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Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat flour for biscuit making

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  • Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences (University of Delhi)

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The consumer demand is increasing for composite flour based bakery products like biscuits. The incorporation of buckwheat can be justified in composite flour based biscuits as it has beneficial nutraceutical properties and its gluten-free nature can play important role in preventing celiac problem. The physicochemical and functional properties of buckwheat flour were studied and biscuits were prepared with the incorporation of buckwheat flour in 10, 20, 30 and 40 % concentration with refined wheat flour to assess the quality and acceptability of the biscuits. The water absorption capacity of buckwheat flour was lower than that of refined wheat flour (p≤0.05), whereas oil absorption and foaming capacity of buckwheat flour were significantly higher than that of refined wheat flour (p ≤0.05). The buckwheat flour had higher least gelation concentration (32%) as compared with wheat flour (20%). As the concentration of buckwheat flour was increased, spread ratio of biscuits decreased. The fracture strength of biscuits decreased with the incorporation of buckwheat flour. The acceptability of biscuit color was best for control sample and it decreased with the addition of buckwheat flour. The biscuits formed with addition of 20 and 30% buckwheat flour had overall acceptability score of 6.71 and 6.20 respectively, suggesting acceptability to the consumers.
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*Corresponding author.
Email: baljeetsingh.y@gmail.com
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076 (2010)
*Baljeet, S.Y, Ritika, B.Y. and Roshan, L.Y.
Department of Food Science and Technology
Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa (Haryana) – India
Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat
our for biscuit making
Abstract:The consumer demand is increasing for composite our based bakery products like biscuits.The
incorporation of buckwheat can be justied in composite our based biscuits as it has benecial nutraceutical
properties and its gluten-free nature can play important role in preventing celiac problem. The physicochemical
and functional properties of buckwheat our were studied and biscuits were prepared with the incorporation
of buckwheat our in 10, 20, 30 and 40 % concentration with rened wheat our to assess the quality and
acceptability of the biscuits. The water absorption capacity of buckwheat our was lower than that of rened
wheat our (p≤0.05), whereas oil absorption and foaming capacity of buckwheat our were signicantly higher
than that of rened wheat our (p ≤0.05). The buckwheat our had higher least gelation concentration (32%)
as compared with wheat our (20%). As the concentration of buckwheat our was increased, spread ratio of
biscuits decreased. The fracture strength of biscuits decreased with the incorporation of buckwheat our. The
acceptability of biscuit color was best for control sample and it decreased with the addition of buckwheat our.
The biscuits formed with addition of 20 and 30% buckwheat our had overall acceptability score of 6.71 and
6.20 respectively, suggesting acceptability to the consumers.
Keywords: buckwheat our, functional properties, supplemented biscuits, physicochemical properties,
sensory quality
tartaricum). The structure and characteristics
of buckwheat grain are quite different from
those of wheat grain. Buckwheat grains contain
numerous nutraceutical compounds (Li and
Zhang, 2001) and they are rich in vitamins,
especially those of B group (Fabjan et al.,
2003). The buckwheat our (BWF) is superior
to the wheat our because of its higher lysine,
iron copper and magnesium content (Ikeda and
Yamashita, 1994). The signicant contents of
rutin, catechins and other polyphenols as well
as their potential antioxidant activity are also
of great signicance (Oomah and Mazza, 1996;
Wanatabe, 1998). These functional components
of buckwheat have health benets like reducing
high blood pressure, lowering cholesterol,
controlling blood sugar and preventing cancer
risk (Fabjan et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2004).
Any alteration of the protein during
storage or cooking would have a benecial
or deleterious effect on the palatability and
quality of resultant products from such
ours (Ikeda et al., 1983). Buckwheat our
(BWF) may be used in the manufacture of
bread, cookies, pies, pancakes, the macaroni
Introduction
Among ready-to-eat snacks, biscuits possess
several attractive features including wider
consumption base, relatively long shelf-life, more
convenience and good eating quality (Akubor,
2003; Hooda and Jood, 2005). Long shelf-life
of biscuits makes large scale production and
distribution possible. Good eating quality makes
biscuits attractive for protein fortication and
other nutritional improvements. Development
of fortied biscuits or other composite our
bakery products is the latest trend in bakery
industry. The growing interest in these types of
bakery products is due to their better nutritional
properties and possibility of their use in feeding
programs and in catastrophic situations such as
starvation or earthquakes (Pratima and Yadava,
2000).
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is an
annual crop, it is a pseudocereal but its grains
belong to cereals because of their similar use
and chemical composition. Among a variety
of buckwheat species, nine have agricultural
and nutritional value. Two buckwheat species
are commonly cultivated: common buckwheat
(F. esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F.
