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The functional food properties of figs

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... carica), a deciduous dicotyledonous tree is the most important member of the genus commonly referred to as 'fig' . Indigenous to Egypt (East Mediterranean region), F. carica was initially introduced to different civilizations throughout the world including England, United States (US), East and West South Central, South Atlantic and Pacific [33]. Despite, its origins in the Sub-Himalayan regions of the Bengal and Central Indian subcontinents, it has been widely cultivated all around the globe. ...
... Despite, its origins in the Sub-Himalayan regions of the Bengal and Central Indian subcontinents, it has been widely cultivated all around the globe. However, some of the world's major producers of figs for their dry and consumption were US, Turkey and Greece [33]. ...
Chapter
Herbal products found abundantly in several plants are the rich source of phytochemicals with a wide range of pharmacological activities and few adverse effects. Medicinal plants contain active ingredients that assist the body in reestablishing its natural balance and healing itself. Various herbs, which are commonly used in traditional Islamic medicine, can have an impact on human body systems. Natural products are primary sources of effective drugs with novel structures and distinct mechanisms of action for the treatment of various types of complications as well as the drug discovery process. The various pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of several natural products are well documented in the Ayurveda and Unani system of medicine. Some of the natural products’ active ingredients have been documented, but the majority are still being researched as complementary medicine. As a result, more research is required to investigate their complementary medicine system. The present chapter provides a comprehensive update on selected traditional Islamic medicinal plants and their bioactive products mentioned in Islamic scriptures as complementary therapies to various diseases. The chapter also provides an in-depth update of pharmacological and clinical studies of natural products with special emphasis on cancer and diabetes.
... Therefore, we can conclude that temperature is not the cause of the demonstrated variability in the mandarin populations. The nutritional value of all the fruits that were studied is very similar, the content of protein, fat and fiber is almost identical in all three host fruits, while figs have a slightly higher concentration of sugars [74][75][76]. What distinguishes mandarins from peach and fig fruits is the large amount of aspartic acid, of which there is over 130 mg in 100 g of mandarin [76]. ...
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The hypothesis of this study was that different plant hosts of the medfly Ceratitis capitata may cause variability as a prerequisite for its invasiveness. The main objective was to determine population variability based on medfly wing shape in three favorable medfly host plants (peach, fig and mandarin) from different agroecological growing areas with different pest management practices, and to evaluate phenotypic plasticity as a basis for future expansion into new areas and new hosts. Using geometric morphometric methods across 14 specific landmarks on the medfly wings, 10 populations were tested from infested peach, fig and mandarin fruits, as well as laboratory-grown sterile populations. The studies led to the following main findings: (1) all of the medfly populations that were studied exhibited sexual dimorphism in wing shape; (2) the hosts in which the medfly develops influence wing shape and condition its variability; (3) there is significant variability between laboratory mass-reared sterile and wild individuals in male and female populations; (4) a high phenotypic plasticity of medfly populations was observed along the study sites. Even the low but clearly detected variability between different agroecological conditions and localized variability indicate genotypic stability and high phenotypic plasticity, which can be considered as a prerequisite for medfly invasiveness and dispersal to new areas.
... In a 100-gram serving providing 249 calories, dried figs are a rich source (more than 20% DV) of dietary fiber and the essential mineral manganese (26% DV), while calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin K are in moderate amounts [12] . ~ 9 ~ [8] Reported significant antioxidant activity in dried fruits of Ficus carica. Dried figs are in vitro antioxidants after human consumption. ...
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Ficus carica is the most popular member of the genus Ficus, and the family Moraceae. In the Mediterranean region it is so widely used, both fresh and dried, that it is called "the poor man's food." The dried fruits of F. carica have been reported as an important source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds. The plant has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems, and also cancer. Additionally, it is also used in gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract infection. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.
... Hence, the ash content of fig vinegars is much higher compared to the other vinegars. These results can be related to the fact that the fig fruit is a rich source in terms of mineral content (Vinson, 1999). ...
