ArticlePDF Available

Development of Behaviorally-Based Monitoring Tools for the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Commercial Tree Fruit Orchards

Authors:

Abstract

Captures of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), were significantly greater in pyramid traps baited with the known attractant, methyl (2E,4E,6Z)decatrienoate, compared with unbaited traps. A dose-dependent response by adults to lures formulated with increasing amounts of methyl (2E,4E,62)-decatrienoate and deployed in association with black pyramid traps also was observed. Among pyramid traps representing different visual stimuli including black, green, yellow, clear, white and yellow, significantly greater captures were recorded in baited black pyramid traps for adults in 2009 and nymphs in 2010 compared with other trap types; the dark upright silhouette created by this trap likely represents a trunk-mimicking visual stimulus to foraging bugs. A ground-deployed baited black pyramid trap also captured significantly greater numbers of nymphs and adults compared with canopydeployed commercially available baited traps from Japan. Based on semi-field cage studies, brown marmorated stink bug was confirmed to be bivoltine within the mid-Atlantic region. Thus, the need for a reliable monitoring tool to detect presence, abundance and seasonal activity of brown marmorated stink bug in tree fruit and other cropping systems is critical.
... There are several advantages of utilizing pheromones for monitor-ing pests, including lower costs, specificity, ease of use, and high sensitivity (Laurent and Frérot 2007;Witzgall et al. 2010) [39,72] . Insect pest monitoring by using pheromone lures can profit management conclusions such as insecticide application timing (Leskey et al. 2012;Peng et al. 2012) [40] . Pheromones produced by insects are highly species specific. ...
... There are several advantages of utilizing pheromones for monitor-ing pests, including lower costs, specificity, ease of use, and high sensitivity (Laurent and Frérot 2007;Witzgall et al. 2010) [39,72] . Insect pest monitoring by using pheromone lures can profit management conclusions such as insecticide application timing (Leskey et al. 2012;Peng et al. 2012) [40] . Pheromones produced by insects are highly species specific. ...
... Thus, little to no work has investigated whether there is a preference for certain shapes or light stimuli, which may be important for a species that appears to regularly use trees as a host. Other arboreal insects have been found to have a preference for dark silhouettes that mimic tree shapes and ultraviolet light (Leskey et al., 2012(Leskey et al., , 2015. ...
Article
Full-text available
The invasive larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), originating from Meso-America, is a devastating stored product pest of maize (Zea mays L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta). This species can destroy up to 40% of stored maize within four months. Despite four decades of research, P. truncatus has spread throughout Africa, while decimating maize and cassava production. Given the continuing problems with P. truncatus, the likelihood for its continued range expansion under climate change, and its status as a species of concern in many countries, the objective of this review was to provide an updated and comprehensive freely accessible record of the distribution and spread, biology, development, and ecology, host preferences, chemical ecology, detection, and monitoring, and management of P. truncatus. We conducted a search of the literature from 1911 to 2021 using Google Scholar and Web of Science to find all papers related to key search terms. We found that P. truncatus has been recorded in 36 countries across the globe, including 21 now in Africa. A recent predictive model found that the insect has been limited to tropical and subtropical regions but could likely spread to temperate regions as temperatures rise with climate change. Conspecifics respond to their two component, male-produced aggregation pheromone early after eclosion, but quickly switch to other cues as older adults. At close-range, P. truncatus may use food cues, but host volatiles are not involved in long-range host finding of commodities. Research on managing P. truncatus has mostly focused on chemical control to the detriment of other tactics, with the most promising tactic likely to be the different hermetic storage technologies. Many outstanding areas of basic behavior and ecology remain to be assessed for P. truncatus. We highlight specific areas that should be prioritized for further work in order to better manage and reduce the impact of this invasive insect pest.
... Progress toward development of pheromone-based monitoring tools began with discovery that methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (MDT), the pheromone of Plautia stali, another Asian stink bug, was attractive to H. halys (Aldrich et al. 2007, Khrimian et al. 2008. While MDT is attractive to nymphs season-long, adults are only attracted to this stimulus during the late-season, often well after damage to the crop has occurred and even after harvest in some cases (Leskey et al. 2012). However, with the identification of the two-component H. halys pheromone (PHER), (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1bisabolen-3-ol , and the discovery that MDT serves as a synergist , the pieces were in place to reliably monitor this pest. ...
