Article

# Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia spp.): A review of processing technologies and current uses

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## Abstract

Crops with additional health-promoting and nutritional benefits, such as cactus pears, are increasingly gaining momentum both for health professionals and consumers (Feugang et al., 2006). Cactus pear fruits are rich in betalains, taurine, minerals, and antioxidants, and thus fit well this trend. Hence, it is considered and are predicted a promising future crop for commercial food applications. In this light, a sound knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of cactus pears as well as their current and potential future uses are needed. However, data are scattered and often difficult to access. Therefore, the present review summarizes data from the literature and points out promising areas of research.

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... capitata f. rubra) [15][16][17][18] mixtures of water with ethanol, methanol, or acetone [19,20] Betalains, located in vacuoles [21] betacyanins structural types: betanin gomphrenin amaranthin ougainvillein -betaxanthins: indicaxanthin vulgaxanthin I [21] -nitrogen-containing, betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA/its glucosyl derivates) or amino acids/derivates [21] -water soluble [21] -heat-sensitive molecules [21] -stable between pH 3 and 7 [22] -yellow betaxanthins-less stable than their red counterparts [23,24] -betacyanins exhibit more peroxidase activity than betaxanthins [25] -metal cations (Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , Sn 2+ , Al 3 + , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ ) accelerate betanin degradation [26][27][28] yellow to violet [21] Ullucus Tuberosus Caldas, [29] Basella rubra L., [30] cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. and Oxalis stricta L.), [31][32][33][34][35] red-purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose), [32,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Amaranthus L. species [22,[41][42][43][44] precooled water or aqueous methanol [21] Chlorophylls -6 types identified (a, b, c, d, e, f) [45] -major types: chlorophyll a chlorophyll b [45,46] -porphyrins-macrocyclic tetrapyrrole pigments [35] with coordinated magnesium in the center hydrophobic segment (the phytol) and macrocycle (hydrophilic part) [24] -fat soluble [47] -chemically unstable molecule [48] -degradation by light, heat, oxygen, acid, enzymes [49] -chlorophyll a is less thermally stable than the chlorophyll b [50][51][52] from blue-green (a) to yellowgreen (b) [46] -photosynthetic organisms (plants, eukaryotic and blue-green algae) [53] organic solvents [54] (Continued) ...
... capitata f. rubra) [15][16][17][18] mixtures of water with ethanol, methanol, or acetone [19,20] Betalains, located in vacuoles [21] betacyanins structural types: betanin gomphrenin amaranthin ougainvillein -betaxanthins: indicaxanthin vulgaxanthin I [21] -nitrogen-containing, betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA/its glucosyl derivates) or amino acids/derivates [21] -water soluble [21] -heat-sensitive molecules [21] -stable between pH 3 and 7 [22] -yellow betaxanthins-less stable than their red counterparts [23,24] -betacyanins exhibit more peroxidase activity than betaxanthins [25] -metal cations (Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , Sn 2+ , Al 3 + , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ ) accelerate betanin degradation [26][27][28] yellow to violet [21] Ullucus Tuberosus Caldas, [29] Basella rubra L., [30] cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. and Oxalis stricta L.), [31][32][33][34][35] red-purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose), [32,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Amaranthus L. species [22,[41][42][43][44] precooled water or aqueous methanol [21] Chlorophylls -6 types identified (a, b, c, d, e, f) [45] -major types: chlorophyll a chlorophyll b [45,46] -porphyrins-macrocyclic tetrapyrrole pigments [35] with coordinated magnesium in the center hydrophobic segment (the phytol) and macrocycle (hydrophilic part) [24] -fat soluble [47] -chemically unstable molecule [48] -degradation by light, heat, oxygen, acid, enzymes [49] -chlorophyll a is less thermally stable than the chlorophyll b [50][51][52] from blue-green (a) to yellowgreen (b) [46] -photosynthetic organisms (plants, eukaryotic and blue-green algae) [53] organic solvents [54] (Continued) ...
... capitata f. rubra) [15][16][17][18] mixtures of water with ethanol, methanol, or acetone [19,20] Betalains, located in vacuoles [21] betacyanins structural types: betanin gomphrenin amaranthin ougainvillein -betaxanthins: indicaxanthin vulgaxanthin I [21] -nitrogen-containing, betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA/its glucosyl derivates) or amino acids/derivates [21] -water soluble [21] -heat-sensitive molecules [21] -stable between pH 3 and 7 [22] -yellow betaxanthins-less stable than their red counterparts [23,24] -betacyanins exhibit more peroxidase activity than betaxanthins [25] -metal cations (Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , Sn 2+ , Al 3 + , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ ) accelerate betanin degradation [26][27][28] yellow to violet [21] Ullucus Tuberosus Caldas, [29] Basella rubra L., [30] cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. and Oxalis stricta L.), [31][32][33][34][35] red-purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose), [32,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Amaranthus L. species [22,[41][42][43][44] precooled water or aqueous methanol [21] Chlorophylls -6 types identified (a, b, c, d, e, f) [45] -major types: chlorophyll a chlorophyll b [45,46] -porphyrins-macrocyclic tetrapyrrole pigments [35] with coordinated magnesium in the center hydrophobic segment (the phytol) and macrocycle (hydrophilic part) [24] -fat soluble [47] -chemically unstable molecule [48] -degradation by light, heat, oxygen, acid, enzymes [49] -chlorophyll a is less thermally stable than the chlorophyll b [50][51][52] from blue-green (a) to yellowgreen (b) [46] -photosynthetic organisms (plants, eukaryotic and blue-green algae) [53] organic solvents [54] (Continued) ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the replacement of synthetic colorants with natural ones has attracted increasing consumers’ and market interest. Natural colorants include different groups of pigments, many of which possess also pronounced biological potential. This review addresses the main issues related to the use of natural pigments in foods, starting from the sources available in nature, their chemical properties, stabilization processes, and applications in real foods, as discussed in the scientific literature reported in the main databases relevant to this topic (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar). Notably, several natural pigments are available to cover different needs in terms of hues and intensities, and whose use is permitted in foods by the main regulatory agencies. However, their use is still frequently limited by their higher price and lower stability than synthetic counterparts. This review discusses in detail the main sources for natural pigments, focusing on the recent trends towards those more economically favorable, such as microbial sources and agro-industrial residues. It also examines the most suitable stabilization systems to protect the highly reactive and unstable molecules of natural pigments from negative physical and chemical changes, as well as to minimize the interactions with food systems.
... An increase in heating temperature has been reported to increase colour saturation (Cruz-Cansino et al., 2016) and did not affect colour negatively (Moßhammer et al., 2006) during heat treatment and drying. Acidification and heat treatment were reported to improve the brightness index, protect natural colour and exhibit antibrowning of prickly pear juice (Kgalta et al., 2010;Kgatla et al., 2011) which could be the reason for a high colour score by panellists for products treated at high temperature and low pH. ...
... Acidification and heat treatment were reported to improve the brightness index, protect natural colour and exhibit antibrowning of prickly pear juice (Kgalta et al., 2010;Kgatla et al., 2011) which could be the reason for a high colour score by panellists for products treated at high temperature and low pH. Moßhammer et al., (2006) reported that the addition of organic acids (ascorbic acid, iso-ascorbic and citric acids) improved the heat stability of the betaxanthins and betacyanins of cactus pear juice. Moßhammer et al. (2006) reported the colour stability of yellow-orange cactus pear juice being more pronounced at pH 4.0 as compared to pH 6.0. ...
... Moßhammer et al., (2006) reported that the addition of organic acids (ascorbic acid, iso-ascorbic and citric acids) improved the heat stability of the betaxanthins and betacyanins of cactus pear juice. Moßhammer et al. (2006) reported the colour stability of yellow-orange cactus pear juice being more pronounced at pH 4.0 as compared to pH 6.0. The relationship between colour and independent variables was adequately described by a quadratic polynomial. ...
Article
The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of heating time and temperature and pH level on the quality of cactus pear juice and to optimize the thermal treatment conditions and the pH for best results using two (red and white) varieties. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the heat treatment conditions and the pH. The heating time and temperature and pH significantly (p<0.05) affected the ascorbic acid content, sensory attributes and microbial load. Using graphical optimization, the best combinations for the red prickly juice were 5.5 to 14 mins and 62°C to 82°C with pH of 5.2 or pH 3.3 to 5.0 and temperature of 62°C to 92°C for 15 mins. For white prickly juice, the optimal ranges were 18.7 to 22.6 mins and 83.9°C to 93.4°C with pH of 5.2 or pH of 3.2 to 5.0 and temperature 93.5°C to 108°C for 15 mins. Using numerical optimization, the optimal conditions were 19.2 mins, 100°C and pH of 4 with a desirability value of 0.774 and 22 mins, 100°C and pH of 3.6 with the desirability value of 0.865 for red and white prickly pear juice, respectively.
... 7,8 In this regard, cactus pears offer a wide variety of compounds with biological activity, in particular antioxidants and prebiotic fibers, such as complex mucilages containing galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid. 1,2,7,9,10 Indeed, cactus pear consumption is strongly recommended to be included in the human diet due to their multiple health beneficial properties. 2,[9][10][11][12][13] These attributes may positively affect the metabolism since several studies suggest that cactus pear ingestion can ameliorate the percentage of body fat and metabolic parameters related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. ...
... 1,2,7,9,10 Indeed, cactus pear consumption is strongly recommended to be included in the human diet due to their multiple health beneficial properties. 2,[9][10][11][12][13] These attributes may positively affect the metabolism since several studies suggest that cactus pear ingestion can ameliorate the percentage of body fat and metabolic parameters related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. 14 The sweet and pleasant taste of the cactus pears is due to the high sugar content and low acidity ( pH > 4.5) of the pulp. ...
... lage. 9,15 In this sense, lactic acid fermentation of the juice, currently used for the biopreservation of various foods, has emerged as an important biotechnology for maintaining or improving the safety, nutritional, sensory and shelf-life properties of cactus pear by-products thereof. 1,16 Lactic acid bacteria constitute a minor part of the microbiota of a vegetable or a fruit. ...
Article
The present study aimed at investigating the lactic fermentation of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit juice with the autochthonous and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum S-811. L. plantarum S-811 was able to quickly acidify the juice with a decrease in the pH from 5.5 to 3.7 and a production of 5.06 g l-1 of lactic acid. Fermentation of cactus pear juice led to conservation of its health-promoting properties and it markedly promoted antioxidant mechanisms in yeast cells, showing in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model a protective effect of up to 11 times against H2O2 (4 mM), compared to yeasts not supplemented with the fermented juice. Administration of fermented juice to obese mice caused a significant decrease in the body weight gain and ameliorated the insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipemia that characterize obesity. These results reveal the potential of the cactus pear juice fermented with L. plantarum S-811 as a functional beverage for the prevention of obesity and related pathologies.
... One of the most attractive opportunities is the manufacture of fruit juices or puree, since they are perceived as tasty, healthy and refreshing beverages. Processing prickly pear for making beverages requires strategies, which aimed to overcoming faint flavour and the presence of mucilage responsible for unpleasant rheological properties (Mobhammer et al., 2006). Cactus-pear mucilage is composed of complex polysaccharides mainly consisting of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, which are thick and slimy, and confer an unpleasant viscosity often rejected by consumers (S aenz and Sepúlveda, 2001;Piga, 2004;Torres-Acosta, 2007). ...
... Compared to fresh fruit, thermal processing induces undesirable changes of colour, flavour and nutritional value, and also decreases the health-promoting features (S aenz and Sepúlveda, 2001;Cassano et al., 2007). On the other side, cold-sterile microfiltration (0.2 mm) may reduce the content of pigment betalain with negative effect on colour and antioxidant activity (Mobhammer et al., 2006). Recently, ultrasound was also evaluated as an alternative to heat treatment (Del Socorro Cruz-Cansino et al., 2015). ...
