Article

Chemical constituents of cones and leaves of cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) grown in Turkey

Authors:
  • Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University
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Abstract

Chemical composition of cones, leaves and seeds of Cupressus sempervirens var. pyramidalis Nyman. and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis Mill, were investigated. Hydrodistillaton and SPME (solid phase microextraction) methods were used for the essential oil analysis, besides fatty acids were determined. When comparing C. sempervirens var. pyramidalis with C. sempervirens var. horizontalis, the oil yields of cones were found to be 1.31 ml/100g and 1.59 ml/100g but that of leaves 0.45 ml/100g and 0.82 ml/100g, respectively. The outstanding compounds were α-pinene and Δ3carene, found both in leaves and cones by hydrodistillation method. The amounts of α-pinene were determined to be 66.8% in var. horizontalis and 52.5% in var. pyramidalis cones, Δ3-carene was determined as 13.5% and 19.6%. Likewise, α-pinene in leaves was found to be 56.9% and 37.9%, and Δ3-carene 13.5% and 25.3%. Generally, α-pinene, Δ3-carene, β-myrcene, limonene and α-terpinolene were the dominant compounds both in cones and leaves according to SPME method. Lipophilic compounds, such as cupressic acid (horizontalis, 527.1 mg g -1 and pyramidalis, 412.3 mg g-1) and communic acid (horizontalis, 325.7 mg g-1 and pyramidalis, 317 mg g-1) were found in higher quantities on cones than others by hexane extraction. The amounts of cupressic acid or communic acid on seeds of varieties of horizontalis and pyramidalis were found to be 345.4 mg g-1 and 62.1 mg g -1, respectively, or 373.6 mg g-1 and 46.7 mg g -1.

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... Especially, the species are used for protection of the fields from the damage of the wind. In traditional medicine, cypress (Cupressaceae) species have been used for antiseptic, antipyretic, anthelminthic, astringent, antirheumatic, antihemorrhoidal, antidiarrheal, vasoconstrictive properties (4). In addition, the essential oils of the species are used in aromatherapy, food and perfume industries. ...
... In addition, the essential oils of the species are used in aromatherapy, food and perfume industries. On the other hand, various parts of some pine species have been used as a folk medicine for rheumatism or as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiseptic (4,5). Pinaceae family includes many of the conifer genuses which have commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces, mostly found in the Northern Hemisphere in temperate climates but ranging from sub-arctic to tropical (6). ...
... Pinus nigra Arn., P. brutia Between 500 and 2000 g of materials were collected for each species at their growth sites just at the time of maturity. Samples packed tightly in plastic bags and stored in -24°C until the laboratory studies (3,4). Species names, plant parts, sampling site, climate zone, collection date and altitude of all specimens are listed in Table 1. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activities of ethereal extracts of some Pinaceae and Cupressaceae species collected from Turkey. The extracts from Pinus nigra Arn., P. brutia Ten., P. halepensis Mill., Abies equi-trojani (Asch. et Sint. ex Boiss.) Coode et Cullen, A. bornmulleriana Mattf., A. cilicica (Ant. et Kotschy) Carr., A. nordmanniana (Steven) Spach., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Picea orientalis L. belong to Pinaceae family and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima Willd., J. excelsa Bieb., J. phoenicea L., Cupressus sempervirens var. pyramidalis Nym. and C. sempervirens var. horizontalis (Mill.) Gord. belong to Cupressaceae family were examined against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae RSKK 574 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of these extracts. All the tested extracts, except A. bornmulleriana, C. libani and P. halepensis showed weak antibacterial activity against the various tested bacteria comparing with the standards. Nevertheless, no antifungal activity was observed against C. albicans in all extracts. It was concluded that the tested extracts did not show promising antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms. However, this is the first comprehensive investigation on the evaluation of antimicrobial activities on ethereal extracts of these species.
... Especially, the species are used for protection of the fields from the damage of the wind. In traditional medicine, cypress (Cupressaceae) species have been used for antiseptic, antipyretic, anthelminthic, astringent, antirheumatic, antihemorrhoidal, antidiarrheal, vasoconstrictive properties (4). In addition, the essential oils of the species are used in aromatherapy, food and perfume industries. ...
... In addition, the essential oils of the species are used in aromatherapy, food and perfume industries. On the other hand, various parts of some pine species have been used as a folk medicine for rheumatism or as antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiseptic (4,5). Pinaceae family includes many of the conifer genuses which have commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces, mostly found in the Northern Hemisphere in temperate climates but ranging from sub-arctic to tropical (6). ...
... Pinus nigra Arn., P. Between 500 and 2000 g of materials were collected for each species at their growth sites just at the time of maturity. Samples packed tightly in plastic bags and stored in -24°C until the laboratory studies (3,4). Species names, plant parts, sampling site, climate zone, collection date and altitude of all specimens are listed in Table 1. ...
... There are several reports on the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of oils from C. sempervirens grown in different parts of the world [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] . In previous studies, the essential oil composition of C. sempervirens cv. ...
... There are few studies about the essential oil components of C. sempervirens var. horizentalis reporting αpinene, δ-2-carene, and δ-3-carene as the major constituents 29,36,43 . Our data about C. sempervirens var. ...
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The genus Cupressus belonging to Cupressaceae family has twelve species worldwide. In Iran, Cupressus consists of only one species with two varieties C. sempervirens. var. horizentalis and C. sempervirens. var. sempervirens which has a cultivar namely C. sempervirens. cv. Cereiformis. In this study, the potential antioxidant activities of the oils of different parts of Cupressus sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereiformis and C. sempervirens var. horizentalis were examined.The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the oils were studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. Then the obtained essential oils, their main components as well as positive controls (Quercetin, DMSO, vitamin E and ascorbic acid) were subjected to different antioxidant tests including Rapid Thin-layer Chromatography method, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test, and modified deoxyribose degradation test. While all the essential oils and pure compounds showed activity in rapid TLC screening, only the leaf oil of C. sempervirens var. sempervirens (38.4 %) and C. sempervirens cv. Cereiformis (77.9 %) exhibited moderate activity in DPPH assay. In deoxyribose degradation test, the low concentrations (0.05-0.2 μL/mL) of these two plants showed moderate activity while the fruit oil of C. sempervirens var. horizentalis showed the highest activity (17.7 %). These essential oils may be considered as natural preservatives in low concentrations provided that their organoleptic, cytotoxicity and allergic effects would be examined. Thus, complementary studies are recommended to be established. Moreover, it is suggested to examine the antioxidant activity of these oils by using non-polar or less polar solvent systems before any final conclusion.
... Few studies have analyzed the chemical composition of C. sempervirens cone EO. Our results are in accordance with Milos et al. [23] and Tumen et al. [24], who reported α-pinene as the main constituent of C. sempervirens cone EO, with percentages of 69.9% and 66.7%, respectively. Selim et al. also showed this as the main constituent in the EO from the aerial parts of C. sempervirens oil [25]. ...
... Molecules 2019,24, 2941 ...
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The present work describes the chemical characterization and the phytotoxicity assessment of essential oils (EOs) obtained from spent materials or pruning waste of four plant species: Zingiber officinale Roscoe used in the juicing industry, Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte used in the food industry, discarded material of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L. var. Futura 75), and pruning waste from Cupressus sempervirens L. The phytochemical profile of the EOs was evaluated by gas chromatographic flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and GC-MS analyses, which highlighted the presence of several compounds with a wide range of biological activities. Among them, application possibilities in agriculture were evaluated by studying the phytotoxic activity in vitro against germination and initial radical growth of several seeds such as Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Lactuca sativa L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., and Portulaca oleracea L.
... Cupressus L. species (Cupressaceae), known as "cypress", are native to the Mediterranean basin and its leaves and cones have been used as folk remedy in many countries such as antiseptic, antipyretic, anthelminthic, astringent, antirheumatic, antihemorrhoidal, antidiarrhoeic, and vasoconstrictive [4][5][6]. The genus is also used for ornamental purpose and known to contain appreciable amounts of essential oil [7][8][9][10], which possess mainly antimicrobial [10,11], antiviral [12], and antifungal [13] activity. Besides, C. sempervirens was recorded to be used for memory-enhancement in Anatolia, which was described in a very old book written by an Ottoman herbalist-physician at the period of the ruler Sultan Mehmed the fourth (1641-1693) [14]. ...