Article
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is native to Asia and has invaded North America and Europe inflicting serious agricultural damage to specialty and row crops. Tools to monitor the spread of H. halys include traps baited with the two-component aggregation pheromone (PHER), (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, and pheromone synergist, methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (MDT). Here, an international team of researchers conducted trials aimed at evaluating prototype commercial lures for H. halys to establish relative attractiveness of: 1) low and high loading rates of PHER and MDT for monitoring tools and attract and kill tactics; 2) polyethylene lure delivery substrates; and 3) the inclusion of ethyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrieonate (EDT), a compound that enhances captures when combined with PHER in lures. In general, PHER loading rate had a greater impact on overall trap captures compared with loading of MDT, but reductions in PHER loading and accompanying lower trap captures could be offset by increasing loading of MDT. As MDT is less expensive to produce, these findings enable reduced production costs. Traps baited with lures containing PHER and EDT resulted in numerically increased captures when EDT was loaded at a high rate, but captures were not significantly greater than those traps baited with lures containing standard PHER and MDT. Experimental polyethylene vial dispensers did not outperform standard lure dispensers; trap captures were significantly lower in most cases. Ultimately, these results will enable refinement of commercially available lures for H. halys to balance attraction and sensitivity with production cost.
... realized (Kriticos et al. 2017). Aggregation pheromones can be useful for H. halys surveillance (Leskey et al. 2012d, Khrimian et al. 2014, Rice et al. 2014, Suckling et al. 2019b, and pesticides are frequently used to control this pest. Unfortunately, many pesticides do not show high levels of effectiveness, while the remaining available materials effective against H. halys are generally broad spectrum (Leskey et al. 2012a(Leskey et al. , 2012bLee et al. 2013;Kuhar and Kamminga 2017;Leskey and Nielsen 2018) that could interfere with IPM practices and subsequently led to the secondary pest outbreaks (Leskey et al. 2012c). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fifth-instar brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål) nymphs were treated by gamma-radiation 60Co at different doses of 8–64 Gy to investigate their irradiation biology and potential for the sterile insect technique (SIT). At adult emergence, males were mated with non-irradiated virgin females to assess the longevity of both sexes, female fecundity, and egg sterility. Biological parameters of their F1 progeny were investigated to determine whether negative effects from parental exposure to radiation were inherited. Results showed that irradiation significantly reduced the lifespan of male insects at doses above 20 Gy. Irradiated males did not affect the longevity and fecundity of their female partners, nor of their resulting adult progenies, but it did reduce the developmental duration of nymphs as well as weight gain of male F1 offspring. Egg hatch was significantly reduced at all tested doses and reached complete sterility at 64 Gy. Low hatch of eggs produced by F1 or F1 crossed adults indicated that negative effects from radiation were inherited by the subsequent generation. But F1 male offspring were not less fertile than their irradiated male parent, unlike what was observed in Lepidoptera. The results support the potential for the use of SIT for H. halys management by irradiating the fifth-instar male nymphs at doses from 16 Gy to 64 Gy.
... Pyramid traps described previously were used for both field trials. 40 Hercon Vaportape II (Hercon Environmental) was added as a killing agent to prevent escape from traps and was replaced at four-week intervals. H. halys adults and nymphs were removed from traps, and the lure placement within each block was rerandomized twice weekly, recording the numbers and sexes of adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a novel and straightforward route to all stereoisomers of 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol and 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol via the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric addition of trimethylaluminum to diastereomeric mixtures of cyclohex-2-enones 1 and 2. The detailed stereoisomeric structures of many natural sesquiterpenes with the bisabolane skeleton were previously unknown because of the absence of stereoselective syntheses of individual stereoisomers. Several of the bisabolenols are pheromones of economically important pentatomid bug species. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography of underivatized triol 13 provided unequivocal proof of the relative and absolute configurations. Two of the epoxides, (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (3) and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (4), were identified as the main components of a male-produced aggregation pheromone of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, using GC analyses on enantioselective columns. Both compounds attracted female, male, and nymphal H. halys in field trials. Moreover, mixtures of stereoisomers containing epoxides 3 and 4 were also attractive to H. halys, signifying that the presence of additional stereoisomers did not hinder attraction of H. halys and relatively inexpensive mixtures can be used in monitoring, as well as control strategies. H. halys is a polyphagous invasive species in the U.S. and Europe that causes severe injury to fruit, vegetables, and field crops and is also a serious nuisance pest. T he bisabolane skeleton is a recurring structural motif in the semiochemistry of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Bisabolene epoxides comprise male-specific pheromones of Nezara viridula 1,2 and Chinavia (=Acrosternum) spp. 3,4 The related zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, and α-curcumene constitute part of the Thyanta pallidovirens pheromone, 5 and β-sesquiphellandrene was identified as a pheromone component of Piezodorus hybneri. 