des améliorations au niveau des habiletés et du rendement et une plus grande
connexion avec leurs coéquipières. La plus importante contribution de la
recherche tient au fait qu’elle fournit des données probantes justifiant des
recherches plus poussées sur un modèle de pédagogie du jeu qui vise à faire
éclater les frontières constuites socialement entre la mécanique du corps externe
et la sensation interne de mouvement, c’est-à-dire un modèle d’enseignement du
jeu qui met l’accent sur les sensations corporelles internes.
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
The game of volleyball, in the simplest of terms, can be described as a group
juggling experience. Players situated on the same side of the net aim to keep the
ball in the air as it is passed from one player to the next. When the ball crosses
the net, however, it is released with the intention of hitting the ground so that a
point may be scored. Hence the rhythm of a volleyball game is very much stop-
and-start. The „stop‟ can be described as collective anticipation waiting for a
served ball to be released. The „start‟ is evidenced in how quickly players move
in strategic formation to receive the ball.
One can imagine how tension may be experienced in the stopping moments
of the game, moments when the breath has the potential to be held in observable
musculoskeletal rigidity. As such pauses prolong, feelings of isolation also have
the potential to emerge as questions of doubt or reflection on past plays seep into
consciousness. While the field of sport psychology offers insight into the
psychological states (e.g. Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 2006;
Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; 1997; Gardner & Moore, 2004) and cognitive set of
skills (e.g., Orlick, 1999; Lloyd & Trudel, 1999; Lloyd, 1999; Gould, Damarjin
& Greenleaf, 2002; Jackson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1999) aimed at helping players
ease the build-up of tension in games and sport, the predominant focus of a sport
psychology intervention is „mental‟. A movement conscious approach, by
contrast, prioritizes the „physical‟ sensations of movement and focuses attention
on the experiential unfolding of a living moment (Lloyd & Smith, 2010). If the
breath is held for example in a moment of prolonged tension, enhanced inner or
kinaesthetic awareness of the breath, developed through practice, would emerge.
The postulation of this inquiry is that such inner awareness within the context of
skill and tactical plays may act to dissolve tensions that hinder performance.
Dividing movement into „mental‟ and „physical‟ or „inner‟ and „outer‟
frames of reference are arguably false dichotomies as no clear divide exists
(Shusterman, 2008). But, for the purpose of comparing and promoting
interdisciplinarity in pedagogical practices between sport pedagogy, sport
psychology and other mind-body disciplines such as yoga, such an orientation is
helpful in discerning attention directed toward the outer shape and mechanics of a
motion and the inner felt sense of that motion. Metzler‟s (2005) text strengthens
divisions between pedagogical models and associated movement disciplines. For
example, the pedagogical model associated for Sports Education, in which
volleyball would conceptually fall, is paired with an externally-oriented, isolated
approach to skill development that, once attained, is applied to a game setting.
But what if such divisions were questioned? What are the implications and what
might be gained in exploring movement consciousness, hence bodily sensations
within and „under‟ one‟s stance, for example, as we broaden notions of under-
stand-ing beyond the cognitive realm in the way we teach games?
Movement Consciousness in Games Pedagogy
To be clear and provide an operational definition, “movement
consciousness” may be described as attention drawn but not limited to the sense
of bodily motion on a global to cellular level (Conrad, 2007; Cohen, 1993).
Kinaesthetic or „inner‟ movement consciousness focuses (but is not limited to)
the sensation of the pathway, cadence, force, and flow of one‟s inhalation to the
proprioceptive oscillating sway present even within seemingly still postures.
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
Such an inner movement or kinaesthetic consciousness is most often paired with
artistic, expressive and mind-body practices (Arnold, 2005; Alter, 2004; Seitz,
2002). By attending to the sensations of movement within the context of skill and
tactical play development where “for the majority of students, training in
movement, in the intricacies of the felt sense of the body, or even the ability to
touch sensitively is near nil” (Myers, 1998, p. 103) traditional forms of games
pedagogy are disrupted. The dissonance between sport and mind-body practices
thus have the potential to be dissolved, as pathways for embodied understanding
(Sheets-Johnstone, 1999, 2005; Laban, 1948; Johnson, 2000; Stern, 1993; Stern,
2002; Stern, 2004; Merleau-Ponty, 1968; van Manen, 1997; Lloyd & Smith,
2006; Lloyd & Smith, 2009) are opened.
Accordingly, this inquiry delves into the lived experiences of volleyball
players becoming kinaesthetically aware of movement during practice. By
inviting players to engage in activities designed to enhance „inner‟ movement
consciousness within their skill and tactical practice, an experiential and practical
component is added to a recent theoretical offering which mapped the felt sense
of movement from affective and kinaesthetic registers (Lloyd & Smith, 2010) to
the cognitive, decision making focus of the original Teaching Games for
(TGfU) model developed by Bunker and Thorpe (1986). Note
that other researchers have sought to move the TGfU model beyond the cognitive
realm such as Butler and McCahan‟s (2005) exploration of sociocultural learning
theory in TGfU as and well as Light‟s (2005) inquiry into complexity theory and
TGfU. What is compelling about Lloyd and Smith‟s (2010) theoretical inquiry is
that they subtly changed the structure of the TGfU model to not discount, but
rather add an affective, movement conscious layer to the original model (see
Figure 1). The conceptual shift can be best described in the transposition of
“making appropriate decisions to feeling appropriate moments” (Lloyd & Smith,
2010, p. 93).
Figure 1. The TGfU-Vitality model (Lloyd & Smith, 2010, pp. 92-93)
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
Game Appreciation to Game Affect: Students are encouraged to feel
the wide range of emotions, or vitality affects, in game-play,
preparation to play a game, and in the post-game reflective process.
Tactical Awareness to Present Moment Awareness: Students are
encouraged to get „in touch‟ with the present moment, i.e., not only to
know how to create and defend space strategically, but also to
emphasize the bodily sensation of connecting with others through space
and time.
Skill Execution to Movement Pairings, Patterns & Sequences:
Students are taught to become aware of the organic pairing and
progressive approach to maturing movement that traces back to
inhalation and exhalation and develops into the felt sense of balance
within the contractions, extensions, movement patterns and sequences
that constitute game-play.