... Nevertheless, activity of these extracts was also changeable according to the method, which is similar to our data The essential oil obtained from C. sempervirens from different countries has been reported to contain a-pinene as the major component [7,12,13,25,30]. In fact, the essential oils of the samples of the two varieties of C. sempervirens used in this study were analyzed by GC-MS in our previously [9] and a-pinene was the main components as follows; CSH-Cone: 66.75%; CSH-Leaf: 56.91%; CSP-Cone: 52.52%; CSP-Leaf: 37.91%. In many previous studies [32][33][34], a-pinene has been shown to inhibit strong cholinesterase inhibitory activity and moderate inhibitory activity of the Cupressus extracts could be related to their a-pinene content, although they are not supposed to contain a-pinene as much as the essential oil per se. ...
Article
Objective: The dichloromethane, acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of the cones and leaves of Cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis (CSH) and var. pyramidalis (CSP) were investigated for their in vitro neurobiological effects. Methods: The extracts were screened for their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (TYRO) enzymes using microtiter plate assays. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity along with ferric- (FRAP) and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) tests. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were calculated spectrophotometrically. Results: The extracts displayed weak to moderate cholinesterase inhibition at 200 mu g mL(-1). The cone dichloromethane extract of CSP showed the highest inhibition (36.10 +/- 1.45%) against AChE, while the best inhibition (40.01 +/- 0.77%) against BChE was caused by the leaf acetone extract of CSH. Conclusion: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was observed to vary according to the method used. This is the first study describing anticholinesterase and antityrosinase effects of the varieties of C. sempervirens.
... The plant material was submitted to hydro distillation for 3 h, according to TUMEN et al. (2010). The prepared volatile oils were dehydrated over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in sealed glass vials at 4-5 °C prior to analysis. ...
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Leaf essential oils (EO) of Juniperus thurifera L. collected at six locates from Aures Mountains in Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main components identified were: sabinene (5.2-19.78 %), terpinene-4-ol (5.43-9.37 %), elemol (0.69-7.61 %), Δ-cadinene (3.26-6.11 %). Terpenoids data of our samples and those reported in other works realized by various authors were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic means (UPGMA) cluster was carried. This analysis revealed significant differences between Juniperus thurifera populations, and confirmed the clear separation of Algerian populations to the European and Moroccan populations. Algerian thuriferous juniper is more similar to J. thurifera from Moroccan populations, and different from that of essential oils obtained from European populations.
... T. occidentalis L. leaves were sampled in the region of Bartin in September 2013 at 150 m, and approximately 250 g were collected from their growth sites and packed tightly in plastic bags. The leaves were stored in the dark at À 24 1C until they were studied Tumen et al., 2010aTumen et al., , 2012. Samples were collected according to the conventional method (Davis et al., 1965). ...
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Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, amenorrhea, cystitis, and uterine carcinomas, and as an abortifacient and contraceptive. The present study aimed to determine whether T. occidentalis oil and α-thujone could be beneficial in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). T. occidentalis oil and α-thujone were administered to rats with letrozole-induced PCOS for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture. The levels of serum gonadotropins, steroids, blood lipid, leptin, and glucose and the values of antioxidant parameters were measured. The results demonstrated that estradiol and progesterone levels significantly increased, while luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels decreased in the T. occidentalis- and α-thujone-administered groups. The plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), leptin, and glucose concentrations were also significantly decreased in the T. occidentalis and α-thujone groups when compared to the control group. Histopathological findings demonstrated that the T. occidentalis and α-thujone groups displayed good healing. According to the phytochemical analyses, 25 compounds were identified in the T. occidentalis oil. The main constituents of the oil were the monoterpene ketones α- and β-thujone, fenchone, and sabinene, as well as the diterpenes beyerene and rimuene. T. occidentalis essential oil and its active component, α-thujone, can be used for the treatment of PCOS without inducing osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus for three hours according to Tumen et al. (2010). The prepared volatile oils were dehydrated over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in sealed glass vials at 4-5°C prior to analysis. ...
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The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oils obtained from male and female leaves of Juniperus thurifera L., (growing in Algeria) has been investigated for the first time. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (0.45% from female trees and 0.53% from male trees, v/w dried material) and analyzed by gas choromatography (GC) and gas choromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS). Seventy-seven compounds were identified, representing more than 97% of the oils. The major components were Sabinene, α-pinene and terpinene-4-ol. The concentrations of the oil constituents: α-D-4-ol, and 4-epi-abietal were greater in the oil of the female tree than in the oil of the male tree. Conversely, the concentrations of α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, elemol, α-epi-cadinol and α-eudesmol were greater in the oil of the male tree than in the oil of the female tree. However, the concentration gradient trends for both female and male trees were similar for sabinene, myrcene, linalool, β-pinene, limonene, cis-sabinene hydrate terpinolene, α-terpineol. The antimicrobial activity of male and female J. thurifera essential oils was evaluated against 14 bacteria. The results showed a variable degree of antibacterial activity depending from the type of the oil (extracted from male or female trees). Essential oils of female trees were most effective.
... Chemical composition of essential oil of various Cupressus species has already been subjected in several scientific studies 5,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18 . These studies accounted monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids chemical class compounds. ...
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Leaves essential oils of Cupressus torulosa D. Don of different girth sizes grown in Chakrata region (Uttarakhand) were investigated for yield (%) and composition in four different seasons. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield of oils (% v/w) at different seasons varied from 0.36 to 1.38 %, highest in monsoon season. A total twenty-four components were identified, representing 77.06-90.08 % of the total oil. Analyzing data using SPSS, afforded the seasonal variation factors to use the relative amount (%) with different tree girth stages. The oil was dominated by varied composition of monoterpenoids (69.81-87.77 %). In monsoon season, the major compound was terpinen-4-ol, ranged from 13.66-22.94 %. The marker constituent of post-monsoon was found to be limonene (18.44-35.94 %). The maximum limonene content (35.94 %) was noted in medium sized trees, followed by big trees (21.62 %) and small trees (18.44 %). Conversely, in winter, α-pinene (15.96 and 17.92 %) was identified as the major compound in small and medium trees, respectively, while sabinene (16.57 %) in big trees. Terpinen-4-ol (20.96 %) was again found as the major component in small trees during summer, while α-pinene was found to be the marker constituent in medium (24.41 %) and big sized trees (20.40 %), respectively. The results clearly indicated the occurrence of marker constituents in different seasons have high diverse potential in perfumery, cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries, if the best season for harvesting is taken into account.
... Malizia et al. (2000) reported an analogous composition on this species leaf oil from Argentina. There are several papers on the chemical composition of essential oils of C. sempervirens (Chanegriha et al. 1997;Milos et al. 2002;Mazari et al. 2010;Tumen et al. 2010) where α-pinene was the dominating compound. Likewise, the studied oil of C. sempervirens is characterized by the aboundance of α-pinene (54.1 %). ...
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The present study evaluated leaf essential oils from eight Cupresaceae species; Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus benthamii, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus torulosa, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. Based on the LC(50) values, C. benthamii essential oil was the most active (LC(50) = 37.5 mg/L) while the other tested Cupressaceae essential oils provided rather moderate toxicity against larvae (LC(50) = 47.9 to 70.6 mg/L). Under the used laboratory conditions, three of the essential oils (C. benthamii, C. lawsoniana, and C. macrocarpa) provided sufficient protection against mosquito adults, equivalent to the standard repellent "Deet" in the 0.2 mg/cm(2) dose, while C. macrocarpa assigned as the superior repellent oil in the 0.08 mg/cm(2) dose. Chemical analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 125 components.