Article
Fig vinegar is a special product which has a long history and is handed down from generation to generation. In the current study, characteristics of homemade fig vinegars supplied from different cities of Turkey were compared in terms of their physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Physicochemical properties of the samples were very diverse. Total phenolic and flavonoid content, and ABTS+ and DPPH radical scavenging activities of the samples were ranged from 313.5 to 594.25 mg GAE/L and 42.52-132.42 mg catechin/L, and 0.44-3.98 μg TE/mL and 1.25-7.51 μg TE/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity of vinegars is highly correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Furthermore, vinegar samples exhibited inhibitive effect on all test microorganisms and the minimum inhibition concentration values were ranged between 0.39 and 25% (v/v). These results indicated the distinct properties of homemade fig vinegars and the potential of them as antimicrobial and antioxidant substances.
... Sagili et al. (2018) reported that fig is important source of vitamins, amino acids and antioxidants, and it is nutritious fruit rich in fiber, potassium, calcium, and iron with higher level than other fruit such as apples, grapes and strawberries. The dried fig contains phenolic substances which contribute to its quality, and the phenolic compounds of dried figs can produce a significant increase of the antioxidant capacity of human plasma and can protest plasma lipoproteins from oxidation (Vinson, 1999). The peels and pulps have variable levels of poly- Pourghayoumi et al. (2016) suggested that the chlorogenic acid played a trifling role in determination of antioxidant capacity of the fruits. ...
Conference Paper
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The fig species is including in the Mediterranean region. This tree is very old in the world but also in our country. The numerous legends and myths prove its antiquity. Fig fruit has much classification, as edible and non edible fruit, one time and two times, fresh consume destination, dry fruit destination and industry destination. The aim of this study has been characterization of best traits of fresh consume fruit and to look quality standards for some fig varieties. In this characteristicies fruit are including, good quality, appearance of the produce, presentation, free from defects in shape and development, defects in coloring, damaged the skin, skin defects within limits, longitudinal cracks in the skin, size is determination by the maximum diameter. The minimum size shall be 40 mm. Uniformity in size. Quality tolerance for all classes, a total tolerance for weight, split in fruit. Maturity fruit. The development of maturity of fresh fig must continue their ripening. Practically free from pests, free from damage caused by pests affecting the fresh fruit. Free of abnornomal external moisture. Taste of fruit, resistance of fig fruit transport. The fig fruit classification are in three classes, such are˸ Extra class must be supreme class, I Class must be a good quality, II Class must be the minimum requirements for defects of fruit, for quality and presentation. 3 Percent of sugar, temperature influence and soil condition. Origin of varieties, country origin, district where grown national, regional, local, place name. In this study are characterization and determination some varieties from different region different name of varieties.
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To improve direct sun drying, small drying tunnel units, elevated above the ground and covered by insect‐proof nets, were designed. We investigated the effect of these locally made solar dryers, placed in open air and under plastic greenhouse, on dried fig quality of three local varieties (two San Pedro types and one Smyrna type). The results showed that fruit lightness and yellowness were improved when figs were dried under plastic greenhouse. No significant effects of variety and drying methods were registered for total soluble solids, and glucose and fructose contents. A total of 104 volatile compounds were identified in Tunisian dried figs. Most of volatiles except acetic acid were influenced mostly by variety. The sensory analysis revealed significant differences between drying techniques. Figs dried under plastic tunnel were the most appreciated. Solar dryer under plastic tunnel could be a good alternative for rural farmers to substitute the traditional sun drying techniques. This work provides beneficial knowledge for improving the appearance and organoleptic quality of dried figs considering combined effect of variety and drying method. Plastic tunnel dryer is a good alternative for rural farmers to substitute the traditional open air sun drying. This method enhances the quality of products with minimum costs and short duration of dehydration.
