The eastern region of Morocco is renowned for the production of two varieties of figs, Ghoudane (GD) and Chetoui (CH), which are characterized by their high productivity and quality. To ensure a profitable selling price, producers often dry these figs, a process that not only increases their storage capability but also enhances their nutritional and health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition and potential health benefits of dried GD and CH figs. The findings of this study reveal that both varieties of dried figs have a rich composition of sugars, lipids, proteins, vegetable fibers, vitamins, minerals, polyphenols, and other nutrients. Moreover, both GD and CH figs that have been sun-dried meet the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's standard in terms of dry matter and diameter. However, their marketability and commercial quality as dried figs are only classified as Category I or lower-caliber figs. In terms of color, CH figs are lighter and brighter than their GD counterparts, making them more appealing to consumers. Furthermore, this study investigated the extraction of polyphenols and flavonoids from both dried fig varieties using different solvents. Distilled water was found to be the best extraction solvent for polyphenols in both varieties, with GD figs showing a higher content (483.6 mg GAE/100 g) than CH figs (408.3 mg GAE/100 g). Meanwhile, ethanol was found to be the best extraction solvent for flavonoids, with GD figs (180.2 mg of QE/100 g) showing a higher content than CH figs (122.9 mg of QE/100 g). In addition, the majority of the extracts, particularly the ethanol extracts, showed high efficiency against the tested bacteria and yeast. Notably, dried GD figs had higher amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared to dried CH figs. The study also revealed high correlations between phytochemical content and both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In conclusion, this study highlights the nutritional and health benefits of dried figs, particularly the GD variety, and their potential as a natural source of antimicrobial compounds. The findings suggest that dried figs could be an alternative source of natural antimicrobial agents for various applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.