... The volatile profile of some of the studied species was in general in accordance with previous studies, namely those of C. aurantium [5], C. sempervirens [6,7] and F. vulgare [8]. On the contrary, other essential oils showed some differences from those previously reported, such as those of C. limon [9], although some authors [10] also reported high percentages of limonene in some lemon taxa essential oils (81% to 96%); E. globulus [11] and T. vulgaris [12]. ...
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Essential oils (EO) possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties, among others. In the present work, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial EOs (Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Cupressus sempervirens, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated and compared with their main constituents. T. vulgaris EO showed the best free radicals scavenging capacity. This EO was also the most effective against lipid peroxidation along with C. limon and F. vulgare EOs. C. sempervirens EO was the most effective in scavenging NO free radicals, whereas C. limon EO showed the best chelating power. Not all of the major compounds of the EO were responsible for the whole activity of the EOs. T. vulgaris EO showed the best anti-proliferative activity against THP-1 cells in contrast to that of F. vulgare. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the EOs were plant species dependent and not always attributable to the EOs main components. Nevertheless, the EOs anti-proliferative activities were more related to their main components, as with T. vulgaris, C. limon, E. globulus and C. sempervirens.
... C. sempervirens and C. macrocarpa grown in Egypt have shown antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antioxidant, wound healing, anticancer, estrogenic, anticoagulant and insecticidal activities (6). In addition to Cupressus trees' unique needle-shaped leaves and elliptical-oblong cones use for ornamental purposes, they are characterized by an appreciable amount of essential oils (7)(8)(9)(10), which accounts for their aroma as well as antimicrobial (10,11), antiviral (12), antifungal (13) and insecticidal (14) activities. C. sempervirens, Mediterranean cypress and essential oils are also used for the treatment of headache, cold, cough and bronchitis in addition to perfumery and soap-making industries (15). ...
Article
Cupressus is a genus of considerable medicinal value worldwide. The present work aims at assessing essential oil compositional differences within Cupressus in the context of its different genotypes and organs. Volatiles profiling was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled to chemometrics. A total of 75 volatile components were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons amounted for the major volatile class, with α-pinene and 3-carene most abundant in Cupressus sempervirens versus sabinene and terpinen-4-ol in Cupressus macrocarpa. Multivariate data analyses revealed that α-pinene, sabinene, terpinen-4-ol and 3-carene are the most significant for species classification. The five examined essential oils exhibited potential insecticidal and anticholinesterase effects, with C. sempervirens var. pyramidalis cone oil being the most potent for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect. The oil also exhibited potential fumigant toxicity toward Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum. The results of the orthogonal partial least-square discriminant analysis revealed that α-pinene is the key bioactive component in Cupressus oil.
... The column oven temperature for the dynamic-headspace (SPME) analyses was programmed as follows: starting temperature 50°C (1 min), 4°C/min heating rate to 250°C for 10 min and, finally, increased to 270°C at 10°C/min and held isothermally for 10 minutes. The injector and detector temperatures were 250°C and 270°C, respectively [17,18]. Chromatographic analyses. ...
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... The essential oils of each sample were obtained by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus using 250 g (partially crushed) of fresh berries and cones. The essential oils were collected for 3 h and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and under refrigeration in a sealed vial until required [11] [12]. ...
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Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.
... [12] antiseptic healing wounds hemorrhoids and to treat excessive sweating in the feet. [13] cosmetic and soap making purposes. [14] Essential oil can induce feeling of relaxation and provide a mild sedative effect. ...
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Aromatherapy is the new trends of the pharmacotherapies, which uses herbal oils normally extracted by distillation for therapeutic and medicinal purposes that are used to ease aches, injuries and relaxes both physical and emotional well being. Essential oils can be a helpful non-medicinal option or it can also be combined with conventional care for some health conditions, provided safety and quality issues are considered. Essential oil of Cupressus sempervirens produces a clean aroma that has both an invigorating and grounding effect on the emotions. The major constituents were a-pinene (68.0%), epi-cedrol (6.1%), a-terpenyl acetate (3.5%) and germacrene D (2.5%) This essential oils are also known to reduce depression, anxiety and fatique and widely used in traditional medicine because it has important biological activities related to human health. The current review discuss about the importance of the essential oil Cupressus sempervirens.
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The essential oils from male and female branchlets and from female cones of Cupressus torulosa D. Don were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and their compositions were compared. The analysis of essential oils revealed fifty-five constituents comprising 89.65–99.05% of the essential oil composition. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (51.09–58.06%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (28.61–39.48%) were found to be the major group of the constituents. Predominant constituents were umbellulone (16.26–26.66%), terpinen-4-ol (0.10–19.64%), α-pinene (9.62–17.76%), limonene (13.27–14.56%), sabinene (5.87–14.33%), γ-terpinene (1.97–6.89%) and α-terpinene (1.95–5.31%).
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Context: Safe and effective antioxidants are regarded as a cornerstone for the prevention and treatment of several types of disorders. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of branchlet and fruit oils of Cupressus sempervirens L. var. horizontalis (Mill.) Gord. (Cupressaceae). Materials and methods: Essential oils were extracted from the branchlets and fruits of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis using the steam distillation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was employed for the compositional analysis of essential oils. In order to evaluate antioxidant activities of oils at different concentrations (180, 220 and 260 μg mL(-1)), linoleic acid peroxidation test and peroxyl radical mediated hemolysis of red blood cells (RBC) assay were used. Linoleic acid peroxidation was monitored for 4 h and determined during each hour of incubation. Antiglycation effects of oils at 200, 400 and 600 μg mL(-1) were assessed using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Results: Overall, 10 volatile components were identified, amounting for 88.2 and 93.2% of branchlet and fruit oils, respectively. α-Pinene and δ-3-carene were major components of both branchlet (46.2 and 22.7%) and fruit (59.2 and 14.9%) oils. Hemoglobin glycation was inhibited by both branchlet (44.8, 62.6 and 54.0% at 200, 400 and 600 μg mL(-1), respectively) and fruit (41.0, 62.8 and 48.5%) oils. As for the insulin glycation, inhibitory rates were 66.1, 69.2 and 73.8% for branchlet oil, and 80.0, 76.9 and 81.5% for fruit oil (at 200, 400 and 600 μg mL(-1), respectively). RBC hemolysis was also inhibited by both branchlet (49.9, 38.5 and 15.0% at 180, 220 and 260 μg mL(-1), respectively) and fruit (45.9, 38.6 and 25.0%) oil. Finally, the oils mitigated linoleic acid peroxidation which was peaked after 4 h for both branchlet (39.5, 35.6 and 53.4% at 180, 220 and 260 μg mL(-1), respectively) and fruit (47.5, 58.6 and 59.8%) oil. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that essential oils obtained from the branchlets and fruits of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis possess antioxidant and, in particular, antiglycation properties. These activities may find implication in the prevention of diabetic and cardiovascular complications. However, further investigations are required to justify the traditional medical applications of the plant.
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The adulticidal, larvicidal, and repellent effects of Cupressus sempervirens, Mentha pulegium, and their combination (C. sempervirens and M. pulegium) against Hyalomma scupense were investigated, as well as their putative mode of action. The evaluation on H. scupense was performed with the adult immersion test at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 mg/ml and the larval packet test from 0.625 to 20 mg/ml. The same concentrations were used for combined oils. Essential oils were obtained using hydrodistillation and then analyzed using GC-MS. The following major components were identified: α-pinene (56.89%) and δ-3-Carene (15.61%) for C. sempervirens, while pulegone (70.50 %) and cis-Menthone (18.26%) for M. pulegium. At 20 mg/mL concentration, C. sempervirens had (94.40 %) acaricide action and inhibited the egg from hatching, however at 10 mg/mL, it had 100% larvicidal activity. Adulticidal and larvicidal activities of M. pulegium oil reached to 87.19 % and 81.02 % respectively, at 20 mg/mL concentration. The highest acaricidal property against H. scupense was exhibited by combination oils with minimum LC50 values of 1.76 mg/mL on adultes and 0.60 mg/mL on larvae. The repellent activities were 100, 95.80 and 100%, at the 20 mg/mL concentration used in 6 hours, for C. sempervirens, M. pulegium and mixture oil respectively. Our findings revealed that the mixture of C. sempervirens and M. pulegium, at the ratio 1:1 (v: v) of each oil, showed high synergistic effect (SF > 1) and the use of combination oil (C. sempervirens 50%: M. pulegium 50%) is more toxic against H.scupense. Furthermore, the volatile oils examined revealed significant inhibition of H.scupense acetylcholinesterase activity AChE. Based on the findings of the present framework, these essential oils have the potential to be applied as substitute for synthetic acaricides in the management of H.scupense bovine ticks.