1068 Baljeet, S.Y, Ritika, B.Y. and Roshan, L.Y.
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076
products (Almedia, 1978). The incorporation of
buckwheat can be justied in composite our
based biscuits as it has benecial nutraceutical
properties and its gluten-free nature can play
important role in preventing celiac problem.
Buckwheat our addition into noodle formulation
has been observed to show considerable effects
on cooking quality, chemical and sensory
properties and color values of noodles (Bilgicli,
2008). Cereal grains, including soft wheat are
low in protein (7 to 14%) and decient in some
amino acids such as lysine. Buckwheat on the
other hand, is higher in protein quality than
other cereal grains and could be used to support
certain amino acids such as lysine, histidine,
valine and leucine. Keeping in view of the
nutraceutical and other functional properties of
buckwheat, the present study was undertaken
with the objectives to compare the functional
properties of buckwheat our with wheat our
and incorporate it in biscuits to assess the quality
and acceptability of biscuits.
Materials and Methods
Materials
The buckwheat seeds and rened wheat our (WF)
were purchased from local market and buckwheat
our (BWF) was prepared in laboratory ourmill with
particle size of 0.150 µm. Other materials like sugar,
fat etc. required for biscuit making were purchased
from local market.
Product development
The biscuits were prepared with the
incorporation of BWF in 10, 20, 30 and 40%
concentration with rened WF keeping sugar and
fat amount constant to 60 and 35 g respectively
on 100 g our basis. White our biscuits were
considered as control. Fat and ground sugar
were creamed in a mixer with a at beater for 2
min at slow speed. The our, required amount
of milk and 1.5 g ammonium bicarbonate were
added to the creamed mixture and mixed for 8
min at medium speed in dough mixer to obtain
a homogenous mixture. The batter was sheeted
to a thickness of 4.5 mm with help of rolling
pin and an aluminum frame of standard height.
The biscuits were cut with biscuits die to desired
diameter of 50 mm and transferred to a lightly
greased aluminum baking tray. The biscuits were
baked at 1900C for 12 min in a baking oven. The
baked biscuits were cooled and stored in an air
tight container for further analysis.
Analytical methods
The functionality of ours of cereals grains, which
depends to a great extent upon starch and protein
content of ours, contribute a lot to the formulation
and properties of the nal product Therefore,
ours were analyzed for their physicochemical and
functional properties. Particularly, the functional
properties are required for the formulation of value
added composite bakery products. Protein (micro-
Kjeldahl, Nx6.25), fat (solvent extraction), moisture,
ash and crude ber were determined by the AOAC
(1990) methods. The carbohydrate content was
calculated by subtraction method.
Water and oil absorption capacity
The water and oil absorption capacities were
determined by the method of Sosulski et al. (1976).
The sample (1.0 g) was mixed with 10 ml distilled
water or rened soybean oil, kept at ambient
temperature for 30 min and centrifuged for 10 min
at 2000×g. Water or oil absorption capacity was
expressed as percent water or oil bound per gram of
the sample.
Bulk density
The bulk density was determined according to
the method described by Okaka and Potter (1977).
The sample (50 g) was put into a 100 ml graduated
cylinder and tapped 20-30 times. The bulk density
was calculated as weight per unit volume of sample.
Least gelation concentration
The least gelation concentration was determined
using method of Coffman and Garcia (1977) with
some modications. The our dispersions of 2, 4, 6,
8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 30, 32, 34% (w/v)
prepared in 5 ml distilled water were heated at 900C
for 1 h in a water bath. The contents were cooled
under tap water and kept for 2 h at 10±20C. The
least gelation concentration was determined as that
concentration when the sample from inverted tube
did not slip.
Swelling capacity
The method of Okaka and Potter (1977) with
some modications was used for determining the
swelling capacity. The sample lled up to 10 ml
mark in a 100 ml graduated cylinder was added with
water to adjust total volume to 50 ml. The top of the
Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat our for biscuit making 1069
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076
graduated cylinder was tightly covered and mixed by
inverting the cylinder. The suspension was inverted
again after 2 min and allowed to stand for further 30
min. The volume occupied by the sample was taken
after 30 min.
Foaming capacity and foaming stability
Foaming capacity and foaming stability
were determined as described by Narayana and
Narasinga Rao (1982) with slight modications.
Sample (1.0 g) was added to 50 ml distilled
water at 30±20C in a graduated cylinder. The
suspension was mixed and shaken for 5 min to
foam. The volume of foam after whipping for 30
sec was expressed as foaming capacity.
Where, AW: After whipping, BW: Before whipping
The volume of foam was recorded 1h after whipping
to determine foaming stability as percent of the initial
foam volume.
Emulsion activity
The emulsion activity and stability were
determined by the method of Yasumatsu et al. (1972).