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In this study, the medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus were inventoried. The ethnopharmacological information was obtained from 470 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus in different areas in the West Algeria. The results indicated that only 28,30% of patients interviewed used medicinal plants as treatment of diabetes. 60 medicinal plants were cited. Two of them, Dried figs (Ficus carica) and seeds of colocynth or handal (Citrullus colocynthis L. Shard), were selected for phytochemical analysis and pharmaco-toxicological analysis in the different models of Wistar rats. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, triterpenes and especially reducing sugars in the extracts of figs (Ficus carica) and alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the different extracts of the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis. Analysis of antidiabetic effect of extracts of figs (Ficus carica) showed an increase in blood sugar one hour after intraperitoneally administration of 0,95g/kg b.w aqueous crude extract or intra gastric administration of 10g/kg pc fruit juice for normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. This hyperglycemia is rapidly corrected term cost for 3 hours and reached normal values in the medium period for two weeks. The acute toxicity study of three extracts from the seeds of colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) reported an LD50 of 698mg/kg b.w for total alkaloids and an LD50 of 166 and 113 mg/kg b.w for ethanolic and chloroformic glycosides cucurbitacins extract, respectively. With a remarkable disorder liver plasma biochemical parameters (GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase) and renal plasma parameters (creatinine). In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 60mg/kg b.w of total alkaloids or 20mg/kg b.w of glycosides cucurbitacins for normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats showed antihyperglycemic effect. They hyperglycemia decreased 42% and 32%, respectively, after 3 hours. This decrease persists one week in diabetic rats treated with the alkaloids and 2 weeks in diabetic rats treated with ethanolic glycosides. Also, both extracts showed the ability to correct hyperglycemia induced by oral administration of glucose (OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test) in normal rats. However, higher doses (> 100mg/kg b.w) of cucurbitacins glycosides extracted from the seeds of colocynth cause a risk of severe hypoglycemia. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, ethnopharmacology, antidiabetic plants, Citrullus colocynthis, Ficus carica, phytochemistry, acute toxicity, Streptozotocin.
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Fruits and vegetables in the diet have been found in epidemiology studies to be protective against several chronic diseases. Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoid consumption in the diet is protective against heart disease. Phenols in 23 vegetables have been measured by extraction with and without acid hydrolysis to determine the percent of conjugated and free phenols. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin−Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard. The extracts' antioxidant quality was assayed by the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by cupric ions. Vegetables had antioxidant quality comparable to that of pure flavonols and were superior to vitamin antioxidants. The phenol antioxidant index, measuring both the quantity and the quality of antioxidants present, was used to evaluate 23 vegetables. Isolated lower density lipoproteins from plasma spiked with two vegetable extracts were enriched with phenol antioxidants and showed decreased oxidizability. The average per capita consumption of vegetable phenols in the United States was estimated to be 218 mg/day of catechin equivalents. This is 3 times higher than the recommended intake of vitamin antioxidants. Keywords: Phenols; antioxidants; vegetables; lipoprotein oxidation
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Pentane extracts from figs of Ficus carica, the common fig tree, were analysed by GC-mass spectroscopy. Four series of extracts were prepared from receptive male figs, non-receptive male figs, receptive female figs and non-receptive female figs. Extracts from non-receptive figs are characterised by furanocoumarins (tentatively identified as angelicin and bergapten), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (i.e. trans-caryophyllene, and a compound tentatively identified as germacrene D), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (i.e. hydroxycaryophyllene) benzyl alcohol and benzylaldehyde. Extracts from receptive figs of both sexes are characterised by benzyl alcohol, linalool and linalool oxides (furanoid), cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol and indole. Extract from female receptive figs has in addition large amounts of pyranoid (linalool oxides), whereas an extract from male receptive figs contains eugenol and an unidentified sesquiterpene hydrocarbon. Differences between extracts from male and female figs appear to be mainly qualitative due to pyranoid compounds, sesquiterpenes 1, 2 and 3 for female figs and eugenol and sesquiterpene 5 for male figs.
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Background: Epidemiological studies suggested that consumption of fruit and vegetables may protect against stroke. The hypothesis that dietary antioxidant vitamins and flavonoids account for this observation is investigated in a prospective study. Methods: A cohort of 552 men aged 50 to 69 years was examined in 1970 and followed up for 15 years. Mean nutrient and food intake was calculated from crosscheck dietary histories taken in 1960, 1965, and 1970. The association between antioxidants, selected foods, and stroke incidence was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Adjustment was made for confounding by age, systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking, energy intake, and consumption of fish and alcohol. Results: Forty-two cases of first fatal or nonfatal stroke were documented Dietary flavonoids (mainly quercetin) were inversely associated with stroke incidence after adjustment for potential confounders, including antioxidant vitamins. The relative risk (RR) of the highest vs the lowest quartile of flavonoid intake (greater than or equal to 28.6 mg/d vs <18.3 mg/d) was 0.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 0.70). A lower stroke risk was also observed for the highest quartile of beta-carotene intake (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The intake of vitamin C and vitamin E was not associated with stroke risk. Black tea contributed about 70% to flavonoid intake. The RR for a daily consumption of 4.7 cups or more of tea vs less than 2.6 cups of tea was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.84). Conclusions: The habitual intake of flavonoids and their major source (tea) may protect against stroke.