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The present study analyzed the chemical composition of Juniperus foetidissima Willd. essential oils (EOs) and evaluated their attractancy and toxicity to two agriculturally important tephritid fruit flies. The composition of hydrodistilled EOs obtained from leaves (JFLEO) and fruits (JFFEO) of J. foetidissima was analyzed by GC–FID and GC–MS. The main compounds were α-pinene (45%) and cedrol (18%) in the JFLEO and α-pinene (42%), α-thujone (12%), and β-thujone (25%) in the JFFEO. In behavioral bioassays of the male Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), both JFLEO and JFFEO showed strong attraction comparable to that observed with two positive controls, Melaleuca alternifolia and Tetradenia riparia EOs. In topical bioassays of the female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the toxicity of JFFEO was two-fold higher than that of JFLEO, with the LD50 values being 10.46 and 22.07 µg/µL, respectively. This could be due to differences in chemical components between JFLEO and JFFEO. The JFFEO was dominated by 48% monoterpene hydrocarbons (MH) and 46% oxygenated monoterpenes (OM), while JFLEO consisted of 57% MH, 18% OM, and 20% oxygenated sesquiterpenes (OS). This is the first study to evaluate the attractancy and toxicity of J. foetidissima EOs to tephritid fruit flies. Our results indicate that JFFEO has the potential for application to the management of pest tephritid species, and further investigation is warranted.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ethnobotanical investigations have shown that the Pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. Material and methods: In this study, phytochemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) that is collected in Turkey are investigated. Essential oil composition and the amount of extracts (lipophilic and hydrophilic) of maritime pine wood and fresh cone samples had been tested. Results: The essential oil from cones of P. pinaster revealed the highest activities, whereas other parts of the plant did not display any appreciable wound healing, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant effects. α-Pinene was the main constituent of the essential oil obtained from the cones of P. pinaster. Conclusion: Experimental studies shown that P. pinaster's remarkable anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities support the traditional use of the plant, and suggest it could have a place in modern medicine.
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The first synthesis of the sesquiterpene quinol dasyscyphin E has been achieved starting from cupressic acid. Key steps of the synthetic sequence are the oxidative degradation of the diterpene side chain to give a methylketone, the diastereoselective α-methylation of a protected ketoaldehyde, the subsequent intramolecular aldol condensation and the further Diels-Alder cycloaddition of a dienol ester.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana against protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. In traditional Turkish folk medicine, the essential oils and resin of P. nigra and P. sylvestris are used externally for wound healing. They are also used in cattle for treating worms and as boiling essence against cold and stomachache. Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Materials and methods Three concentrations (10, 30, and 50 mg/mL) of the essential oil from P. nigra subsp. pallasiana cones were used for 10–60 min. The essential oil was applied to protoscoleces of hydatid cyst to determine the scolicidal activity of the essential oil. Viability of protoscoleces was observed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results The rate of dead protoscoleces was found to be 2.27% in the control group, which was not treated with essential oil. The rate of dead protoscoleces increased to 61.69%, 69.39%, 75.98% and 71.76% respectively after, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min when the protoscoleces were exposed to the P. nigra subsp. pallasiana essential oil at 10 mg/mL concentration. When protoscoleces were exposed to the essential oil of P. nigra subsp. pallasiana for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min at 30 mg/mL concentration, the mortality rates of protoscoleces were determined as 3.82%, 91.33%, 94.67% and 96.74%, respectively. The mortality rate of 100% was determined at 50 mg/mL concentration after 60 min of exposure. According to statistical analysis, P. nigra subsp. pallasiana essential oil at all concentrations had significant scolicidal effects compared to the control group at all exposure times. Conclusions The essential oil of P. nigra subsp. pallasiana needles showed scolicidal activity and it could be a new scolicidal agent for using in hydatid cyst treatment.
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Ethnobotanical surveys revealed that Abies bornmulleriana, Abies cilicica, Abies nordmanniana and Cedrus libani have been used to promote wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. Four different fir species (Abies cilicica subsp. cilicica, Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana, Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, and Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana), Cedrus libani and Picea orientalis were assessed for their in vivo wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities. The essential oils from six different coniferous cones were used. In vivo wound healing activity of the plants was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol(®), which contains 1% extract of Centella asiatica. Additionally acetic acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils from Cedrus libani and Abies cilicica subsp. cilicica demonstrated the highest activities on the both wound models. Moreover, the oil from Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana was found generally highly effective. On the other hand, the rest of the species did not show any remarkable wound healing effect. Results of the present study support the continued and expanded utilization of these plant species employed in Turkish folk medicine. The experimental study revealed that Cedrus libani and Abies cilicica subsp. cilicica display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.
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Essential oils obtained from three different plant spe-cies, Hypericum hyssopifolium Vill., Pistacia lentiscus L. and P. terebinthus L., were tested against adults of Tri-bolium confusum du Val and Sitophilus granarius (L.). The results show that the oils of H. hyssopifolium, P. len-tiscus and P. terebinthus have an insecticidal effect on adults of T. confusum and S. granarius, in comparsion with controls. The mortality of adults of T. confusum and S. granarius increased significantly after treatment with the essential oils (P<0.01). The insecticidal effect was influenced by the doses of the essential oils and the exposure time. Higher doses and longer exposure resulted in maximum toxicity on both pests. Adults of T. confusum and S. granarius do not show similar susceptibility against the essential oils of H. hyssopifolium, P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus. T. con-fusum adults were only affected by essential oils of H. hyssopifolium and P. lentiscus.
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In order to differentiate two varieties of Cupressus sempervirens, volatile foliage isolates obtained from 12 trees of variety horizontalis and 12 trees of var. pyramidalis were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. About 86–87% of total peak areas of chromatograms consist of monoterpenes and evaluating their composition in qualitative and quantitative manner they do not show significant differences with regard to varieties. Some increments of terpinen-4-ol, α—terpineol and α—terpinyl acetate was recognizable in the variety horizontalis, while the variety pyramidalis contained germacrene D and abietadiene to somewhat higher level. On the other side, a higher percentage of α—fenchene than that of camphene and the presence of a monoterpene hydrocarbon sylvestrene were found to bear some chemotaxonomic value for the taxon C. sempervirens.
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Commercially available oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon-balm (Melissa officinalis L.), juniper berry (Juniperus communis L.), lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Analyses of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS revealed that the major constituents of these oils were linalool (23.1%) and linalyl acetate (23.1%) in lavender, citronellal (23.8%) and geranial (11.6%) in lemon-balm, α-pinene (29.2%) in juniper berry, neral (36.2%) and geranial (41.9%) in lemon verbena, 1,8-cineole (24.4%) and camphor (17.1%) in rosemary, α-pinene (31.1%) and δ-3-carene (18.6%) in cypress oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated on survival and growth of some microorganisms potentially dangerous to the safety of foods (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua). The antimicrobial tests were carried out both in solid and in liquid media. E. coli was the most sensitive organism among the tested ones to the inhibition effect of the oils.
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The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves by steam-distillation of Algerian Juniperus phoenicea L. and Cupressus sempervirens L. were analyzed by GC-MS. The oils were predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (72.9 and 75.7%), with α-pinene as major constituent (34.5 and 60.5%). β-phellandrene (22.4%) and α-Terpinyl acetate (14.7%) were the second most important constituents of the J. phoenicea oil. While cedrol (8.3%) was found to be the second most important constituent in the oil of C. sempervirens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated against five bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 2 Gram-negative), and 3 fungi. Results showed that the oils exhibited moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities.