Performance to Expressive and Purposive Flow Motion: Students
become aware of the experience of „flow motion‟ in the rhythms of
expressive and purposive game play.
While Lloyd and Smith‟s (2010) inquiry offers an affective and movement
conscious layer to each of the four components of Bunker and Thorpe‟s model,
specifically, “Game Appreciation”, “Tactical Awareness”, “Skill Execution” and
“Performance”, the focus of this current inquiry into the kinaesthetic sensations
within volleyball will focus on an in-depth exploration of the “Skill Execution”
TGfU category with enhanced movement consciousness. The pedagogical intent
of teaching skills beyond an external frame of reference to include not only an
inner felt sense but an organic global understanding of a movement unfolding
may be described as follows:
Students are taught to become aware of the organic pairing and progressive
approach to maturing movement that traces back to inhalation and
exhalation and develops into the felt sense of balance within the
contractions, extensions, movement patterns and sequences that constitute
game-play. (Lloyd & Smith, 2010, p. 92)
While such a statement was framed by a series of conceptual papers (e.g., Lloyd
& Smith, 2009; Lloyd & Smith, 2006; Smith & Lloyd, 2007), the intention of this
inquiry is to explore a movement conscious approach to skill and tactical play
development through the lived experiences of players practicing volleyball.
Accordingly, the purpose of this inquiry is to build upon the theory offered by
Lloyd & Smith (2010) that purports a movement consciousness approach to
games understanding by phenomenologically exploring the lived experiences of
volleyball players invited to become more kinaesthetically aware. Through
descriptive accounts of breathing, a sense of balance and the internal rhythm of
skills and tactical plays experienced in volleyball practice, movement
consciousness, particularly kinaesthetic consciousness within the TGfU category
of “skill execution” will be better understood.
Motion-Sensitive Phenomenology: An Attitude and Methodology
Hermeneutic phenomenology is a methodological approach to research that
explores human experience as it is lived, in both descriptive and interpretive
modes of inquiry (van Manen, 1997). For example, the researcher pieces together
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
literature, philosophy, and vignettes of lived experience to better understand a
phenomenon in question
. A new level of understanding in games pedagogy will
thus be approached through describing and interpreting how players experience a
volleyball practice with enhanced movement consciousness, the phenomenon of
interest in this phenomenological study. The adoption of a motion-sensitive
phenomenological attitude and approach (Lloyd & Smith, 2006), influenced by
van Manen‟s (1997) human science action sensitive phenomenology, will bring
purposeful attention to bodily motility throughout this inquiry. In so doing,
repetitive motions experienced in practice that might otherwise be experienced as
automatic will be explored with a „bracketed attitude‟ in that they will be
explored with enhanced, present moment and kinaesthetic awareness.
To elucidate enhanced movement consciousness within a volleyball practice,
questions of "What is it like to become kinaesthetically aware of motions
performed within the context of playing volleyball?”, specifically, “What is it like
to attend to bodily sensations of breath, balance and rhythm during a volleyball
practice?”, will shape a detailed exploration into the sensations of movement
within the volleyball context. Such what is it like” questions invite us to delve
past preconceptions of how one is supposed to perform these motions from an
external frame of reference and orient us toward the heart of phenomenologically
questioning and living these motile experiences (van Manen, 1997; Smith, 1997).
By adopting a phenomenological approach, a mode of inquiry based on “re-
achieving a direct and primitive contact with the world” (Merleau-Ponty, 1962, p.
vii), it is possible to experience phenomena with what Husserl described as fresh
eyes but in this case more fittingly open receptivity to sense perception.
Note that perception is a term that is interchangeably linked to
consciousness, experience, understanding and meaning-making. But unless one
steps out of their habitual attitude or approach to meaning-making and
experiencing the world, in this case typical ways of experiencing a volleyball
practice, one will be limited in terms of what is possible to perceive. The very
intention of phenomenology is to take a step back from our past experiences,
those clouded by preconceptions and theories influenced by “empirical sciences
[including psychomotor methods of analyzing performance and concern
ourselves with] how form becomes constituted as an object for scientific
cognition in the first place” (Thompson, 2007, p. 81). Exploring the kinaesthetic
sensations of form within the volleyball context, therefore, delves beneath what
may be externalized to a series of mechanical actions and expands the
possibilities of what may be perceived kinaesthetically.
Procedural Guidelines
It is worthwhile to note that framing a study by procedures and methods falls
within a positivistic paradigm, as the aim for research following the scientific
method is to reproduce repeatable results to show validity and rigor (O‟Leary,
2010). Although qualitative research is becoming increasingly accepted as a
rigorous form of inquiry, a phenomenologist seeking to publish outside of a
phenomenologically-oriented journal must to some extent, appease an ingrained
attention to dominant, positivistic approaches to research. Accordingly, the steps
guiding this inquiry will be described but with a note of caution. In sharing
procedural details, it is important to note that they are not conceived as a
„method‟ with the goal of reproducing mass repeatable results in future studies, as
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
that would be an actual antithesis for the intention of this inquiry. Rather than
looking to quantitative, external frames of reference that measure validity and
rigor within the positivistic paradigm, the goal of phenomenological inquiry, by
contrast, is to explore the depths of meaning and draw upon experiential and
philosophical text to show rigor, further insight and understanding (van Manen,
1997). As the steps or guiding frames of reference are described, it is hoped that
other researchers deciding to expand upon this study and explore movement
consciousness in other sports would become receptive to exploring movement as
an improvisational dancer might - where guidelines or „constraints‟ might not
frame only the experience, but also „enable‟ creativity [for a more detailed
exploration of “enabling constraints” see Davis, Sumara and Luce-Kapler
(2008)]. The aim of improvisational dance, Sheets-Johnstone (1999) explains, is
to “form movement spontaneously” (p. 484) so “something which never before
was, something which will never be again, thus something that has no past or
future performances [but] exists only in the here and now of its creation” (p.