... Recently, ultrasound was also evaluated as an alternative to heat treatment (Del Socorro Cruz-Cansino et al., 2015). Other preservation methods include acidification or concentration aiming at decreasing the water activity of juices (S aenz and Sepúlveda, 2001;Mobhammer et al., 2006;Cassano et al., 2007). All these preservation methods variously control pathogenic and spoilage microbes, but unavoidably affects the sensory and functional properties of fruit juices. ...
Article
Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
... The prickly pear fruit has an oval, elongated shape, like an oval apple or pear ( Figures 1 and 3), and is technically a fleshy berry (Bravo-Hollis, 1978;Anderson, 2001). Its weight ranges from 67 to 216 g (Moßhammer et al., 2006). In the market, these fruits are available (peeled or unpeeled) in several attractive colors, such as white, green, yellow, orange, red, and purple ( Figure 4(b)), which vary in relation to the amount of betalain pigment content (Anderson, 2001;. ...
... In the market, these fruits are available (peeled or unpeeled) in several attractive colors, such as white, green, yellow, orange, red, and purple ( Figure 4(b)), which vary in relation to the amount of betalain pigment content (Anderson, 2001;. Generally, cactus pear fruits may be divided into three components that may be exploited for commercial processing: seeds, peel, and pulp (reviewed in Moßhammer et al., 2006). The seeds of the prickly pear fruit are highly variable in form, size, structure, and testa color. ...
... Cactus pear fruits are rich in betalains, taurine, minerals, and antioxidants (Moßhammer et al., 2005(Moßhammer et al., , 2006, fitting well with the current healthy nutraceutical trend of human society. This fruit is considered a promising future crop for commercial food applications, but a comprehensive knowledge of the physical and chemical attributes and their current and potential future uses of cactus prickly pears is still lacking. ...
Chapter
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The genus Opuntia, commonly known as prickly pear cactus, includes species that produce nutritious fruits and young, edible cladodes (stem pads, also called joints), which are used as a vegetable. The prickly pear fruit is known as tuna, Indian fig, Christian fig, and tuna de Castilla. Mexico is considered one of the major areas of genetic diversity of Opuntia, and Opuntia ficus-indica is one of the most agro-economically important cactus crop species and is cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world for its fruits. The spineless forms correspond to horticultural varieties. The prickly pear fruit is divided into three components that may be exploited commercially: seeds, peel, and pulp. This fruit contains approximately 85% water, 15% sugar, 0.3% ash, and less than 1% protein. The flesh is a good source of minerals and several types of amino acids (alanine, arginine, and asparagine). Important vitamins include vitamin C (ascorbic acid), E, K, and beta-carotenes. Flavonoids, effective antioxidants, are another important constituent. The betalain pigments are responsible for the colors of the fruit and also have antioxidant properties. The general distribution of nutrients and antioxidants in the fruit is an indication that the ingestion of the whole fruit is more beneficial from a health perspective because more potentially nutraceutical active ingredients are absorbed and used by our bodies. Considering the chemical components of the prickly pear cactus, its nutritional capacity is relatively modest and should be used as a dietary complement. In view of the popular and increasing trend in the demand for nutraceuticals and increased desire for natural ingredients and food products promoting health, the multiple functional properties of cactus pear in conjunction with its antioxidant properties fit well with this trend. Furthermore, the prickly pear fruit can be considered as "the bridge of life" because it is the only food and water resource for animals during the long dry seasons in the deserts.
... Cactus pear is primarily consumed as a fresh product; it has a short shelf life (Flores-Valdez & Corrales-García, 2003;Sáenz, 2013b). Its low acidity, high water content, and composition make cactus pear susceptible to microbial spoilage, mainly by yeast and mesophilic bacteria (Moßhammer et al., 2006). Similar to other tropical fruits, cactus pear is affected by chilling injury (appearance of dark spots on the peel) when they are stored at temperatures below 5 °C and relative humidity out of 90–95 %. ...
... The fruit's quality is affected depending on the type of cultivar, farming conditions, and degree of ripening at the time of harvesting (Inglese et al., 2002;Kader, 2013). To increase its shelf life and commercial value, cactus pear can be processed into products such as juices, concentrates, frozen purees, syrups (melcocha), fruit leathers, jams, gelled candies, fermented low-alcohol beverages (colonche), wine, spirits, and vinegar (Moßhammer et al., 2006;SumayaMartínez et al., 2011;Sáenz, 2013c). Only few of these products have been manufactured at large commercial scale and are on the market of certain countries; few others are produced at a small artisanal scale and commercialized only locally, but in general, all these products are still at the development stage (Sáenz, 2013c). ...
... On the other hand, concentrated juices from O. ficus-indica were green and became darker, greener and slightly yellower with increasing TSS. In general, the observed color in fresh juice is different between varieties due to the existing pigments in each one, which are betalains in red and chlorophylls and carotenoids in green variety (Moßhammer et al., 2006;Kgatla et al., 2011). The influence of temperature on color, favoring some pigment reactions, is combined with the effect of solids augmenting that the concentrated juices of O. streptacantha showed an increase in redness (a = 1.4 at 42 °Brix, 4.5 at 55 °Brix, and 4.7 at 60 °Brix), while O. ficus-indica exhibited a higher green intensity (a = −1.7 at 42 °Brix, −3.5 at 53 °Brix, and −4.9 at 58 °Brix). ...
Article
Full-text available
Juices from two varieties of cactus pear, a green (Opuntia ficus-indica) and a red (Opuntia streptacantha), were obtained and concentrated by evaporation. Both fruit varieties and their juices at different concentrations were characterized. Green cactus pears had significantly higher amount of pulp than red cactus pears; the peel of O. ficus-indica represented only 38 versus 52 % of the fruit for the O. streptacantha. Both varieties had no significant differences on moisture, density, pH, and titratable acidity, in contrary to soluble solids. Juice was concentrated under vacuum conditions to reach a final concentration of 42, 53–55, and 58–60 °Brix, respectively, and stored under refrigeration (10 °C) during 4 weeks. Physicochemical properties of the pears and juices were determined as fresh items (time zero) and every week for the concentrate juices through storage; similarly, flow parameters were measured at 10 and 25 °C. Concentrate density (1160–1283 kg/m3) was mainly affected by final soluble solids, while pH and acidity were affected differently depending on the variety. Concentrated juices at 42 °Brix were considered with Newtonian behavior with a viscosity of 2–22 mPa s, while those at higher concentrations were of pseudoplastic nature (n < 1.0 and K > 69 mPa sn). Power Law model fitted better the flow behavior than Herschel-Bulkley model of concentrates of both varieties. Temperature, solid concentration, and/or storage time affected the consistency coefficient (K) and flow index (n) depending on the cactus pear variety. Overall, those concentrated juices from O. streptacantha were more stable and exhibited lower apparent viscosity.
... Many studies have indeed shown the positive relation between consumption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and reducing the risks of some age-related pathologies, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders or diabetes (Livrea & Tesoriere, 2006;Panda et al., 2017). In this context, the cactus pear fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica have attracted great interest because of their nutritional and health-promoting properties (Mobhammer, Stintzing, & Carle, 2006;Panda et al., 2017). Cactus pear fruits are a significant source of sugars (e.g., glucose and fructose), minerals (e.g., calcium and magnesium), prebiotic fiber, and numerous antioxidant compounds, such as vitamin C, tocopherols, carotenoids, flavonoids (e.g., rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and its derivatives), phenolic acids, biothiols (e.g., reduced glutathione, cysteine, and n-acetyl cysteine), the cellprotective amino acid Taurine, and betalain pigments (e.g., betaxanthins and betacyanins) (Livrea & Tesoriere, 2006;Mobhammer et al., 2006;Tesoriere et al., 2012;Panda et al., 2017). ...
... In this context, the cactus pear fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica have attracted great interest because of their nutritional and health-promoting properties (Mobhammer, Stintzing, & Carle, 2006;Panda et al., 2017). Cactus pear fruits are a significant source of sugars (e.g., glucose and fructose), minerals (e.g., calcium and magnesium), prebiotic fiber, and numerous antioxidant compounds, such as vitamin C, tocopherols, carotenoids, flavonoids (e.g., rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and its derivatives), phenolic acids, biothiols (e.g., reduced glutathione, cysteine, and n-acetyl cysteine), the cellprotective amino acid Taurine, and betalain pigments (e.g., betaxanthins and betacyanins) (Livrea & Tesoriere, 2006;Mobhammer et al., 2006;Tesoriere et al., 2012;Panda et al., 2017). The nutraceutical benefits of this fruit are believed to mainly stem from its recognized antioxidant properties, which are related to the above functional compounds (Coria Cayup an, Ochoa, & Nazareno, 2011;Stintzing et al., 2005). ...
... The nutraceutical benefits of this fruit are believed to mainly stem from its recognized antioxidant properties, which are related to the above functional compounds (Coria Cayup an, Ochoa, & Nazareno, 2011;Stintzing et al., 2005). Indeed, there is sufficient scientific evidence supporting the anti-inflammatory, anticancerigenic, antiulcerogenic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and immunestimulatory properties of these healthful components of cactus pear fruit (Coria Cayup an et al., 2011;Jim enez-Aguilar et al., 2015;Mobhammer et al., 2006;Panda et al., 2017;Stintzing et al., 2005;Tesoriere et al., 2012). ...
Article
Lactic acid fermentation of cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice constitutes an important biotechnology process for its preservation. The present study shows the isolation and selection of potential probiotic autochthonous strains for the preparation of a fermented cactus fruit juice. 17 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from O. ficus-indica fruits that grow in arid regions from Argentina. Isolates were screened for probiotic traits such as gastrointestinal stress tolerance, cell surface properties and antimicrobial activity, and also for their effects on functional properties of fermented juices. Among 17 isolates, 4 showed singular properties to be used as starters in cactus pear juice fermentation. These strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum S-811, L. plantarum S-TF2, Fructobacillus fructosus S-22, and F. fructosus S-TF7. The selected strains have potential for their use in the fermentation of cactus pear juice contributing to its preservation and the conservation of its health-promoting features.
... All the values are mean "±" SD of five samples Moisture content of the fresh cactus pear pulp obtained was found to be 86.1% which was found quite similar to the reported values for cactus pear pulp i.e. 85.98% [18]. Total soluble solids (TSS) of the cactus pear pulp were found to be 12.18°B, the value was similar to the reported values for cactus pear pulp i.e. 12-17°B by [19]. Acidity and pH of fresh cactus pear pulp was found to be 0.26% and 5.3; respectively. ...
... Acidity and pH of fresh cactus pear pulp was found to be 0.26% and 5.3; respectively. Moßhammer et al., 2006 reported the higher pH and lower acidity values of cactus pear pulp as between 5.6-6.5 and 0.05-0.18; respectively [19]. ...
... Moßhammer et al., 2006 reported the higher pH and lower acidity values of cactus pear pulp as between 5.6-6.5 and 0.05-0.18; respectively [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Fruit bar is a concentrated fruit product with good nutritive value. Fruit bar principally made from fruit pulp retain most of the nutrients, minerals and flavor constituents thus forming a good nutritional supplement besides being a confectionery product. Food enrichment and fortification are the most cost effective and sustainable strategy to address the problem of micronutrient malnutrition. The study was conducted to standardize the protocol for preparation of cactus pear-banana fruit bar and to enhance the nutritional value by fortifying with whey protein concentrate. For preparation of fruit bars, cactus pear and banana pulp were blended in different proportions to standardize parameters like pulp combination, pectin & whey protein concentrate and then mixture was dried in mechanical dehydrator at 65 ± 5ºC for 8-10 h. Best formulation was selected on the basis of sensory evaluation and texture profile analysis. The best formulation was 60:40 of banana to cactus pear pulp ratio, 0.6 % citric acid, 1.0 % pectin, 5.0% WPC and 15% sugar which was dried at temperature of 65°C in tray dryer. Thus the study revealed that the developed fruit bar was found to be rich in protein and it can be used as a supplement to malnutrition.