6 More recently, two stereoisomeric 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ols 7 were identified as part of the male-produced pheromone of the rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris, 8 and 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (called "murgantiol") has been reported as an aggregation pheromone of the harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica. 9,10 As with murgantiol, the relative and absolute configurations of the 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ols from T. limbativentris have not been determined. Reliable assignment of relative configurations across the cyclohexene ring of the murgantiol structure was problematic, and 1 H and 13 C NMR recordings of murgantiol failed to provide a conclusive answer. 9 Several related compounds were isolated from the oil of ginger, Zingiber off icinale, among them a 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, called "zingiberenol". 11 The latter was assigned a trans-configuration based on similarities of its IR spectrum with that of trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol, 12 but the structure was presented as the cis-isomer 11 and the absolute configuration has not been disclosed. A sex pheromone of the rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus, has recently been also identified as zingiberenol and, more specifically, (1R,4R,1′S)-(1′,5′-dimethylhex-4′-enyl)-1-methyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-ol. 13 The absolute configuration has been assigned based on the correlation to natural zingiberene and similarities of 13 C NMR spectra of a synthetic mixture containing the pheromone and (R,R)-quercivorol. However, the pher-omone of O. poecilus has not been synthesized in pure form and
... Currently, insecticide programs are being developed, but attempts to manage this insect under field conditions were proven fairly ineffective because applied materials did not ultimately result in mortality of individuals or decreased adult populations. Substantial knockdown and recovery from pyrethroid-based insecticides [6,7] and neonicotinoids [6] in the laboratory and field have been documented. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is an exotic insect pest that was first recognized in the United States in 2001. As of today, it has been found in more than 42 states. BMSB has a very broad host plant range and damage to crops in mid-Atlantic States has reached a critical level. A reliable and accurate tool for infestation detection and population monitoring is urgently needed to provide better and more timely interventions. Pheromones produced by male BMSB have been previously identified and are currently used in BMSB infestation detection. However, the conditions affecting BMSB production of these pheromones were unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we collected headspace volatiles from male BMSB under laboratory conditions, measured the temporal patterns of release of these pheromones, and assayed the attractiveness to conspecifics. In addition to the pheromone components, tridecane (C13) and E-2-decenal (an alarm compound) were observed in headspace collections of males, as well as in females and nymphs. Exposure of pheromone-emitting adult males to synthetic C13 greatly reduced pheromone emission. Conclusions/Significance This information should lead to a better understanding of the biology, physiology, and chemical ecology of BMSB, which will help scientists and growers develop more efficient strategies based on natural products to manage BMSB population, therefore, reducing pesticide usage and protecting the crops from BMSB damage.
... The effect of trap color has been widely evaluated across multiple insect orders, including Coleoptera [38][39][40], Lepidoptera [41][42][43], Hymenoptera [44][45][46][47], and Hemiptera [48][49][50][51][52]. The only previous study to evaluate Leptoglossus spp. ...
Article
Full-text available
The leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus zonatus (Heteroptera: Coreidae), has become a key pest of almonds, pistachios, and pomegranates in California. Adults and nymphs directly feed on nuts and fruits, which reduces crop yield and quality and can facilitate pathogen infections. Current monitoring strategies require growers to actively sample the tree canopy, with no economic thresholds being developed for this pest. To improve monitoring of L. zonatus, a three-year study was conducted to identify an optimal trap. A hanging cross-vane panel trap was identified as the best trap type in Year 1, and subsequent work in Years 1–3 focused on refining its use by modifying surface texture and color. Results indicated that coating trap surfaces with the lubricant fluon improved trap catching ability, and adults were most frequently recovered in yellow traps. A hanging cross-vane panel trap with these features could serve as the basis for the development of a new monitoring system for this pest in orchards, which could be improved further if semiochemical lures will be developed.
