Article

Magnesium and aluminum alloys in automotive industry

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Today's interest is focusing on growing demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles to reduce energy consumption and air pollution which become a challenge for the current automotive industry. Driven by this requirement, researchers had done many researches to find a suitable material that fulfill the requirement for automotive parts. In this paper, general application of magnesium and aluminum alloys in automotive industry is presented, especially about the material properties, machinability and cost comparison of these alloys. In addition, the current and potential automotive applications of magnesium are reviewed, and the technical challenges for these applications are also discussed. Based on the previous studies, it was found that the magnesium has several advantages over aluminum in terms of manufacturability due to its mechanical and physical properties. Revolutions to reduce the average fuel consumption have nowadays revived the interest in magnesium. Furthermore, the application of magnesium alloys in automotive has witness the developments and successful application of these alloys in automotive component such as steering wheels, steering column parts, instrument panels, seats, gearboxes and air intake systems. Future developments include a potential application for car body, cylinder blocks and engine block. Through the reviews done, aluminum alloys are found widely used but market for magnesium alloys for automotive application is predicted to rise and will rapidly increasing in the near future.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... At this golden age, the function and capability of sandwich panel has been explored and discovered. As reported in the previous work [1,2,88,[128][129][130][286][287][288], the sandwich structure has been developed successfully in many engineering applications, especially in transportation and construction of building. These is due to their special properties such as lightweight, high bending stiffness, good energy absorption, and cost saving. ...
... Joost et al. [128] found that using lightweight composite panels for automotive compartments such as bumper panels, door panels, engine cradle and interior compartments could enhance the car performance and reduce vibrations from internal and external sources. In addition, it was found that magnesium alloy is suitable for car engine compartment manufacturing, and produces better performance since it is lighter than aluminium alloy [7,[128][129][130]. For marine applications, sandwich panels were typically used in several compartments such as decking, hull skin structures, lightweight floor structures, bridge decking and interior furnishing. ...
... Thus, the maneuverability, efficiency, and safety for railroad industry can be improved. It is also reported that Musfirah & Jaharah [129] also found that magnesium alloy has several advantages over aluminium alloys in terms of fuel consumption and increasing demand in automotive industry for engine block, engine cradle, and cover. By some modification on the processing method for magnesium alloy, enhancement on magnesium alloy could be possible and it could be a good candidate to be used as the core material in sandwich panel. ...
Article
This review outlines the evolution of sandwich panels based on recent work and older sources, focusing on the trends concerning sandwich panel achievements and applications, core materials, core designs, types of failure mechanism and factors which contribute to the failure of sandwich panel. The review begins with an extensive discussion highlighting the achievements and trends relating to sandwich panels over the past 50 years, including the most recent work published. The purpose of this paper is to re-evaluate the current core design of metal-based sandwich panels, and further elucidate on core design, core materials and the types of failure mechanism which sandwich panels usually experience under certain conditions. The main factors that contribute to the failure phenomena experienced by sandwich panels, such as geometries of core design, different configuration of core design, the adhesive interaction effect between the bonding layers of sandwich panels and the effect of sandwich panels under high-speed impact and blast loading are considered. Future issues regarding metal-based sandwich panel, including the use of new materials for the core, new concepts in core design and the possibility to extend sandwich panel use for heavier applications, such as the defence industry, are highlighted and discussed. At the end of this review, the authors draw attention to other researchers by suggesting a list of topic areas that need to be addressed by research in the near future.
... Magnesium and its alloys are widely used in different industries because of their excellent mechanical and electronic performances [1], such as low density, high specific strength, high specific stiffness, outstanding shock absorption capacity, and good electromagnetic shielding effect [2]. Hence, they are extensively used in electronic communication products [3], biomedical devices [4], automobiles [5], and aerospace components [6]. However, the corrosion resistance of magnesium and magnesium alloys is extremely poor in aqueous solution and the atmospheric environment [7,8]. ...
... According to the experimental results of the response surface method, the concentration of sodium tungstate had a significant influence on the corrosion resistance of the electroless Ni-W-P-plated layer, and its interaction with nickel sulfate, sodium hypophosphite, and the pH of the plating solution was obvious. During the deposition process of electroless Ni-W-P alloy plating in the alkaline solution, both Ni 2+ and WO 4 2− ions had redox reactions with hypophosphite. Moreover, the reduction reaction of W was related to sodium hypophosphite concentration and the pH of the bath. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plating processes greatly affect the corrosion resistance of electroless Ni–W–P coatings on magnesium alloys. In the present research, the corrosion resistance of electroless Ni–W–P alloy-coated AZ91D magnesium alloy was optimized by the response surface methodology. The optimum technological parameters of the plating process were determined by establishing a quadratic regression model, and the influence of these variables and their interactions on the corrosion resistance of the coating was analyzed. The optimum technological parameters of the electroless plating process were nickel sulfate concentration = 20 g/L, sodium tungstate concentration = 15 g/L, sodium hypophosphite concentration = 30 g/L, bath temperature = 60 °C, and bath pH = 9.3. Under these conditions, the coating had the best corrosion resistance. Among the aforementioned five variables, sodium tungstate concentration had the most significant influence on the corrosion resistance of the coating. Different degrees of interactions among the variables greatly affected the corrosion resistance of the coating.
... Magnesium and its alloys are currently used in the automotive industry for such parts as an inner door, tailgate, steering wheel core and column, seat frame, or wheel rims [1,2]. Recent studies on development of magnesium alloys and magnesium matrix composites have focused on energy saving, weight reduction, and limiting environmental impact [2]. ...
... [6, 7]Fig. 1. Microstructure of composites obtained using pressure infiltration: with application ofRZ5 matrix (a, c) and ZRE1 matrix (b, d); a, b -LM, c, d -SEM Rys.1 ...
... The demand for fuel efficient, yet high performance vehicles, is currently being addressed among other ways by research and development on lightweight metallic materials [1][2][3]. On this subject, crystallographic texture engineering achieved by intelligent processing and alloying has led to the widespread use of light structural alloys made of aluminum (Al) [4,5]. Beyond Al alloys, magnesium (Mg) with its density of 1.7 g/m 3 (which is 33% less that of Al) is one of the lightest structural metallic materials. ...
... On this subject, crystallographic texture engineering achieved by intelligent processing and alloying has led to the widespread use of light structural alloys made of aluminum (Al) [4,5]. Beyond Al alloys, magnesium (Mg) with its density of 1.7 g/m 3 (which is 33% less that of Al) is one of the lightest structural metallic materials. Common Mg alloys [6][7][8] have higher specific strength compared to many aluminum alloys and several types of steels [9,10]. ...
... Magnesium has the lightest weight of the structural metals. Its weight is approximately 60% lighter than steel and 60% lighter than aluminium [3]. Magnesium is usually used to alloy Al for weight reduction since it has lower density than Al. ...
... Pratiwi and Utami [4] investigated the influence of ageing process on the microstructure and hardness of as-cast and heat-treated Al-9Zn-5Cu-4 Mg alloys using SEM analysis. The outcome of the SEM analysis indicated the precipitates spread presence over the dendrite with the second phases (Mg 3 Cu 2 FeAl 7 , CuAl 2 , and CuMgAl 2 ) in as-cast Al-9Zn-5Cu-4 Mg alloy presence. The aluminium alloy toughness was reported to be affected as a result of the presence of all these second phases while the hardness value of the Al-9Zn-5Cu-5 Mg heat treated cast alloy was said to be impaired due to the presence of MgZn 2 . ...
Article
The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Cu alloy with magnesium inclusion varying between 0.5 and 1.5 wt% were explored in this investigation. Al-Zn-Cu-Mg alloy was prepared by sand casting. Heat-treatment was done on the cast alloy samples at 460 C for 2 h, which was then waterquenched. The samples at 160 C were age-hardened for 5 h. Mechanical tests were done on both the heat-treated and as-cast alloy samples. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used for the surface morphology of the samples. The maximum tensile strength (178.04 N/mm2) and hardness value (42.49 HB) were obtained from the Al-Zn-Cu-Mg alloy samples with 0.33 wt% Mg and 0.001 wt% Mg, respectively. In the as-cast samples, the reinforcing intermetallic phases present was coarse in nature while the precipitation hardened samples showed well-distributed reinforcing intermetallic phases which are fine grain size. Hence, the tensile strength of the cast Al-Zn-Cu-Mg alloy was positively influenced with theaddition of magnesium while precipitation hardening eliminates micro segregations, thus, Al-Zn-Cu-Mg alloy mechanical properties were improved. Thus, the Al-Zn-Cu-Mg alloy can be useful in automobile industry.
... One of these alloys, AZ91, which consists of magnesium alloyed with 9Al and 1Zn, is used for 80% of the magnesium casting components for automotive applications because of its corrosion resistance and good castability. However, its application is limited to noncritical parts because of its low creep resistance and strength [1,2]. Research shows that the addition of rare earth elements could increase the strength and creep resistance of magnesium. ...
... A detailed and systematic preparation was described during the study of the addition of Zr to the microstructure and tensile properties of the homogenized and hot extruded Al-15% Mg 2 Si composite. A decrease in average size and a better distribution of Mg 2 Si particles in hot extruded Al-15% Mg 2 Si composite have been shown to increase hardness and wear resistance because of the remarkable decrease in porosity [17]. In addition to hot extrusion, the thixoforming process offers a lot of flexibility and simplicity in the preparation of material products that combine hot deformation and shaping of materials. ...
