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A revision of the New World species of Donacaula Meyrick and a phylogenetic analysis of related Schoenobiinae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

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... Hampson (1895) included the then-known midiline genera in Schoenobiinae, whereas Solis & Maes (2002) hypothesized these subfamilies to be sister groups, based on the synapomorphy of a reduced proboscis. In the morphological cladistic analysis of Martinez (2010), whereas Schoenobiinae were grouped most immediately with the exemplar of Spilomelinae (Lineodes integra Zeller), these taxa together were sister group to a pair formed by the exemplars of Midilinae and Acentropinae. Other characters instead support grouping of Schoenobiinae with Acentropinae, including loss of the larval thoracic L seta, the very short L2 seta on larval abdominal segments, pupae with exarate appendages including metathoracic legs clearly exposed as outlined by Passoa (1988), and the presence of a tegumeno-ventral (t-v) plate (Yoshiyasu, 1985). ...
... The analysis of Landry (1995) further supported relatedness of these two subfamilies based on the presumed apomorphic condition of the cephalic end of the bulla tympani (= tympanic drum) not being concealed in the abdominal cavity in Donacaula longirostrella (Schoenobiinae) and Nymphula ekthlipsis (Grote) (Acentropinae). Interpretation of this feature is complicated, however, by the observations of Martinez (2010), whose illustrations show it to be variable within Schoenobiinae; the two earliest-branching genera in her cladogram show the bulla tympani to lie entirely inside the abdominal cavity. ...
... The same two schoenobiines were even more strongly grouped (BP = 80) in the smaller 5-gene study of Regier et al. (2009), which however did not include Midilinae. Schoenobiinae (represented by Schoenobius Duponchel and Clepsicosma Meyrick) are monophyletic also in the molecular analysis of Mutanen et al. (2010), and in the morphological phylogeny of Martinez (2010). Multiple morphological synapomorphies have been proposed for Schoenobiinae, including: presence of a prothoracic membranous sac in the larva; a deep, pitlike mesothoracic spiracle, as well as exposed mesothoracic and metathoracic coxae in the pupa (Passoa, 1988;both Scirpophaga and Rupela examined); and, an anal tuft encircling abdominal segment VII in the adult female (Common, 1960). ...
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Pyraloidea, one of the largest superfamilies of Lepidoptera, comprise more than 15 684 described species worldwide, including important pests, biological control agents and experimental models. Understanding of pyraloid phylogeny, the basis for a predictive classification, is currently provisional. We present the most detailed molecular estimate of relationships to date across the subfamilies of Pyraloidea, and assess its concordance with previous morphology‐based hypotheses. We sequenced up to five nuclear genes, totalling 6633 bp, in each of 42 pyraloids spanning both families and 18 of the 21 subfamilies, plus up to 14 additional genes, for a total of 14 826 bp, in 21 of those pyraloids plus all 24 outgroups. Maximum likelihood analyses yield trees that, within Pyraloidea, differ little among datasets and character treatments and are strongly supported at all levels of divergence (83% of nodes with bootstrap ≥80%). Subfamily relationships within Pyralidae, all very strongly supported (>90% bootstrap), differ only slightly from a previous morphological analysis, and can be summarized as Galleriinae + Chrysauginae (Phycitinae (Pyralinae + Epipaschiinae)). The main remaining uncertainty involves Chrysauginae, of which the poorly studied Australian genera may constitute the basal elements of Galleriinae + Chrysauginae or even of Pyralidae. In Crambidae the molecular phylogeny is also strongly supported, but conflicts with most previous hypotheses. Among the newly proposed groupings are a ‘wet‐habitat clade’ comprising Acentropinae + Schoenobiinae + Midilinae, and a provisional ‘mustard oil clade’ containing Glaphyriinae, Evergestinae and Noordinae, in which the majority of described larvae feed on Brassicales. Within this clade a previous synonymy of Dichogaminae with the Glaphyriinae is supported. Evergestinae syn. n. and Noordinae syn. n. are here newly synonymized with Glaphyriinae, which appear to be paraphyletic with respect to both. Pyraustinae and Spilomelinae as sampled here are each monophyletic but form a sister group pair. Wurthiinae n. syn., comprising the single genus Niphopyralis Hampson, which lives in ant nests, are closely related to, apparently subordinate within, and here newly synonymized with, Spilomelinae syn. n.