The emulsion (1 g sample, 10 ml distilled water, 10 ml
soybean oil) was prepared in a calibrated centrifuge
tube. The emulsion was centrifuged (REMI 412
LAG) at 2000 × g for 5 min. The ratio of the height of
the emulsion layer to the total height of the mixture
was calculated as the emulsion activity expressed in
percentage.
Physical analysis of biscuits
Diameter of biscuits was measured by laying six
biscuits edge to edge with the help of a scale rotating
them 900 and again measuring the diameter of six
biscuits (cm) and then taking average value. Thickness
was measured by stacking six biscuits on top of each
other and taking average thickness (cm). Weight of
biscuits was measured as average of values of four
individual biscuits with the help of digital weighing
balance. Spread ratio was calculated by dividing
the average value of diameter by average value of
thickness of biscuits. Percent spread was calculated
by dividing the spread ratio of supplemented biscuits
with spread ratio of control biscuits and multiplying
by 100.
Volume of foam (AW) -Volume of foam (BW)
FC =
_____________________________________________
× 100
Volume of foam (BW)
Fracture strength of biscuits
Fracture strength of biscuits was measured with
the help of Texture Analyzer (model TA-XT2i, Stable
Micro systems, Haslemere, U.K) using a 3-point
Bending Rig and 5 kg load cell. The distance between
the two beams was 40 mm. Another identical beam
was brought down from above at a pre-test speed of
1.0 mm/s, test speed of 3.0 mm/s, post-test speed of
10.0 mm/s. The downward movement was continued
till the biscuit broke. The peak force was reported as
fracture strength.
Sensory analysis of biscuits
Biscuit samples were analyzed for sensory
characteristics. Sensory quality characteristics were
evaluated by a panel of 10 semi-trained members
using a 9-point Hedonic scale. The biscuits were
evaluated for their color, appearance, avor, texture,
taste and overall acceptability.
Statistical analysis
Data were analyzed using one-way and two-
way analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures in
a randomized complete block design with three
replications. Statistical analysis was performed using
the OPSTAT software version opstat1.exe (Hisar,
India).
Results and Discussion
Proximate composition of ours
The proximate composition as given in Table
1 shows that fat content of buckwheat and rened
wheat our did not differ signicantly (p≤0.05).
However, a signicant difference was observed in
ash, crude ber, carbohydrate and protein content
of buckwheat and rened wheat our (p ≤0.05)
and buckwheat our showed lower protein content
(8.73%) and higher carbohydrates (75.84%) and
crude ber content (0.70%) in comparison to rened
wheat our. Buckwheat our contains from 8.5%
to near 19% of proteins depending on the variety,
pesticides used, and fertilization that are likely to
affect the total concentration of buckwheat proteins
(Fornal, 1999). The ash content of buckwheat our
(1.32%) observed in this study is comparable with
that reported by Taira (1974). Since the carbohydrate
1070 Baljeet, S.Y, Ritika, B.Y. and Roshan, L.Y.
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076
content for ours was calculated by difference, the
variation in carbohydrate content may be attributed
to the differences in other constituents. The similar
value of carbohydrates in BWF was reported by
Franchischi et al. (1994).
Functional properties of ours
The functional properties of ours play important
role in the manufacturing of products. The buckwheat
our (BWF) and rened wheat our (WF) were
analyzed for their functional properties. Table 2
shows the various functional properties of ours. The
water absorption capacity (WAC) of buckwheat our
was found to be signicantly lower than that of wheat
our (p≤0.05). The lower WAC of buckwheat our
could be attributed to the presence of lower amount
of hydrophilic constituents in BWF (Akubor and
Badifu, 2001). The oil absorption capacity (OAC) of
BWF was signicantly higher than that of rened WF
(p≤0.05). The oil absorption capacity (OAC) of our
is equally important as it improves the mouth feel
and retains the avor. The higher OAC suggested the
presence of apolar amino acids in the BWF (Taira,
1974). The swelling capacities of BWF and rened WF
were 15.77 and 16.37 ml respectively. The foaming
capacity of BWF was higher than that of rened WF.
Foaming capacity is assumed to be dependent on the
conguration of protein molecules. Flexible proteins
have good foaming capacity but highly ordered
globular molecule gives low foam ability (Graham
and Philips, 1976). The foam expansion and foam
stability have been correlated with water-dispersible
nitrogen (Yasumatsu et al., 1972). Food ingredients
with good foaming capacity and stability can be
used in bakery products (Akubor et al., 2000). The
emulsion activity did not differ signicantly between
the BWF and rened WF and the corresponding
values were 0.44 and 0.43% (p≤0.05).
The bulk density of BWF was 0.81 g/ml,
signicantly higher (p≤0.05) than that of the rened
WF (0.73 g/ml). The BWF had higher least gelation
concentration (32%) as compared with rened WF
(20%). The variation in the gelling properties of
ours was attributed to the relative ratio of protein,
carbohydrates and lipids that make up the ours and
interaction between such components (Sathe et al
1982).