485). With this goal in mind, I wish to share with you the enabling constraints
guiding an exploration of movement consciousness in the context of women‟s
Fifteen players, aged 17 to 26 years, on a varsity women‟s volleyball team,
along with their head coach with 28 years of experience, volunteered and signed
consent forms reviewed by the University‟s Ethics Review Board to participate in
this study. Typical of the phenomenological tradition, the intersubjective
presence of the researcher (Finlay, 2009) is also worth mentioning as I, in
collaboration with the head coach created a series of movement-based workshops
aimed at enhancing movement consciousness in the practice context. An
intersubjective orientation not only acknowledges the presence of the researcher
but also validates how her presence forms part of the inquiry. Drawing upon my
background as an international fitness presenter who specializes in kinaesthetic
and rhythmical approaches to becoming fit (e.g., see Lloyd, 2008), certification
as a consultant with the Canadian Sport Psychology Association (CSPA), and
former training in classical ballet, a series of workshops were designed that drew
the players‟ attention to their breath, their felt sense of balance, and rhythm.
Sources of Information
Several sources of information were gathered that contextualized, described
and provided further insight into the lived experiences of women‟s varsity
volleyball players exploring aspects of kinaesthetic consciousness. To help orient
myself to the lived experiences of volleyball players (an essential step in Van
Manen‟s (1997) approach to phenomenology) and to also form a relationship
with the team, an introductory journal activity that asked the players to describe
what they felt when they played well and not-so-well in practice and game
situations, followed by a group discussion which provided an opportunity for the
players to share their reflections, was orchestrated. This activity also acquainted
players on the team with better understanding of the lived experience of their
teammates. While the content and insights that emerged from this discussion
were quite interesting, the extensive reporting of these findings is beyond the
scope of this current inquiry. Rather, information gained from this introduction to
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
the team frames and insulates information gathered concerning the phenomenon
in question, exploring movement consciousness, particularly kinaesthetic
awareness, in skill and tactical play development.
Data gathered and shared in this study relate to a series of three workshops
that were offered which took into account three different aspects of bodily
sensation, namely breath, balance, and rhythm, within the context of a volleyball
practice. Immediately following each workshop, players were invited to verbally
discuss what they experienced in a group. In addition, following the group
conversation at the end of each workshop, players were invited to email or
complete an open-ended journal-like response that gave feedback on what was
experienced. Note that information gathered after each workshop helped to frame
the structure of the next workshop. In addition to these sources of information, I,
the researcher, took detailed field notes of the workshops as well as observations
of the team in both practice and competition.
A Kinaesthetic Intervention
Enhancing Movement Consciousness through the Breath
The first workshop designed for the volleyball players consisted of isolated
and applied exercises that were based on deepening their awareness of the breath.
Breath awareness was the first focal point of a kinaesthetic intervention as it is
central to movement disciplines focused on mindfully deepening one‟s
kinaesthetic awareness (Johnson, 2000). Players were invited to sit and/or lie
down to simply attune themselves to the natural cadence, pathway, and temporal
quality of their breath. Once the players were comfortable sensing their breath,
they were invited to attune themselves to the way they breathed in motions that
were specific to volleyball. Players were asked to become aware of their breath in
a serve and serve receive based on a recommendation from the head coach who
indicated these motions are most notably associated with the building of bodily
tension in a competitive setting. Note that prescriptive advice was not given in
terms of when they should breath in or out and for how long. Players were asked
to explore various pathways, tempos, and qualities of breathing in relation to
what worked best for them.
Enhancing Kinaesthetic Consciousness through Balance, the Interactive Dance
of Proprioception
The second workshop was designed to situate the awareness of the breath
within a deeper, felt sense of postures, actions, and tactical patterns of game play.
Several activities were designed to help the volleyball players become aware of
the inner kinaesthetic sense of balance as well as the expressive energy a living or
dynamic balance has the potential to exude. Influenced by Mullis‟ (2006)
thoughts on enhancing somaesthetic practice through engaging in “precarious
balance”, as well as his “principle of opposition”, activities were designed for
players to purposefully act and react in situations where their balance was
challenged beyond and within the context of volleyball. The players were invited
to balance on top of a stability ball in four, three, and two point positions (e.g.,
two knees and hands or a combination of one, two or three points of balance
between the hands and knees) where rocking and circling motions were
emphasized. Such ebbing and flowing actions into moments of sustained balance
embody Johnson‟s (2000) recommendation that we should feel and not force our
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
way into optimal alignment. Next, the volleyball players were invited to play a
mirror, follow-the-leader game in positions and motions that would invoke a
feeling of precarious balance. Lastly, a slow motion, imaginary game of
volleyball was suggested by the head coach. As a pretend ball was passed, set,
and attacked, players were asked to intermittently freeze certain positions at a
moment‟s notice and comment on their multidirectional feelings of opposition as
well as interconnection.
Enhancing Kinaesthetic Consciousness through Rhythm
The third and final workshop specifically designed for the team centered on
the concept of rhythm. Temporal awareness is pertinent to volleyball, as the
ability to keep a ball rhythmically in motion not only adds to the excitement of
the game; when a certain play is sustained longer than to be expected, the players
and all who are watching are drawn into what Smith (2007) describes as the skin
of the moment, where the present moment or the “now” is a palpable duration of
“undivided sensation” (Heller-Roazen, 2007, p. 51). Such a sense of flow, a term
that is etymologically linked to the Greek word rhythmos (Westervelt, 2002),
within the context of a start and stop game of volleyball is remarkably difficult to
achieve yet is essential for connectivity and success.
A glossary of musical terms was provided to give the players a more
sophisticated language for describing various rhythms within the game to help
them become more aware of rhythm, specifically the multitude of rhythms within
their skills, tactical plays, huddles, and modes of communication. After
discussing terms that stood out as significant for the players, specifically „accent‟,
„crescendo‟, and „staccato‟, the players were invited to experience their regularly
planned warm-up with increased attention toward the accents they felt within the
movements themselves (e.g., where the most significant moment or emphasis was
to be felt within a walking quadriceps stretch), and how these warm-up
movements could be energized by noting moments of hang time or movements
that might coordinate with the background music that was always playing but
often untapped.