... En plus, la surproduction pendant la période estivale, les hautes températures d'été, la non organisation professionnelle, l'intervention des intermédiaires, l'insuffisance de l'infrastructure relative aux centres de collecte, de conditionnement et de stockage frigorifique des fruits, la compétitivité vis-à-vis des autres fruits de saison sont autant de facteurs qui conduisent à une perte importante de la production estimée à 40 % perdue sur l'arbre (Dehbi et al., 2000). Après la récolte, les fruits de cactus sont très périssables et sensibles à toute attaque microbienne principalement les levures et les bactéries mésophiles (Markus et al, 2006). Devant cette situation, la transformation et la recherche de procédés de conservation demeurent une condition préalable pour éviter les pertes après récolte (Markus et al, 2006). ...
... Après la récolte, les fruits de cactus sont très périssables et sensibles à toute attaque microbienne principalement les levures et les bactéries mésophiles (Markus et al, 2006). Devant cette situation, la transformation et la recherche de procédés de conservation demeurent une condition préalable pour éviter les pertes après récolte (Markus et al, 2006). L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les conditions optimales de conservation du fruit de figuier de barbarie en vue de prolonger sa durée de vie et de préserver sa qualité après récolte. ...
... Principales caractéristiques physiques et physico-chimiques des fruits de figuier de barbarie (Opuntia spp.)(Markus et al., 2006). ...
Thesis
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La présente étude a pour objectif de déterminer les conditions optimales de conservation des fruits de figuier de barbarie en vue de préserver leur qualité en post-récolte. Pour ce faire, des fruits de figuier de barbarie représentant les types Achefri (Opuntia mégachanta) et Aissa (Opuntia ficus-indica) ont été récoltés à trois stades de maturité différents et stockés à 4, 8 et 15°C pour des durées de 15, 30 et 45 jours. L’évolution de certains paramètres physiques (couleur de l’écorce et de la pulpe, perte de poids), et physico-chimiques (pH, acidité titrable et taux de sucre de jus) ainsi que les désordres physiologiques et pathologiques (chilling injury et dégâts de pourriture) a été suivie au cours de ce stockage. Le stockage des fruits de maturité moyenne et à température de 8°C semble être le meilleur traitement parmi les traitements testés. Il a permis de prolonger la durée de stockage jusqu’à 30 jours sans aucun effet dépressif sur la qualité des fruits.
... The red prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is a fruit of the cactus family that has a diversity of shapes, sizes, and colors, such as white, yellow, red, and purple (Moßhammer et al., 2006b). The red prickly pear has an approximate weight of 150.5 g, with dimensions of 5.8 × 5.3 × 9.0 cm. ...
... The red prickly pear has an approximate weight of 150.5 g, with dimensions of 5.8 × 5.3 × 9.0 cm. This fruit can be considered a rich source of a large number of components, such as sugars, vitamin C, pigments, and minerals such as Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, and Se (Moßhammer et al., 2006b). Some studies have shown that red prickly pear, when consumed, can protect against oxidative damage (Galati et al., 2003;Gurrieri et al., 2000), has hypocholesterolemic properties, and can inhibit stomach ulceration, in addition to having anti-inflammatory effects (Galati et al., 2003(Galati et al., , 2007, hypoglycemic effects and antidiabetic properties. ...
Chapter
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Extrusion cooking is a process that involves feeding, mixing, and cooking material at a high temperature for a short time to obtain a wide variety of products. The final product characteristics depend mainly on variables such as mixing speed, barrel temperature, feed moisture content, and system pressure. One of the most critical variables that influence the characteristics and quality of the product is the mixture’s composition. Several ingredients have been used in mixture formulation to improve nutritional quality and physical characteristics that increase the extruded products’ acceptability. Among the ingredients are grains, vegetables, and fruits applied as extracts, concentrates or powders. A fruit interesting for its composition is a prickly pear, with properties that can be used to develop novel and/or functional food or a clean label product. The red prickly pear contains flavonoid-type phenolics and betalain pigments, which give it an intense red-purple color that can be used to color food. These constituents give the fruit functional properties; however, both are heat-labile compounds, and therefore, their use in the formulation of extruded products must be tested. The addition of prickly pear reduces the extrudates’ density and expansion and the water absorption capacity as the prickly pear content increases. In contrast, characteristics such as bulk density, texture (hardness and crispness), and color parameters increase as the prickly pear content increases. Although the addition of prickly pear impacts the most physical characteristics, such as the color and texture parameters of extrudates, the addition of a moderate amount of prickly pear powder in the formulation of extruded cereals is accepted by consumers, especially for the resulting color in the products. During extrusion cooking, pigments are lost due to temperature, wherein betaxanthin is more sensitive to the increase in temperature. Other compounds affected during extrusion cooking are phenolics, although some studies have shown that the specific content of flavonoids remains similar to the raw mixture’s content. Likewise, by decreasing the betalain and phenolics’ content, extrusion cooking decreases the antioxidant activity they provide. Although the level of reduction of the compounds depends on the specific conditions under which the process is carried out, the use of red prickly pear, as pulp or powder, in the formulation of extruded foods can allow the elimination of synthetic dyes from cereals or snacks, improving the functional properties of food. This chapter addresses essential aspects of extrusion cooking and describes the effects of the main process variables on bioactive compounds’ stability and other physicochemical properties in extruded products based on prickly pear.
... Pimienta- Barrios (1990); Cantwell (1995); Saenz and Sepulveda (2001); Stintzing et al. (2001); Butera et al. (2002); Stintzing et al. (2003;) Piga (2004); Mobhammer et al. (2006); Diaz-Medina et al. (2007). ...
... The range of ascorbic acid content in fruit available in literature has been mentioned in Table 2.9. Mobhammer et al. (2006) has reported that betalains are responsible for orange, red and purple colours of peels of cactus pear. Piatteli (1976) has reported, red violet betacyanins and the yellow betaxanthins as the main betalains pigments in the fruits of Opuntia spp. ...
Thesis
Wild prickly pear (Opuntia dillenii Haw.) is one of the wild fruit of Himachal Pradesh which can be of great importance because of its high antioxidants, colour pigments and other quality parameters besides its medicinal properties. So, investigations were conducted to exploit its wide quality parameters for the development of various beverages which can be exploited on commercial scale in the state for its proper utilization, otherwise, this fruit is going waste. Because of mucilagenous characteristics of its pulp in the fruit, it was not possible to extract the juice by physical methods, but enzymatic extraction of juice worked well. So, out of various enzymes Viscozyme+Pectinase (3:1) @0.1 per cent and 120 minutes holding time at 50oC temperature was found to be the best method for the juice extraction from its fruit. Best quality beverages without the addition of colour and flavour were prepared viz; drink by keeping juice 14 per cent, 12oB TSS and 0.30 per cent acidity; squash by keeping 35 per cent juice, 40oB TSS and 1.20 per cent acidity; appetizer by keeping 35 per cent juice, 45oB TSS and 1.20 per cent acidity along with spice extract and syrup by keeping 30 per cent juice, 65oB TSS and 1.50 per cent acidity from its juice. Although all the products after packing in glass and PET containers could be stored successfully in refrigerated storage (4 - 7oC) for six months. However, quality of the products packed in glass bottles was retained better in refrigerated storage conditions as compared to the polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) stored in ambient temperature conditions (15 - 25oC). The cost of the products prepared from wild prickly pear fruit juice was comparable to the cost of the similar products in the market. Hence, wild prickly pear fruit can successfully be utilized for the production of good quality and nutritionally enriched products with remunerative cost on commercial scale.
... Consequently, Opuntia seed oil has become a highly attractive resource for the food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry (Moßhammer et al. 2006;Liu et al. 2009;Jana 2012;El-Mostafa et al. 2014;Guillaume et al. 2015). ...
... Fortunately, this consideration does not apply to Madagascar as a least developed country Among other reasons, the cosmetics industry demands Opuntia spp. oil because of its high concentration of linoleic acid, which has a wrinkle-reducing effect (Moßhammer et al. 2006). ...
Thesis
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... El patrón de proteínas de semillas puede ser un marcador valioso para estudios taxonómicos de este género (Moßhammer et al., 2006). Sin embargo otros estudios realizados para algunas especies (O. ...
Thesis
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The seeds of the genus Opuntia have different chemical compounds (antioxidants, minerals and fatty acids) that could be used as a nutritional supplement in agribusiness. However, studies on the chemical properties of the seeds of this genus have been carried out mainly in the commercial Opuntia ficus-indica specie, aside the wildlife species. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology and chemical composition of seeds of four species of Opuntia. The seeds were separated from the fruits and the area, weight, width and length were determined using the ImageJ software. The seeds were ground and homogenized to determine moisture, ash, protein, lipids, sequestration capacity radical (DPPH), phenolics (CFT) and fatty acids. The analyses of the results showed that the O. polyacanta specie presented the highest values of weight (0.0288 ± 0.004), area (19.70 ± 2.18), length (5.43 ± 0.59) and width (4.74 ± 0.38). While, O. engelmannii specie presented the higher lipid values (10.44 ± 1.38) and protein (15.06 ± 0.43). O. phaeacantha showed the higher values of DPPH (12.9 ± 0.26), CFT (4.15 ± 0.26), palmitic acid (1.34 ± 0.12), stearic (5.60 ± 0.47), oleic (19.42 ± 1.04), alpha linolenic (2.42 ± 0.33 ), arachidonic (0.61 ± 0.11) and eicosenoic (1.74 ± 0.36). O. phaeacantha could be an important new source of health promoter due to the high values of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants content, promoting their use in arid and semiarid regions where the species occurs
... The high proportion of citric acid in the dry matter, 19%, explains the very acid character of the juice. The pH value was similar to that obtained by Castellar, Obón, Alacid, and Fernández-López (2008) and Medina, Rodríguez, and Romero (2007) who respectively obtained 3.30 and 3.34 but less than the pH values of 5.3-7.1 reported for the cactus pear Opuntia ficus-indica, the most studied and cultivated Opuntia (Cassano et al., 2007;Moßhammer, Stintzing, & Carle, 2006). ...
Article
An integrated process coupling crossflow micro and ultra or nanofiltration was applied to separate the betacyanins in cactus pear juice (30°C). Four microfiltration ceramic membranes (0.1-0.2 µm, 1.8-3.3 bar) and 4 ultra/nanofiltration organic membranes (0.2-4.0 kDa, 5-30 bar) were tested. Microfiltration was a first step to remove insoluble solids with low retention of soluble solids. By coupling with enzymatic liquefaction, permeate flux Jp was increased by 2 and the retention of betacyanins was limited. Ultra/nanofiltration was then used for solute separation. Retentions of solutes could be modulated by varying membrane/pressure combinations that favor rather the concentration of all the solutes or rather the purification of the betacyanins with respect to the total dry matter. Retention of individual betacyanins could be a little different which also made possible fractionation. Simulations using simple models allowed to evaluate the interest of the process for concentrating, purifying and fractionating betacyanins with a possible diafiltration step.
... The extracted pigments from fruits are used as additives in different agro-industry such as food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations (Dehbi et al., 2014). Also, seed and peel can be formulated into number of commercial food product (Mobhammer et al., 2006). Egypt cultivated four common varieties is about 3116 feddan which produce about 244.2 Gg. ...