... For apple, $37 million in losses were attributed to H. halys feeding (American/Western Fruit Grower 2011) and damages reached 90% in some grower orchards (Leskey et al. 2012a). To mitigate these losses in commercial orchards, researchers quickly identified insecticides effective against H. halys in the laboratory (Leskey et al. 2012c) and field ), but in the absence of monitoring tools, sprays increased dramatically (Leskey et al. 2012b) and soon secondary pest outbreaks occurred (Leskey et al. 2012a). ...
Article
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) has been managed primarily with broad-spectrum insecticides in orchard systems. Recently, IPM techniques have been developed specifically for managing H. halys in apple orchards to reduce insecticide inputs and take advantage of its perimeter-driven behavior. In 2015 and 2016, we compared these IPM tactics to one another and an untreated control to measure differences in overall crop protection and insecticide inputs. Tactics included trap-based threshold-triggered spray applications , perimeter-based attract-and-kill (AK) trees treated every 7-and 14-d, and perimeter spray applications applied every 7-and 14-d. All plots were monitored with baited black pyramid traps deployed in plot interiors. In both years, mean number of H. halys captured in untreated control plot traps was significantly greater than plots managed using IPM tactics. In 2015, significantly more insecticide applications were made in 7-and 14-d perimeter and AK plots compared with trap-based threshold plots. There was no significant difference in the percentage of injured fruit in plot interiors among IPM tactics; all were significantly lower than the control. In 2016, significantly more insecticide applications were made in 7-d perimeter spray and AK plots compared with all other treatments. Significantly less injury was detected in plot interiors for 7-and 14-d perimeter and trap-based threshold plots compared with the control and 7-and 14-d AK plots. Although all IPM tactics reduced H. halys injury in apples using a trap-based treatment threshold required fewer insecticide inputs and only during brief periods of the season, while all others required season-long maintenance.
Article
Full-text available
Capture strategies for the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are challenging. Here we developed and evaluated a multimodal trap which combines visual and olfactory stimuli. Visual stimuli consisted of LEDs emitting UV-A and visible light. Olfactory stimuli were comprised of the synthetic aggregation pheromone and odours from trapped H. halys individuals. Stink bug attraction at different wavelengths was evaluated in laboratory two-choice bioassays, and different prototypes of the trap were tested in 2021 in natural, agricultural, and urban settings. Traps with a combination of UV-A and blue or green visible wavelengths provided higher H. halys attraction (up to ~8-fold) compared to traditional sticky or small pyramidal traps. The concurrent presence of synthetic pheromone and LED had a synergistic effect on H. halys positive phototaxis. Further development and implementation of the multimodal trap is discussed for prospective use in attract-and-kill or push–pull strategies.
Preprint
Full-text available
Early detection and rapid response are cornerstones of effective invasive species management. However, these strategies can be challenging to implement when the arrival of a non-native species has not been predicted, as may be the case when a species is discovered large distances from known populations. Brown marmorated stink bugs Halyomorpha halys are rapidly spreading across much of the world, causing substantial economic losses to agriculture as well as nuisance when entering houses to overwinter communally. Multiple individuals were recently confirmed in the Canary archipelago, marking a dramatic range expansion into subtropical Atlantic areas and the northwest African region. The potential establishment of this major pest species in this region raises important questions on its ecological adaptation to new climatic and biotic conditions an as well as the unknown impacts and control effectiveness in novel host crop plants such as banana. Previous attempts to control H. halys elsewhere have been typically only partially successful but we suggest eradication in the Canary Islands might still be possible and a sensible goal. Within a conceptual framework we review potential management options and encourage local authorities and stakeholders to implement specific surveillance, control and biosecurity measures aiming to swiftly eradicate this species. Not doing so risks a potentially severe invasion by this species across the region and significant damage to the local agricultural and ornamental plant economy. Our framework provides a basis for rapid response and management in other scenarios where an unexpected non-native species is detected.
Article
Full-text available
Capture of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in apple orchards with yellow pyramid traps baited with Euschistus spp. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate, was 4 fold greater when traps were topped with a 3.8-L jar with a 1.6 cm diameter opening and trimmed wire edging than with a 1.9-L jar with a 5 cm diameter opening with no wire edging. Stink bug capture in the 3.8-L jar top was unaffected by the presence or size of an insecticide ear tag, indicating that this improved design led to increased captures by reducing escape. Sixty-four percent fewer stink bugs escaped from 3.8-L jar tops with the improved capture mechanism than from the 1.9-L jar tops. Green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say), was more susceptible to the presence of the insecticide ear tag than the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), with dusky stink bug, E. tristigmus (Say), exhibiting high mortality in traps with and without ear tags. Among baited and unbaited pyramid traps with different visual stimuli, fewer captures were recorded in black pyramid traps than in clear, yellow, green or white pyramid traps. Similar numbers of brown stink bugs were captured in yellow pyramid traps deployed on the ground between trees or on horizontal branches within trees in the orchard border row. Captures of dusky and green stink bugs were greater in the tree pyramid, especially from August to mid-October. Relationships between stink bug capture and injury will need to be determined before this trap can be incorporated as a decision-making tool in pest management programs.