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Water-distilled oils from the leaf, cone berry, seedless cone berry, seed, and branch of Juniperus foetidissima were analyzed by GC/MS. The main components of the leaf oil were found as -thujone and cedrol. Sabinene was the major component in the essential oil of cone berries. Sabinene, -thujone, and abietal were the main components of the seed and seedless cone berry oils. In the branch oil -pinene was the major component.
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Eleven essential oils, namely, Cananga odorata(Annonaceae), Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae), Curcuma longa(Zingiber- aceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Eucalyptus globulus(Myrtaceae), Pinus radiata (Pinaceae), Piper crassinervium(Piperaceae), Psidium guayava(Myrtaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis(Lamiaceae), Thymus x citriodorus (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingib- eraceae), were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS and evaluated for their food functional ingredient related properties. These properties were compared to those of Thymus vulgaris essential oil, used as a reference ingredient. Antioxidant and radi- cal-scavenging properties were tested by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, b-carotene bleaching test and lumi- nol-photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. In the DPPH assay, C. odorata, C. citratus, R. officinalisand C. longa showed major effectiveness, with a radical inhibition ranging from 59.6 ± 0.42–64.3 ± 0.45%. In the b-carotene bleaching test, C. odorata (75.5 ± 0.53%), R. officinalis (81.1 ± 0.57%) and C. longa (72.4 ± 0.51%) gave the best inhibition results. Similar results were obtained for the same essential oils in the PCL assay. Antimicrobial properties were obtained on five food-spoilage yeasts:Candida albicans ATCC 48274,Rhodotorula glutinis ATCC 16740,Schizosaccharomyces pomb e ATCC 60232, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2365, Yarrowia lypoliticaATCC 16617 . C. citratus and T. x citriodorus were the most effective against the tested strains. Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are outlined.
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The essential oil of the leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L. was isolated by hydrodistillation and tested against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, showing remarkable antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 75%. The antiviral activity of the essential oil was tested against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), showing antiviral activity with virucidal percentages of 68.0% and 53.2% at concentrations of 1:32 and 1:64, respectively. We firstly reported the isolation of two epi-betulin esters of fatty acids from the CHCl3 fraction of Cupressus sempervirens L. leaves, which were isolated and purified using HPLC, and identified using PMR and MS. The CHCl3 fraction showed significant cytotoxicity against HeLa cells.
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Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), hydrodistillation and dynamic headspace combined with GC and GC-MS were applied and compared for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coniferous wood. The SPME conditions (type of fibre, size of wood sample, temperature and exposure time) were optimised, and more than 100 VOCs and semi-volatile compounds extracted and identified from the sapwood and heartwood of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The total number of mono- and sesquiterpenes eluted and identified was similar for the SPME and hydrodistillation methods, but more semi-volatile compounds were released by hydrodistillation. By applying dynamic headspace at room temperature, it was possible to analyse only the most volatile compounds. The qualitative composition of VOCs was similar in spruce sapwood and heartwood, although Z-beta-ocimene occurred only in sapwood while fenchol was present only in heartwood. SPME sampling coupled with GC, applied here to the analysis of VOCs released from stemwood of firs for the first time, is a convenient, sensitive, fast, solvent-free and simple method for the determination of wood volatiles. The technique requires much smaller sample amounts compared with hydrodistillation, and the total amount of VOCs extracted and identified is higher than that obtained by hydrodistillation or dynamic headspace. The relative ratios of the main mono- and sesquiterpenes and -terpenoids were similar using the SPME-GC and hydrodistillation methods.
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The essential oils obtained from different officinal plants of Lebanon, belonging to the Magnoliophyta division, have been tested for their antiproliferative activity on human erythroleukemic K562 cells. Satureja montana showed the most interesting biological activity in inhibiting the cell growth and inducing erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. The essential oil of Satureja montana was therefore analyzed using a GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) system in order to identify the major constituents and compare them with analysis performed on Satureja hortensis. We demonstrated that the essential oil composition varied with the species, the major constituent of Satureja hortensis being carvacrol (50.61%) and that of Satureja montana being alpha-terpineol (12.66%). In order to identify molecules possibly responsible for the biological activity, commercially available derivatives have been assayed on the K562 cell line. Satureja montana essential oil displayed different natural derivatives characterized by higher activity than those present in Satureja hortensis. The common active principles are alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, tau-cadinene, tau-cadinol and caryophyllene. Both caryophyllene and alpha-terpineol showed important antiproliferative effects on K562 cells.
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Three phenolic compounds cosmosiin, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L., together with cupressuflavone, amentoflavone, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin. The isolated compounds were identified using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. The hepatoprotective activity of the MeOH extract was carried out in liver homogenate of normal and CCl(4)-treated rats; a significant decrease in glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol level, and triglycerides, while a significant increase in the total protein level, was observed after the oral administration of MeOH extract. The free radical scavenging activity against stable 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) was measured for MeOH extract and some of the isolated phenolic compounds in comparison with alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy toluene as standard antioxidants using ESR technique, showed high antioxidant activity for quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid.
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Essential oils obtained from three different plant species [Hypericum hyssopifolium Vill., Pistacia lentiscus L. and P. terebinthus L.] were tested against adults of Tribolium confusum du Val and Sitophilus granarius (L.). The results show that essential oils of H. hyssopifolium, P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus have an insecticidal effect on adults of T. confusum and S. granarius in comparsion with controls. The mortality of adults of T confusum and S. granarius increases significantly after treatment with the essential oils (P<0.01). The insecticidal effect was influenced by the doses of the essential oils and the exposure time. Higher doses and longer exposure time resulted in maximum toxicity on both pests. Adults of T. confusum and S. granarius do not show similar susceptibility against essential oils of H. hyssopifolium, P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus. In these results, essential oils of H. hyssopifolium and P. lentiscus on adults of T. confusum effected but P. terebinthus not effected. The mortality rate with 96 h and maximum dose (40 µl) of essential oils of H. hyssopifolium, P. lentiscus and P. terebinthus was determined as 50 %, 67 % and 40 % for T. confusum and 43 %, 33 % and 43 % for and S. granarius, respectively. However, there was no mortality in control of each species.
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Isolations of glycosides from fresh cypres cones, Cupressus sempervirens L. (Cupressaceae), were performed by cold and hot ethyl acetate extraction. After enzymatic hydrolysis by means of P-glucosidase, 18 aglycones were released. The glycosidically bound volatile compounds amounted to 7-8 mg kg(-1). The main aglycones were 3-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (15.5%) and thymoquinone (5-isopropyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone: 3.7-9.7%). Other important aglycones were perilla alcohol (3.6-8.2%), p-cymen-8-ol (5.3-6.4%), 2-phenylethanol (2.7-6.9%) and carvacrol (2.5-6.3%). There was no similarity between the glycosidically bound aglycones and the corresponding free compounds found in the essential oil.
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Essential oil vapours from the plant species Origanum acutidens L. (Lamiaceae) were tested for their toxicities against the adults of Lasioderma serricorne F. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and third instar larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The amounts of essential oil applied were 2,4, 6 and 8 μl in each of the desiccators with 4 L capacity, corresponding to 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 μl/L air. The test essential oil achieved 100% mortality with a dose of 2 μl/L air within 96 h in all life stages tested. In general, mortality increased with the doses of essential oil and exposure periods. Although the essential oil of O. acutidens was found to be effective against all test insect species, E. kuehniella, in general, was more sensitive against the oil than both S. granarius and L. serricorne in all dose and exposure time variants. The results of the study suggest that essential oil from this plant has a potential as control agent against E. kuehniella, L. serricorne and S. granarius under storage conditions.