Article
Full-text available
Magnesium-based materials are lightweight materials that are 60% lighter in weight than steel, but the strength of these materials must be increased. This study was conducted on the effects of various Ca addition in (90-x)Mg-9Al-Zn-xCa (x = 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt%) alloy samples made by casting and thixoforming processes. The alloy with x = 1 wt% Ca yielded the microstructure consisting of α-Mg and β-Mg17Al12 with the mass fraction 83.1% and 16.9% respectively. The mass fraction α-Mg decreased to 50.3% and that of after β-Mg17Al12 increased to 49.7% after the thixoforming process. The increase in the mass fraction of the β-Mg17Al12 phase was caused by the heating process and the suppression force and the occurrence of grain refinement caused by the addition of Ca, which played a role in increasing hardness. The added Ca is an element that supports grain refinement and the formation of Al2Ca intermetallic compounds and reduces the growth of the β-Mg17Al12 phase. The hardness of the as-cast sample was originally 68 HB and increased to 82 HB.
... As a one of the lightest metallic structural material, magnesium alloys possess an attractive combination of low density and high strength to weight ratio and have been extensively used in different areas such as aerospace [1], automotive [2] and medical industries [3]. However, their relatively low ductility and poor corrosion resistance limit their applicability in the components, which need improved mechanical and corrosion properties. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy after the process of hydrostatic cyclic expansion extrusion (HCEE) at elevated temperature. The HCEE process is able to produce long length ultrafine-grained rods by applying high hydrostatic pressure. The results showed that ultrafine-grained microstructure appears after the consecutive passes of the process, which led to the higher hardness and strength with an increased elongation to failure in the processed rods at room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure of the processed rod after two cycles of the HCEE increased more than 2 and 2.6 times, respectively. Moreover, an increase in hardness was more than 100% after the second cycle of the process and its distribution was more uniform. Furthermore, the ultrafine-grained microstructure after the HCEE resulted in the movement of potentiodynamic polarization derived curves to higher values of corrosion potential (Ecorr) and lower current density (Icorr), which shows the capability of the HCEE process in improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91 magnesium alloy rods. These increases in corrosion resistance were further indicated by the Nyquist diagram derived from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy scanning and evolved hydrogen amount after 208 hours of immersion in 3.5 % NaCl solution. The novel HCEE process shows further its capability in producing long length ultrafine-grained rods with superior mechanical and corrosion properties rather than other severe plastic deformation techniques.
... New vehicles, which are manufactured with lighter materials compared to the previous years, increase safety and comfort and cause less damage to the environment with less fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. For this reason, aluminum alloys used in the construction of aircraft, watercraft, automobiles, buses and trains have become the preferred materials today (Musfirah and Jaharah, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the effect of the glass ceiling syndrome in female health care professionals on their organizational justice perception and to examine the factors affecting organizational justice perception and glass ceiling syndrome.
... One of the most important bioceramics which have been used in regenerative medicine particularly orthopedic application is new calcium silicates (CSs), wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) nanoparticle enhancing bone formation of the implanted prosthesis [1]. These bioactive ceramics can enhance new bone tissue formation by creating a tight bond between implant and the host bone after implantation [2]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
properties such as biocompatibility and proper bioactivity response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bioactivity of wollastonite-hydroxyapatite (WS-HA) bio-nanocomposite for the treatment of orthopedic prosthesis coatings approaches by adding magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ; MNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to the matrix. Bio-nanocomposite coated on AZ91 for 40 minutes at 40 volts using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and after that the heat treatment performed at 550-650°C for 1 hour. The coats were incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for 28 days to detect and confirm apatite-like layer formation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the coated sample. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) tests were used to evaluate the concentrations of calcium and silicon ions. The finding from the present study showed the successful coating with 10 wt% MNPs added to the WS bio-nanocomposite with proper biological and chemical properties. Bio-nanocomposite coating can be considered as a suitable candidate for orthopedic coating applications due to its favorable bioactivity.
... Aluminum alloys are among the most commonly used metals (62.7 million tons in 2018) [1] thanks to their high strength/weight ratio, [2] superior corrosion resistance, [3] high thermal conductivity, [4] and high fatigue strength [5] . Applications include fuselage and wings in aircraft design and fuel-efficient light-weight vehicles [6] . However, the specific wear rate of aluminum is three times that of brass and seven times that of steel [7] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Wear and friction of nanocrystalline (NC) aluminum were investigated via molecular dynamics simulations and the effects of dopants were considered. Zr-doped NC Al was found to have a better wear resistance and a smaller friction force, which is consistent with a higher hardness and a higher strength of the doped sample. The underlying mechanisms are suppressed emission of dislocations from grain boundaries (GBs), suppressed GB migration, and suppressed GB sliding. After multiple sliding cycles, the trend in mechanical response was reversed, with the pure NC Al showing a better wear resistance and a lower friction force than the doped sample. One reason is that the higher dislocation density introduced during wear into the pure sample leads to more strain hardening. Another reason is that the pure NC Al has undergone more significant grain growth than the doped sample. Since the grain size of our samples is in the inverse Hall-Petch regime, here grain growth leads to strengthening of the pure sample. Mechanisms of grain growth in the pure NC Al and its suppression in the doped NC Al are analyzed and discussed.
... These features also make Mg alloys one of the best replacement for Al alloys in manufacturing industries, especially in transportation vehicles (e.g. cars, airplanes) [5]. The alloys, although having great range of beneficial properties, but suffer considerably from low corrosion and tribological resistance (against variety of acidic and alkaline solutions) [6,7]. ...
Article
Although Mg alloys are excellent structural materials but their weak tribological and corrosion properties limit their widespread applications. In the present study we aimed to enhance the tribological, surface mechanical and corrosion properties of AZ91D Mg alloy by electrophoretic deposition of alumina/GO coatings (with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt% of GO). The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Hardness, drop contact angle, and electrochemical impedance tests were conducted to investigate the various properties of the coatings. Our results show that electrophoretic deposition technique is capable of preparation of coatings with very low number of cracks, particularly when higher content of GO (2 wt%) is used. Although coating of only alumina already improved the alloy properties, but incremental addition of GO demonstrated significant improvement in hardness, scratch and corrosion resistances of the coatings. According to our results, the improvement in mechanical properties is mainly due to the effect of GO nanoplatelets in bridging between alumina nanoparticles. On the other hand, GO considerably boosts the corrosion resistance due to its effect in removing the cracks and open spaces from the microstructure. Overall, alumina/GO nanocomposite coatings prepared by electrophoretic deposition demonstrates comparable-level properties with those prepared in the previous researches by thermal spraying methods.
... Among the non-ferrous alloy community (Al, Ti, Mg), magnesium and its alloys are the lightest structural material as a possible replacement of the steel and aluminium in automotive industry [1]. Despite of the rare combination of high specific strength and stiffness, magnesium alloys suffer from the low ductility and poor formability at room temperature [2]. ...
Article
To develop ultrafine grains (UFG) in 6.35 mm thick magnesium alloy, stationary shoulder friction stir processing (SSFSP) with steel and copper backing plates was conducted. Steel backing plate produced uniform fine grains (FG) size of 4.98, 4.75, 4.12 μm in top, middle, bottom of the stir zone (SZ), respectively. In contrast, copper backing plate tailored microstructure from FG (4.1 μm) in the top to UFG (0.96 μm) in the bottom of SZ. SSFSP produced uniform and gradient microstructures, altering temperature gradient by placing steel and copper backing plates, respectively. It is worth to note that UFG microstructure achieved without usage of external cooling, owning to the copper backing plate. Most of the grains found under ∼2 μm size in UFG microstructure. FG and UFG microstructures contributed to the enhancement in the ductility and strength, respectively. UFG resulted in significant improvement in hardness and tensile strength by ∼80% and 24% of the base material, respectively. The intensity of strong basal texture throughout the thickness found independent of the backing plate type. Microstructure evolutions across the SZ thickness for both processing conditions are discussed using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD).
... The rapid development of automotive industry has intensified energy consumption and air pollution, so the demand for lightweight automotive is very urgent [1][2][3][4], and replacing steel with aluminum alloy has become the main way to reduce the weight of automotive [5]. In order to meet the requirements of high strength and toughness of automotive parts, Germany and Japan have developed a variety of diecasting aluminum alloys, most of which are Al-Si, Al-Si-Mg and Al-Mg-Si alloys. ...
Article
Full-text available
The oxidation mechanism for the molten surface of Al–5Mg–2Si–Mn alloy was studied. The results show that the oxide layer contains MgO, Al2O3, MgAl2O4, BeO and SiO2, and it is composed of a composite inner layer (MgO/Al2O3/MgAl2O4/BeO/SiO2) and an outer layer of MgO. An oxidation mechanism was proposed to describe the four oxidation stages which included oxidation adsorption, accelerated oxidation, transitional oxidation and stable oxidation. The effects of oxidation time and oxidation temperature on the thickness of oxide layer were discussed. Thermodynamic calculations were used to confirm the feasibility of oxidation process, indicating that MgO was the most stable oxide in the experimental temperature range. Further, the stable regions of MgO and MgAl2O4 as functions of magnesium content and oxidation temperature were calculated. In the stable oxidation stage, the diffusion activation energy of Mg atoms in MgO was fitted according to the outer layer thicknesses, and the kinetic equation of the outer layer thickness with the oxidation time and oxidation temperature was established. From the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics, the oxidation products of the alloy during the melting process and the effects of oxidation time and temperature on the oxide layer were analyzed. Graphic abstract
... Automotive manufacturers are trying to reduce vehicle weight in order to minimize fuel consumption and emissions. Generally, a typical car body contributes approximately 30% of the total weight of a car 2) , and about 10% weight reduction of a car results in 5.5% improvement in fuel economy 3,4) . Consequently, the application of lightweight materials for car body manufacturing has been highly promising to reduce vehicle weight. ...
... The growing interest of using the lightweight structural materials, with satisfactory mechanical properties, makes the scientific and research centers to develop accurate methods of design forming processes. Magnesium alloys are an example of such a material, successfully used for many years in various fields of industry, including automotive industry [1][2][3][4]. Authors of the present paper have investigated the possibility of substitution of steel part in the car body by the one made of AZ31 alloy [5]. Manufacturing of magnesium alloy part by stamping requires heating of the sample to the temperature range 250-350 °C, which is the main challenge. ...