Players were invited to perform volleyball-like passes with scarves, an
object that provided a context for players to experience prolonged „hang time‟ to
help develop rhythmical awareness within interactive movement patterns. As the
players evolved from passing the scarves directly to each other to the suggestion
of varying the trajectories and rhythms with the intention of creating moments of
precarious balance in one‟s partner, they were able to tune into the potential that a
purposive change in the tempo has within the tactical dimension of game play. To
help players extend this notion of purposefully changing a rhythm to create a
desired affect, such as picking oneself up to engage in the positive exchange of
energy required after a mistake is made on the court, players were invited to
intentionally change various rhythms on the court as well as in various moments
of their day.
Responses to the Kinaesthetic Intervention
The breath distinguishes a corpse state of an objectified body (Welton,
1999) from the presence of vitality and life that pulsates through a living body or
what Hanna (1988) describes as the somatic body. In Sanskrit, the term “an”
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
“means „to breathe‟ [as well as] „to live‟ and „to move‟” (Rosen, 2002, p. 21).
While references to life and death may appear extreme, the life, or moment-to-
moment movements of a play in volleyball are all very much affected by the
presence of held versus flowing breath. Furthermore, the way one breathes with
intention has the potential to increase a sense of power, energy or emotion as
indicated in the following descriptions of players‟ lived experiences. Note that for
the purposes of this inquiry as well as limitations with respect to length, the lived
experience of two to three players per workshop will be highlighted.
Tracy is a very focused player. Before she serves, she does three bounces in
succession. Her eyes track these bounces closely and the rest of her perceptual
world seems to disappear. A look of calm permeates her face. In this state, she
tosses the ball high into the air and her palm greets it with force and precision.
Volleyball is in her blood. It is a game that has been played competitively in her
family for generations. On any given competitive match or tournament, four or
more of her family members are there vicariously living through each and every
one of her calculated movements. But more than a familial presence, a close
observer can see how volleyball is literally in her blood as her entire being, the
visceral responsiveness under her outer form, appears to pulsate in coordination
when such a ritual is performed. Today as I see Tracy assume her three bounces I
invite her to attend to the breath, not purposefully to change it, but just to be
slightly more aware of how it is already part of her well-rehearsed movement
pattern. She laughs, seems to be thrown off her familiar automaticity and
playfully explores various parts of her serve. Following the workshop, in a
journal-like reflection she shares:
I have always taken deep calming breaths as I am walking back to serve, but
now I find it helpful to take a short breath in as I toss the ball, and a quick
breath out as I hit the ball. I find it more powerful
Kerry is a player with a strong presence on and off the court. Her good
mood has the potential to light up a room. Similarly, moments caught in heated
frustration are equally permeable. She sets high standards for herself both on the
court and in her personal workouts. For Kerry, every movement, every action on
the court played by herself or others MATTERS. When Kerry plays well she is
aggressive, determined and according to her she plays best when she feels like
the game is a personal challenge”. Observing Kerry in action, one can see her
look of determination as well as the pressure that she puts on herself. When asked
to focus on the quality of her breath during her serve she described her
experience as follows:
Without a doubt my serves are way more consistent when I take some time to
focus on my breath. Whether or not the serve itself is better I cannot be
sure, but I feel like they end up being stronger and I feel like it is an
impossibility to miss.
As she continued to include an awareness of the breath following the
workshop she explains the result,
Since learning to use breathing, I have found more power, consistency and
calm during movements. In particular, while serving I find that it has helped
me have more confidence in my serve. It almost shortens the court.
Such a focus on the breath not only affected the way players performed
serves in practice, players also noted how attention to the breath affected the way
they moved as a team. Both Louise and Margaret‟s journal reflections described
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
how attention to the breath was experienced by the team as a whole. Louise
Breathing is a transfer of energy, so if every one of us exhales as we make
contact with the ball (serving, passing, setting, hitting…), there is some kind
of energy that goes through the ball and is passed on from player to player.
While exhaling, we can also put verbal energy into the ball (like Nancy, who
makes a “HA” when she attacks the ball), which intensifies the feeling of the
play. By doing this, I think it would help us stay connected and keep a
positive and competitive atmosphere.
Lastly, Margaret notes that,
It is an aspect of our training that a lot of people don’t give much
importance to, but I believe that breathing has a very big role in any sport,
so bringing the team’s attention to it played a large role in developing the
The breath thus became more than a tool to calm oneself down or build
intensity, as it is so often used within the context of sport psychology intervention
(Orlick, 1999). The players‟ reflections on how attention to the breath affected
the dynamics of the team indicate that it also holds expressive and cohesive
qualities. The „HA‟ sound that accompanied Nancy‟s exhales, for example, did so
much more than increase the power of her serve. It communicated the power she
was exuding from her motion into the motions of others.
A noticeable tension is apparent when the gentle proprioceptive sway that
informs our inner kinaesthetic sense is missing. A keen observer can see the
difference between a held position that is stiff versus one that is filled with
potential energy to move or explode into any direction. As I watch Cathy play
Libero, a defensive position who has the job of staying crouched and low in order
to receive a served ball, I see variations in her observable sense of bodily balance.
When she is playing well she exudes what Game (2001), an English equestrian
who regularly experiences postures that give the illusion of a static carriage,
describes as the interplay between “balance, alignment, [and] relaxation” (p. 9).
The presence of fluidity and vitality is observable in the distribution of weight
through the toes and metatarsals, the concavity of the torso, and the vigilante
presence of the arms and hands ready to extend yet intertwine as they continue
the anterior concave trajectory in the positioning of the shoulders, chest, and
head, a bodily presence that affords a bodily cultivation of flow. In comparison,
when the proactive and reactive dynamic dance of balance is not present, she
exudes a stiff, hunched over squat wherein the weight of the torso is supported by
hands pressing into her thighs, a posture that is accompanied by pressing her
weight back into the heels. This position surfaces during times of fatigue or
frustration. In short, she looks more „propped‟ than „primed‟ for action. One can
imagine how the absence or presence of a proprioceptive dance of balance within
such a posture has the potential to either isolate or connect her not only to the
play but where she strategically needs to place the ball in terms of the movement
sequences that follow her initial contact. Cathy‟s journal reflection reveals that
the feeling of balance helps her be more aware of everyone on the team and
where they are. That helps to reduce errors of hesitation.”
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
Kara is a natural leader on the team who outwardly embraces challenge.