Article
Full-text available
Field-based experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of the abundant brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), to commercially available pheromone lures containing methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with yellow pyramid traps. Euschistus servus aggregated over a zone of at least 3.14 m2 based on significantly greater numbers located on mullein plants located 1 m from baited traps compared with plants at 5 and 10 m. At this distance, ∼96% of all adults located on mullein plants were not subsequently captured by baited traps. However, the presence of mullein plants near baited traps did not significantly reduce baited trap captures. Even if mullein plants were not present, baited trap captures remained statistically identical. Based on all adults captured in baited traps and located on surrounding mullein plants, 50% of all individuals that entered plots were captured in traps.
Article
Full-text available
A regression model was developed to predict the flight activity of Acrosternum hilare (Say) using data on the number of adults collected in a single black light trap located in Painter, VA, in the 18-yr period from 1990 to 2007. Eighteen initial weather variables, including cumulative precipitation over different time periods, mean monthly precipitation (PJA) and days below freezing (DFJA) from January to April, and mean monthly temperatures from December to April were tested in developing the regression model. Mixed (backward and forward) stepwise regression analysis showed that a two-variable model using PJA and DFJA was adequate for predicting the seasonal mean weekly number of A. hilare adults in the trap. Validation of the model using five independent black light trap data sets resulted in a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between observed and predicted mean weekly number of A. hilare adults caught in traps. Three peaks in flights of A. hilare adults were observed when mean trap catch was plotted over time for the 18-yr period. Peaks occurred at 319, 892, and 1,331 degree days (DD) from 1 January. Based on known developmental rates, the first peak was attributed to overwintered adults, the second to first-generation adults, and the third to a second generation of adults. This research suggests that A. hilare undergoes two complete generations in Virginia. Cumulative trap catch estimated from the 18-yr mean trap catch showed that 10, 50, and 90% of the total seasonal catch should occur by 153, 501, and 1,066 DD.
Article
Full-text available
A scintillation glass-vial bioassay was used to test technical grade insecticides against the non-native stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål). Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is emerging as an important pest in the Mid-Atlantic States, especially in tree fruits and as a homeowner nuisance during the winter. Pyrethroid insecticides, especially bifenthrin, caused mortality against H. halys at low doses, with LC50 values of 0.03-0.49 (microg [AI]/cm2) (mg body mass(-1)). Three nicotinoids were tested against adults with LC50 values ranging between 0.05 and 2.64 (microg [AI]/cm2) (mg body mass(-1)). Phosmet had LC50 values that were up to 3.6-fold higher than other classes of insecticides tested. Fifth instars of H. halys were evaluated against selected chemicals, and they were generally susceptible at lower rates than the adults. Due to significant differences in weight, males and females were individually weighed, tested, and analyzed separately. Sex-related differences in susceptibility were found in the responses to thiomethoxam with males being less susceptible despite having a smaller body mass.
Article
Full-text available
The attraction of the stink bug Euschistus conspersus Uhler to sources of the synthetic pheromone component methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate was investigated in a series of field experiments in native vegetation surrounding commercial apple orchards in Washington. In experiments with pheromone lures placed inside two different tube-type traps, stink bugs were attracted to the immediate area around traps in large numbers, but very few were caught in the traps. Pheromone lures attached directly to the host plant mullein, Verbascum thapsus L., demonstrated that these 'baited" plants attracted significantly more E. conspersus than unbaited plants. Spring (reproductive) and summer (reproductively diapausing) E. conspersus adults, both males and females, were attracted to pheromone-baited plants. There was no significant difference in the number of male or female E. conspersus attracted to pheromone-baited traps or plants in any of the experiments, further characterizing methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate as an aggregation, and not a sex pheromone. Stink bug aggregations formed within 24-48 h of lure placement on mullein plants and remained constant until the lure was removed after which aggregations declined over 3-4 d to the level of unbaited plants. The implications of these studies for E. conspersus monitoring and management are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.