Article
Evaluation of the possibility of substitution of steel part in the car body by the one made of AZ31 alloy was the main objective of the whole project. The objective of this paper was to determine the flow stress model, which accounts for the difference in the behavior of magnesium alloys during tension and compression. Tension tests on Zwick machine and compression tests on Gleeble 3800 were performed. Inverse analysis was applied to interpretation of the results of the tests. Separate numerical models for tension and compression were implemented into Abaqus software and simulations of the stamping were performed. Sensitivity of the results to the flow stress model was evaluated.
... Özellikle çelik malzemelerin kullanım alanını düşürmek amaçlandığı zaman gerekli dayanımı polimer esaslı malzemelerin sağlaması mümkün değildir. Dolayısıyla alternatif olarak hafif alaşımlar (Şekil 2) ve bu alaşımların matris olarak kullanıldığı kompozit malzemeler ele alınmaktadır [11], [12]. Her ne kadar hafif metaller olarak alüminyum, magnezyum ve titanyum tanımlanmış olsa da [13] titanyumun yüksek maliyet nedeniyle yüksek ağırlık ve hacim gerektiren uygulamalarda kullanımı tercih edilmemektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada, günden güne daha geniş alanlarda kullanılan magnezyum tozmetal alaşımların endüstriyel uygulamalarda kullanılabilirliği incelenmiştir. Bu malzemenin hegzagonal sıkı paket kafes yapısından dolayı plastik deformasyonunda yaşanan zorlukları aşmak için geleneksel plastik deformasyon yöntemleri yerine toz metalurjisi yöntemi ile şekillendirilebilirliği hakkında literatürde bulunan çalışmalar derlenmiştir. Özellikle magnezyum partiküllerinin üretimi sürecinde oluşan yüzey oksidi tabakasının elimine edilmesi için kullanılabilecek yöntemlerle ilgili çalışmaların bulguları özetlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak press-sinter yöntemine göre daha sofistike yöntemler veya ikincil işlemler kullanılması durumunda döküm alaşımlarına göre daha yüksek dayanım gösteren Mg alaşımlarının üretiminin mümkün olduğu ve gelişen partikül malzeme üretim yöntemleri (Seçici lazer sinterleme, direkt enerji biriktirme gibi) ile birlikte yakın gelecekte tozmetal magnezyum alaşımlarının daha geniş alanlarda kullanılacağı öngörülmektedir. In this study, the usability of powder metal magnesium alloys in industrial applications was investigated. It is well known that there are difficulties in the plastic deformation of magnesium, due to its hexagonal closed package crystal structure. So it is thought that powder metallurgy can be used to overcome these aforementioned problems. Hence, the studies on the powder metallurgy processing of magnesium alloys were compiled. The findings of the studies on eliminating the surface oxide layer formed during the production of magnesium particles are summarized. As a result, when more sophisticated methods or secondary processes are used rather than press-sinter methods, it is possible to produce Mg alloys with higher strength than that of casted counterparts. Also, it is expected that in the near future along with the development of new kind of particulate material processing methods (such as selective laser sintering, direct energy deposition) Mg alloys will be used in much greater amounts.
... The enormous demand of magnesium alloy was firstly propelled by world war II, due to its light weight property and good machinability [2]. The world has seen the popularity of Mg alloys during the past decades, in civilian purposes such as electronics [3], automobiles [4], biomaterials [5], as well as aerospace industry [6]. However, the corrosion of Mg alloys is a burning problem that demands a prompt solution, due to the very active electrochemical nature of Mg [7,8]. ...
Article
Two pretreatment method, including the normal activation and the ultrasonic agitation in acidic bath, were used during the pretreatment of AZ91D substrate, for which the electroless Ni-W-P coating was prepared. The microstructure, bonding strength and corrosion resistance were compared. The effect of different activation condition on the microstructure and corrosion resistance was investigated and discussed. Results demonstrate that ultrasonic agitation has negligible effect on the microstructure, chemical composition, but improves the bonding strength and corrosion resistance of Ni-W-P coating. The corrosion resistance of Ni-W-P coating via ultrasonic pretreatment was less dependent on the deposition time. Ultrasonic agitation facilitates the deposition of Ni on the β phase and the eutectic phase, and improves the compactness at Mg/Ni interface by decreasing the inclusion of MgF2, which are critical for improving the quality of Ni-W-P coating.
... The magnesium alloys with respect of the specific low-value weight of 1.8 g/cm 3 are becoming more and more popular materials, even in comparison to aluminium alloys (Musfirah and Jaharah 2011). Their impact strength and stress-strain curve more suitably answer contemporary requirements. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reports experimental results describing behaviour of the AM60 magnesium alloy under impact test. The material was examined at energy in the range from 170 to 690 J, using impact tower with the projectile of conical shape. Results are presented in a form of variations of accumulated energy, force, projectile velocity and its displacement versus time. The characteristic features appearing in courses of force and accumulated energy are illustrated. Fractography and microstructure of damage zones for distinguishing the alloy degradation are shown. The fracture regions of the material examined are represented by cracks and plug-shaped deformation.
... It starts to creep at temperatures above 100 °C, and has a maximum operating temperature of 125 °C [9]. According to [10], in spite of its lower fatigue strength, AZ91 has made significant inroads in non-structural and low-temperature components, such as brackets, covers, cases, and oil pump housings. Magnesium is the fastest machining metal and it has a high thermal conductivity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Magnesium alloy is one of the lightest materials with a high strength to weight ratio and excellent machinability, which makes it attractive and suitable for various industrial applications such as automotive and aerospace components. For these particular industrial components, the end products require a mirror-like finish. This article details a statistical analysis about the effect of milling parameters on the surface roughness of Magnesium alloy AZ91D in the dry milling process. The historical data approach in the response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to determine the cause and effect relationship between the input variables and output response. The effect of milling parameter studied was cutting speed (900 – 1400 m/min), feed rate (0.03 - 0.09 mm/tooth), and radial depth of cut (0.2 - 0.3 mm). The results confirmed that the interaction between feed rate and cutting speed is the primary factor controlling the surface evolution. The responses of various factors were plotted using a two-dimensional interaction graph and the cubic empirical model was developed at 95% confidence level. The optimum condition for achieving the minimum surface roughness was a cutting speed of 977 m/min, a feed rate of 0.02 mm/tooth, and an axial depth of cut of 0.29 mm. With this optimum condition, a surface arithmetic roughness of 0.054 μm is expected. This study confirmed that by milling AZ91D at high speed cutting, it is possible to eliminate the polishing process to achieve a super mirror-like finishing.
... The mechanical properties of conventional alloys including, strength, fatigue, stiffness and creep resistance, as well as physical and chemical features, could be significantly improved by the addition of nano-sized particles to a metal matrix [7][8][9][10]. Among the MMCs, the existing literature on magnesium matrix composites is extensive and focuses particularly on their applications in modern industries [11][12][13][14][15][16]. In fact, the low density of magnesium, compared to aluminium and steel, and its strength/ductility ratio make it a suitable option in various applications such as automotive, aerospace and electronics [17,18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) with high specific strength have been of interest for numerous researchers. In the current study, Mg matrix nanocomposites reinforced with AlN nanoparticles were produced using the mechanical stirring-assisted casting method. Microstructure, hardness, physical, thermal and electrical properties of the produced composites were characterized in this work. According to the microstructural evaluations, the ceramic nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed within the matrix by applying a mechanical stirring. At higher AlN contents, however, some agglomerates were observed as a consequence of a particle-pushing mechanism during the solidification. Microhardness results showed a slight improvement in the mechanical strength of the nanocomposites following the addition of AlN nanoparticles. Interestingly, nanocomposite samples were featured with higher electrical and thermal conductivities, which can be attributed to the structural effect of nanoparticles within the matrix. Moreover, thermal expansion analysis of the nanocomposites indicated that the presence of nanoparticles lowered the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) in the case of nanocomposites. All in all, this combination of properties, including high mechanical strength, thermal and electrical conductivity, together with low CTE, make these new nanocomposites very promising materials for electro packaging applications.
... Aluminium alloy can provide strength similar to that of steel when mixed with other metals without losing its ductility. In addition, aluminium alloys have a high corrosion resistance given their protective oxide coating [4]. However, aluminium alloys have lower fatigue strength than steel, and fatigue failure can occur even with minimal cyclic loadings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Finite element analysis (FEA) is extensively used in the engineering field, especially in structural engineering. FEA is a numerical method used for solving engineering problems that involve complicated geometries, various loading conditions and material properties. A fatigue life assessment of an engineering component is necessary to predict the life span of this component before failure. Automobile alloy wheel is an engineering component that is exposed to fatigue failure in services. Therefore, this study aims to determine the critical area for crack initiation on automobile alloy wheel and to simulate and analyse the fatigue life of an automobile alloy wheel design that is fabricated from different types of materials. The automobile alloy wheel design was modelled using computer-aided design and analysed using commercial finite element software. The automobile alloy wheel was modelled based on a 1200 cc national automobile. Three types of materials, namely, titanium, aluminium and magnesium alloys, were used in this study. A critical part of a steering knuckle could be identified by conducting a stress analysis, and the fatigue life of the automobile alloy wheel could be predicted on the basis of applied loads. Results showed that fatigue life is significantly influenced by the types of material used in a simulation.