Article
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Hand harvesting of prickly pear fruits is greatly inefficient; it is slow and expensive, field conditions are arduous, unsafe and risky. Prickly pear plant is entirely covered with thorns, while fruit has easily detachable microscopic hairs that stuck in bare skin; scaring off untrained workers. A mobile mechanical machine for picking prickly pear fruits was designed, fabricated and evaluated for its performance and techno-economic feasibility. Some physical and mechanical properties (dimensions, mass, volume, density, static coefficient of friction and shear force) of prickly pear fruits that are pertinent to the mechanical processing were measured and considered by the design of the machine. The developed machine was evaluated at two power source (mechanical and manual) and mechanical source provides two levels of crank speed (40 and 60 rpm). The evaluation was based on the following parameters: productivity, fruit damage, consumed energy and picking cost comparing with hand picking.The obtained results of the developed machine gave positive results for evaluation criteria. The productivity increased by 171.4 %, minimizes the fruit damage by 42.4 %, decreased consumed energy by 13.28 times and decreased picking cost by 29.8 % comparing with hand picking method.
... Knowing that it is a plant which is rich in minerals such as calcium, potassium and magnesium, which all provide excellent food properties, not to mention its wide commercial use [14], one can mention the Betalain: a pigment plant derived from indole and containing nitrogen. It is found mostly in the family of cactaceas [15,16] including beta-aminamic acid, which is the main chromophore of Betalain pigments [17] presented in the form of organic food coloring [18,19]. Cactus differs depending on their life stage, which affects their type of plant tissues [20], such as glycosylated flavonols, dihydroflavonols, flavonones and flavonols [21].All these components contain polar groups which have inhibitory properties, mainly the aromatic compounds that form an interaction between their π orbital and metal [22]. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-corrosive effect of natural extract of Opuntia Ficus Indica (O.F.I) for XC52 steel in 1 M H3PO4. Experimental work has been achieved by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurement, as well as SEM surface characterization. Among the results obtained, we can mention an inhibitory efficiency of 90% by gravimetric method and 83.9% by electrochemical method at 10% (v/v) of O.F.I. Moreover, The O.F.I extract acts as a mixed inhibitor; however, adsorption free enthalpy indicates a physisorption. The adsorption obeys the Langmuir isotherm model. These results have been improved by SEM micrographs.
... The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species were individuated in central Mexico and the taxonomic concept of O. ficus-indica may include clones derived from multiple lineages and therefore be polyphyletic. 1,2 Thanks to the ability of this species to adapt to different environmental conditions, the cactus pear grows in plains, coastal regions, plateaus and among different vegetation. 3 This plant is extremely drought tolerant and grows abundantly under semiarid conditions; 4 in fact, a common feature of the areas where the plant grows is a more or less marked degree of aridity to which the plant has adapted as a result of its photosynthetic metabolism. ...
Article
Background: Opuntia ficus india L. Miller fruits, particularly "Ficodindia dell'Etna" of Biancavilla (POD), "Fico d'india tradizionale di Roccapalumba" with protected brand and samples coming from an experimental field in Pezzolo (Sicily), were analyzed by ICP-MS in order to determinate the multi-element profile. A multivariate chemometric approach, specifically Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was applied to individuate how mineral elements may represent a marker of geographic origin, useful for the traceability. Results: The PCA analysis has allowed to verify that the geographical origin of prickly pear fruits is significantly influenced by trace elements content, and the results found in Biancavilla PDO samples were linked to the geological composition of this volcanic areas. It was observed that 2 principal components accounted for 72.03 % of the total variance in the data and, more detailed, PC1 explains 45.51% and PC2 26.52%, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCA is an integrated tool for the traceability of food products and, at the same time, an useful method of authentication to the acknowledged of a protection brand for typical local fruits as prickly pears.
... Opuntia seed oil is among the most valuable plant oils and it has become a highly attractive resource for the food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries (Feugang et al. 2006, Moßhammer et al. 2006, Liu et al. 2009. The current prices for conventional produced Opuntia seed oil vary between 275 and 700 €/l, for organic oil between 900 and 1 500 €/l (In litt. ...
... Betaxanthins (Bx) and betacyanins (Bc) were determined by an adaptation of the methodology proposed by Moßhammer, Stintzing, and Carle (2006). Briefly, 5 g of smoothie was weighed and diluted in 10 mL of McIlvaine buffer (pH = 6.3). ...
Article
Fruit & Vegetable (F&V) smoothies are rich in nutrients and other health related compounds. However, they have a short shelf-life and the traditional methods applied to preserve them generate losses in their natural flavor and nutrients. The aim of this study was to optimize the pressure level (35–650 MPa) and holding time (1–9 min) of High Pressure Processing (HPP), performed at an initial temperature of 20 °C and only modified by adiabatic heating of a F&V smoothie in order to achieve microbial and enzymatic inactivation while maintaining its natural attributes. Response surface methodology with a Doehlert design and Desirability function were employed to simultaneously optimize these quality attributes. Results showed that HPP enhances microbial quality and does not affect pH, total soluble solids, texture and total phenolic content. Moreover, the optimal HPP treatment (627.5 MPa/6.4 min) leads to reductions of 85%, 45% and 10% on PME, POD and PPO, increases antioxidant capacity by 75% and maintains or slightly improves the color of the smoothie. Industrial relevance text F&V smoothies are tasty, healthy, convenient and ready to drink, fulfilling all the current demands of consumers. This has led to an accelerated increase in their popularity. However, they have a short shelf life mainly attributed to microbial and enzymatic spoilages. HPP is proposed as a non-thermal method able to prolong shelf-life of the products by means of microbial and enzymatic inactivation, while preserving bioactive compounds and quality characteristics. An optimization assay was carried out in order to find optimal process conditions for the F&V smoothie's preservation. The promising results obtained can help to promote the use of HPP as an alternative technology for the preservation of this kind of products.
... Different amounts of minerals have been reported for cladodes of Opuntia. Salim et al. (2009), for example, determined the presence of calcium and magnesium in amounts of 12.4 and 18.8 mg/100 g of solid material, respectively; while Moβhammer et al. (2006) cite concentrations above 59 and 98.4 mg/100 g of these salts, respectively. Also, there are reports of the presence of salts of sodium, potassium and phosphorus in ranges typical of fruits (Kuar et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Acid hydrolysis from cladodes of Opuntia sp. var Atlixco was performed. The total reducing sugars released showed a linear relation to the concentration of phenolic compounds released, which can be a determining factor in fermentative processes. Wild microorganisms were isolated from the cladodes, three of which showed fermentative capacity using nopal hydrolysates. Molecular identification showed the presence of Candida intermedia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii; microorganisms that proved capable of producing ethanol. The results showed that pH is the principle factor that impacted ethanol production, and that when associated with conditions of oxygen limitation generated yields (Yp/s) of 48 % compared to the maximum theoretical value. Also, adding magnesium salt to the culture medium at a concentration of 0.5 g/L had the greatest effect on ethanol production for S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii. In other results, a slight reduction in product formation was observed for Z. bailii when (NH4)2SO4 was used as the nitrogen source, while for S. cerevisiae, ethanol production increased slightly, from 1.64 to 2.11 g/L when the hydrolized is used with 5 g/L of nitrogen salts. These results show that, in general, adding the nitrogen source did not promote product formation.
... Oil is obtained from the bark and seeds of the fruit. It is used in many areas as fruit juices, concentrated, coloring food, powder products, soft drinks, jam, marmalade, as well as many other foods in the cosmetic sector (Castellar, Obón, Alacid, & Fernández-López, 2003;Stintzing, Schieber, & Carle, 2001;Stintzing, Schieber, & Carle, 2003;Moßhammer, Stintzing, & Carle, 2006a;Carle, Markus, & Stintzing, 2006). Although prickly pear fruits have a high potential in terms of nutrient content, it is limited to studies performed in the laboratory . ...
Article
In the study, the impact of harvest time on total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-barbarica A. Berger) fruit pulp and the oil content and fatty acids profile of the seed were investigated. The highest total phenolic content was determined as 156.77 mg/100 g in July 1 harvest, while the maximum antioxidant activity and total oil content were found as 9.81% and 6.80% at the last stage of maturation (15 August), respectively. The highest oleic (28.51%), palmitic (22.61%) and stearic acid contents (9.20%) in seed oil were observed in June 15 harvest. The highest value for linoleic acid (57.50%) was detected in August 15 harvest. Prickly pear is a vital source of bioactive constituents such as phenolic and antioxidant substances in terms of being useful for human health and the optimum harvesting time to retain high quantities of most phenolic compounds is 1st July.
... L'Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. est une des plantes multifonctionnelles qui appartient à la famille des Cactacées dont le genre Opuntia regroupe près de 250 espèces (Moßhammer et al. 2006). Elle pousse principalement dans les zones arides et semi-arides. ...
Article
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In arid and semi-desert degraded areas of Morocco, many programs aiming at planting fodder shrubs have failed due to a lack of knowledge on effective methods for their successful establishment. Here we assessed the effects of gravel mulch (T1), TeraGel hydrophilic polymers (100g) (T2) and organic matter (5L peat) (T3), as soil amendments, on the establishment of prickly pear plant (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.). T4 is considered as control. The study was conducted at the INRA experimental station in Errachidia, southern Morocco where cladodes were planted under natural water stress conditions on half moons. Changes in soil moisture were monitored for each treatment following rainfall. T2 had the highest soil water content during the first hours, but it decreased at a higher rate compared to T1 and T3. Cladode survival was significantly greater for T1 (100% ± 0.0) followed by T3 (94% ± 0.2), then T4 (72% ± 0.5) and T2 (67% ± 0.5). At the end of the experiment period, T1 and T3 grew 25% and 32% better than the control, respectively. Modular dynamics of cladodes (nopal) was also influenced by T1 and T3; the average number of cladodes after 34 months was of 18 units for T1 versus 11.8 units for the control. This study highlights the importance of using gravel mulch and organic matter in prickly pear plantations to improve the effectiveness of rainwater harvesting techniques in drylands.
... as well as bioactive constituents as vitamins, pigments, and other secondary compounds with antioxidant properties (Moßhammer et al., 2006, Kuti, 2004. Nutrient contents increase with fruit maturity reaching up to 15% of sugars. ...
Chapter
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The chapter refers to the cactus plants, specially the Opuntia genus, that grow up in arid and semiarid environments under hard hydric stress conditions. The functional phytochemicals of the plant parts, such as fruits, cladodes, flowers, and seeds, and their uses in food preparations are described. A revision of the bioactive constituents, like mucilage, fibers, pigments, and antioxidants, was done, indicating that the cactus plants may be efficiently used as a source of these compounds. This plant is consumed both as fresh foods, e.g., fruits, fresh cladodes named “nopalitos,” and their juices, and processed products such as nopal flour, keeping its functional properties. A review of the latest reports about the medicinal properties of the cactus products is included, showing the benefits to prevent different diseases. This chapter describes cacti as multifunctional plants that offer the possibility of taking advantages from the whole plant, which impacts positively on regional economies of arid and semiarid lands where population deals with subsistence economies.
... Cactus pear is a promising crop with large potential for breeders, agriculturists and food technologists. In future, declining water resources and global desertification may increase the importance of Opuntia sps. as an effective food production system, including both fruit and vegetable (Moßhammer et al. 2006). The cultivation of cactus pear requires low input and is therefore conducive to a sustainable system that will increase the efficiency and economic viability of the small and medium-sized farms of low-income farmers. ...
Article
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... From the comparative analysis done by many researchers (shown in Table 1) shows the pulp content of the cactus fruit ranged from 39-67%, the peel content was in range of 30-55% and the seed content ranged from 2-10%. The pulp:peel:seed ratio varies according to the different species of the Opuntia fruit [41] . ...
Article
In the era of healthy living there is demand of nutraceuticals having natural source. The nutraceutical value of Opuntia fruit can fulfill this demand for healthy lifestyle in more natural way. Opuntia fruits from the family of Cactaceac are one of the underutilized fruit despites of its good nutritional value. The Opuntia fruits are known for its high betalain content which is comparable to the red beet. This betalains have 2-3-fold higher antioxidant value than standard trolox. Opuntia fruit also contains various polyphenols and flavonoids. Among which quercitin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin are very crucial flavonoids. The high levels of betalains, flavonoids, polyphenols, taurine, calcium, magnesium are noteworthy. The review paper focuses on the physico-chemical properties of Opuntia fruit and its various polyphenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity of the fruit.