This is demonstrated by her choice in taking flights of stairs on a regular basis,
even when her hotel room is on the 27
floor. Through the balance workshop she
became more aware of her tendency to hesitate and close herself off from
moments in play that seem “out of reach”.
During the partner exercise portion of the workshop I saw Kara and Louise
playfully mirror each other in progressively more precarious positions where the
purpose of the exercise was to keep it going but make it as challenging as
possible for each other to maintain balance. Inevitably when Kara was thrown off
balance and touched the floor with her hands such moments gave way to a
cessation in play. As a facilitator I asked, “Is it possible for you to keep the
mirror game moving even after moments when you are feeling off-balance such
as when you lean out, dive or roll?” and, “What could you do to keep the game
alive?” In response to my questions, Kara not only changed the way she reached
beyond her comfort zone and resumed play, her teammates also appeared to be
finding new ways to move in and out of unbalanced motions.
Kara‟s journal reflection further contextualizes what I observed. She
explains: In Volleyball, we are often in position where balance is compromised.
Awareness of this balance in our body can increase the feeling of control and
then, I think, my confidence.”
Other teammates echoed Kara‟s sentiments. Another player, Ann,
Balance is such a key aspect to volleyball. We are constantly put in positions
where we are against the forces of gravity and our bodies have to fight to
stay strong. I liked the ball exercises because I really felt my core firing to
keep me stable. These kinds of exercises can also be applied to certain
situations on the court, like passing balls outside of our bodies.
Leslie‟s journal related the concept of bodily balance to a team
phenomenon. When commenting on moments of precarious balance that were felt
when simulated game plays were created without the ball and players were asked
to freeze at random moments, this is what she described:
I really liked the simulations exercise where we tried to feel the connection
between our teammates. At first, I didn’t understand what the exercise was
about, but once we got started, I could feel that everyone was connected by
our actions. This balance and connection has a direct impact on the way we
play; the stronger the connection, the better we play as a team.
She continued by saying,
I don’t believe that one lesson will do anything for the team. I think it is
something that should be worked on regularly and individually.
This comment reinforces Shusterman (2008) in his exploration of body
consciousness. To open and prepare oneself to engage in the pre-reflective,
spontaneous dance of miraculous movement described by Merleau-Ponty (1962),
Shusterman contends that disciplined and regular practice such as mindfulness
training is required. Knowledge of balance in the cognitive sense, therefore, is but
a starting point to feel and refine one‟s ability to balance. Deepened bodily
awareness develops over a prolonged period of time where a series of planned
movements provide proprioceptive feedback on areas where one holds and thus
releases tension. However, as Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU)
researchers and coaches explain (e.g., Light, 2005), isolated and reflective skill-
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
based practice alone falls short of preparing athletes to perform within the
beautiful chaos of the living moment. Given that volleyball is really a group
experience of juggling we might also consider the observations of an expert
juggler, “You never make mistakes in the same spot. Even if it‟s in the same trick
that you miss, it‟s always going to be a different moment of the trick” (Percelly in
Wilson, 1998, p. 110). To ultimately refine the dynamic kinaesthetic sense of
balance, therefore, one can conclude that a balance of Merleau-Ponty‟s notion of
spontaneity and Shusterman‟s reflectivity, i.e., a present moment AND reflective
practice, would best prepare the athletes to engage in the passing, setting, and
attacking motions that constitute the game of collaborative juggling of a ball over
a net.
As players learn to sense the kinaesthetic qualities of breath and balance, the
way they rhythmically interact with others enables them to think, act, and react in
rhythmical resonance with others. Laban, an acclaimed movement educator and
philosopher from the early 1900s who has significantly contributed to
foundational curricular conceptions of physical education both in Europe and
North America, intertwines principles of bodily effort with temporality. He notes
that a “person‟s efforts are visibly expressed in the rhythms of his bodily motion.
It thus becomes necessary to study these rhythms” (Laban & Lawrence, 1974, p.
2) as we aim to cultivate mature, synergistic expressions of movement.
As I take Laban‟s advice and begin to observe the rhythms apparent in the
players‟ warm-up sequence of shuffles, walking lunges, walking knee-ups,
walking high kicks, lateral side squats and simulated blocks I note that they do
these motions with an sense of automaticity. There is no observable accent or
„hang time‟ and one moment blends into the next with a similar sense of flatness.
Rather than stopping the music and gathering the players in for an instructional
chat, I take my place in line and perform the warm-up with the team. When it is
my turn to traverse the floor I am not only exuberant as my natural joy for
movement surfaces, my walking knee-ups match the booming bass of Katy
Perry‟s “Hot N Cold” and helps to transpose its relative position of „background‟
to the „foreground‟. Although a 4/4 tempo is evident, each phase of my knee-up
carries a discrete shift in tempo. At the top of the movement, when the knee is
lifted I hang in a precarious moment and begin to couple it with a calf-raise. As I
continue, the feeling of turning emerges and before long every third or fourth
knee-up becomes a pirouette. Laughter permeates the air as other teammates
follow in my footsteps as well as their own variations in creating accents in other
movement pathways. A sense of lightness and playfulness emerges that was
previously absent from the warm-up portion of practice.
Variations in rhythm continue to permeate awareness as we engage in a
series of simulated sequences that carry purposeful variations in accent and
tempo. The following journal response from Irene reveals how an increased
awareness of rhythm facilitates her development as an athlete:
The whole game of volleyball revolves around rhythm. As an individual, I
think the biggest example of rhythm in my mind would be passing, and
afterwards following through - there is a distinct rhythm in my mind, and
whenever I stop myself in the middle and don’t follow through, I feel the lack
of rhythm and realize I stopped my feet and didn’t follow through.
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
Stopping the rhythm of play or not being able to respond or purposefully
change the rhythm of a „slow game‟ for example was also a significant point
raised in group discussion. I suggest to the team that they try to be more aware of
what they could do to change up the rhythm both on and off the court. I use the
example of walking down the street. I explain, If I walk in slow, heavy steps
there is a certain mood that is carried. Conversely, if I suddenly speed up, lift my
eyes and even experience a skip in my stride, a new sense of energy emerges”.