... Here, A p and P are the area and the perimeter of the a-Mg particles, respectively. 32 The normalized values of the electromagnetic stir casting parameters, corresponding to Eqn. 1 and 2, are shown in Figure 2. All response values are established in the range of 0-1. Equation (1) is used for shape factor, average grain density and roundness, based on the phrase 'higher-the- better.' Equation (2) is used for the average aspect ratio and average grain size, which corresponds to the words 'lowerthe-better.' ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the effect of electromagnetic stirring parameters, including stirring time, pouring temperature and stirring frequency, on the morphology of the AM60 alloys was investigated using Taguchi-based grey relational analysis (TGRA). Each parameter of the process was analyzed at three levels. To accommodate all parameters, an orthogonal array L9 based on the Taguchi approach was used. The optimum parameters were chosen, using different microstructural responses such as shape factor, roundness, average grain size, average grain density and average aspect ratio. The optimal processing parameters were found to be 240 s, 30 Hz and 610 °C for stirring time, stirring frequency and pouring temperature, respectively. Results showed that the shape factor, roundness and average grain density were improved by 33%, 12.8% and 5.5%, respectively. Moreover, the average grain size and the aspect ratio decreased compared to those related to the preliminary set of experimental parameters, which represents the refining of the primary α-Mg phases. In addition, optimal experiment shows a dramatic improvement in tensile strength, uniform elongation and hardness compared to the initial conditions. Besides, the overall grey relational grade was compared to an initial set of experimental parameters, showing an improvement of 64%.
... Magnesium is the lightest known structural metal and shows excellent workability. The most important known machinability characteristics are low cutting forces, good surface finish, and easy chip flow [3,4]. In automotive, chassis components, internal parts, and bodywork are the regions where magnesium alloys are preferred. ...
... The Entropy-VIKOR model consists of seven steps [34][35][36][37]. ...
... One of the most important bioceramics which has been used in regenerative medicine, particularly in orthopedic applications, is new calcium silicate (CS), a WS (CaSiO 3 ) nanoparticle enhancing the bone formation of the implanted prosthesis [1]. These bioactive ceramics can enhance new bone tissue formation by creating a tight bond between the implant and the host bone after implantation [2]. ...
Article
The use of calcium silicate coatings has extensively increased due to properties such as biocompatibility and proper bioactivity response. The present study was aimed to investigate the bioactivity of wollastonite-hydroxyapatite (WS-HA) bio-nanocomposite for the treatment of orthopedic implant coatings by adding magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to the matrix. The bio-nanocomposite was coated on Mg substrate for 40 min at 40 V using electrophoretic deposition (EPD), following which the heat treatment was performed at 550-650°C for 1 hr. The coatings were incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for 28 days to detect and confirm apatite-like layer formationInductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to evaluate the concentration of calcium and silicon ions.
... Generally, a 100-kg reduction in body weight lowers carbon dioxide emissions by 7.5 to 12.5 g/km, significantly enhancing the fuel efficiency. To reduce the weight of cars, manufacturers may use nonferrous materials (e.g., resin, aluminum alloy, and magnesium alloy) [4][5][6][7][8]; specific methods (e.g., the miniaturization of parts); or different types of high-strength steels [9][10][11]. Although nonferrous materials used in automotive structures such as aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy are lighter than steel, they are also weaker, and their thicknesses must be increased to maintain body stiffness. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) characteristics of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs). Two different types of AHSSs with a tensile strength of 1.2 GPa were investigated. Slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) were performed under various applied potentials (Eapp) to identify the mechanism with the greatest effect on the embrittlement of the specimens. The SSRT results revealed that, as the Eapp increased, the elongation tended to increase, even when a potential exceeding the corrosion potential was applied. Both types of AHSSs exhibited embrittled fracture behavior that was dominated by HE. The fractured SSRT specimens were subjected to a thermal desorption spectroscopy analysis, revealing that diffusible hydrogen was trapped mainly at the grain boundaries and dislocations (i.e., reversible hydrogen-trapping sites). The micro-analysis results revealed that the poor HE resistance of the specimens was attributed to the more reversible hydrogen-trapping sites.
... There is little research on machining soft materials such as AZ31 Mg alloy, compared to harder-to-cut materials such as Inconel alloy and titanium alloy. According to Musfirah & Jaharah (2012), magnesium alloy is difficult to produce at low temperatures due to its hexagonal closed-packed crystal structure, and must be machined at high temperatures. Another issue is that magnesium alloy has a low melting point of 650 o C and could catch fire if the machining temperature is exceeded. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to apply the AHP & Fuzzy Logic Hybrid to evaluate the machinability of AZ31 magnesium alloy during mechanical machining using AHP-Fuzzy methods. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and metal removal rate, as well as tool angles design, were all utilized to determine the weight of numerous parameters that play a role in controlling surface roughness, temperature, chatter, and residual stress. By using this method, a realistic appraisal of the crucial weight as well as a milestone understanding of how to change each parameter correctly can be obtained. Machining factors such as cutting speed have a considerable influence on chatter and surface roughness, temperature, and stress residual, according to the findings. Furthermore, a single adjustment may not yield the intended effect until it is implemented across all parameters.
... Additionally, they are used as corrosion resisting compounds [37][38][39]. The alloys which have higher temperature are used in the aircraft industry, and its uses are related to wire welding, etc. [40]. ...
Chapter
Metals and materials that are formed from the metallic compounds have greater contributions in manufacturing machinery and other industries. Alloys are metallic compounds that amplify their characteristics when combined with other metallic compounds. Their chemical and physical properties have expanded the production, followed by increased durability, and product usage. Substitutional and interstitial alloys are the two major types of synthetic alloys. Additionally, alloys have more enhanced properties as compared to metals. Also, they have resistant to oxidation, which is one of its prominent characteristics. Steel is abundantly used alloy in the present era. Fusion, reduction, electrodeposition, and powder metallurgy are some traditional methods that are extensively used to prepare alloys. This chapter provides a comprehensive examination of the synthetic alloys along with the methods and techniques used in the preparation of synthetic alloys.
... Figure 2(a-d) show different applications of 6XXX series aluminium alloys and AZ series magnesium alloys by different automobile companies. AZ31 magnesium alloy is most commonly used and it has similar hot deep drawing capacity as steel and aluminium and good extrusion properties [9,19,20]. [7,13,14]. 10 7.06 x 10 10 4.47 x 10 10 Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 38 94.03 78 Figure 1. ...
Article
Aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys offer superior properties with less density that allow designing structures with reduced cost, high efficiency, and material optimisation. Increasing usage of aluminium and magnesium alloys in industries like automobile, aerospace, railway, shipbuilding and marine requires their fabrication. At the same time, aluminium and magnesium joining is challenging due to detrimental effect of hard and brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) (Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3) formation. Addition of interlayer or filler of chosen composition limit formation of Al/Mg IMCs by controlling IMC dispersal and variety (retarding amount of Al/Mg IMC and preferentially forming other less brittle IMCs). Fast welding processes; limit energy input and reactivity time to avoid IMC formation. Controlled heat input; maintain lower processing temperature to avoid IMC formation. These three individually or in combination are possible ways to tackle the formation of Al/Mg IMCs. Dissimilar Al-Mg joining by methods like Gas Tungsten Arc Welding , Diffusion Bonding, Laser Welding and Laser Weld Bonding, Cold Metal Transferand Friction Stir Welding have been discussed in detail. The effects of modification implemented on the material response in terms of resultant joint properties, microstructure and metallurgical relations are emphasised. Furthermore, the future scope for dissimilar Al/Mg welding has been deliberated.
... Magnesium and aluminum parts are growing rapidly in the automotive market [51]. In the past 5 years, the use of magnesium alloy has increased by 15% per year, and the use of aluminum alloy has increased by 13% per year [52,53]. The plastic deformation of magnesium alloy sheet materials can occur at the temperature above about 220 °C since anisotropic deformation of hexagonal crystal structure is at a temperature lower than 220 °C. ...
Article
Full-text available
Clinching technology can join thin sheets of various materials, including aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy, steel, titanium alloy, and polymers. Nowadays, with the popularization of the lightweight concept and the application of various sheet materials in manufacturing, clinching technology has highlighted the advantages of being able to adapt to the joining of different sheet materials. With its unique advantages, clinching technology gains wide development space in the field of metal sheet connection. The application of clinching technology in various sheet materials is summarized and analyzed. The clinching process of special materials is also discussed. In addition, some unaddressed issues in the clinching process of special materials are identified in this paper.
... Magnesium has attracted the attention of all industries because of its highest strength to weight ratio among the metallic structural materials (i.e., Al, Cu, Fe, etc.) and environmentfriendly nature [1,2,3]. Despite its very low density and high biocompatibility, industrial applications of magnesium are still limited because of its low corrosion and wear resistance [4,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The low corrosion and wear resistance of magnesium limit its industrial applications despite its very high strength to weight ratio and environment-friendly nature. Researchers are working on the development of high wear-resistant magnesium matrix composites. Different types of reinforcements (i.e., B4C, SiC, carbon nanotubes, graphite, Ti, etc.) are added to the magnesium matrix to enhance wear resistance. Still, metallic reinforcement titanium is most suitable because the addition of Ti increases wear resistance without compromising mechanical strength and ductility. The effect of volume fraction of Ti reinforcement on the wear resistance of AZ91/Ti composites fabricated by powder metallurgy is investigated in the present work. It was observed that the wear rate and coefficient of friction decreased with the addition of Ti in the Mg matrix, and the lowest value of the wear rate and coefficient of friction was observed for Mg/Ti composite reinforced with 6 vol.% Ti. © 2021 Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.
Article
In this study, the arc weldability of an aluminum alloy was investigated based on its Mg content. The base materials used in the experiments were aluminum with a Mg content of 6.7 wt.% (referred as Al-6Mg) and commercial Al5083-O. The weldability of two types of fusion welding methods was evaluated: gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). The tensile strength, hardness, alloy composition, and microstructure properties of the welds of two types of the aluminum alloys were compared. The tensile strength values of the GMAW and GTAW welds of Al-6Mg were 20% and 10% higher than those of Al5083-O, respectively. The weld hardness of the GMAW and GTAW welds of both aluminum alloys were similar. Al-6Mg by GMAW and GTAW were smaller than those of Al5083-O. Based on the results of analysis of the welds, the residual magnesium content was as high as 37% by GMAW and 30% by GTAW.
