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The Road to Academic Excellence : The Making of World-Class Research Universities

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For middle-income and developing countries as well as some industrial nations a major challenge for building and sustaining successful research universities is determining the mechanisms that allow those universities to participate effectively in the global knowledge network on an equal basis with the top academic institutions in the world. These research universities provide advanced education for the academic profession, policy makers, and public and private sector professionals involved in the complex, globalized economies of the 21st century. In addition to their contribution to economic development, these universities play a key societal role by serving as cultural institutions, centers for social commentary and criticism, and intellectual hubs. The positive contribution of tertiary education is increasingly recognized as not limited to middle-income and advanced countries, because it applies equally to low-income economies. Tertiary education can help these countries to become more globally competitive by developing a skilled, productive, and flexible labor force and by creating, applying, and spreading new ideas and technologies. A recent study on how to accelerate economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa spells out the crucial contribution of tertiary education in supporting this endeavor (World Bank 2008). It observes that the key for success in a globalized world increasingly lies in how effectively a country can assimilate available knowledge and build comparative advantages in areas with higher growth prospects and how it can use technology to address the most pressing environmental challenges. The main chapters of this book are nine case studies that illustrate what it takes to establish and sustain research universities and help validate the analytical model outlined above, including the paths to building research excellence.
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... Research universities are central institutions in any knowledge-and technology-intensive society because they are key to a world-class higher education system. Their future is reasonably bright [10]. Universities in developing countries are building institutional competence by pursuing to build research-intensive universities [11]. ...
... The results of the education internationalization policies in the BRICS countries have enhanced international research collaboration directly. As Altbach [10] mentioned, excellence initiatives as an essential strategy in higher education can increase international collaborations by highlighting the importance of research universities in developing countries and the number of publications in journals cited in international indexes. For example, the rapid growth of R&D inputs and outputs allowed China to increase its presence in the global arena with the status of a new "scientific superpower" from 2000 to 2018. ...
... They used to compare themselves with their prominent Western peers and chase after their peers in the "centers," mainly in North America and Europe. Altbach and Salmi [10] informed that there are exceptional fast movers who achieve excellence in a relatively short time-they clearly define themselves as centers of excellence. ...
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This study explored the international research collaboration in BRICS’s leading universities and their performance in the past decade. Based on the literature on the international educational policies in BRICS countries and the world university rankings, we select the top research universities of each BRICS country. We use the Scopes database, and the timespan of our research covers 2012–2021 years, which allows us to identify the critical points in international research collaborations in terms of research scale, quantity, impact, collaborative networks, and subject areas. We find that all BRICS countries have increased their international collaboration and production of international collaborative publications at varying degrees of growth. The research quality and impact of international cooperation in scientific publications in China and India have rapidly improved and enhanced. The other three countries are improving their research impact, yet their research quality has been limited or declined worldwide. Meanwhile, geopolitical factors, disciplinary advantages, and scientific and technological development need to influence the paths of international research collaborations in developing countries. As they integrate within global higher education, BRICS countries are beginning to establish their own distinctive academic and scientific development paths by actively participating in the international academic discourse.
... The Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), a credible independent nonprofit organization, identifies Leadership as the factor affecting the organization's performance on ESG issues [33]. Leadership involves managing issues inherent to the business model and common practice in the organization, an essential feature in the initiation step of effective governance and important to becoming a successful world-class university [34,35]. Any organization needs strategies to achieve performance. ...
... [10] Funding is crucial to becoming a successful world-class university. [35] Funding planning ISt3 ...
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Most research states that implementing environmental, social, and governance (ESG) has positive impacts. However, fewer studies have discussed ESG implementation in higher education. This study aimed to develop instruments to assess the ESG atmosphere in higher education institutions. A modified Delphi approach was employed. Experts were invited from a private higher education institution in Indonesia. A deductive study, discussion, and two stages of getting consensus from panelists were conducted. The instrument was distinguished into four types for four groups of higher education stakeholders: Students, Staff, Faculty Members, and Community Members. The I-CVIs ranged from 0.80–1.00, while the minimum values of S-CVI/Ave and S-CVI/UA were 0.98 and 0.91, respectively, meaning the content validity was excellent. The final version instrument has been tested and declared valid, reliable, and ready to be used for empirical research for universities to assess their contribution to the Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs). There are also opportunities to conduct further research on the existence of recursive and non-recursive models between factors.
... In the first case, great value is attributed to academic supervision, which is treated as an extremely relevant professional act, both for the professor/researcher and for the prestige of their home institution Minayo, 2019). In the second, the success of graduates as professors, researchers or managers feeds the institutional reputation (Dysthe;Samara;Westrheim, 2006;Walker et al., 2009;EUA, 2008;Kamler, 2008;Halse;Malfroy, 2010;Brass et al., 2010;Altbach;Salmi, 2011;Morrison et al., 2011;Gemme;Gingras, 2012;Kemp;Newnham;Chapman, 2012;OECD, 2013). ...