... Betaxanthin stability has been studied in previous research on yellow cactus pear. Retention of betaxanthins during storage varies from 3 to 60%, as affected by matrix (juice, extract or powder), pH, presence of other compounds and temperature, as reported before (Fernandez-Lopez et al., 2012;Gandía-Herrero et al., 2010Moßhammer et al., 2006c). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to obtain coloring foods from yellow-orange cactus pear pulp by vacuum concentration and freeze drying. Concentrated coloring food (VC) was obtained in a Büchi evaporator (30°C, 17 mbar) up to 45±1 °Brix and freezedried (FD) powders in a Shin BioBase FD5508 equipment, using maltodextrin as carrier in 1:1 ratio (pulp soluble solids/maltodextrin). The products were characterized and their stability tested in storage (23±2°C) for 30 days. Color parameters (L, a*, b*, C* and h°) were measured in a Hunter Lab Ultra Scan Pro and total color change (ΔE) was calculated. Betaxanthins were determined by HPLC. Betaxanthins and color degradation of both food colorants were evaluated in a softdrinks model during storage at 4±1°C. Betaxanthin contents were 256.53±4.81 and 263.76±5.21 mg indicaxanthin equivalents (IE) kg-1 in VC and FD, respectively. When VC and FD were compared with the fresh pulp, a visible color change was observed in both cases, of 39.2 and 43.1, respectively. In the VC, the decrease in betaxanthins was not significant during storage, but a perceptible color change (ΔE=15.0) was detected. However, betaxanthin content and color parameters showed no significant changes in FD colorant during storage (ΔE=5.6). Nevertheless, both food colorings showed good stability at room temperature. Regarding performance as colorants in the soft-drinks model, betaxanthin degradation was significant when both colorants were applied. Degradation rate constants for soft-drinks models (SVC and SFD) were k = 1.57×10-1±8.0×10-3 and 2.0×10-1±6.0×10-3 day-1, respectively, which were significantly different. Total color changes of 10.7 (soft drink with VC) and 15.7 (soft drink with FD) were reached at the end of storage. The results showed that FD could be used for coloring instant food (soup or soft-drink powders). VC shows potential for coloring food stored at low temperatures, e.g., chilled matrices such as yogurt or ice creams.
... The extraction of fatty acids from fruit seed residues and their transformation into biodiesel is another use of nopal. Each fruit has between 150 and 300 seeds, and the oil content ranges between 98 and 139 g kg -1 seed (Moßhammer et al., 2006); therefore, it is only profitable if associated with a fruit-processing industry (Sáenz and Sepúlveda, 2006), either pulps, juices or other products, in which the seeds are waste and the volume of which makes oil extraction of interest. In addition, the high price of oil in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries makes this alternative impractical. ...
Article
The nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica), cultivated by smallholder farmers, is traditionally used for production of fruits, industrial products, forage and “cochinilla”. Cladodes can also be used for a number of other purposes. We evaluated other uses of nopal cladodes. One of the uses is for biogas production from anaerobic bio-digestion. The daily energy need for a rural family of five people can be met from 3.61 m3 day 1 biogas. Considering that 10 t ha 1 year 1 dried cladodes are produced and that 3 kg dried cladodes produce 1 m3 biogas, it is possible to obtain the biogas needed annually by the family from a 0.4-ha cactus plantation. This amount of biogas has an economic value of US$1078, using the price of commercial gas as a reference. Solid materials and liquid biofertilizer that contain nutrients and material can be obtained in biogas systems. One tonne of solid biofertilizer is equivalent to 40 kg urea, 50 kg potassium nitrate and 94 kg triple superphosphate. Assuming an average price of US$0.32 kg 1 fertilizer, each tonne of biofertilizer would be worth US\$58.80. Also, dried and crushed cladodes can be used for direct burning or in combination with coal. It is also possible to obtain ethanol from the cladodes, but the production technology is more complex. On a larger scale, 8.6 L ethanol could be produced from 100 kg dried cladodes and 24.7 L ethanol from 100 kg dried fruits, for concentrations of ethanol above 98%. Another bioenergy use is the extraction of fatty acids from fruit seed residues and their transformation into biodiesel. Each fruit has between 150 and 300 seeds, and the oil content ranges between 98 and 139 g kg 1 seed.
... Tuna wine -9.2% w/v Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lee et al. (2000) Tuna wine -55.3 mL/L Saccharomyces cerevisiae Moßhammer et al. (2006) ...
Chapter
Opuntia spp. is a plant with great potential for developing biotechnological processes. Its rapid growth and adaptability to dry and semi-dry climates make the plant an excellent candidate to implement biotechnological processes to obtain by-products. Opuntia spp. is capable of storing large amounts of water in its cladodes which is the main biopolymer responsible for this is mucilage. This biopolymer comprises various sugars such as xylose, arabinose, and fructose. They have great potential to be used as raw material to formulate production and microbial growth media. Opuntia cladodes contain, according to their age, different concentrations of lignin and cellulose. The concentration of cellulose within cladodes increases depending on the age of the plant and this feature can be used to increase glucose concentration within the Opuntia hydrolyzates and improve the yields of by-products such as bioethanol. A highly important factor in the availability of monosaccharides within Opuntia hydrolyzates is the hydrolysis method. A great diversity of these methods has been described. However, the sugar yields are only increased when physical, chemical, and biological methods are used in combination. Using Opuntia spp. as raw material for obtaining sugars has several advantages, among them: its availability throughout the year, the low cost of cladodes and the low demand for plant care, making Opuntia excellent raw material for the implementation of biotechnological processes.
... The cactus pear can be considered as a fruit, or better, a plant that has many possibilities to be fully exploited. Diverse products can be obtained from both the fruit and the pads (Moßhammer et al., 2006a;Sáenz, 2000). The circular economy promotes the recovery of residues or waste and this plant is suitable also for this purpose, as has been explained in this chapter, which highlights the valuable ingredients such as colorants and coloring foods. ...
Chapter
Food color is one of the most important attributes related to consumer acceptance. The growth in consumer trends for the preference of healthy food colorants, clean-label foods, and attractive appearance, among other factors, has driven the global market of natural colorants to rise in recent years. Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia sp.) are a good source of betalains, which are natural pigments that cover a wide range of colors: from red-purple betacyanins to yellow-orange betaxanthins, with each species possessing different pigments and contents. Betalains are water-soluble pigments and could replace artificial colors in food, many of which have been questioned as harmful for health. The extraction, stability, and application of pigments has recently received particular attention due to their appeal as a natural ingredient. Furthermore, they come from a species with a low water requirement, which is increasingly appreciated in the face of climate change that is affecting the planet. This chapter analyses the variation of betalain content according to the Opuntia species and the different types of colorants obtained from colored cactus pears, concentrated pulp and juices, coloring foods (a new concept introduced by the EU legislation), powders, microparticles, among others. The stability of betalains, a critical factor for their successful use in foods, depends both on the form the pigment is applied (i.e., as concentrated juice or microencapsulated) and on the food matrix in which it is applied. Although there are still many food matrices in which their application has not been studied there are forms of colorants that are sufficiently stable to be used in a variety of products. They are more stable in yogurt type matrices than in soft drink type matrices, with yellow-orange pigments also showing more stability than red-purple ones. Thus, a new source of natural pigments is making its way into a market that increasingly values healthy and environmentally friendly ingredients.
... Arid and semi-arid regions are special areas for cultivating cactus fruits that are geographically distributed in Mexico, Latin America, South Africa, and Mediterranean countries (Butera et al., 2002). O. dillenii plants have a high environmental adaptivity and adapt to all climatic conditions due to their remarkable genetic (Moßhammer et al., 2006). Opuntia fruit is a berry with a delicately flavored juicy pulp that contains many hard seeds and has a thick pericarp (peel) of 30-40% of the fruit (Duru &Turker, 2005). ...
Article
The present study aims to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the extracts of cactus pear Opuntia dillenii (OD) fruit which grow in southern Iraq and offer different health benefits. The physicochemical properties of the fruit juices (pulp and peels) were investigated. Fruit pulp and peel extracts carried the symbols: hexane pulp extract (HPuE), hexane peel extract (HPeE), ethanolic pulp extract (EPuE), and ethanolic peels extract (EPeE). The activel compound screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HPuE and HPeE contained 40 bioactive compounds and 60 bioactive compounds were detected in EPuE and EPeE. The scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals records a high level of inhibition ranging from 34.8 to 90.3% for EPeE and from 32.9 to 89.9% for EPuE, while hexane extracts scavenging activities (HPeE and HPuE) were 24.9-78.9% and 20.7-73.3% respectively at concentrations of 20-80 µg.ml-1 this activity has received considerable attention because of their physiological functions.
... It produces cactus fruit, otherwise called as Cactus ficus which is purple in colour, fleshy nature and oval in shape. It is commonly named as Chapathi Balli in Tamil Nadu [10] . It produces sweet nutritionally rich edible fruit, tender cladodes of cactus which is used as a fresh green vegetable and salad. ...
Article
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Oxidative stress is initially generated by free radicals which makes electrons to paired with biological macromolecules in cells of healthy humans and induce DNA and protein damage. Infectious diseases are still a major threat to the public health despite of enormous development in the medical field. Nowadays various synthetic drugs became resistant to various infectious diseases. Therefore, various phytochemicals in medicinal plants are in use for the treatment of several oxidative stress related disease. In the present study, Cactus Pear was selected to analyze the phytoconstituents using aqueous extract. Phytochemicals like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, saponin and glycosides was observed in aqueous extract of Cactus pears. Total flavonoids and phenolics content was also evaluated by aluminum chloride method and Folin's Ciocalteau methods respectively. Antioxidant and radical scavenging efficiency was evaluated by reducing power assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. An excellent reducing potential and radical scavenging activity was observed in aqueous extract of Cactus pear. Finally efficiency of Cactus pear against the growth of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from clinical isolates was evaluated. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica exhibited excellent efficiency in anti-staphylococcal activity. Hence, based on the above studies, we could confirm that, O. ficus-indica could be used as a potential drug for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.
... It produces cactus fruit, otherwise called as Cactus ficus which is purple in colour, fleshy nature and oval in shape. It is commonly named as Chapathi Balli in Tamil Nadu [10] . It produces sweet nutritionally rich edible fruit, tender cladodes of cactus which is used as a fresh green vegetable and salad. ...
Article
Oxidative stress is initially generated by free radicals which makes electrons to paired with biological macromolecules in cells of healthy humans and induce DNA and protein damage. Infectious diseases are still a major threat to the public health despite of enormous development in the medical field. Nowadays various synthetic drugs became resistant to various infectious diseases. Therefore, various phytochemicals in medicinal plants are in use for the treatment of several oxidative stress related disease. In the present study, Cactus Pear was selected to analyze the phytoconstituents using aqueous extract. Phytochemicals like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, saponin and glycosides was observed in aqueous extract of Cactus pears. Total flavonoids and phenolics content was also evaluated by aluminum chloride method and Folin's Ciocalteau methods respectively. Antioxidant and radical scavenging efficiency was evaluated by reducing power assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. An excellent reducing potential and radical scavenging activity was observed in aqueous extract of Cactus pear. Finally efficiency of Cactus pear against the growth of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from clinical isolates was evaluated. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica exhibited excellent efficiency in anti-staphylococcal activity. Hence, based on the above studies, we could confirm that, O. ficus-indica could be used as a potential drug for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.