Article
This work provides the first report of piezoresistivity, piezoelectricity (piezoelectret) and dielectricity in aluminum, as observed in the in-plane direction for aluminum foil and Al 2024-O alloy bar, which exhibit similar properties, though the piezoelectricity of the latter is slightly stronger. These phenomena enable structural self-sensing and multifunctionality. The stress (≤66 MPa) and strain (≤0.096%) are in the elastic regime. The piezoresistivity is strong and negative, with gage factor -1630, and provides electrical-resistance-based stress/strain sensing. The resistance (DC) decreases monotonically and reversibly with increasing tensile stress, with the fractional decrease being up to 13%. The in-plane electric field (DC) decreases monotonically and reversibly with increasing tensile stress, with the fractional decrease being up to 29%. The capacitance (2 kHz) increases monotonically and reversibly with increasing tensile stress, with the fractional increase being up to 10%. The capacitance increase (up to 10%) relates to the increase in the relative permittivity (up to 15%). The relative permittivity is high, at 5.48 × 10 ⁴ (2 kHz) in the absence of stress. The piezoelectricity is weak, with the piezoelectric coupling coefficient d 33 being -1.4 × 10 ⁻⁸ pC/N, the electric field output contributing -1.7 × 10 ⁻⁸ pC/N, the relative permittivity increase contributing +3.5 × 10 ⁻⁸ pC/N, and the electric field and permittivity in combination contributing -5.2 × 10 ⁻¹⁰ pC/N. In spite of its weakness, the direct piezoelectricity enables electric-field-based and capacitance-based stress/strain self-sensing.
Article
When sheets of aluminum alloys are pierced or trimmed, tool failure occurs by the transfer of material from the sheet to the surface of the tool, which results in the adhesion and damage of the workpiece surface. This phenomenon is referred to as galling, which adversely affects sheared edge quality and increases energy consumption. An instrumented pneumatic press was designed and built to conduct shear–punch tests on 2 mm-thick AA5754-O sheets and to investigate the progression of galling to AISI M2 steel punching tools during dry and lubricated punching. The punching tests were performed using a clearance of 2.0% of the lower die diameter. Cumulative galling volumes were measured using a non-contact optical surface profilometer, and the rate of material transfer (the galling rate) was estimated for both dry and lubricated punching. The galling initially occurred at a high rate, and for dry punching, the galling rate was reduced to 74.6×104μm3/stroke between 20th and 125th strokes. Lubricating the aluminum sheet with an oil-based lubricant mitigated the material transfer and galling rate after the 20th stroke (3.1×104μm3/stroke) that was about 25 times lower compared to the dry punching. Punching force-displacement curves indicated that, in dry punching, higher amount of energy was expended to shear AA5754-O sheets compared to the lubricated punching.
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional graphene plateletes with unique mechanical, electrical and thermo-physical properties could attract more attention for their employed as reinforcements in the production of new metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs), due to superior characteristics, such as being lightweight, high strength and high performance. Over the last years, due to the rapid advances of nanotechnology, increasing demand for the development of advanced MMNCs for various applications, such as structural engineering and functional device applications, has been generated. The purpose of this work is to review recent research into the development in the powder-based production, property characterization and application of magnesium, aluminum, copper, nickel, titanium and iron matrix nanocomposites reinforced with graphene. These include a comparison between the properties of graphene and another well-known carbonaceous reinforcement (carbon nanotube), following by powder-based processing strategies of MMNCs above, their mechanical and tribological properties and their electrical and thermal conductivities. The effects of graphene distribution in the metal matrices and the types of interfacial bonding are also discussed. Fundamentals and the structure–property relationship of such novel nanocomposites have also been discussed and reported.
Article
Hybrid processing is a promising technique that combines powder metallurgy and liquid casting to disperse reinforced particles in Al–5Si alloy matrix homogeneously. In this study, dual alumina-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single MWCNT-reinforced particles were ball-milled and compacted into pellets. The pellets were then injected into molten Al–5Si at 650 °C, mechanically stirred for 10 min and poured into a mould via a cooling slope for semi-solid feedstock. All samples were subjected to thixoforming and standard T6 heat treatment. The effects of hybrid techniques on the distribution of reinforcements, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. Tensile fracture surface analyses showed that dual and single reinforcements were distributed homogeneously in the samples. However, severely damaged MWCNT structures were observed under dual reinforcement due to excessive shear stress during ball milling process. The highest yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation to fracture were 262 MPa, 289 MPa and 7.2% and 316 MPa, 347 MPa and 13.3% for thixoformed-T6 alloy composites of dual and single reinforcements, respectively. The two strengthening mechanisms involved are as follows: by the matrix, microstructure evolution and precipitation; and by reinforcement, load transfer, thermal mismatch dislocation and Orowan looping. The more intact and the longer structure of MWCNTs in PB lead to better effective load transfer ability than the PA composite.
Article
Full-text available
The research of innovative methodologies to improve the Aluminium alloys formability at room temperature still remains an open question: the local modification of the material properties via short-term heat treatments followed by the stamping at room temperature is reported to be an effective alternative to the forming in warm conditions. In the present work, such a methodology has been applied to the deep drawing of an age-hardenable Aluminium alloy (AA6082-T6) using an experimental/numerical approach. A preliminary extensive material characterization was aimed at investigating the material behaviour: (i) in the as-received condition (peak hardening), (ii) in the supersaturated condition (obtained by physical simulation) and (iii) after being locally solutioned via laser heating. A Finite Element based approach (Abaqus CAE, v. 6.17) was then used to design the laser treatment of the blanks to be subsequently deep drawn at room temperature: a 2D axisymmetric model of the deep drawing process was coupled with the optimization platform modeFRONTIER in order to define the radial extent of the laser heat treated area able to maximize the Limit Drawing Ratio. The experimental tests were finally conducted for validation purposes and revealed the effectiveness of the adopted approach which allowed to improve the drawability of more than 20% with respect to the as received condition (T6).
Book
Synthetic Engineering Materials and Nanotechnology covers the latest research and developments of synthetic processes, materials, applications and technologies. In addition, innovations in synthetic engineering materials techniques are analyzed. Each chapter addresses key concepts, properties and applications of important categories of synthetic materials, including metals alloys, polymers, composites, rubbers, oils and foams. Advances in nanomaterials produced by synthetic engineering methods are also considered, including ceramic, carbon, metal oxide, composite, and membrane-derived nanomaterials. The primary synthetic engineering materials techniques covered include thermo-mechanical, chemical, physiochemical, electrochemical, bottom-up, hybrid and biological methods. This book is suitable for early career researchers in academia and R&D in areas such as materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and chemical engineering. Provides the fundamentals on materials produced through synthetic engineering methods, including their properties, experimental and characterization techniques, and applications Reviews the advances of synthetic engineering methods for nanomaterials applications, including electrospinning, atomic layer deposition, ion implantation, bottom-up, hybrid strategies, and more Includes numerous, real-world examples and case studies to apply the fundamental concepts to experiments and real-world applications
Article
A lot of educational institutions are facing the problem in conducting the physical classes due to COVID-19 pandemic recently. Therefore, most of the medium of teaching has been changed from a face-to-face method to online teaching. These changes may create some challenges to the students as well as the teachers or lecturers. In fact, different learning methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the preference of E-learning method among the undergraduate students based on multiple criteria. This study determines the priority of decision criteria in the selection of learning methods among the undergraduate students using Analytic Hierarchy Process-VIseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (AHP-VIKOR) model. The decision criteria that considered in this study are quality management system, information quality, flexibility, learning and teaching as well as attractiveness. Besides, blended learning, distance learning, and e-learning are identified as the alternatives of the learning methods as well as the most preferred learning method is determined in this study. The results of this study show that the most preferred learning method among undergraduate students is E-learning, followed by distance learning, and finally blended learning. Flexibility, information quality, and quality management system are ranked as the top three influential decision criteria. The significance of this study is to determine the most preferred learning method as well as the most influential decision criteria in the selection of learning methods among undergraduate students with AHP-VIKOR model.
Article
Modelling the deformation behaviour of materials plays a fundamental role in the process design of formed components. In this work, an original methodology based on interrupted hot bulge tests has been proposed for evaluating the effective stress and strain values in a wide range of strain rates. The strain rate value was instantaneously calculated in each test by a new approach based on continuous acquisition of the dome height. The authors conducted bulge tests on the AZ31B magnesium alloy at elevated temperature (450°C) and interrupted the tests at different levels of the strain in the dome apex. The corresponding dome height at which the test had to be stopped was calculated by a predictive model. The strain rate and the stress values evaluated through the analysis of the samples from interrupted bulge tests were correlated using two different constitutive models. The constitutive models calibrated using the proposed approach were finally implemented in the numerical simulations of the bulge tests in order to compare the results with the experimental data. Both the constitutive models revealed to be accurate, showing a good agreement between numerical and experimental dome height versus time curves, especially when using the phenomenological constitutive model, which allowed to keep the discrepancy below 12% in a very large pressure range. Thus, also the effectiveness of the proposed methodology was demonstrated.