Article
Full-text available
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Pentatomidae), called the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is a newly invasive species in the eastern USA that is rapidly spreading from the original point of establishment in Allentown, PA. In its native range, the BMSB is reportedly attracted to methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, the male-produced pheromone of another pentatomid common in eastern Asia, Plautia stali Scott. In North America, Thyanta spp. are the only pentatomids known to produce methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoate [the (E,Z,Z)-isomer] as part of their pheromones. Methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates were field-tested in Maryland to monitor the spread of the BMSB and to explore the possibility that Thyanta spp. are an alternate host for parasitic tachinid flies that use stink bug pheromones as host-finding kairomones. Here we report the first captures of adult and nymph BMSBs in traps baited with methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate in central Maryland and present data verifying that the tachinid, Euclytia flava (Townsend), exploits methyl (E,Z,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate as a kairomone. We also report the unexpected finding that various isomers of methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoate attract Acrosternum hilare (Say), although this bug apparently does not produce methyl decatrienoates. Other stink bugs and tachinids native to North America were also attracted to methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates. These data indicate there are Heteroptera in North America in addition to Thyanta spp. that probably use methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates as pheromones. The evidence that some pentatomids exploit the pheromones of other true bugs as kairomones to find food or to congregate as a passive defense against tachinid parasitism is discussed.
Article
Identification of the aggregation pheromone responsible for the aggregation phenomena of the brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali SCOTT (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) was attempted. Volatiles collected from adult males which attracted adults showed attraction activity under field conditions. Volatiles were then collected from a total of 180,000 adult males and the activity of the fractionated samples was field tested using water pan traps. A mixture of hexane and 5% ether in hexane fractions from Florisil LC showed attraction activity, and this was further purified with HPLC and GC. By GC-MS and NMR analysis (COSY), the chemical structure of the active compound was identified as methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate. The attraction activity of the synthesized compound of this structure was confirmed by field tests.
Article
Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an improved pyramidal trap for monitoring fruit-piercing stink bugs such as Plautia crossota stali Scott, Halyomorpha halys (Stal), and Glaucias subpunctatus (Walker) in two regions with different stink bug population densities. Improved traps, made from either yellow or translucent and colorless materials, were compared with the original pyramidal trap and the standard water-basin trap. All traps were baited with P. c. stali aggregation pheromone. The translucent, colorless trap captured significantly more target insects than the original design or the yellow trap, although there was no significant difference in one region. Further, the translucent improved design trap caught stink bugs comparable to the water-basin trap, and fluctuations in capture of P. c. stali were proportionally similar between the two trap types. The improved trap design eliminates the need for changing water in the standard water-basin trap, thus the improved trap may be used as an effective and simple monitoring tool over a wide geographical range.
Article
The knockdown and lethal efficacies of five aerosol formulations including Combat Speed® (AIs: 0.1 % imiprothrin and 0.3% cyphenothrin), Raid Power® (AIs: 1.0% pyrethrin and 0.2% permethrin), Home Keeper®, (AIs: 0.2% tetramethrin and 0.3% permethrin), Super Killer® (AIs: 0.32% tetramethrin and 0.08% bioresmethrin), and Perma Kill-K® (AIs: 0.3% dichlorvos and 0.1% tetramethrin) against five strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) were assessed. The results show that the mean value of KT50 (5.4 sec.) of Combat Speed® was 4.5 and 3.1-folds lower than those of Perma Kill-K® and Home Keeper®, respectively. The mean value of KT90 (9.0 sec; slope = 10.02) of Combat Speed® was 3.8 to 5.8-folds lower than Perma Kill-K®, Supper Killer® and Home Keeper®. As lethal effects, the mean value of LT50 (17.3 sec.) of Combat Speed® was over 26 folds lower than Supper Killer® and Perma Kill-K®. The mean value of LT90 (32.9 sec.) of Combat Speed® was 37.4 and 15.1-folds lower than those of Supper Killer® and Perma Kill-K®, respectively. In general, Combat Speed® and Raid Power® were considered the insecticide aerosols with faster knockdown and higher lethal effects than Supper Killer®, Perma Kill-K®, and Home Keeper® against five strains of German cockroaches in Korea. Also, the knockdown and lethal effects of Supper Killer®, Perma Kill-K®, and Home Keeper® were highly variable depends on the strains.