... Hampson (1895) included the then-known midiline genera in Schoenobiinae, whereas Solis & Maes (2002) hypothesized these subfamilies to be sister groups, based on the synapomorphy of a reduced proboscis. In the morphological cladistic analysis of Martinez (2010), whereas Schoenobiinae were grouped most immediately with the exemplar of Spilomelinae (Lineodes integra Zeller), these taxa together were sister group to a pair formed by the exemplars of Midilinae and Acentropinae. Other characters instead support grouping of Schoenobiinae with Acentropinae, including loss of the larval thoracic L seta, the very short L2 seta on larval abdominal segments, pupae with exarate appendages including metathoracic legs clearly exposed as outlined by Passoa (1988), and the presence of a tegumeno-ventral (t-v) plate (Yoshiyasu, 1985). ...
... The analysis of Landry (1995) further supported relatedness of these two subfamilies based on the presumed apomorphic condition of the cephalic end of the bulla tympani (= tympanic drum) not being concealed in the abdominal cavity in Donacaula longirostrella (Schoenobiinae) and Nymphula ekthlipsis (Grote) (Acentropinae). Interpretation of this feature is complicated, however, by the observations of Martinez (2010), whose illustrations show it to be variable within Schoenobiinae; the two earliest-branching genera in her cladogram show the bulla tympani to lie entirely inside the abdominal cavity. ...
... The same two schoenobiines were even more strongly grouped (BP = 80) in the smaller 5-gene study of Regier et al. (2009), which however did not include Midilinae. Schoenobiinae (represented by Schoenobius Duponchel and Clepsicosma Meyrick) are monophyletic also in the molecular analysis of Mutanen et al. (2010), and in the morphological phylogeny of Martinez (2010). Multiple morphological synapomorphies have been proposed for Schoenobiinae, including: presence of a prothoracic membranous sac in the larva; a deep, pitlike mesothoracic spiracle, as well as exposed mesothoracic and metathoracic coxae in the pupa (Passoa, 1988;both Scirpophaga and Rupela examined); and, an anal tuft encircling abdominal segment VII in the adult female (Common, 1960). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the first detailed molecular estimate of relationships across the subfamilies of Pyraloidea, and assess its concordance with previous morphology-based hypotheses. Maximum likelihood analyses yield trees that differ little among data sets and character treatments and are strongly supported at all levels of divergence. Subfamily relationships within Pyralidae, all very strongly supported, differ only slightly from a previous morphological analysis, and can be summarized as Galleriinae + Chrysauginae (Phycitinae (Pyralinae + Epipaschiinae)). In Crambidae the molecular phylogeny is also strongly supported, but conflicts with most previous hypotheses. Among the newly-proposed groupings is a wet-habitat clade comprising Acentropinae + Schoenobiinae + Midilinae, and a provisional mustard oil clade containing Glaphyriinae, Evergestinae and Noordinae.
... Acentropinae and Schoenobiinae form a sister group with strong support (BS = 94%). This clade is one of the few relationships within Crambidae which is well supported by morphological evidence (Martínez, 2010;Passoa, 1988;Yoshiyasu, 1985). Monophyly of Acentropinae is well supported (BP = 97%), while monophyly of Schoenobiinae shows moderate support (BS = 84%, pp = 1.00). ...
... They argued that this position is due to large portions of missing data in their 19-gene data set. Indeed, nine morphological characters support the monophyly of Schoenobiinae including Rupela (Common, 1960;Lewvanich, 1981;Martínez, 2010;Passoa, 1988), while no synapomorphy shared by Rupela and Acentropinae is known (Regier et al., 2012). We assume that the weak number of informative sites in the no-syn data set explains this ambiguous grouping. ...