Article
Hydrogen evolution and hydration kinetics of aluminum-particle-water reaction are investigated by a series of isothermal experiments. Morphology development of the Al particle during the hydration reaction process is characterized by SEM and XRD. An improved multi-stage analytical model has been developed and validated with the experimental data. The pre-exponential factor and activation energy for the alumina hydrolysis, Al-water reaction, and diffusion in the product layer are estimated based on the proposed model. The effects of growing particle size, formation and breakage of initial porous boehmite (AlOOH) layer, multi-stage reaction kinetics on the overall reaction rate are incorporated in the model. The study results show that the overall reaction rate is jointly controlled by simultaneous action of individual driving force, including mass transfer, chemical reaction and diffusion. The improved model enables the predictions of induction period and the evolution rate of hydrogen as a function of time, temperature and particle size.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to one contention, magnesium will eventually replace iron as the world's basic constructional raw material. Hence, it might be feasible to call the next age of man the ‗magnesium age'. It is the lightest of the structural metals. The element appears to be the only ‗basic' material of which the supply is inexhaustible: sea water contains high level of Mg in the form of magnesium chloride. Magnesium was first purified in the 19th century, but wasn't widely utilized until much later due to the metal's flammability and corrosive nature, and its difficult refinement process. In its early days, scientists took advantage of its bright white combustibility to make military star shells for illuminating battlefields and flash effects for photography. These days, the biggest uses of magnesium are in aluminum alloys, which accounts for nearly one-third of all magnesium demand, die castings, titanium refining and steel desulphurization. Increasingly more plastic parts in electronic devices are being replaced by magnesium alloys that essentially weigh the same, but are much stronger and durable. As a result of more stringent requirements for improved fuel economy and emissions, there is a growing trend to substitute aluminum and magnesium for conventional steel and cast irons in vehicles. Today, weight loss is considered for both combustion vehicles and electric vehicles; reducing mass also improves vehicle performance attributes such as acceleration, braking, and handling. Mg is better in heat dissipation and heat transfer due to high thermal conductivity, and exhibit excellent ability in shielding electromagnetic interruption. Magnesium alloys can also help reduce noise and vibrations compared to typical metals, along with increasing stiffness. Since the weight loss in dynamic structures is several times more important than static. The usage of magnesium in automotive applications can provide more than just a weight savings. For a number of years, the desire to identify challenges, solutions, and opportunities regarding the use of magnesium in vehicles has been growing. Today we have 4-30 kg magnesium alloy on an average vehicle, but by 2030 we want to get to over 80kg on a car.
Article
The application of magnesium alloys in automotive is witness the developments and successful application of these alloys in automotive components and they have a potential application for car body, cylinder blocks and engine block. The article is focused on chemical analysis, evaluation of microstructures and measurement of internal damping depending on the temperature of the experimental material. The commercially available magnesium alloy AZ61 was chosen as the experimental material. Changes of internal damping depending on temperature were measured for the material in the initial state, in the state after the respective heat treatment and in the state after plastic deformation. Measurements of the temperature dependence of the internal damping took place from room temperature to 400 °C and the measured values of internal damping were then graphically evaluated and compared.
Article
Herein, an in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of tribological properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy under lubricant containing acrylamide additive is reported. The in situ nanoscale study unravels the significance of microstructure (matrix vs second phase), stress, and temperature on the friction, wear, and tribofilm growth within the localized regions of an AZ91 Mg alloy. The results suggest that at elevated temperature (110°C), the nanometer thick tribofilm forms on precipitate and matrix surfaces; however, there was no evidence of its formation at ambient temperature. The tribofilm growth in both regions was strongly dependent on the contact stress. Moreover, there exists an apparent stress value at which the thickness of the tribofilm is maximum. The friction force with sliding time shows similar variation over precipitate and matrix during the tribofilm growth. However, the magnitude of the friction force is strongly dependent on the thickness of the tribofilm. Finally, the results suggest acrylamide as a potential alternative to zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for effective lubrication of Mg based alloys.
Article
Coherent precipitates have a strong effect on martensitic transformations and can be used to tune properties and improve performance. However, only a small number of the possible martensitic matrix/precipitate combinations has been explored. Therefore, we developed an automated approach to discover possible coherent precipitates in a given base alloy of interest as well as the composition and processing conditions required to achieve the desired nanostructure. The software, denoted CohPhaseFind, couples high-throughput equilibrium thermodynamic calculations to identify coexisting phases with strain-based lattice matching based on ab initio simulations to assess coherency and orientation relationships. We demonstrate CohPhaseFind to discover possible coherent precipitates in Ni-Ti, Ni-Ti-X (X = Al, Cu and Hf) and Ni-Ti-Hf-Al alloys. We identify previously reported precipitates and new ones that merit exploration.
Chapter
Magnesium alloys are finding a relevant role in the materials sectors mainly due to its lightness but also to other properties such as high specific mechanical properties, high castability and an adequate compatibility to the human body. Due to this, Magnesium alloys can be used in different systems that include the transportation section, mainly in the automotive one, the electronics and household appliances, but also in prosthesis that can be absorbed by the human body. In this article, a revision on the general characteristics of Magnesium alloys, as well as to the applications that Magnesium is currently finding is made. Due to the combination of lightness, castability, recyclability and biocompatibility, Magnesium alloys are helping to the reduction of pollution, increase the electronics portability and even helping to solve serious health issues that would require the use of medical implants.
Conference Paper
Magnesium and its alloys are wont to replace steel/aluminum for automotive, structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet might be utilized in car body for non-structural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions might be utilized in such structural applications as space frames. However, the event of latest manufacturing techniques play a crucial role in exploiting new magnesium alloys in new fields of applications. Recently, the interest on welding of magnesium alloys has been increasing rapidly, mainly that specialize in friction-stir welding. Magnesium and its alloys are the lightest among the metallic materials which are in common use, having a high strength to weight ratio alongside a superb machinability and a high damping capacity [1]. Due to these characteristics, nowadays they're applied to varied structural parts like aircraft, automobiles, optical and electronic instruments, industrial robot components. In this research, AZ61 magnesium alloy sheets were welded by friction stir welding. The effect of welding processes on mechanical properties of AZ 61 welded joints was analyzed using testing machines and mechanical properties were noted [2]. AZ 61 magnesium alloy sheets were welded as similar and dissimilar materials of various speed ratios. The welded materials pairs are Mg-Mg (with different speeds), Mg-Al (with different speeds) joined by butt welding [3].
Chapter
In recent years, emerging requisite for advanced materials gave a path for hybrid composites. Magnesium metal matrix composites are gaining more interest and a better substitute for heavier steel, aluminium, titanium and even for plastic based materials. At present the AZ91 magnesium alloy is most widely in transport vehicle industry. However, the application of AZ91 magnesium alloys are limited due to several negative effects such as poor creep resistance, wear resistance and inferior corrosion resistance when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions. Future to improve the strength, better corrosion resistance and wear resistance are important for their extend applications of exciting alloy AZ91. The main objective of the present investigation is to achieve above mentioned properties. The AZ91 alloy was reinforced with titanium dioxide/0.5% graphene and with titanium/0.5% graphene in varying weight percentage (1%, 2%) by stir casting technique. These combinations are called hybrid metal matrix composite of materials such as AZ91 + 1%Ti +0.5% Gr (A1), AZ91 + 2%Ti +0.5% Gr (A2), AZ91 + 1%TiO2 + 0.5% Gr (B1) and AZ91 + 2%TiO2 + 0.5% Gr (B2) alloys. The following experiments such as tensile, compressive, hardness and wear tests have been carried out to find all the properties from the newly developed hybrid metal matrix composite of materials and compared with AZ91. Wear tests have been carried out by pin on disc tribometer for both dry and wet sliding condition under 20 N,40 N,60 N, and 80 N. The results indicated the AZ91–1%TiO2–0.5%Gr having high wear resistance compared to other three combinations as well as AZ91. The present experimental investigations of hybrid metal matrix composite of materials have wear resistance in the order of B1 > A2 > A1 > B2 > AZ91 and AZ91–2%TiO2–0.5% Gr showed good tensile strength and hardness. The enhanced these properties were discussed in this paper.
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength!ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.
Article
Full-text available
Creep resistant magnesium alloys are candidate materials for automotive powertrain applications. Since the 90's, a number of new creep-resistant magnesium alloy systems have been investigated and developed. These are for the most part based on rare-earth, alkaline earth, and silicon additions. This paper gives an overview of creep resistance in magnesium and a review of creep resistant magnesium alloys for power-train applications.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a studying of surface roughness in dry milling with air pressure coolant of wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B will be carried out. The effects of air flow, feed-rate per tooth, cutting velocity and number of inserts in a cutting tool on surface roughness have been examined. Surface roughness increases with increas-ing feed-rate per tooth and increasing number of inserts in the cutting tool. However, it is nearly unchanged under a specific range of cutting velocity in the experiment and improved by the flow of air cooling.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to review and evaluate the applications of magnesium in the automotive industry that can significantly contribute to greater fuel economy and environmental conservation. In the study, the current advantages, limitations, technological barriers and future prospects of Mg alloys in the automotive industry are given. The usage of magnesium in automotive applications is also assessed for the impact on environmental conservation. Recent developments in coating and alloying of Mg improved the creep and corrosion resistance properties of magnesium alloys for elevated temperature and corrosive environments. The results of the study conclude that reasonable prices and improved properties of Mg and its alloys will lead to massive use of magnesium. Compared to using alternative materials, using Mg alloys results in a 22% to 70% weight reduction. Lastly, the use of magnesium in automotive components is increasing as knowledge of forming processes of Mg alloys increases.
Article
Full-text available
Several new magnesium alloys have been developed recently for high-temperature applications to obtain an optimal combination of die cast-ability, creep resistance, mechanical properties, corrosion performance, and affordability. Unfortunately, it is difficult to achieve an adequate combination of properties and, in fact, most of the new alloys can only partially meet the required performance and cost. The ZE41 alloy, which is used for most gravity-casting applications, has moderate strength and creep resistance combined with good cast-ability. Although this alloy exhibits poor corrosion resistance, it is still preferred for certain applications.