... In the first case, great value is attributed to academic supervision, which is treated as an extremely relevant professional act, both for the professor/researcher and for the prestige of their home institution Minayo, 2019). In the second, the success of graduates as professors, researchers or managers feeds the institutional reputation (Dysthe;Samara;Westrheim, 2006;Walker et al., 2009;EUA, 2008;Kamler, 2008;Halse;Malfroy, 2010;Brass et al., 2010;Altbach;Salmi, 2011;Morrison et al., 2011;Gemme;Gingras, 2012;Kemp;Newnham;Chapman, 2012;OECD, 2013). ...
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This essay asks whether and to what extent the stricto sensu postgraduate programs in public health contribute to the development of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). The hypothesis is positive, although an obvious and spontaneous movement is not stated, since scientific evidence is never mechanically adopted; implementation is a political act of management and not a result of academic studies. The argument is that these programs balance between two commitments: they obey the educational logic of the highest level of higher education and the development of science and technology, but they aim at knowledge and qualification of the health sector. The bases that support this text are articles and reports that deal with the significance of science, technology and innovation for world and national development; articles dealing with the job market of postgraduate students; and testimonies of 16 program coordinators whose relevance is highlighted in the analysis of the work. It is concluded that there is an effect, sometimes diffuse, sometimes concrete, of postgraduate courses on the performance of SUS and other national institutions. The contributions of doctoral, academic master’s and professional master’s programs differ, each in its own way is fundamental for the qualification of SUS.
... No primeiro caso, grande valor é atribuído à orientação acadêmica, que é tratada como um ato profissional de extrema relevância, tanto para o docente/ pesquisador como para o prestígio de sua instituição de origem Minayo, 2019). No segundo, o sucesso dos egressos como professores, pesquisadores ou gestores alimenta a reputação institucional (Dysthe;Samara;Westrheim, 2006;Walker et al., 2009;EUA, 2008;Kamler, 2008;Halse;Malfroy, 2010;Brass et al., 2010;Altbach;Salmi, 2011;Morrison et al., 2011;Gemme;Gingras, 2012;Kemp;Newnham;Chapman, 2012;OECD, 2013). ...
... No primeiro caso, grande valor é atribuído à orientação acadêmica, que é tratada como um ato profissional de extrema relevância, tanto para o docente/ pesquisador como para o prestígio de sua instituição de origem Minayo, 2019). No segundo, o sucesso dos egressos como professores, pesquisadores ou gestores alimenta a reputação institucional (Dysthe;Samara;Westrheim, 2006;Walker et al., 2009;EUA, 2008;Kamler, 2008;Halse;Malfroy, 2010;Brass et al., 2010;Altbach;Salmi, 2011;Morrison et al., 2011;Gemme;Gingras, 2012;Kemp;Newnham;Chapman, 2012;OECD, 2013). ...
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Resumo Este ensaio questiona se e até que ponto os programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu em saúde coletiva contribuem para o desenvolvimento do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). A hipótese é positiva, ainda que não se afirme um movimento óbvio e espontâneo, pois evidências científicas nunca são mecanicamente adotadas; a implementação é um ato político de gestão e não uma decorrência de estudos acadêmicos. O argumento é que esses programas se equilibram entre dois compromissos: obedecem à lógica educacional do mais alto nível do ensino superior e ao desenvolvimento da ciência e tecnologia, mas objetivam conhecimento e qualificação do setor saúde. As bases que fundamentam este texto são artigos e relatórios que tratam da significância da ciência, tecnologia e inovação para o desenvolvimento mundial e nacional; artigos que tratam do mercado de trabalho dos ex-alunos da pós-graduação; e depoimentos de 16 coordenadores de programas cuja relevância está assinalada na análise do trabalho. Conclui-se que há um efeito, por vezes difuso, por vezes concreto, dos cursos de pós-graduação no desempenho do SUS e de outras instituições nacionais. Diferenciam-se as contribuições dos doutorados, dos mestrados acadêmicos e dos mestrados profissionais, cada um a seu modo é fundamental para a qualificação do SUS.
... However, that is not true. For instance, exams cannot distinguish between the intelligent one and the one that studies hard (Altbach& Salmi, 2011). Or, the SAT, which is a metric exam designed entirely based on cognitive ability and was not affected by educational disadvantages and high school grades at the beginning, did not deliver what was expected. ...
Article
Today, in order for a student to enter a university, he/she must go through many admission stages. The exam hollowed out the education and expelled the non-cognitive and human values that were not measured by the exam. Exams that completely swallowed the students' 6-18 age period caused disaster in the education system, contrary to their purpose of existence. It has already been observed that standardized exams do not predict university success. The high school GPA is much more related to a student's academic achievement in the university. However, the inconsistency of high school GPAs between schools restricts their direct use of it at the university entrance. Our suggestion is to make random selection based on high school GPA. A lottery coefficient will be given to each student by using the student's high school GPA, class GPA, and class ranking. Thus, students will enter random selection with a lottery coefficient based on school success. Those with high success will have a higher coefficient and those with low success will have a lower coefficient. We hope that the random selection method will provide students with opportunities for their non-cognitive development and contribute to social peace.