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Crambidae is a group of moths with more than 10,000 species occurring worldwide that evolved diverse morphological and ecological habits. They can be best recognized by morphological characters of the adult tympanal organ and larval chaetotaxy. We present the first molecular phylogeny of Crambidae including all subfamilies and most tribes. We use available molecular data from two previous studies, and published transcriptomes and genomes, compiling ten genes totalling 11,247 bp. Up to eight genes are sequenced for thirty-nine additional taxa, with Cathariinae, Cybalomiinae and Linostinae sampled for the first time. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses recover topologies mostly agreeing with those of previous studies, with several groupings showing better support. Cathariinae syn. n. and Cybalomiinae syn. n. are recovered as ingroup of Glaphyriinae and are consequently synonymized with the latter. Linostinae are either sister to Glaphyriinae or sister to the ‘CAMMSS clade’. Lathrotelinae are recovered monophyletic and as sister to Musotiminae in the Bayesian analysis. Hoploscopinae stat. n. are recovered as sister to ((Crambinae + Erupinae stat. n.) + (Scopariinae + Heliothelinae s. str.)). Evolution of host-plant preferences is discussed.
... Schoenobiines tend to have bullae tympani that are markedly longer than wide and that bulge more deeply into the abdominal cavity. Like midilines, Carectocultus A. Blanchard lacks the forewing CuP vein and subteguminal processes and has large maxillary palpi like Erupa (Martinez 2010), but it possesses well-developed S7 and S8 tufts and vincular coremata like other schoenobiines. None of the examined midilines show rudiments of these complex genitalic characters, so the absence is hypothesized to be primitive. ...
... Midiline immature stages have not been described. Information about immatures is also absent for many schoenobiines (Martinez 2010) and Hoploscopini. Testing the polarity of the A9 Lgroup will require specimens of more taxa and molecular sequences. ...
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Odilla noralis Schaus is redescribed from the Greater Antilles. Odilla Schaus and Erupini Munroe are respectively transferred from Musotiminae and Crambinae to Midilinae. The structurally simple abdominal tympanal organs of Midilinae, a key diagnostic character of the subfamily, are compared to the organs of Schoenobiinae, Acentropinae, Hoploscopini, and other Crambidae, and the intermediate character-state combinations of Odilla and Erupini are discussed.
... msstate.edu/species.php?hodges=3797. Sources used in confirming identifications include Covell (2005), Ferguson (1978, 1985, 2008, Gilligan and Wright (2013), Gilligan et al. (2008), Handfield (1999), Heinrich (1923Heinrich ( , 1926Heinrich ( , 1956), Heppner (2003), Hodges (1974Hodges ( , 1978Hodges ( , 1986Hodges ( , 1999), Lafontaine (1987Lafontaine ( , 1998Lafontaine ( , 2004), Lafon- taine and Poole (1991), Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010), Lee et al. (2009), Martinez (2010), Mikkola et al. (2009), Miller (1987), Munroe (1972Munroe ( -1973Munroe ( , 1976), Neunzig (1986,1990,1997,2003), Poole (1995), Powell and Brown (2012), Regier et al. (2014), Regier et al. (2015), Rings et al. (1992), Scholtens and Solis (2015), Sohn et al. (2013), Sohn et al. (2015), and Wright and Gilligan (2015). ...
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Moth diversity in Congaree National Park, South Carolina.
... Eugene Munroe continued to publish, along with A. Blanchard , E. C. Knudson, B. Landry, H. H. Neunzig, J. Shaffer, and M. A. Solis, most actively describing species, revising groups and adding to the North American list of pyraloids. Within the last 30 or 40 years major revisions of subfamilies that included American species or genera included the Scopariinae (Munroe 1972a), Acentropinae (Munroe 1972a as Nymphulinae; Speidel 2005), Odontiinae (Munroe 1972b), Glaphyriinae (Munroe 1972b, 1973 including Evergestinae), Pyraustinae (Munroe 1976a,b), Crambinae (Landry 1995), Schoenobiinae (Martinez 2010) (but new names not yet published), Chrysauginae (Cashatt 1968, 1969; Solis et al. 2013), Epipaschiinae (Solis 1993), and most of the Phycitinae (Neunzig 1986, 1990, 1997, 2003; Shaffer 1968). ...
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