Chapter
Until recently, cast iron and aluminum alloys have been the preferential materials used to manufacture most diesel and conventional gasoline-powered engine blocks. However, with a greater emphasis on increasing the efficiency of the engine via weight reduction, manufacturers have began to look for alternative alloys that are lighter than cast iron and aluminum alloys, while retaining the necessary strength to withstand the forces of an engine. As of late, new manufacturing processes have been developed that have engendered two new alloys suitable for use in an engine block, magnesium alloy AMC-SC1 and compacted graphite cast iron (CGI). In this paper, the functional requirements of the engine block, the processes used to manufacture the part, and the mechanical properties of the alloys will be discussed.
Article
As-cast microstructures and phase compositions of AZ91D alloys after adding alloying elements such as Ce, Si and Ca were observed by optical microscope (OM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), meanwhile their tensile property and hardness at ambient temperature were tested. The results show that rod-like Al4Ce and Chinese script type Mg2Si phases are formed in the alloys after adding Cc and Si respectively, whereas no new phase is formed after adding Ca and Ca atoms added are mainly dissolved into beta phase. During the solidification process, Al4Ce and Mg2Si phases are pushed into the growth interface and Ca atoms are easy to enrich in the front edge of the growth interface, then the free growth of the dendrite is hindered and as-cast microstructures are refined. The additions of Ce and Ca can improve the whole mechanical property of AZ91D alloy at ambient temperature and the improvement degree of the former is higher than that of the latter. However, the addition of Si can reduce the whole mechanical property of AZ91D alloy at ambient temperature.
Article
The ease with which magnesium metals are diecasted and machined makes them widely accepted as structural parts of automated components. In particular, the mechanical properties that make magnesium attractive for automotive components include its high strength-to-weight ratio, strength of 33,000 psi and yield strength of 22,000 psi. Lighter than aluminum and zinc, magnesium outperforms aluminum and cold-rolled steels in salt-spray corrosion tests. Its high energy absorption implies good damping of noise and vibration in automotive component and its excellent dimensional stability promises delivery of more-true-near-netshape castings. More importantly, its low heat content and quick dissipation of heat allow magnesium to be casted 50% faster than aluminum and to be machined at lower speed without the need of coolant for the cutting tool.
Article
Microstructures and phase compositions of AZ91D alloys after adding trace Si was observed using OM and XRD, meanwhile their tensile properties and hardness at ambient temperature were tested. The fractographs of the alloys were investigated using SEM. The results show that Chinese script type Mg2Si phase is formed in the microstructures of AZ91D alloys after adding a certain quantity of Si content, which is enriched in the front edge of the solid/liquid interface. Then the free growth of α-Mg matrix is hindered and as-cast microstructures are refined. The existence of the Chinese script type Mg2Si phase can lead to the reduction of the mechanical properties of the alloys. The fractograph of AZ91D alloy is brittle fracture that is mainly composed of cleavage-type fracture, while the fracture occurs in the interface between α-Mg matrix and Chinese script type Mg2Si phase after adding Si content.
Article
Today's interest in magnesium alloys for automotive applications is based on the combination of high strength properties and low density. For this reason magnesium alloys are very attractive as structural materials in all applications where weight savings are of great concern. In automotive applications weight reduction will improve the performance of a vehicle by reducing the rolling resistance and energy of acceleration, thus reducing the fuel consumption and moreover a reduction of the greenhouse gas CO2 can be achieved. The present paper gives an overview on the actual status of the development of magnesium alloys and technologies for application in the automotive industries. The development of new cast or wrought alloys and the optimisation of existing or new processes for the production of magnesium parts are discussed. Magnesium has a long history in automotive applications. The decrease of magnesium use in automotive applications in the seventies was greatly related to its prize volatility and also to lack of knowledge. Stricter legislative rules (CAFE) and voluntary commitments to reduce the average fuel consumption have nowadays revived the interest in magnesium.
Article
Structural and thermo-activation analyses were carried out to reveal the creep mechanisms for the RE-free magnesium alloys of Mg-Al, Ca, X and Mg-Ba, X systems of eutectic origin containing light weight elements. To compensate for the useful RE effect in the expensive prototypes, a family of cheaper magnesium alloys with cluster sites-forming structure is being developed for higher temperature dynamical applications where a low moment of inertia, excellent stiffness and high resistance to time-dependent deformation are essential. At 150-250°C/50-70 MPa these lightweight alloys suitable for cost-effective mass production demonstrate 15÷30% greater tensile and compressive creep resistance than Mg-Al-RE containing alloy (AE 42) and corrosion resistance as good as AZ91D (Dow Chemical, USA). They are estimated to cost less than the said alloys and have good castability in dic casting.
Article
The use of magnesium in motor vehicles today and in future depends on numerous technical and economical factors, though the cost factor is essential. How might use of magnesium in vehicles develop, what prerequisites are necessary, what R&D efforts are required ? These questions will be addressed as follows based on component and project examples. The main focus of the current magnesium applications can be seen in the drive train and in the interior. In the short term, these applications will be further expanded: doubling the amount is feasible. This will be supported by the currently developed Mg alloys with extended application potential (creep resistance). Mg components in the body, Mg-sheets and Mg-extrusions applications will appear initially in niche-market and premium vehicles. This can prepare the way for and eventually lead to greater use of Mg in volume-production models as part of a multi-material design concept. The essential prerequisites for such increased use of magnesium will be discussed.
Article
Effects of Ca alone and Ca/Sr composite additions on microstructures, die castability, mechanical properties and creep properties of the Mg-Al based alloys are investigated for the purpose of the development of new Mg-Al-Ca-Sr alloy for automotive powertrain applications. Ca addition of more than about 1% to AM50 alloy significantly improves creep resistance but also enhance casting crack tendency. By the addition of approximately 0.2%Sr. such casting cracks are significantly suppressed, and besides creep resistance and mechanical properties increase. The improvement of creep resistance by Sr addition seems to be attributed to the suppression of grain boundary sliding due to the creation of thermally stable Al-Sr compound along the grain boundary and the suppression of discontinuous precipitation Of beta-Mg17Al12 phase.
Article
The automotive use of magnesium is currently restricted to low-temperature structural components. Its use in elevated-temperature structural components such as transmission and engine parts requires the development of cost-effective alloys that can meet the elevated-temperature (150°C-175°C) performance requirements for strength and creep resistance. This paper discusses a new class of magnesium alloys containing strontium (Sr), which offers excellent creep performance.
Article
Dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) drilling of cast magnesium alloy AM60 used in the manufacturing of lightweight automotive components have been studied. The maximum and average torque and thrust forces measured during drilling using distilled water (H2O-MQL) and a fatty acid-based MQL fluid (FA-MQL), both supplied at the rate of 10 ml/h, were compared with those generated during flooded (mineral oil) drilling. Tool life during dry drilling was inadequately short, due to excessive magnesium transfer and adhesion to the (HSS steel) drill causing drill failure in less than 80 holes. The use of MQL reduced magnesium adhesion and built-up edge formation, resulting in an increase in tool life as well as reductions in both average torque and thrust forces—prompting a performance similar to that of flooded drilling. The maximum temperature generated in the workpiece during MQL drilling was lower than that observed in dry drilling, and comparable to flooded condition. The mechanical properties of the material adjacent to drilled holes, as evaluated through plastic strain and hardness measurements near the holes, revealed a notable softening in the case of dry drilling, but not for MQL drilling. MQL drilling provided a stable drilling performance, which was evident from the uniform torque and force patterns throughout the drilling cycles and also resulted in desirable machining characteristics, including a smooth hole surface and short chip segments.
Article
Magnesiumlegierungen weisen ein sehr hohes Potential für den Einsatz als metallischen Konstruktionswerkstoff für die Automobilindustrie auf, wobei der Anwendungsschwerpunkt bei Druckgussbauteilen liegt. Neben der Automobilindustrie ist die Elektroniksparte der wichtigste Abnehmer für Druckgussteile aus Magnesiumlegierungen. Raumtemperaturanwendungen wie z. B. Lenkräder und Rahmenteile im Automobil oder Handy- und Notebookgehäuse sind industriell gut eingeführt. Sie werden aus Magnesiumlegierungen der AZ- oder AM-Familie gegossen, die mit ihren guten Raumtemperatureigenschaften und der guten Giessbarkeit die Anforderungen der Industrie seit langem befriedigen. Magnesiumlegierungen, die auch bei erhöhten Temperaturen eingesetzt werden können, stellen die derzeit größten Herausforderungen im Bereich der Legierungsentwicklung für Gussanwendungen dar. Der Einsatz im Antriebsstrang eines Automobils gilt hierbei als Benchmark. Im Bereich des Magnesiumgusses findet die Weiterentwicklung jedoch nicht nur im Bereich der Legierungsentwicklung, sondern auch auf der Verfahrensseite statt. Semi-Solid-Verfahren, wie das New-Rheocasting (NRC), das Thixomolding (TM) oder das Thixocasting (TC) werden an die Erfordernisse der zu verarbeitenden Magnesiumlegierungen angepasst. Neben dem Gussbereich ist das Interesse in den letzten Jahren verstärkt auf magnesiumbasierte Knetlegierungen gefallen. Notwendig sind hier auf der einen Seite Legierungsentwicklung, um die Umformbarkeit und die Mikrostruktur zu verbessern und auf der anderen Seite Weiterentwicklungen der Pozesstechnik auf den Gebieten Strangpress- und Walztechnologien, um optimale Parameter für die wegen der hexagonalen Gitterstruktur der Magnesiumlegierungen schwierigen Umformbedingungen zu schaffen.
Article
Production technologies must be cost effective for primary magnesium to become an economically viable alternative material for wide spread automotive applications. In this article, the prices at which magnesium becomes competitive with aluminum and steel are examined, including magnesium production cost estimates for current and future scenarios using electrolytic and thermal processes. The economic viability of the industry for automotive applications is also examined in the context of magnesium market price, taking into consideration the dynamics of its supply and demand as well.