... En este sentido, describieron la emergencia de dos modelos de universidades, en el contexto europeo, para responder a los procesos de modernización de los sistemas universitarios: las estratégicas (con una estructura vertical de organización) y las resilientes (con una estructura horizontal basada en misiones diferenciada). Las primeras se definen a partir de la descripción de universidades de clase mundial, ya mencionada anteriormente en este documento, y que fue acuñado por Altbach y Salmi (2011), cuyo interés está centrado en estandarizar su misión y su estructura jerárquica a intereses de racionalidad económica que les permita ser más competitivas. En este sentido, los modelos de incentivos y la evaluación de la productividad basada en métricas de cantidad son clave para su estructura jerárquica y su modelo de toma de decisiones (Pinheiro y Young, 2017). ...
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La gestión de la investigación en universidades ha sido un tema poco estudiado en el contexto colombiano, por lo que no existe evidencia suficiente que permita analizar las características de sus factores intra-organizacionales y sus posibles efectos sobre la productividad científica del profesorado. En este sentido, esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar las características de la gestión de la investigación en las doce universidades colombianas mejor posicionadas en ránquines internacionales, considerando algunas condiciones de calidad y cantidad de su producción científica. El método utilizado fue un diseño mixto concurrente dando mayor prioridad a datos cuantitativos que a los cualitativos. Para ello, se analizaron 36 documentos institucionales de las universidades seleccionadas, se aplicaron siete entrevistas estructuradas a ejecutivos institucionales y un cuestionario 269 miembros del profesorado vinculado a las universidades seleccionadas. Adicionalmente, se examinó el comportamiento de la producción científica de las universidades seleccionadas para el período 2001 – 2017. Como conclusión, se encontró que la gestión de la investigación en las universidades se caracteriza por un isomorfismo institucional que se explica desde la planeación estratégica centrada en la visibilidad y la internacionalización, lo que podría impactar negativamente en el reconocimiento de otras formas de producción de conocimiento. La incapacidad de contar con herramientas para la evaluación de resultados de investigación ha llevado a las universidades a adoptar métricas internacionales que olvidan los contextos locales de producción de conocimiento
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The role of faculty members is important in the quality teaching of an institution of higher education. Many studies show that the quality faculty members bring quality changes in teaching, research and innovation etc. The faculty members of Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) play an important role in the educational advancement of the university. In various rankings of national and international repute, the faculty members of AMU have proved their worth in the ranking of the university. In many rankings, the weightage given to the performance of faculty members is much higher than other areas. How important is the role of faculty members of AMU in determining the rankings? What is their position in comparison to faculty members of other institutions of higher learning of the country? What should be done to improve their performance? These questions have been studied in the present paper. The present paper has taken three areas e.g. teaching, research, and innovation to assess the performance of the faculty members of AMU in various rankings. The present paper is important to understand the performance of faculty members of AMU particularly in academic through rankings. This study will be helpful to the university administration, higher education bodies and governments. So, in future, effective educational planning can be chalked out to bring the qualitative changes in the education of the university.
Chapter
This chapter explores how public universities in Ukraine have internalised their research mission over the three decades of post-Soviet transformation. To tackle the posed research question, this chapter delves into two conceptualisations rooted in the new institutional theory—policy transfer logic and organisational identity. Our findings show that the research university discourse has been transferred into the Ukrainian higher education context through three main policy approaches: vertical system differentiation, competitive research funding, and research evaluation framework. As external concepts, these policy logics acquired noteworthy variations in Ukraine due to its historical legacies and broader socio-economic transformations. While a new law on higher education requires all public universities to conduct research, this chapter shows that diverse levels of research capacity, organisational traditions, and culture shape the range of strategies undertaken by Ukrainian universities to internalise research mission.
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Revitalization of libraries with modern innovative services that are necessary to bring libraries to the users to encourage independent learning and lifelong education would help schools libraries to provide effective service delivery to its users. This paper is set to look into Revitalization of School libraries for enhanced service delivery. It highlighted the roles of school libraries in this present era. It captures revitalization of school libraries for the future management of information resources and the need to review the curricula of library school towards preparing the 21st Century Librarian, Libraries and students. It captures space management in the library and shows how access to information can be enhanced by changing the mindset of librarians. It concluded that school libraries need to revitalize their services by transforming the way information is provided to users for enhanced service delivery. It provided a way forward that school libraries should be equipped with high class technology to provide and compete with other libraries globally and they should provide resources and equipment that would be user friendly to all categories of students irrespective of their background. Keywords: Enhancement, Revitalizing, School Libraries, Service Delivery
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