The following journal responses indicate how the players responded to a
rhythmical intervention.
Sarah explains,
I couldn’t really apply this individually on the court, but I tried to be more
aware of it and try and change it in situations where we weren’t doing so
well. To change up the rhythm, I started to smile and look at everyone in the
eyes, even when we lost a point. I don’t know if it helped others, but it
helped me.
The importance of rhythm in team dynamics was also apparent in Kara‟s
Rhythm is the biggest thing we have been working on. It’s something that’s
really hard to always have, but by becoming more aware of it by doing these
exercises, and having reminders, helps us get closer to the rhythm we are
looking for.
Lastly, Louise‟s comments give a sense of what Laban and Lawrence (1974)
were addressing, in how observable rhythm gives a sense not only of the level of
maturation in the quality of the movement, but the sense of flow that is present.
When I thought of six people moving in a certain rhythm on the court, it
occurred to me that rhythm is what brings together breath, flow of motion,
and balance. Rhythm is what makes volleyball. We are constantly moving
with specific steps… Rhythm is what makes volleyball exciting because it
changes constantly. By being aware of this, we now understand that we are
the ones who control the game and we are the ones who bring excitement
and emotions to the court, not the other team.
Limitations and Implications for Future Research
The players‟ responses to the kinaesthetic concepts of breath, balance, and
rhythm were exceedingly positive. Several limitations of this intervention should
be taken into consideration however, as the performance and ability of the team
to experience enhanced kinaesthetic consciousness within the high-pressure
situation of competition could be improved. Of primary concern was the time lost
in the four-month delay in seeking ethics clearance, a time when I was not
permitted by the Ethics Review Board to observe or work with the team.
Beginning such an intervention one month and half before playoffs was not ideal.
Without having enough preseason time to reinforce mindful practices of breath,
balance, and rhythmical motion within their regular practices, warm-ups, and
competitions in low-pressure situations, the lasting effect of the intervention did
not transfer as well as it could have to high-pressure situations. In looking to
refine modes of kinaesthetic intervention with the intention of improving the
quality of game play, future team-building discussions and workshops should
ideally take place during the preseason training camp.
Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
A variety of reflective measures that provide players with visual images of
their bodily movement such as planned peer observation, as well as videotaped
identification coupled with internal experiences of kinaesthetic recall are
recommended to facilitate individuals‟ observations and growing sensations of
kinaesthetic consciousness. Such modes of reflection will help the players refine
the ability to express and sense the micro-moments that collectively shape and
cultivate the energetic exchange of energy and the resonating rhythm created by
the team.
In closing, it gives me great pleasure to report that the very last game of the
season carried a rhythm and sense of positive energy from the beginning of the
pep talk to the last moment of the third and final game. Players on the sidelines
rarely sat on the bench; rather, the uproar of chants, claps, and dances of
celebration filled the air and left an impression on all who were there. I never
expected to become caught up in the wave of enthusiasm, outwardly expressing
my joy for the game with matching whoops, hollers, claps, and laughter.
However, as the game came to a close, simply being part of the emotions
expressed and lived on the final day of playoffs brought me closer to the kind of
experience that lives and stays with competitive athletes who strive passionately
together to achieve the same goal: to live and truly celebrate each moment on the
court and the larger game we call life.
Through ongoing research, it is my hope that as educators of students who
become varsity athletes and those who perhaps sample sports for a shorter period
may experience the surges of life not only in moments such as the last game of a
playoff but in what may be considered a mundane or lifeless part of a warm-up or
practice. By detailing accounts of how volleyball players became kinaesthetically
aware, I hope that these findings inspire coaches, physical education teachers,
and teachers of students in teacher education programs to incorporate aspects of
kinaesthetic awareness such as attention to breath, balance and rhythm. Thus, as
we refine teaching and coaching models that not only take into account the lived
sense of space in tactics synonymous with the TGfU approach (Hopper, Butler &
Storey, 2009) we might begin to see more attention given to a kinaesthetic sense
of understanding, an offering for teaching games with inner sense.
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Lloyd Kinaesthetic Consciousness in Volleyball
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For those not familiar with the TGfU model, it offers both practical and
theoretical guidance for teachers and researchers of physical education interested
in games pedagogy. Teachers, for example, appreciate the tactical focus of TGfU
as it offers a conceptual approach for planning curriculum around the grouping of
games into categories of target, territory, net/wall, batting and fielding (see for a sample of games grouped in this way). The TGfU model
has also been gaining increasing attention in competitive coaching contexts
(Hopper, Butler & Storey, 2009) and is becoming an internationally recognized
as a hub for research and academic inquiry (e.g., see as it offers a
fertile ground for re-conceptualizing physical education pedagogy.
Note that the focus of a phenomenological inquiry is not to report findings in an
exhaustive way showing the busyness and productivity of the researcher. Rather,
much time and care is given to the process of piecing together literature,
philosophy, and vignettes of lived experience to better understand the phenomena
in question.
... Recognizing that we cannot ever depart from our past (Kirk, 2010), an interdisciplinary approach that extends conceptions of the dominant outer body focus of ''physical education-assport-techniques'' (p. 42) to also include sensations (Lloyd, 2011) and emotional qualities of movement (e.g., Lloyd & Smith, 2010) is worth exploring. Specifically, an inquiry that questions what it might be like to be physically educated in a way that invites an expanded movement consciousness informed by the disciplines of sport pedagogy, sport psychology and existential philosophy (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi, 2000;Lloyd & Smith, 2009;Merleau-Ponty, 1964=1968) situated within an activity such as climbing has the potential to loosen the laces of the socially constructed shoe of physical education and thus ''reawaken . . . ...
... 330). By unpremeditated, one can infer that de Beauvoir was referring to a motile experience indicative of Csikszentmihalyi's (2000) flow, a psychological theory that exudes a joyful, existential, somaesthetic 1 consciousness (Shusterman, 2008;Lloyd, 2011;Lloyd & Smith, 2009) where thought is not separated from movement but living within the primal nature of the movements themselves (Sheets-Johnstone, 1999). Lynn Hill, as she described one of her climbs in southern France, fleshed out a sense of flow in an animate unfolding of each of her steps. ...