... La pulpa de la tuna se emplea para preparar salsas, jarabes, bebidas alcohólicas y jugos, entre otros [9]. Además, el consumo de tunas anaranjadas se ha asociado con efectos positivos a la salud, debido a la presencia de betalaínas y polifenoles, ambos con actividad antioxidante [10,11]. ...
Conference Paper
El mercado de colorantes naturales para alimentos está creciendo constantemente y el uso de colorantes sintéticos está siendo restringido en algunos países. Las betaxantinas de la pulpa de tuna anaranjada (Opuntia ficus-indica) podrían emplearse como una nueva fuente natural de pigmentos amarillos de naturaleza hidrosoluble, siendo la indicaxantina la principal betaxantina presente en la tuna anaranjada. Sin embargo, la indicaxantina es sensible a factores ambientales como luz, temperatura, pH o humedad. La tecnología de microencapsulación constituye una alternativa para estabilizar estos pigmentos. El secado por atomización y la maltodextrina son, la técnica y el agente encapsulante más empleados en este proceso, respectivamente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar las condiciones de la encapsulación de pulpa de tuna anaranjada mediante metodología de superficie respuesta (MSR). Se empleó un Diseño Composito Central más punto axial para optimizar las variables independientes temperatura del aire a la entrada del secador (T) y relación pulpa de tuna/maltodextrina (PT/MD). Las variables respuesta fueron Eficiencia de Encapsulación de indicaxantina (EE), Recuperación de indicaxantina (R) y Rendimiento (Y). La optimización se realizó utilizando MRS aplicando la función de optimización múltiple Deseabilidad (D) maximizando las tres variables respuesta.
... Arid and semi-arid regions are special areas for cultivating cactus fruits that are geographically distributed in Mexico, Latin America, South Africa, and Mediterranean countries (Butera et al., 2002). O. dillenii plants have a high environmental adaptivity and adapt to all climatic conditions due to their remarkable genetic (Moßhammer et al., 2006). Opuntia fruit is a berry with a delicately flavored juicy pulp that contains many hard seeds and has a thick pericarp (peel) of 30-40% of the fruit (Duru &Turker, 2005). ...
... Twenty-eight NACs of interest belonging to five categories, namely, CDP, MRC, CADP, chlorophyll degradation products (CDPS), and aromatic amino acid cleavage substances (ACS), were determined (Croissant et al., 2009;Moßhammer et al., 2006;Martins et al., 2000;Shi and Liu, 1998) (Table 1). With 16 constituents, CDP is the largest class. ...
Article
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To understand the regional distributions of neutral aroma components (NACs) of interest in flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), samples from a single cured leaf lamina were taken at 48 distinct points with the help of a thin transparent plastic board. We investigated 28 NACs belonging to five categories, namely aromatic amino acid cleavage substances (ACS), cembratriendid alkyl degrading products (CADP), carotenoid degradation products (CDP), chlorophyll degradation products (CDPS), and Maillard reaction components (MRC), by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC–TOFMS) analysis. Geostatistical tools and statistical software were subsequently used to analyze the NAC contents. The results showed that the contents of all the five categories had high levels of significance at 0.01. The nugget effect value of the different NACs exceeded 75%, and the Kriging interpolation map showed a continuous spatial structure. Based on the NAC contents, it was clear that only one principal component had a characteristic value greater than 1 (at 4.9), which accounted for 87.81% of the total variation. With the help of the Management Zone Analyst software, the NACs of a single tobacco leaf were accurately divided into six zones after k-means cluster verification. Overall, these results provide valuable information that will improve the use of tobacco leaves in tobacco threshing and redrying. Moreover, the results suggest the approach described herein can also be used for analyzing the distributions of chemicals in leaves with structures similar to tobacco.
... Cactus pear fruit is generally consumed fresh, but it has also the potential to be processed into products like juices or jam [8]. The fruit has juicy pulp with numerous seeds immersed in it, surrounded by a thick peel with small spines [9]. Consumption and processing generate residues such as peels and seeds, which are nonedible portions of the fruit and represent 37% to 67% of the total weight [10]. ...
Article
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Recently, industry has been focusing on the development of new products made from food by-products in order to reduce and take advantage of food wastes. The objective of this study was to evaluate tablet formulations developed by mixing two commercial excipients, microcrystalline cellulose (M) and α-lactose-monohydrate (L), added with powder from residues (mesocarp and pericarp) of green and red (G and R) cactus pear fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill), having the following formulations: green with microcrystalline cellulose (GM), green with lactose (GL), red with microcrystalline cellulose (RM), and red with lactose (RL). The results showed lower disintegration times for the tablets with microcrystalline cellulose. The fiber functional properties presented good values for lipid and water holding capacity. There was a higher total phenolic content (TPC) in formulations with green cactus pear residue powder with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose (GM and GL, respectively), but the DPPH and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) values were higher in the formulations with red cactus pear residues (RM and RL), while ABTS values were similar among all formulations. In conclusion, tablets made from Opuntia residues are proposed as a product of interest for the food supplement industry because of the good quality parameters and the functional and antioxidant properties that they provide.
... Fruits of the cactus are usually consumed as food after peeling them when they are fresh. Moreover, they are used in the preparation of fruit juice, jelly, jam, sugar, coloring food, ice cream, and other foods, and also in cosmetics [16][17][18]. It is used for treating diabetes, burns, bronchial asthma, and indigestion in many countries in the world due to the strong antioxidant effects of its fruits [19]. ...
Article
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Ethnobotanical field surveys revealed the use of fruits of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. for treating diabetes, burns, bronchial asthma, constipation, kidney stones, and rheumatic pains and as a sedative in Turkish folk medicine. This study aimed to verify the efficacy of the fruits of O. ficus indica experimentally and to define components responsible for the activity using bioassay-guided procedures. The crude methanolic extract of the fruits was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. Further experiments were carried out on the most active subextract, that is, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) subextract, which was further subjected to fractionation through successive column chromatographic applications on Sephadex LH-20. For activity assessment, each extract or fraction was submitted to bioassay systems; traction test, fireplace test, hole-board test, elevated plus-maze test, and open-field test were used for sedative and anxiolytic effects, and a thiopental-induced sleeping test was used for the hypnotic effect. Among the subextracts obtained from the methanolic extract, the EtOAc subextract showed significant sedative and anxiolytic effects in the bioassay systems. From the EtOAc subextract, major components were isolated, and their structures were determined as isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside using spectral techniques. In conclusion, this study confirmed the claimed use of the plant against anxiety in Turkish folk medicine.
... It is a good natural source of healthy components such as betalains, phenolic compounds, pectin (source of dietary fiber), vitamin C, calcium and magnesium. Hence one can say that cactus pears are increasingly gaining impetus both for health professionals and consumers (Moßhammer et al, 2006;El-Samahy et al, 2007). The fairly high sugar content and low acidity make prickly pear fruit very sweet and delicious and also put to different traditional and industrial uses (Saenz, 2000). ...
Article
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Prickly pear, an underutilized fruit in India is known for its functional benefits such as it boosts immunity, builds strong bones and teeth, maintains digestive health, enhances heart health, anti-carcinogenic effects, antioxidant potential, weight loss effects and suppresses inflammation. Gelatine based dessert was prepared using cactus pear juice and was compared with pectin based jellies prepared from the same juice. The loss in quality parameters was found lesser in gelatine based dessert than that in pectin jelly. Ascorbic acid analysis showed that the gelatine based dessert had more amount of ascorbic acid content as compared to pectin based jelly. The sensory evaluation was carried out to compare the consumer acceptance of gelatine based dessert and was observed that gelatine based dessert was sensorially superior than the pectin based jelly.
... Arid and semi-arid regions are special areas for cultivating cactus fruits that are geographically distributed in Mexico, Latin America, South Africa, and Mediterranean countries (Butera et al., 2002). O. dillenii plants have a high environmental adaptivity and adapt to all climatic conditions due to their remarkable genetic (Moßhammer et al., 2006). Opuntia fruit is a berry with a delicately flavored juicy pulp that contains many hard seeds and has a thick pericarp (peel) of 30-40% of the fruit (Duru &Turker, 2005). ...
Article
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The present study aims to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the extracts of cactus pear Opuntia dillenii (OD) fruit which grow in southern Iraq and offer different health benefits. The physicochemical properties of the fruit juices (pulp and peels) were investigated. Fruit pulp and peel extracts carried the symbols: hexane pulp extract (HPuE), hexane peel extract (HPeE), ethanolic pulp extract (EPuE), and ethanolic peels extract (EPeE). The activel compound screened by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HPuE and HPeE contained 40 bioactive compounds and 60 bioactive compounds were detected in EPuE and EPeE. The scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals records a high level of inhibition ranging from 34.8 to 90.3% for EPeE and from 32.9 to 89.9% for EPuE, while hexane extracts scavenging activities (HPeE and HPuE) were 24.9-78.9% and 20.7-73.3% respectively at concentrations of 20-80 µg.ml-1 this activity has received considerable attention because of their physiological functions.
... Also, it is a good source of vitamins and amino acids. The pulp of cactus pear could be processed into many different products such as marmalades, jellies, natural sweeteners, wines and other alcoholic beverages, candies, canned, frozen fruit (Moßhammer et al., 2006;Matter et al., 2016). Therefore, the aim of this study was to utilize pomegranate and cactus pear juices as natural ingredients to improve the acceptability, antioxidant activity and nutritional value of fruit flavoured yoghurts. ...
... The fruit also has a high content of free amino acids, particularly proline, glutamine, and taurine (Salim et al., 2009;Yahia & Mondragon-Jacobo, 2011;Slimen et al., 2016;Kumar et al., 2018;Garcia et al., 2020). The fruit is eaten fresh, processed into food, drink or as a source of natural colors, food supplements, cosmetic components (Mobhammer et al., 2006, Yahia & Saenz, 2011El-Neney et al., 2019), and pharmaceutical ingredients to treat several diseases (Galati et al., 2003a, b;Palumbo et al., 2003;Wolfram et al., 2003;El-Mostafa et al., 2014;Diaz et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
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Opuntia spp. are among the most important potential crops in the sustainable agricultural development of arid and semi-arid regions. They are mostly known as a fruit crop, and it is slowly achieving the status of the formal crop; however, there is an increased interest in Opuntia fruit and cladode production due to the great demand for human and animal nutrition in the global market. Fruit are harvested based on peel color, fruit size, fullness and flattening of the floral cavity or receptacle. They are non-climacteric and highly perishable with a short shelf life of few days under marketing conditions. Shelf life is mainly affected by decay, which is related to physical damages during harvest and handling. The fruit is also susceptible to chilling injury when exposed to a prolonged cold temperature below 9 °C. For harvested cladodes, the acid content and flavor may fluctuate significantly during the day and can also be affected by postharvest storage temperature. Therefore, to reduce decay, maintain quality, and prolong the shelf life of Opuntia fruit and cladode, this chapter will discuss on harvest methods, as well as postharvest physiology and technology of Opuntia species that are used for the production of fruit, as well as cladodes that are widely used as a type of vegetables for human nutrition, in addition to those used as forage for animal feed.
Article
Cactus pear (Opuntia sp.) is a highly perishable fruit that starts to deteriorate after several days of storage at room temperature. After two weeks at room temperature, 70% of the fruit shows signs of deterioration. Cactus pear quality for stored pears depends on harvest techniques and on practices for prolonging shelf life. A pneumatic cauterizing machine with a resistive heating element was used to seal cactus pears on their peduncle. More effective contact between the heater element and fruit was obtained after cutting the peduncle. Internal pulp temperature was measured with NTC thermistors and it was found that after heating at 200 °C for 30 s, pulp temperature increased to 60 °C. Surface temperature was measured with a thermal infrared camera. Cactus pear shelf life, water loss, firmness and ° Brix were evaluated using piston pressures of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kPa during 30 s at cauterizing temperatures of 150, 180, 200 and 240 °C. The best shelf life was obtained after pressing the fruit with 100 kPa during 30 s at a temperature of 200 °C. Thirty-seven days after being cauterized, fruits began to rot, and half of the fruit was not marketable after 63 days. Pulp firmness decreased by 81% after 60 storage days, and soluble solids increased by 105%. Pears that did not seal properly were detected using thermal imaging three days after cauterizing. Pears were sliced and cauterized again unless the rotting area was over 50% and firmness lower than 15 N cm−2.