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Objective: To determine whether flavonoid intake explains differences in mortality rates from chronic diseases between populations.Design: Cross-cultural correlation study.Setting/Participants: Sixteen cohorts of the Seven Countries Study in whom flavonoid intake at baseline around 1960 was estimated by flavonoid analysis of equivalent food composites that represented the average diet in the cohorts.Main Outcome Measures: Mortality from coronary heart disease, cancer (various sites), and all causes in the 16 cohorts after 25 years of follow-up.Results: Average intake of antioxidant flavonoids was inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease and explained about 25% of the variance in coronary heart disease rates in the 16 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, intake of saturated fat (73%; P=.0001), flavonoid intake (8%; P=.01), and percentage of smokers per cohort (9%; P=.03) explained together, independent of intake of alcohol and antioxidant vitamins, 90% of the variance in coronary heart disease rates. Flavonoid intake was not independently associated with mortality from other causes.Conclusions: Average flavonoid intake may partly contribute to differences in coronary heart disease mortality across populations, but it does not seem to be an important determinant of cancer mortality.(Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:381-386)
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Fruit-eating animals regularly prefer to eat figs even when other food is abundant. We propose that high calcium levels contribute to the desirability of figs as food for many forest animals.
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: The in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo phototoxicity of some methyl derivatives of 5–methoxypsoralen and 5–methoxyangelicin, i.e. 4,4′–dimethyl–5–methoxyangelicin (compound I), 3,4′–dimethyl–5–methoxyangelicin (compound II), 4,4′–dimethyl–5–methoxypsoralen (compound III); and 3.4′–dimethyl–5–methoxypsoralen (compound IV), have been investigated. The effects of the compounds were evaluated in vitro on HL60 and A431 cells, using 5–methoxypsoralen as the reference compound. In both cell lines compound I, II and III showed better antiproliferative activity than compound IV and 5–methoxypsoralen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that all the compounds induced the formation of blebs and blisters on a A431 cell surface. Significant variations in the nuclear area strictly related to the toxicity of the compounds have been shown in both cell lines. Skin irritancy in vivo was evaluated by mean of histopathological responses on guinea–pig skin. For each compound a damage index was determined by morphometrical analysis of empty spaces in the epidermis. Histopathology revealed skin phototoxicity of compounds which lacked erythemogenic activity by visual scoring. By coupling cytotoxicity data in vitro to skin sensitization ones in vivo, compound I proved a promising candidate for use in clinical trials since due to a high inhibitory effect on the growth of human cell lines coupled to low skin phototoxicity.
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The content of the potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin of commonly consumed beverages was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Flavonoid levels in beer, coffee, chocolate milk, and white wine were below 1 mg/L. Twelve types of tea infusion, six types of wine, apple juice, tomato juice, grape juice, orange juice, grapefruit juice, and lemon juice were analyzed. No luteolin or apigenin were detected in any of the beverages. In red wines and in grape juice quercetin and myricetin levels varying from 4 to 16 mg/L and from 7 to 9 mg/L, respectively, were detected. Quercetin levels in fruit juices were generally below 5 mg/L except for lemon juice (7 mg/L) and tomato juice (13 mg/L). In black tea infusions quercetin (10-25 mg/L), kaempferol (7-17 mg/L), and myricetin (2-5 mg/L) were detected. Flavonoid levels in green tea were comparable to those in black tea. The flavonoid content of tea prepared with tea bags was generally higher than that of tea prepared with loose leaves. Together with data on the flavonoid content of vegetables and fruits published previously (Hertog et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1992, 40, 2379-2383), these data provide a base for an epidemiological evaluation of the potentially anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids.
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The content of the potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Fresh foods were purchased in a supermarket, agrocery, and a street market and combined to composites. Processed foods were purchased additionally. Sampling was carried out in spring, summer, winter, and spring of the following year. Quercetin levels in the edible parts of most vegetables were generally below 10 mg/kg except for onions (284-486 mg/kg), kale (110 mg/kg), broccoli (30 mg/kg), French beans (32-45 mg/kg), and slicing beans (28-30 mg/kg). Kaempferol could only be detected in kale (211 mg/kg), endive (15-91 mg/kg), leek (11-56 mg/kg), and turnip tops (31-64 mg/kg). In most fruits the quercetin content averaged 15 mg/kg, except for different apple varieties in which 21-72 mg/kg was found. The content of myricetin, luteolin, and apigenin was below the limit of detection (