... To some extent, we need to provide opportunities to move and to feel the sensations, both joy and fear and everything that lives between, before we purposefully form movement from an external, aesthetic register of consciousness (Lloyd, 2011). Hence, we might embrace the possibilities to discover ourselves in movement. ...
Full-text available
A phenomenological study aimed at exploring the process of becoming physically educated with an interdisciplinary movement consciousness was conducted with the intention of understanding how basic motions, such as reaching and stretching, experienced in kinetic–kinaesthetic discovery may deepen a primordial, Merleau-Pontian connection to the world. A JungleSport climbing-based program with a series of vertical challenges framed the context of this inquiry informed by the overarching question of “What is it like to become physically educated in a way that invites an expanded movement consciousness, from the rudiments of movement function to the somatics of flow?” Implications of this inquiry support an animate curriculum and pedagogical model that purports a simple yet profound notion: that one must move to learn.
... In this case, the unfamiliar terrain is the existential philosophy on which the concept of physical literacy is based, namely, an orientation to experiencing interactivity in a way that perceptually intertwines body, space, time, and relational awareness-existential concepts (van Manen, 1997) that are actually central to health and physical education (HPE) curricula (e.g., Ontario Ministry of Education, 2015). Hence, much of my academic research has been dedicated to providing practical and philosophical pathways that encourage a shift from mechanism to vitalism within the context of fitness, physical education, as well as curriculum theorizing that pertains to embodied learning across various school subjects (for further detail, please see the following articles: Smith & Lloyd, 2006;Lloyd & Smith, 2006a;Lloyd & Smith, 2009;Lloyd, 2011a;Lloyd, 2011b;Lloyd, 2012b;Lloyd, 2014). As an interdisciplinarian, I do not wish to position one way of conceptualizing movement in opposition to another, rather, as the leading interdisciplinary researcher Repko (2008) recommends, I, in partnership with my colleague Stephen Smith, aim to advance and transform knowledge by providing a pathway that integrates and connects various schools of thought. ...
... Form connotes the outer shape, hence bodily form visible in movement expression as well as the process involved in movement maturation (Laban & Lawrence 1974;Laban, 1948) for which much of the pedagogy in physical education is based. Feeling draws attention to the inner sensations of movement such as musculoskeletal sensations of tension or elongation, the quality and sensation of breath, perceptions of balance, and the "self-sensing, internalized perception of oneself" (Hanna, 1988, p. 20;Johnson 2000;Lloyd, 2011b;Shusterman, 2008). Flow draws attention to the existential dimension of movement, i.e., the possibility for sensing pleasurable connections and flow experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) that are energetically experienced between the person, the motion, others, and the world at large (Merleau-Ponty [1968] 1964; Sheets-Johnstone 1999; Lloyd, 2011a;Lloyd & Smith, 2006a). ...
Purpose To explore a conceptual shift from mechanism, the dominant ‘body-as-machine’ (Tinning, 2010) paradigm, to vitalism, the philosophical phenomenological tenets of physical literacy (Whitehead, 2010) upon which the curriculum of physical education in Canada is based, within the context of an alternative physical education program. Method A motion-sensitive phenomenological approach (Lloyd & Smith, 2006b; 2015), conceptually framed by the Function2Flow (F2F) model, was conducted with a sample of N = 153 students from seven different schools in Ottawa (Canada) who booked the JungleSport climbing program of their own accord. Sources of information included phenomenological observations, small group interviews, and journal entries. Exemplars of two in depth student experiences are featured in this article. Results & Discussion The phenomenological analysis of the climbing experiences, in addition to the F2F curriculum support tools that were developed, provide practical and philosophical pathways for understanding how we may broaden assessments of learning in physical education.
... To give a sense of the germination and genealogy of the F2F model, the function, form, feeling, and flow registers of movement consciousness were first conceived in collaboration with Stephen Smith with the goal of enlivening conceptions of health-related fitness (Lloyd and Smith 2009). The F2F model was then further developed as the registers of function, form, feeling, and flow were applied to feminist notions of curriculum theorizing (Lloyd 2012a), embodied ways of understanding and experiencing teacher education (Lloyd 2012c), collegiate volleyball (Lloyd 2011b), and running (Lloyd 2011c). ...
... Not one teacher, however, five of whom identified themselves as PE specialists, assessed climbing beyond basic levels of participation. When queried, however, they were very much interested in assisting with the development of an assessment tool that aligned their provincial curriculum with the F2F (as developed in Lloyd 2011bLloyd , 2011cLloyd , 2012aLloyd and Smith 2009). Thus, it was anticipated that the creation of an F2F-inspired support tool for assessing climbing would encourage them to think differently about a form of physical activity that they would otherwise assess in terms of baseline levels of participation. ...
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Background: Physical Education (PE) programmes are expanding to include alternative activities yet what is missing is a conceptual model that facilitates how the learning process may be understood and assessed beyond the dominant sport-technique paradigm.
... (Klein, 2005, p Such excerpts reveal a sense of shared joy in the experience of hooping in a university environment. More than an avenue of stress release, it also cultivated a space for sensations of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000;Lloyd, 2011;Lloyd & Smith, 2009) and delight (Kretchmar, 2005). While spinning hoops on campus, students were able to joyfully live in the moment, forget their worries, and build their confidence as they experienced the magic of motility, the Merleau-Pontian (1962) Yvonne, student teacher: ...
... Flow, although no longer a state that takes hold of me with predicted automaticity in that it is no longer within reach for reasons that will soon be disclosed, is a phenomena that continues to shape my research in teacher education (Lloyd, 2012b), physical education (Lloyd 2011a(Lloyd , 2011d, and my everyday life as a tenured professor, breastfeeding mother (Lloyd, 2012d), dog walker (Lloyd, 2011c), and beginning salsa dancer. Flow, experienced as an emergent phenomenon, thus has recently grabbed my attention, as I wish to explore what it is like to experience flow when it is no longer readily available, when what used to be automatic, e.g., experiencing flow in running, yoga, teaching, and mothering, becomes out of reach. ...