Chapter
The genus Opuntia has its place in order Caryophyllales of Angiosperms. This group of evergreen, succulent perennial plants belongs to the family Cactaceae. The Opuntia genus is native to Central America, having approximately 181 known species. These species flourish in dry, warmer, and open areas. They are cultivated throughout the world as not only vegetable, crop, and food products like jams, juices, and beverages but used as fodder and forage in Brazil, Mexico, Northern and southern Africa, and in Western Asia. In the early stage, the cladodes are tender and used as a vegetable source known as Nopales, while its fruit is obovoid to spheroidal known as tunas. It is juicy and fleshy used in candies. They are considered alternative natural medicine in diabetes, colon cancer, obesity, gastric ulcers, and coronary heart diseases. The Opuntia species hybridize easily in the wild, leading to continuous morphological variations results in misclassifications. The present study aims to complete the morphological description (qualitative and quantitative) of Opuntia species characterized by flattened cladodes called pads, covered with areoles with tiny detached spines known as glochids. The flowers are mostly yellow, cup-shaped, and lack true petals. The species showed noteworthy differences among color, length, the diameter of cladodes, spines per areole, flower, and fruit shape and color. The Opuntia genus is one of the most ignored plants’ genera, and this morphological characterization overcomes insufficient and inadequate knowledge for its species-level distinction.
Chapter
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer was ranked as the second leading cause of death. Research on natural products has recently received a lot of attention from health professionals for improving overall well-being and the prevention of diseases, including cancer. Many herbs have been screened for anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo as an alternative drug or in combination with chemotherapy. Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) which belongs to the Cactaceae family is a xerophytic plant with 200–300 species. It is distributed worldwide and has great economic potential. Opuntia spp. fruits revealed to be promising natural sources for the production of functional products and the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents. Studies have demonstrated the cytotoxic effects of various parts of Opuntia (fruits), with or without peels and seeds, the cladodes or stems, and even the roots, on cancerous cell lines. The cactus pear fruit extract inhibits the proliferation of cervical, ovarian, and bladder cancer cell lines in vitro, and suppresses tumor growth in the nude mice ovarian cancer model in vivo. It was reported that the anticancer activity is mostly because of bioactive polysaccharides that induce cell apoptosis or cell cycle arrest and angiogenesis suppression with minor toxicity on normal cells. This chapter aims to study the anticancer activity of Opuntia spp.
Chapter
Research on the processing of fruits (pears), stems, cladodes, and seeds of Opuntia spp. have been recently increased. The fruit of Opuntia spp. is considered as health-supporting food due to the variety of bioactive molecules in the fruit. The extraction of fruit juice from the fruits of Opuntia spp. is among the studies evaluated in this context. Fruit puree and juice production are one of the essential technologies. Juice extraction from different plant sources uses many techniques based on specific technologies. Some are classified as traditional methods, while others are called “new techniques or novel techniques”, which offer significant advantages to the juice industry. In this field, electrical treatment applications, high hydrostatic pressure, microwave heating, ultrasound, and membrane technique, which serve food research have been introduced in the literature. They have found a chance to be applied in the fruit juice industry but to a differing extent. Some are applied as a pretreatment before juice extraction or used simultaneously with traditional methods or individually, while others are used after juice extraction. These techniques used to provide an increase in fruit juice extraction efficiency and improve the quality characteristics of fruit juice products. These techniques are also utilized to ensure the microbial safety of juices and controlled bioactivity. In this chapter, recent studies on the use of new technologies for processing Opuntia spp. juice was evaluated, In addition, the impact of these technologies on the process efficiency and product quality and safety was discussed.
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Prickly pear plant is widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid climates. Its fruits are rich in polyphenols, proteins, vitamin C, minerals, fatty acids, and amino acids. The oil extracted from the seeds also has a significant proportion of linoleic acid (ω6) and might be employed as a therapeutic raw material. The potential of enhancing fruit yield, increasing bioactive compounds of the fruit pulp, and improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of prickly pear oilseed by using the foliar application of brassinolide as a plant growth regulator was the main goal of this study. Prickly pear plants were foliar sprayed with a brassinolide solution at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg L−1 . The plant performance was significantly improved following brassinolide applications, as compared with untreated plants. The plants subjected to 5 mg L−1 application exhibited 183 and 188% stimulation in the fruit yield, and 167 and 172% in the seed yield for the first and second seasons, respectively. The highest concentration of phenolic, flavonoid, protein, vitamin C, and maximum antioxidant activity in the fruit pulp was observed following 5 mg L−1 brassinolide treatment. The oil yield has been increased by 366 and 353% following brassinolide at a 5 mg L−1 level over control plants. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids are the major components in prickly pear seed oil. Brassinolide foliar spraying induced an alternation in the fatty acid profile, as linoleic and oleic acids exhibited 5 and 4% higher following 5 mg L−1 application as compared with untreated plants. In conclusion, the treatment of 5 mg L−1 brassinolide improved the growth and quality of prickly pear plants by boosting fruit and seed yields, increasing active component content in the fruit pulp, improving mineral content, and increasing oil production and linoleic acid proportion.
Article
Opuntia ficus‐indica fruits have an important nutritional value and show several biological properties. This work studied the fruit physicochemical characteristics of two wild ecotypes (“Green” and “Orange”) and two cultivars (“Rossa” and “Gialla”) from Portugal. The results showed that the largest and heaviest fruits were those from ecotype “Orange,”, whereas the wild ecotype “Green” had fruits with firmer flesh. The fruit peels of cultivars “Rossa” and “Gialla” presented the highest fibre content. Glucose was the major carbohydrate in the fruits, particularly in the peels. Malic acid was the sole organic acid in both peels and pulps of all samples. The betacyanins' content was higher in fruits of the “Rossa” cultivar, and the higher betaxanthins' content was present in the peel of the cultivar “Gialla.” Peels of all samples generally had higher amounts of betalains than the pulps. The peel was a better scavenger of DPPH and ABTS free radicals than the pulp. Practical application The wastes of diverse food industries have revealed the presence of bioactive compounds with added value. The fruits of Opuntia ficus‐indica are appreciated for possessing biological attributes, nevertheless the peel generally is not used. The present work shows that the pigments (betalains) are predominantly found in the peel. Moreover, the in vitro antioxidant activity was also higher in this part of the fruit, independent on the ecotype or cultivar studied. Such results might trigger the interest for these residues from which pigments and bioactive compounds can be extracted, and, as extracts, can be used in diverse domains particularly in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Effect s of t he incorporat ion of cant aloupe pulp in yogurt : Physicochemical, phyt ochemical and rheolo… Hocine REMINI EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENT RAT IONS OF PEACH, CHERRY, AND KIWI MARMALADE ON SOME PHY… IJBB pakist an Download a PDF Pack of t he best relat ed papers  Abstract-Yoghurt is a coagulated milk product that results from the fermentation of lactose in milk by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermphillus. The health benefits can be increased by adding native fruit pulps. Yoghurt with different fruit pulp includes papaya and cactus pear was prepared and stored up to 10 days. The fruit were added at the rate of 5%, 10% and 15%w/w. Physicochemical properties of yoghurt samples include moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash were determined at first days of storage. Acidity, pH, syneresis, water holding capacity (WHC), total count, coliform group, yeast &mould and organoleptic properties were evaluated yoghurts at zero time, after 5 and 10 days of storage at refrigerator.There were significantly differences between plain yoghurt and fruit yogurt in the pH, moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate content and titratable acidity amounts 5 day of storage. The results showed that acidity increased over the storage period. Highest values for WHC and lowest values for syneresis were belonged to yogurt with 15 % cactus pear and 10 days storage with 71.21% and 16.01%, respectively. Sensory evaluation results showed that there were significant differences among the yoghurt samples. The yoghurt containing papaya pulp had the highest overall acceptability scores as compare to other fruit yogurt samples and also plain yogurt. The results of current study demonstrated that the addition of fruits to the yogurt significantly improved the quality of yogurt.
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Sixteen volatile compounds of prickly pear fruits (Cv. yellow, red and white) were identified by GC/MS and quantified by GC/FID. Most of their aroma values were calculated using the threshold value of standard compounds determined in water by sensory analysis. (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and hexan-1-ol amounted to about 80% of the total weight of the extracts. However, the most important aroma contributors among the identified compounds were (E,Z)-2,6-nonadien-1-ol and 2-methylbutanoic acid methyl ester, which, though present in low quantities, pro-.
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The biochemical characteristic of adaptation to drought in Opuntia Ficus-indica has been investigated in the present study. The research was conducted on young self-rooted plants of cactus pear cv "Gialla", irrigated or droughted from May 1993 to May 1994. Cladode size, fresh and dry weight, osmotic pressure, pH and titratable acidity, polyamines (PAs) , and abscissic acid (ABA) levels were recorded in tissues sampled in February and in May 1994, at different hours of the day. All the plants survived after a prolonged water stress, but drought affected cladode morphology and the never cladode production. Typical day­ night fluctuation in tissue pH and titratable acidity was observed in irrigated and water stressed plants both in winter (February) and in the growth season (May), but CAM activity decreased as the stress proceeded. ABA content increased as the season advanced and the highest levels of this hormone were observed in the droughted plants. Pas, levels were higher in irrigated plants and increased during night, together with the greatest accumulation of malic acid. Among Pas putrescine was the main represented polyamine, followed by spermidine and spermine. Only these two polyamines increased their concentrations in water stressed plant tissues.
Chapter
The search for new sources of fats and oils is an ongoing process. By far, plant seeds are the most promising sources of oils for nutritional, industrial, and pharmaceutical purposes. The application of an oil for a particular purpose, however, is determined by its fatty acid and triglyceride compositions. No oil from a single source has been found to be suitable for all purposes, because oils from different sources have different fatty acid compositions. It is for this reason that the search for new sources for novel oils is so important. So far, a large number of plants have been analyzed, and some of these have been cultivated as new crops (Hirsinger, 1989). Another approach to develop novel oils is to produce new cultivars from already established oil crops. The development of low-erucic acid cultivars of Brassica is one good example (Downey and Robbelen, 1989). Other novel crops that are + nding greater utilization include hemp (Parker et al., 2003; Illingworth, 2004), crambe (Yaniv et al., 1991), sea buckthorn (Yang and Kallio, 2001), and cuphea (Isbell and Behle, 2003). In addition to the nutritional, industrial, and pharmaceutical uses of oil, the variation in fatty acid composition in plants has proven to be a useful tool in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies (Vickery, 1971).
Article
Lactic acid fermentation of prickly pear extract (PPE) was performed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LS, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus brevis. The PPE was pasteurized to eliminate indigenous microorganisms as well as to dissolve the partially insoluble pulp. The PPE fermented without yeast extract by L. rhamnosus LS exhibited 0.57? acidity and 3.5{\times}10^{8} CFU/mL bacteria count. With the addition of 0.2% edible yeast extract the PPE fermented by L. rhamnosus LS exhibited 1.15? acidity,2.7{\times}10^{9} CFU/mL bacteria count and 95.0% retention of red color. When 5? fructose syrup was added, the PPE fermented by L. rhamnosus LS had 1.09% acidity, 6.5{\times}10^{8} CFU/mL, and 97.7% retention of red color. With 1?3% (w/v) concentrations of starter, the PPE fermented by L. bulgaricus and L. brevis showed 0.97% and 0.65% acidities, respectively. The viable cell counts from L. rhamnosus LS fermentation were higher compared with those of other LAB. During cold storage at 4^{\circ}C, the viable cell count was well maintained for 3 weeks, but then rapidly decreased. The red pigment was highly stable during cold storage for 4 weeks. The pasteurized PPE fortified with 5% fructose syrup, 0.2% yeast extract, and 0.05% CaCO_3 was successfully fermented by inoculating with 3% LAB and incubating at 30^{\circ}C for 2 days. Both viable cell counts and the red color of the fermented PPE were well maintained during cold storage for 3 weeks.