Conference Paper
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a simple and effective adsorption and desorption technique, which eliminates the need for solvents or complicated apparatus, for concentrating volatile or nonvolatile compounds in liquid samples or headspace. SPME is compatible with analyte separation and detection by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and provides linear results for wide concentrations of analytes. By controlling the polarity and thickness of the coating on the fibre, maintaining consistent sampling time, and adjusting other extraction parameters, an analyst can ensure highly consistent, quantifiable results for low concentration analytes. To date, about 400 articles on SPME have been published in different fields, including environment (water, soil, air), food, natural products, pharmaceuticals, biology, toxicology, forensics and theory. As the scope of SPME grew, new improvements were made with the appearance of new coatings that allowed an increase in the specificity of this extraction technique. The key part of the SPME fibre is of course the fibre coating. At the moment, 27 variations of fibre coating and size are available. Among the newest are a fibre assembly with a dual coating of divinylbenzene and Carboxen suspended in poly(dimethylsiloxane), and a series of 23 gauge fibres intended for specific septumless injection system. The growth of SPME is also reflected in the expanding number of the accessories that make the technology even easier to use Also available is a portable field sampler which is a self-contained unit that stores the SPME fibre after sampling and during the shipment to the laboratory. Several scientific publications show the results obtained in inter-laboratory validation studies in which SPME was applied to determine the presence of different organic compounds at ppt levels, which demonstrates the reliability of this extraction technique for quantitative analysis.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from trunk barks of Eucalyptus globulus, Juniperus oxycedrus L, Pinus nigra, Cedrus libani A. Rich, Abies equi-trojani, Cupressus sempervirens, Juglans regia and Alnus glutinosa Mill. The chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils of the 8 trunk-bark samples was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. E. globulus, J. oxycedrus, P. nigra, C. libani, A. equi-trojani, C. sempervirens, J. regia and A. glutinosa 56,52,34,56,57,46,13 and 14 components were identified in the essential oils of the plants mentioned above, respectively. Anti- oxidant activities were measured employing free radical, 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability of the samples. All essential oils tested showed moderate free radical scavenging activity. The essential oil of C. sempervirens showed the highest scavenging activity (SC5o: 70 μg mL-1) while that of A. equi-trojani showed the lowest (SC 50: 5480 μg mL'). The antimicrobial activity was studied by the agar diffu- sion method using 5 bacteria and a yeast-like fungus. The essential oils of the 8 species extended significant activity against C. tropicalis. The essential oil of C. libani was particularly active against the 5 bacteria studied with an minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 250 μg mL"1 inactive.
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Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS was used for analysis of the wood volatiles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.). More than 160 compounds were extracted and identified from spruce, pine, and larch stemwood. Differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatiles from the different conifer species were found. The volatile composition was specific for each species. Only small differences in the volatiles from different wood tissues, i.e. sapwood and heartwood, were found.
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Amount and composition of lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives were analyzed in the cones of five coniferous species, namely Pinus halepensis, P. brutia, P. pinea, P. sylvestris and P. nigra, growing natively in Turkey. Lipophilic extractives amounts, identified by GC, were found to be the highest in P. brutia (35.1 mg g−1) and P. halepensis (31.3 mg g−1) while the lowest values were found in P. sylvestris (9.0 mg g−1). Resin acids were the major lipophilic group in all cones. The predominant resin acids were abietic acid in P. pinea, P. halepensis and P. brutia, dehydroabietic acid in P. sylvestris, and isopimaric acid in P. nigra. Compared to lipophilic extractives, the amount of total hydrophilic extractives showed similar gravimetric values while sugars and sugar alcohols were the dominant group.
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Fresh and old oleoresin samples from bark and cones of Abies nordmanniana and Picea orientalis were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The fresh oleoresins from both bark and cones of Caucasian fir were mainly composed of monoterpenes (40.0% and 21.3%, respectively) and resin acids (27,4% and 36.8%). Alpha-Pinene was the dominant constituent of monoterpenes in the bark and cone (21.9% and 17.2%) and abietic acid of the resin acids (11.4% and 19.8%). Pimaric acid, a common resin in softwood resins and oleoresins, was not found in the samples. Sesquiterpenes, resin aldehydes and resin alcohols were minor constituents of the fresh samples. Analysis of the old samples from bark of Caucasian fir presented a completely different composition. The major part of the resin was composed of resin hydrocarbons (34.1%) They were not detected in the fresh samples. The dominant constituent of the old oleoresin was abietadiene (23.0%). The fresh oleoresin samples from both bark and cones of Oriental spruce were mainly composed of resin acids (29.1% and 40.4%) and monoterpenes (28.5% and 17.5%). Abietic acid was the dominant constituent (21.4%) of the cone resin. Pimaric acid was not seen in the fresh samples. DELTA3-Carene was a major constituent (14.1%) in the bark resin, but it was a trace in the cone. Sesquiterpenes, resin aldehydes and resin alcohols were minor constituents of the oleoresins. The old oleoresin sample from bark and cones were almost entirely composed of resin acids (66.2% and 62.4%). Abietic acid was the dominant constituent of the cone (32.2%) and dehydroabietic acid of the bark (18.4%). In addition to common resin acids, both of the old samples contained modified resin acids. The old samples contained also some lignans as minor constituents.
Article
Cell-wall components of Picea orientalis wood were determined according to the methods of wood analysis. The wood contained higher amounts of cell-wall components than the bark. Lignin content was found to be higher in the outer bark than that in the inner bark. but holocellulose and cellulose contents were lower in the outer bark than those of the inner bark. Total yield of successive extractions with benzene, diethyl ether; hot water, ethanol and 1% NaOH was 68.9% for the outer bark and 56.1% for the inner bark. Stiasny number taken as 3. measure for condensed tannins was seen to vary from 26.6 to 55.8. The wood contained 0.4-0.6% of lipophilic extractives, whereas the bark contained 4.5-6.4% of them. Lipophilic extractives were composed of fatty acids, resin acids, alcohols and sterols. Polar extractives of the wood were composed of monosaccharides and lignans. The bark contained numerous constituents of phenolic nature in addition to monosaccharides and lignans.
Article
Extractives composition and distribution was examined around the oxygen delignification stage in a birch kraft pulp mill. Pulp suspensions were divided into different fractions with a dynamic drainage jar device to obtain fibers (+100 mesh), large fines (100–200 mesh), and small fines (200–400 mesh) fractions as well as the colloidal and dissolved fractions. The fractions were extracted and the resin components analyzed by gas chromatography. No significant oxidation reactions of wood resin were found to occur in oxygen delignification. Major removal of resin was achieved in the subsequent washer, where resin is removed with dissolved, colloidal, and fines fractions. Overall deresination in the subsequent washer was 58%.
Article
Monoterpene compounds of leaf pairs and flowers of Mentha x piperita have been studied by direct headspace sampling using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The content of peppermint-characteristic compounds such as menthol, menthyl acetate, and neomenthol increased in a basipetal direction (older plant parts), whereas menthone and isomenthone showed higher levels in the acropetal direction (younger plant parts). Higher levels of menthofuran were found in peppermint flowers in contrast to the leaves. SPME sampling resulted in relatively higher amounts of high-volatile monoterpenes and lower detection of less volatile compounds such as menthol and menthone, compared to solvent-based samples from essential oil distillation.
Article
A laboratory-made fused silica fiber coated with a porous layer of activated charcoal (PLAC) was used as a new microsolid phase in solid-phase microextraction (SPME) mode for sampling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the headspace of water samples. Effects of temperature, salt addition, stirring speed, and exposure time on extraction efficiency were investigated. Extraction at 80°C for 30 min in the presence of 12 g NaCl at constant stirring speed yields maximum efficiency. Using the proposed microsolid phase as an efficient sampling device and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, reliable determination of these compounds at sub-parts-per-billion concentrations was achieved. The calibration graphs were linear in the range 0.1–50 ng/ml and the detection limits were 0.03–0.3 ng/ml. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PAHs in environmental samples such as local municipal water.