Article
The science, technology and applications of magnesium alloys are reviewed. The very low density of magnesium in combination with excellent castability is leading to increased use, despite poor galvanic corrosion resistance and a higher cost than aluminum, especially in automotive applications. Even further expansion of the magnesium market should come from an expanded design base, a better understanding of the scientific underpinning of magnesium alloys, and development of cost-affordable cast and wrought products.
Article
The characteristics of magnesium AZ61 in semi-solid state have been investigated to understand the changes in its stress-strain in the compression process, the effects on its strain under different processing temperatures, and the consequence of the change of peak stress. First, the AZ61 magnesium alloy is heated to 660°C and sustained at that temperature for 5min. Then by natural cooling, the cooling curve is acquired. This natural cooling experiment immediately reveals the semi-solid temperature range of AZ61 magnesium alloy. On this temperature range, the study of its semi-solid characteristics and the observation of microstructure can be carried out. After that, the observed results determine the experimental conditions of semi-solid compression. The compression experiment primarily has two parts. One is to understand the changes of AZ61 magnesium alloy from normal temperature to 400°C, and the other is to carry out the compression experiment of AZ61 magnesium alloy under semi-solid temperature. Upon completion of the experiment, this research explores their microstructures, and compares the structural change of AZ61 magnesium alloy in a hot chamber within the semi-solid temperature range.
Article
Mg-Al-Sr-based alloys (AJ alloys) have shown superior creep performance and tensile strength at temperatures as high as 175° with stresses up to 70 MPa. Mg-6Al-2.4Sr (AJ62x) exhibits an optimum combination of creep resistance and excellent castability, while AJ62Lx (strontium <2.1) has better ductility than other AJ formulations. The AJ alloy microstructure is characterized by the Al4Sr-α(Mg) lamellar phase that forms at the interdendritic/grain boundary region of the primary magne sium matrix. Mg-5Al-2Sr (AJ52x) contains a ternary phase that was tentatively named Al3Mg13Sr. When the strontium level is low in AJ62x, the volume fraction of Al4Sr is reduced, the aluminum supersaturation of the magnesium primary phase increases, and Mg17Al12 forms. In this article, a mechanism is proposed whereby the creep resistance decreases with the strontium level but the tensile strength and ductility increase.
Article
In present paper, the influence of melt treatment (grain refinement and modification) and heat treatment (T6) of cast LM13 and LM28 aluminium alloys on machining behaviour has been reported. Alloys under investigation were prepared by controlled melting and casting followed by heat treatment (T6). As-cast, melt-treated and heat-treated alloys were investigated for machining characteristic at different cutting speeds. Melt treatment of both the alloys (LM13 and LM28) reduced the cutting force and cutting temperature whereas heat treatment increased both cutting force and cutting temperature. Cutting temperature was found higher in machining of LM28 alloy than the LM13 alloy. Maximum cutting temperature was found for both the alloys in heat-treated conditions. Heat treatment of LM28 alloy reduced the surface roughness whereas heat treatment of LM13 alloy increased it. Melt treatment and heat treatment of LM13 alloy increased the average number of chips per gm. LM28 alloy produced higher number of chips per gm than the LM13 alloy.
Article
This paper aims at reviewing and evaluating the prospects of magnesium use and applications in the transportation industry that can significantly contribute to the environmental conservation. This relates to the basic characteristics of magnesium being 35% lighter than aluminum, which is used as structural material for vehicles and aerospace applications. The lightness of structural magnesium components results in reducing the weight of transportation means and hence reducing the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.In particular, this paper will introduce the current and future applications of magnesium in the transportation industry with special attention to the needs of alloy developments and advancement in production technologies.
Article
Motivation for (more) magnesium in the automotive industry — research strategies for bringing about a “new age of magnesium” by means of the vehicle modules drive train, interior, body and chassis — use of realised and potential future magnesium components, differentiated according to the time frame and conceivable likelihood of realisation — R&D activities for the implementation of the predicted use of magnesium illustrated by example components and projects.
Article
The growing demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles to reduce energy consumption and air pollution is a challenge for the automotive industry. The characteristic properties of aluminium, high strength stiffness to weight ratio, good formability, good corrosion resistance, and recycling potential make it the ideal candidate to replace heavier materials (steel or copper) in the car to respond to the weight reduction demand within the automotive industry. This paper summarises the recent developments covering aluminium’s use in castings, extrusions and sheet; two specific examples will be given. The first deals with hang-on parts manufactured by Hoogovens Rolled Products Duffel, for which the weight saving potential can be 50%. Currently, the highly formable 5000 alloys are used mostly for inner panel applications, whilst the heat-treatable 6000 alloys are preferred for outer panel applications. This presentation reviews recent developments in aluminium alloys to improve formability, surface quality in both 5000 and 6000 alloys, and the bake hardening response of 6000 alloys. It also indicates the trend to develop a unialloy system to improve the aluminium scrap recycling. The second area deals with brazing sheet. Over the last 10 years there has been an increasing trend to replace copper heat exchangers with ones manufactured from brazed aluminium. Hoogovens Aluminium Walzprodukte Koblenz is one of the world’s leading supplier of aluminium brazing sheet and is in the forefront of developing alloys with the combination of strength, formability, brazing performance and long life required by its customers. Materials have been development for both vacuum and controlled atmosphere brazing. The current status and future trends in aluminium brazing sheet for automotive applications will be presented. Particular emphasis has been placed on the development of long life alloys with superior corrosion performance over the more conventional materials. Using these two examples the technical and commercial aspects of the manufacturing processes of aluminium automotive components and engineering design support of materials producers are illustrated. The essential feature is the close co-operation at all stages between the material’s supplier and the automotive manufacture.
Europe in the second century of auto-mobility intensive use of aluminium in car body construction
  • M Ángel
  • P Salaverría
Ángel, M., and P. Salaverría, 2009. Europe in the second century of auto-mobility intensive use of aluminium in car body construction, 12th EAEC (European Automotive Congress), Bratislava.
& Light Truck Group Sponsors, Aluminum: The Corrosion Resistant Automotive Material
  • Automotive
Automotive, 2001. & Light Truck Group Sponsors, Aluminum: The Corrosion Resistant Automotive Material, The Aluminum Association, Inc.
A, dt. Verband für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Korrosion an Fahrzeugen
  • J Bolstad
Bolstad, J., 1995. A, dt. Verband für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Korrosion an Fahrzeugen, DVM-Tag, pp: 319-324.
Magnesium application in the short term
  • B Brown
  • G Cole
  • A Glove
  • R Jeryan
  • G Davies
Brown, B., 2007. Magnesium application in the short term, and Homepage http:// www.magnesium.com. Cole, G., A. Glove, R. Jeryan and G. Davies, 1997. Steel World, 2(1): 75-83.
Lightweight materials for automotive applications
  • G S Cole
  • A M Sherman
Cole, G.S. and A.M. Sherman, 1995. Lightweight materials for automotive applications, Jurnal of Automative Application, 35(1): 3-9.
Magnesium Applications in Ford's PNGV Mondeo
  • G Cole
Cole, G., 2012. Magnesium Applications in Ford's PNGV Mondeo.
Magnesium: Materials for automotive bodies
  • G Davies
Davies, G., 2003. Magnesium: Materials for automotive bodies, Elsevier, G. London, 91: 158-159.
Magnesium and magnesium alloys, Materials and processes in manufacturing
  • E P D Garmo
  • J T Black
  • R A Kohser
Garmo, E.P.D., J.T. Black, and R.A. Kohser, 1997. Magnesium and magnesium alloys, Materials and processes in manufacturing, 8th Edition, USA-Wiley, 182-184.
Design of aluminium structures: selection of structural alloys, EUROCODES -Background and Applications-Session EN 1999-Eurocode 9: Design of Aluminium structures
  • R Gitter
Gitter, R., 2008. Design of aluminium structures: selection of structural alloys, EUROCODES -Background and Applications-Session EN 1999-Eurocode 9: Design of Aluminium structures, Brussels, 2008.
International Magnesium Association Technical Committee, 1989. Machining of magnesium and magnesium alloys
  • S S Innovation
Innovation, S.S., 2010. Magnesium in Motion, Mg Showcase Issue, 7(847): 1 -4. International Aluminum Institute website, 2012. Homepage http://www.worldaluminium.org. International Magnesium Association Technical Committee, 1989. Machining of magnesium and magnesium alloys, Metals Handbook, 16: 820-830.
Efficiency could cut world energy use over 70 per cent
  • H Knight
Knight, H., 2011. Efficiency could cut world energy use over 70 per cent, Homepage http://www.newscientist.com.
Remarkable magnesium : the 21st century structural alloy for small components
  • B B Mark
Mark, B.B., 2010. Remarkable magnesium : the 21st century structural alloy for small components, White Paper.
Examining Technical Know-How: Magnesium-Aluminum-Strontium Alloys for More Fuel Efficient Automobiles, The Machinist -magazine
  • M Medraj
  • A Parvez
Medraj, M. and A. Parvez, 2007. Examining Technical Know-How: Magnesium-Aluminum-Strontium Alloys for More Fuel Efficient Automobiles, The Machinist -magazine, pp: 45-47.
Mining Intelligence & Technology, Homepage www
Mining Intelligence & Technology, Homepage www.InfoMine.com, 2012.
Introduction to the Magnesium Casting Industry
  • R Steve
Steve, R., 2009. Introduction to the Magnesium Casting Industry,. American Foundry Society, Schaumburg, IL. Technical information of aluminium alloy, Homepage http://www.aalco.co.uk, 2012. The Aluminum Association, 2011. Aluminum: The Element of Sustainability, A North American Aluminum Industry Sustainability Report.