Chapter
Many species of the Cactaceae produce edible fruits. Among the approximately 1,600 species in this family, the genus Opuntia has the most relevant role in agriculture. The cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica [L.] Mill.) is cultivated for fruit production in all continents except Antarctica. The main producing country is Mexico, with a production of over 345,000 tons fresh mass year⁻¹ on about 70,000 ha of specialized plantations. This chapter outlines the basics of cactus pear cultivation, including site selection, cultivars, harvesting, fruit productivity, and fruit quality, and also discusses the economic features, postharvest physiology, and postharvest fruit management.
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Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Direct influences of diet on obesity are obvious, however equally strong is the evidence that CVD is caused by and preventable by diet. A common link between these two conditions is insulin resistance (IR), characterised by elevated insulin levels due to an insensitivity to insulin's action postprandally. Recent research has highlighted the strong connection between IR and incidence and severity of CVD. IR is associated with the generation of very small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) which confers a high risk for cardiovascular disease, more so than any previously identified risk factor for CVD. Given the clear correlation with IR, dietary approaches may be considered to be highly effective as a treatment strategy or preventative measure. This review concentrates on this newly discovered link between IR and CVD, and presents a balanced view of dietary measures which could contribute to corrections in insulin imbalances, responsiveness to insulin, and therefore reduce CVD incidence and obesity.
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Plant sterols are an essential component of the membranes of all eukaryotic organisms. They are either synthesised de novo or taken up from the environment. Their function appears to be to control membrane fluidity and permeability, although some plant sterols have a specific function in signal transduction. The phytosterols are products of the isoprenoid pathway. The dedicated pathway to sterol synthesis in photosynthetic plants occurs at the squalene stage through the activity of squalene synthetase. Although the activity of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A (HGMR) is rate-limiting in the synthesis of cholesterol, this does not appear to be the case with the plant sterols. Up-regulation of HGMR appears to increase the biosynthesis of cycloartenol but not the Delta(5)-sterols. A decline in sterol synthesis is associated with a suppression of squalene synthetase activity, which is probably a critical point in controlling carbon flow and end-product formation. The major post-squalene biosynthetic pathway is regulated by critical rate-limiting steps such as the methylation of cycloartenol into cycloeucalenol. Little is known about the factors controlling the biosynthesis of the end-point sterol esters or stanols. The commonly consumed plant sterols are sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol which are predominantly supplied by vegetable oils. The oils are a rich source of the steryl esters. Less important sources of sterols are cereals, nuts and vegetables. The nutritional interest derives from the fact that the sterols have a similar structure to cholesterol, and have the capacity to lower plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Since the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease have been dramatically reduced using cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins), the interest in plant sterols lies in their potential to act as a natural preventive dietary product. Stanols (saturated at C-5) occur in low amounts in the diet and are equally effective in lowering plasma cholesterol and do not cause an increase in plasma levels, unlike the sterols which can be detected in plasma. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.
Article
The effect of initial oxidation on ascorbic acid browning has been studied in four kiwifruit juice concentrates and two model concentrates. Single strength kiwifruit juice and model solutions were aerated for varying lengths of time and then concentrated and stored at 20°C for 20 weeks. Increased initial oxidation of ascorbic acid in the kiwifruit juices and model solutions led to increased browning in the stored concentrates. In the oxidized samples, the time course of browning was characterized by a sharp initial phase over the first 2 weeks of storage, followed by a slower and steady rate of browning. The observed increases in browning and haze on storage were highly correlated to the loss of total ascorbic acid and total phenolics. The browning exhibited by the model concentrates was significantly lower than that of the juice concentrates at a similar level of initial oxidation, suggesting minor juice components make a major contribution to browning.
Article
Three formulations with different proportions of cactus pear and quince pulp (F1: 100% cactus pear pulp: F2: 75:25 cactus pear: quince pulp; F3: 50:50 cactus pear: quince pulp) and citric acid (F1: 1.1%; F2: 0.7%; F3: no citric acid) were prepared and made into fruit sheets. The pulp blends, dried in a forced air tunnel dehydrator (57 degrees-60 degrees C; 6-8 h), had a moisture near 15-16% and a aw of 0.55-0.60. Formulation F3 had a significantly higher pH (4.2), lower acidity (1.32%) and lower vitamin C content than the other formulations. During storage none of the sensory characteristics studied showed significant differences. Formulation F2 had the best quality characteristics in appearance, texture, flavor and color. The acceptability at 90 days of storage was 5.7, 6.7 and 6.4 for F1, F2 and F3, respectively.
Article
Cactus, a CAM plant, grows extensively in arid and semi-arid parts of the world. It possesses a very high water to dry matter conversion efficiency and has immense economic value as fruit, vegetable, fodder, medicine, etc. The importance of cactus pear as livestock feed has been discussed in detail, giving techniques for utilization as forage. Since the quality of the cactus cladodes does not deteriorate on storage and as they maintain green color as well as vitamin A level, they can provide an excellent source of fodder during the drought periods. The red/orange fruits of the cacti are edible, range in weight from 110 to 160 g and contain 12 to 15% sugar. The cladodes of the nopalito cacti are used as vegetable. Some of these types are known to reduce blood sugar level in the human body. Cactus pear is also a source of red cochineal dye and mucilage for binders and thickening agents. The status of recently introduced cactus pear clones in Indian arid and semi-arid regions has been discussed.
Article
The aroma compounds present in the headspace of homogenized slurries of fresh prickly pears (Opuntia ficus indica) from Sicilian cultivars were determined. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas-chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was used to characterize the volatile compounds. The volatile flavor profiles of the three cultivars investigated (red, white and yellow) showed significant differences. The aromatic profile of pealed prickly pears stored for one day was different from that of the fresh samples, mainly due to the occurrence of some oxidative and hydrolytic reactions.
Article
The effects of the dried fruit powder of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OF-f) were investigated on gastric lesion and ulcer models in rats. It showed significant inhibition in HCl·ethanol and HCl·aspirin induced gastric lesion at a dose of 600 mg/kg, p.o. OF-f also showed significant inhibition in indomethacin induced gastric lesion at the doses of 200 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. However, it did not affect aspirin and Shay ulcer in rats. It also did not affect the gastric juice secretion, acid output and pH. These data suggest that OF-f possesses pronounced inhibitory action on gastric lesion of rats.
Article
Opuntia boldinghii Br et R. is a species without commercial use. However, recent research has shown its potential as a colorant, due to the presence of betalains. In this study, four citric beverages (15% orange juice + 15% grape-fruit juice + 65% water + 5% O. boldinghii pulp) formulated with 0, 0.5%, 0.1% 0.01% ascorbic acid (formulations I, II, III and IV, respectively). The products were pasteurized and stored at 7.0 ±°C using amber bottles. Mesophilic bacteria, molds, yeast, MPN/ml of coliforms, pH, °Brix, titrable acidity, betalains, total carotenoids, vitamin C and sensorial parameters (color, aroma and flavor) were evaluated weekly during 21 days. The first day, mesophilic bacteria counts were <200CFU/ml. No significant differences were found (P>0.05) in pH, °Brix and titrable acidity. Significant differences were found (P<0.05) in betalains, total carotenoids and vitamin C. It is concluded that the elaboration of these products is feasible and it permits to the use of O. boldinghii, a marginal species.
Article
The preservation through combined methods has shown to be an effective technique for the elaboration of fruits in syrup and it is generally used with priority in regions far away from urban cities where there is neither such state-of-the-art technology nor enough energy. The main objective of the present work was to utilise this technology to develop peeled cactus pear in syrup canned in glass jars (440 mL) with twist-off caps, selecting those formulations that organoleptically were the best out of a population of 12, in which water activity (0,96 and 0,975), concentrations of sodium bisulphite (0, 50 and 100 ppm), phosphoric acid (50% v/v) and in mixture with citric acid (50% v/v) were modified and the concentrations of the ascorbic acid (500 ppm), calcium chloride (120 ppm) and potassium sorbate (1000 ppm) were maintained constant. The main conclusion was that conserved peeled cactus pears in syrup can be elaborated through combined methods reaching a total "Acceptable" qualification according to the organoleptical featuring and that the best alternative of formulation is the one without sodium bisulphite addition, by using a mixture of phosphoric and citric acids (50% v/v) and with Aw = 0,96, maintaining constant the remainder of the chemical additives. This formulation was characterised by applying chemical, physical, and microbiological methods, being observed that as well as in other preserves of fruits in syrup, they constitute sources of carbohydrates, fibbers, mineral (value of ashes) and vitamin C.
Article
The use of processed fruit by-products for human consumption has increased significantly in recent years. The objective of the present paper was the sensorial evaluation of two products that used the skins of cactus pears that normally are not eaten. These new products were concentrated and preserved by combinations of methods. The first product combined cactus-pear skins, which normally are not eaten; pulp of the fruits that are normally eaten; and sucrose to develop a concentrated sweet product. The second product, termed marmalade, used ground skins and sucrose, but without additional pectin. Preservatives and acids in low concentrations also were added. For the first product a factorial design 3 × 2 × 2 was used whose factors were: (BS) sodium bisulphite (0, 50 and 100 ppm), (Aw) water activity (0.94 and 0.96), and acids [(AF) (phosphoric acid (50% v/v) and in mixture with citric acid (AF + AC) (50% v/v)]. In this product the (SK) potassium sorbate (1000 ppm) and (AC) ascorbic acid (500 ppm) were kept constant. In the second experiment, a single formulation with 63°Brix was developed with pH = 4.0; and SK = 250 ppm. Various dilutions of the first product containing both the pulp and the ground skins were diluted to obtain a final Brix of 15 (referred to as a nectar in this paper) before organoleptic evaluation by trained panel. The marmalade was not diluted prior to organoleptic evaluation. The optimum formulation for the pulp plus skin product had an Aw = 0.94; addition of AF, BS = 100 ppm and a "Good" rating. The second product, marmalade, had a slightly lower acceptance with an overall "acceptable" rating.
Article
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cladodes contain a polysaccharide fraction that can retain water. The cladodes are used in Sicilian folk medicine as cicatrizant. We studied the healing activity of a base cream containing 15% lyophilized cladodes and of a commercial ointment on the wound produced on the backs of rats. The treatment was carried out for 3 and 5 days. After three days of treatment, the scar tissue is evident, both fibers and fibroblasts in the derma are properly arranged. The dermal vessels are reduced in lumen and the keratinocytes show proliferation areas. In the 5 days' treatment, the wound healing process is almost completed and the piliferous bulbs are recovering. Complete epithelization occurs. Evidently, the O. ficus-indica treatment accelerates wound healing, probably by involving the proliferation and migration of the keratinocytes in the healing process.
Article
Industrial gums, which for the most part are water-soluble polysaccharides, have enormously large and broad application in both food and non-food industries. All applications depend on the properties provided by very large molecules in various states of hydration, but mostly depend on the properties they impart to solutions and gels. Polysaccharides are used in the food industry, because they are widely available and nontoxic and are usually of low cost. The use of polysaccharides in nonfood applications depends on unique special properties they provide, often at costs below those of synthetic polymers. Each gum has special properties that are a result of its individual unique molecular structure. This chapter presents general information on gums and discusses various factors that affect the selection of gums.