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When the existential state of flow is experienced, the flesh of oneself perceptually intertwines with the Merleau-Pontian flesh of the world. Perceived constraints and worries disappear and, according to Csikszentmihalyi (19964. Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 1996 ). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention . New York , NY : Harper Collins . View all references, 20007. Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 2000 ). Beyond boredom and anxiety: Experiencing flow in work and play . San Francisco , CA : Jossey-Bass . View all references, 20088. Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 2008 ). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience . New York , NY : Harper Perennial Modern Classics . (Original work published 1990) View all references), longtime researcher of flow, all that exists is the merging of bodily action and awareness within the timeless nature of the present moment. Such a state is highly desirable and for those who experience flow often; the path toward its onset might become automatic, even predictable. But what might it be like to experience a dys/function, such as an injury that veers one from this automatic-pilot course? Could such a circumstance, if mindfully embraced with a Heideggerian sway, cultivate a different kind of flow? Influenced by Daniel Stern's (201039. Stern , D. N. ( 2010 ). Forms of vitality: Exploring dynamic experience in psychotherapy, the arts, and development . Oxford , UK : Oxford University Press . View all references) concept of vitality forms, an affective attunement towards movement that attends to the nuances of force, spatiality, and intentionality/directionality within motility, this inquiry delves into the motile experience of finding a new footing in life, of embracing emergence, and exploring the cultivation of flow in both fluid and em/bounded/bodied ways.
... Inspired by Levin's phenomenology of movement maturation (1985), Merleau-Ponty's (1962;1968) notion of reversibility, Sartre's (1956) sensualization of motile acts, Ingold's Merleau-Pontian informed perception of the environment, prior explorations into embodied experiences of flow (Lloyd & Smith, 2006;Lloyd & Smith, 2009;Lloyd, 2011;Lloyd, in press b), as well as David Abram's (1996; first person Merleau-Pontian inspired phenomenological description of moving in and being moved by the world, this inquiry delves into the possibilities of awakening a phenomenological movement consciousness, a "re-achieving [of] a direct and primitive contact with the world" (Merleau-Ponty, 1962, p. vii). With the intention of furthering curricular conceptions of physical literacy, therefore, this inquiry explores the phenomenon of leaving, reading and being moved by one's trace and thus serves to explore chiasmic perception within the landscape of an animate literacy. ...
Full-text available
Physical literacy, a concept introduced by Britain's physical education and phenomenological scholar, Margaret Whitehead, who aligned the term with her monist view of the human condition and emphasis that we are essentially embodied beings in-the-world, is a foundational hub of recent physical education curricular revision. The adoption of the term serves a political purpose as it helps stakeholders advocate for the educational, specifically literacy, rights of the whole child. Yet, one might wonder what impact conceptual shifts of becoming "physically literate" in lieu of becoming "physically educated" have on physical education research and practice. Terms such as "reading" the game and metaphors that describe the body as an "instrument of expression" are entering the lexicon of physical education but from a seemingly cognitive frame of reference. Arguably, the extent to which the adoption of physical literacy has on dissolving Cartesian views of the body and the mechanization of movement it performs has yet to be questioned. This article thus acts as an invitation to explore physical literacy in a Merleau-Pontian inspired act of inscribing the world through movement and how a reading of a reversible imprint might awaken a more fluent sense of what it means to become physically literate as new curricular pathways in the field of physical education emerge.
The purpose of the research was to make a cross-cultural analysis and systematize models of physical education based on the ideas of L.A. Be-lyaeva, P.S. Gurevich, I.G. Fomicheva by means of vector modeling. Conclusions. The contradictions between acute and potential corporal-spiritual abilities and human needs necessary for adaptation, socialization, individualization and enculturation in the natural and sociocultural environments and between social requirements to human corporal-spiritual conditions and its real conditions are the main factors pf physical education. One teaches and learns to live in a constantly changing world. In physical education one should use all the variety of natural and sociocultural factors, conditions and abilities capable of rendering both accidental and organized effect on human development, flexible forms, means and methods of recreation, education, development and training to achieve poly-variability of training-educative process and construction of sports environment to form health, physical and sports culture of children and youth, active, competent and tolerant personality ready for identity formation in the constantly changing world. Regarding physical education of a certain person: every individual should in some measure pass the stages of individual and sociocultural development, presupposing adaptation, socialization, self-realization and enculturation, thus at primary school the key modality of physical education can be recreative-adaptive, at secondary - socioorientating, at senior and professional school - personally-focused or sports-recreative. The specified model of physical education is always the same in practice, they correlate with each other, complementing and making up for their specific faults and limits.
A case study design was used to (a) describe the process and identify the content of the verbal interactions between an eminent mental training consultant and five elite level athletes during ten sessions, and to (b) compare the analyzed sessions with the consultant's published approach on mental training. The sources of information included the audio recordings of the mental training sessions, the interviews with the consultant, the interviews with the athletes, and two articles published by the consultant. An adapted version of the Flanders' (1965) Interaction Analysis in the Classroom was used to systematically code the process, and a content analysis was performed on the transcripts of the mental training sessions and interviews. During the sessions, the consultant's verbal behaviors accounted for 39% of the total coded behaviors leaving 60% for the athletes and 1% for silence. The content analysis revealed that up to 24 topics were addressed in each session (often the athletes would "unload") where certain issues had a more frequent word count. The analysis of the content and process revealed that the consultant follows an athlete-centered approach that corresponds to the consultant's published perspective.
Contemporary culture increasingly suffers from problems of attention, over-stimulation, and stress, and a variety of personal and social discontents generated by deceptive body images. This book argues that improved body consciousness can relieve these problems and enhance one’s knowledge, performance, and pleasure. The body is our basic medium of perception and action, but focused attention to its feelings and movements has long been criticized as a damaging distraction that also ethically corrupts through self-absorption. In Body Consciousness, Richard Shusterman refutes such charges by engaging the most influential twentieth-century somatic philosophers and incorporating insights from both Western and Asian disciplines of body-mind awareness.
First published in 1945, Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s monumental Phénoménologie de la perception signalled the arrival of a major new philosophical and intellectual voice in post-war Europe. Breaking with the prevailing picture of existentialism and phenomenology at the time, it has become one of the landmark works of twentieth-century thought. This new translation, the first for over fifty years, makes this classic work of philosophy available to a new generation of readers.