Article
The structure of the secretory elements and the essential oils of the needles and berries of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis growing in north Iran were studied. The needles, which contain ducts and transfusion tissue, act as conduction structures, and the berries containing elongate tubercles which act as reservoirs of volatile oils. The essential oils, isolated by hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC–MS. The oil contained 41 and 27 components in the needles and berries, respectively. The needle oil consisted mainly of sabinene (40.7%), α-pinene (12.5%) and terpinen-4-ol (12.3%) and the berry oil included sabinene (36.8%), α-pinene (20%), limonene (10.6%), germacrene D (8.2%) and myrcene (4.8%) as the main components. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The essential oils from leaves of Pinus koraiensis, P. merkusii, P. palustris, P. parviflora, P. petula, P. ponderosa, P. pumila, P. rigida and P. rudis and cones of P. densiflora, P. rigida and P. taeda were investigated by GC–MS. Yields of the oils were 0.08–2.33 (w/w). α-Pinene (0.2–51.8%) and β-pinene (0.1–38.2%) were contained in both the leaf and cone oils of Pinus species. The monoterpene fractions of Pinus leaf oils comprised mainly pinanes and menthanes. Pinanes were present in greater amounts than menthanes in the leaf oils of all the species except P. petula. The leaves of P. pumila contained caranes as major components, whereas those of P. parviflora contained camphanes as major components. As for sesquiterpenes in the leaf oils, caryophyllane and/or the cadinane group were the major components. The leaf oils of P. merkusii, P. petula and P. rudis contained larger amounts of caryophyllanes than those of the cadinane group. The sesquiterpenes of these three species were mainly caryophyllanes, while in the sesquiterpene fraction of other Pinus species the content of the cadinane group was larger than that of caryophyllanes. Concerning cone oils, P. rigida and P. taeda cones were mainly composed of monoterpenes, while P. densiflora contained sesquiterpenes as the main components. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Isolations of glycosides from fresh cypres cones, Cupressus semper-virens L. (Cupressaceae), were performed by cold and hot ethyl ace-tate extraction. After enzymatic hydrolysis by means of b-glucosi-dase, 18 aglycones were released. The glycosidically bound volatile compounds amounted to 7¿8 mg kg ¿1 . The main aglycones were 3-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (15.5%) and thymoquinone (5-isopropyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone: 3.7¿9.7%). Other impor-tant aglycones were perilla alcohol (3.6¿8.2%), p-cymen-8-ol (5.3¿ 6.4%), 2-phenylethanol (2.7¿6.9%) and carvacrol (2.5¿6.3%). There was no similarity between the glycosidically bound aglycones and the corresponding free compounds found in the essential oil.
Article
The chemical analysis of coniferous wood species occuring in Turkey was presented. Three trees were chosen from each species of coniferous woods and three discs were taken from each tree, the first from the bottom of the stem, the second from the middle, and the third from the upper part. The samples taken from each disc were divided into sapwoods and heartwoods and chipped into matchstick size splinters. The chemical analysis of Turkish coniferous wood species were found useful to present comparative results with regards to both technical utilization and scientific purposes.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic activity of Platycladus orientalis, Prangos asperula and Cupressus sempervirens ssp. pyramidalis essential oils and to identify active components involved in inhibition of population growth of human cancer cell lines. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antiproliferative activity was tested on amelanotic melanoma C32 cells and on renal cell adenocarcinoma cells, using the sulphorhodamine B assay. Cupressus sempervirens ssp. pyramidalis leaf oil exerted the highest cytotoxic activity with an IC(50)value of 104.90 microg/mL against C32, followed by activity of P. orientalis and P. asperula on the renal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC(50) of 121.93 and 139.17 microg/mL, respectively). P. orientalis essential oil was also active against amelanotic melanoma with an IC(50) of 330.04 microg/mL. Three identified terpenes, linalool, beta-caryophyllene and alpha-cedrol, were found to be active on both cell lines tested. Our findings provide novel insights into the field of cytotoxic properties of essential oils. This study provided evidence on how cytotoxic activity of the oils is not always related to their major constituents, except for lower activity found in both cell lines for alpha-cedrol. Interestingly, beta-caryophyllene and linalool exhibited comparable IC(50) values to the commercial drug vinblastine on the ACHN cell line. This opens a new field of investigation to discover mechanisms responsible for the observed activity.
Article
The influence of essential oils from naturally occurring plant dietary items such as cardamom, celery seed, cumin seed, coriander, ginger, nutmeg, and zanthoxylum on the activities of hepatic carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase) and acid-soluble sulfhydryl level was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Each oil was fed by gavage at 10 microliters/day for 14 days, and then the animals were sacrificed and their hepatic enzyme activities and sulfhydryl levels were evaluated. Only nutmeg and zanthoxylum oils induced cytochrome P450 level significantly (p < 0.05), whereas cardamom oil caused a significant reduction in its activity (p < 0.05). Furthermore, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was significantly elevated only by treatment with ginger oil (p < 0.01), whereas nutmeg oil caused a significant reduction in its activity (p < 0.01). The remaining oils did not significantly alter the level of cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in all experimental groups (p < 0.1-p < 0.001) compared with controls. The acid-soluble sulfhydryl was significantly elevated only by the essential oils of cardamom (p < 0.05), nutmeg (p < 0.05), and zanthoxylum (p < 0.01). Our observations suggest that intake of essential oils affects the host enzymes associated with activation and detoxication of xenobiotic compounds, including chemical carcinogens and mutagens.
Article
Isocupressic acid [15-hydroxylabda-8(17),13E-dien-19-oic acid] (1) was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 48 h in an in vitro ruminal fluid mixture and was transformed into two metabolites. The two metabolites were identified by GC/MS as agathic acid [labda-8(17),13(E)-diene-15,19-dioic acid] (4E) and dihydroagathic acid [labda-8(17)-ene-15,19-dioic acid] (6). Metabolite identities were confirmed by chemical conversions of isocupressic acid (1) and imbricataloic acid (5) into 4E and 6, respectively. Structures of synthetic metabolites were confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR, specific rotation, GC/MS, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Plasma obtained from cows that were fed Ponderosa pine needles contained (13R,S)-dihydroagathic acid (6) but not isocupressic acid (1) or 4E. The results suggest that isocupressic acid (1) is metabolically oxidized to agathic acid (4E), subsequently reduced to (13R,S)-dihydroagathic acid (6) in the rumen, and then absorbed into the bloodstream of cattle.
Article
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a simple and effective adsorption and desorption technique, which eliminates the need for solvents or complicated apparatus, for concentrating volatile or nonvolatile compounds in liquid samples or headspace. SPME is compatible with analyte separation and detection by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and provides linear results for wide concentrations of analytes. By controlling the polarity and thickness of the coating on the fibre, maintaining consistent sampling time, and adjusting other extraction parameters, an analyst can ensure highly consistent, quantifiable results for low concentration analytes. To date, about 400 articles on SPME have been published in different fields, including environment (water, soil, air), food, natural products, pharmaceuticals, biology, toxicology, forensics and theory. As the scope of SPME grew, new improvements were made with the appearance of new coatings that allowed an increase in the specificity of this extraction technique. The key part of the SPME fibre is of course the fibre coating. At the moment, 27 variations of fibre coating and size are available. Among the newest are a fibre assembly with a dual coating of divinylbenzene and Carboxen suspended in poly(dimethylsiloxane), and a series of 23 gauge fibres intended for specific septumless injection system. The growth of SPME is also reflected in the expanding number of the accessories that make the technology even easier to use Also available is a portable field sampler which is a self-contained unit that stores the SPME fibre after sampling and during the shipment to the laboratory. Several scientific publications show the results obtained in inter-laboratory validation studies in which SPME was applied to determine the presence of different organic compounds at ppt levels, which demonstrates the reliability of this extraction technique for quantitative analysis.
Article
Some essential oils obtained from the branches of four Pinus species (P. pinea L., P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster Soil in Ait., and P. nigra Arnold) have been evaluated for their acaricidal activity by aerial diffusion against the stored food mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (L.). All the essential oils showed a good efficacy, but P. pinea oil and its two constituents 1,8-cineole and limonene were the most effective compounds, showing 100% acaricidal activity at 8 microL; 1,8-cineole showed the same activity at 6 microL.
Article
Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species.
Article
Melissa officinalis L (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. This paper focuses on the analysis of the chemical composition and the biological activities of M. officinalis essential oil obtained under controlled harvesting and drying conditions. An in-vitro cytotoxicity assay using MTT indicated that this oil was very effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562) and a mouse cell line (B16F10). This oil possessed antioxidant activity, as evidenced by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). These results pointed to the potential use of M. officinalis essential oil as an antitumoral agent.
Article
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil, chiefly composed of linalyl acetate (51%) and linalool (35%), is considered to be one of the mildest of known plant essential oils and has a history in wound healing. Concerns are building about the potential for irritant or allergenic skin reactions with the use of lavender oil. This study has demonstrated that lavender oil is cytotoxic to human skin cells in vitro (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v) in all cell types tested (HMEC-1, HNDF and 153BR). The major components of the oil, linalyl acetate and linalool, were also assayed under similar conditions for their cytotoxicity. The activity of linalool reflected that of the whole oil, indicating that linalool may be the active component of lavender oil. Linalyl acetate cytotoxicity was higher than that of the oil itself, suggesting suppression of its activity by an unknown factor in the oil. Membrane damage is proposed as the possible mechanism of action.
Article
In this study, alpha-bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol present in natural essential oil, was found to have a strong time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human and rat glioma cells. After 24 h of treatment with 2.5-3.5 microM alpha-bisabolol, the viability of these cells was reduced by 50% with respect to untreated cells. Furthermore, the viability of normal rat glial cells was not affected by treatment with alpha-bisabolol at the same concentrations as above. Glioma cells treated with high concentration of alpha-bisabolol (10 microM) resulted in a 100% cell death. Judging from hypo-G1 accumulation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and DNA ladder formation, the cytotoxicity triggered by alpha-bisabolol resulted from apoptosis induction. Moreover, the dissipation of mitochondrial-inner transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria indicated that, in these glioma cells, apoptosis occurred through an intrinsic pathway. As pointed out by the experimental results, alpha-bisabolol may be considered a novel compound able to inhibit glioma cell growth and survival.
Article
In the present review the physiological and/or pharmacological properties of essential oils and of single fragrance compounds are discussed. Essential oils are known and have been used since ancient times as natural medicines. As natural products essential oils are dependent on climate and their composition varies according to conditions of soil, to solar irradiation, to harvest time, to production methods, to storage conditions and similar facts which are discussed in chapter 2 of this review. The next chapters deal with the therapeutic use of essential oils in treating diseases, disorders or ailments of the nervous system, against cancer and as penetration enhancers. For space-saving reasons, however, the manifold antimicrobial and antifungal properties of these natural products have been left out. In the last chapter, the pros and cons in the use of essential oils in therapy are also discussed.
Article
Eugenol is a major component of essential oil isolated from the Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae), which has been widely used as a herbal drug. In this study, we investigated the effects of eugenol on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and the putative pathways of its actions in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) under the standard laboratory illumination. Eugenol-treated HL-60 cells displayed features of apoptosis including DNA fragmentation and formation of DNA ladders in agarose gel electrophoresis. We observed that eugenol transduced the apoptotic signal via ROS generation, thereby inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), reducing anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 level, inducing cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that ROS plays a critical role in eugenol-induced apoptosis in HL-60, and this is the first report on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of eugenol.
Article
Headspace analyses of pollen, whole flowerheads, ligulate and tubular florets, flower buds, involucral bracts, and leaves have been performed on the food plant Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (Asteraceae). The analyses permitted differences in the pattern of volatiles emitted by the different floral parts to be observed and the site and phenological stage of emission of these chemicals to be verified. Camphor and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate were emitted mainly by ligulate and tubular florets; the production of myrcene and (Z)-ocimene was higher in the flower buds, whereas beta-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and (E)-beta-farnesene seemed attributable mainly to the involucral bracts. The leaves showed a quite different volatile profile, with (Z)-ocimene as the main constituent. Pollen showed a completely different composition of its volatiles, with perilla aldehyde, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, and camphor among the principal compounds; many carbonylic compounds and linear hydrocarbons have been detected exclusively in pollen. Furthermore, the essential oils obtained from flowerheads and leaves have been studied. These samples showed mainly quantitative differences. Camphor (22.1%) and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (19.9%) were the main constituents of the oil from flowers, whereas the oil from the leaves contained mainly (Z)-ocimene (45.4%) and myrcene (28.2%).
Article
The aim of this work was to study the constituents and cytotoxicity of the essential oils from the fruits of Angelica archangelica growing in Iceland. Three samples of essential oils were prepared by steam distillation. Their composition was established with GC/MS. The effects of the oils were examined in PANC-1 human pancreas cancer cells and Crl mouse breast cancer cells in concentrations ranging from 10-400 microg/ml, measuring the reduction of the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulphophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS) by mitochondrial enzymes. Two types of essential oils were found, differing mainly in the absence or presence of beta-phellandrene. The ED50 of the oils ranged from 48.6 microg/ml to 108.3 microg/ml for PANC-1 and 48.0 microg/ml to 91.8 microg/ml for Crl cells. The cytotoxic activity of the essential oils was independent of the quantity of their main components.
Article
The investigation of flower scent represents an important field of modern biological research which is directed towards special theories of biological recognition. The headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the volatile components of Carum copticum (C. copticum) cultivated in Iran. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70 eV). The effects of different parameters, such as the desorption time, the extraction temperature, the sample mass, the addition of salt, the pre-equilibration time and the extraction time, on the extraction efficiency were investigated. The optimized conditions were: the desorption time, 2 min; the extraction temperature, 58 degrees Celsius; the sample mass, 1.000 g in 4.0 mL 2.0 M NaCl solution; the pre-equilibration time, 25 min; the extraction time, 20 min. Finally, ten components were identified in the volatile components of C. copticum. The major components of C. copticum were thymol (68.2%), gamma-terpinene (13.9%), p-cymene (11.6%), myrcene (1.0%) and beta-pinene (0.6%). Precision of the proposed method is good and %RSD less than 14 was obtained.
Article
The essential oil extracted from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used as a topical application to relieve pain and promote healing in herbal medicine and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. Clove oil has two major components, eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, which constitute 78% and 13% of the oil, respectively. Clove oil and these components are generally recognized as 'safe', but the in-vitro study here demonstrates cytotoxic properties of both the oil and eugenol, towards human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Clove oil was found to be highly cytotoxic at concentrations as low as 0.03% (v/v) with up to 73% of this effect attributable to eugenol. beta-caryophyllene did not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, indicating that other cytotoxic components may also exist within the parent oil.
Bailey and Staff of Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorum. Hortus Third
  • L H Bailey
  • E Z Bailey
Bailey, L.H. and Bailey, E.Z. (1976). Bailey and Staff of Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorum. Hortus Third. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, NY. 1290 pp.
Aromatherapy -a Guide for Home Use
  • C Westwood
Westwood, C. (1993). Aromatherapy -a Guide for Home Use. London: Amberwood Publishing Ltd.
Faculty of Forestry Department of Wood Chemistry 74100 Bartin TURKEY E-mail: tumen@bartin.edu
  • Accepted
Accepted: September 21, 2010 CORRESPONDING AUTHOR Ibrahim Tumen Bartin University Faculty of Forestry Department of Wood Chemistry 74100 Bartin TURKEY E-mail: tumen@bartin.edu.tr FEB/ Vol 19/ No 10/ 2010 – pages 2268 – 2276
Essential Oil of Leaves Juniperus Ssp. Natively Grown in Turkey
  • I Tumen
  • H Hafizoglu
  • H Kollmannsberger
  • B Zimmermann
  • A Keskiner
  • H C Gultekin
Tumen, I., Hafizoglu, H., Kollmannsberger, H., Zimmermann, B., Keskiner, A. and Gultekin, H.C. (2010). Essential Oil of Leaves Juniperus Ssp. Natively Grown in Turkey. Pharmacognosy Magazine 6, 22-137.