Proximate composition of biscuits
The proximate composition of biscuits is shown
in Table 3. The ash content of biscuits increased
with the addition of BWF up to 30% concentration.
The increase in ash content may be due to the high
mineral content in the BWF i.e. iron, copper and
magnesium (Francischi et al., 1994). The moisture
content ranged from 2.43 (40% BWF) to 3.37 %
(control). The decrease in moisture content may be
due to the decrease in protein content. Mustafa et
al. (1986) reported an increase in moisture content
of bakery products with increase in protein content.
The fat content of control biscuits was 21.27% and
it increased to 23.17% in 40% BWF biscuits. This
was probably due to the oil retention ability of
buckwheat our during baking process (Rufeng et
al., 1995). Higher oil retention improves the mouth
feel and retains the avor of the biscuits. No denite
trend in increase or decrease in crude ber contents
was observed. The protein content of biscuits ranged
from 5.60 to 7.20%. The biscuits showed decrease
in protein content when BWF concentration was
increased. The carbohydrate content as determined
by difference method was found to be higher in 20%
BWF biscuits.
Physical characteristics of biscuits
The physical properties of biscuits prepared
from BWF and rened WF are shown in Table 4.
The diameter of biscuits made from 20, 30 and 40%
BWF was found signicantly lower than that of
control biscuit (p ≤0.05). The thickness of biscuits
ranged from 0.79 to 0.86 cm. It increased with the
incorporation of BWF. Increase in thickness may
be due to the decrease in diameter. The changes in
diameter and thickness were reected in spread ratio
and percent spread of biscuit. The spread ratio and
percent spread of control biscuits were 8.02 and
100, respectively. Spread ratio and percent spread
decreased with the addition of buckwheat our.
Other research workers also reported reduction
in spread ratio when soy our and fenugreek our
were substituted for wheat our (Singh et al., 1996;
Hooda and Jood, 2005). Reduced spread ratios of
BWF fortied biscuits were attributed to the fact that
composite ours apparently form aggregates with
increased numbers of hydrophilic sites available that
compete for the limited free water in biscuit dough
(McWatters, 1978).The weight of biscuits increased
as the concentration of BWF increased in the blends.
The range of biscuit weight was 10.73 to 12.00 g with
maximum value in 40% BWF biscuits. The increase
in biscuit weight was probably due to the ability of
buckwheat our to retain oil during baking process
(Rufeng et al., 1995).
The fracture strength determined from the texture
prole analysis (TPA) curve is shown in Figure 1.
The fracture strength of biscuits decreased with
the incorporation of BWF. The fracture strength of
control biscuit was found to be highest (3144.1 g).
Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat our for biscuit making 1071
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076
Table 1. Proximate composition of ours
Parameter Buckwheat our Rened wheat our
Moisture (%) 11.60 ±0.12a13.29 ±0.03b
Ash (%) 1.42 ±0.05b1.32 ±0.06a
Fat (%) 1.81 ±0.03a1.78 ±0.08a
Crude bre (%) 0.70 ±0.01b0.62 ±0.01a
Protein (%) 8.73 ±0.14a13.00 ±0.03b
Carbohydrate (%)* 75.74 69.99
The values are mean ± S.D of three independent determinations. The values with different superscripts in a row differ signicantly (p
≤ 0.05).
* Calculated by difference method.
Table 2. Functional properties of ours
Property Buckwheat our Rened wheat our
WAC (%) 133.67 ±0.67a151.00±1.16b
OAC (%) 181.37 ±0.58b169.97±3.38a
SC (ml) 15.77 ±0.15a16.37 ±0.32a
FC (%) 15.47 ±0.08b12.42 ±0.09a
FS (%) 93.91 ±0.32a96.48 ±0.55b
EA (%) 0.44 ±0.02a0.43 ±0.01a
BD (g/ml) 0.81 ±0.03b0.73 ±0.01a
LGC (%) 32.0 20.0
The values are mean ± S.D of three independent determinations. The values with different superscripts in a row differ signicantly (p
≤ 0.05).
WAC= Water absorption capacity; OAC= Oil absorption capacity; SC=Swelling capacity; FC= Foaming capacity; FS= Foaming
stability; EA= Emulsion activity; BD= Bulk density; LGC= Least gelation concentration
1072 Baljeet, S.Y, Ritika, B.Y. and Roshan, L.Y.
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076
Table 3. Chemical composition of biscuits
Ash
(%)
Moisture
(%)
Fat
(%)
Crude ber
(%)
Protein
(%) Carbohydrates
A0.54 ±0.02a3.37±0.20b21.27±0.24a
2.11±0.02b7.20 ±0.05e65.51
B0.56 ±0.02a3.23±0.15b21.67±0.12ab 2.06±0.04ab 6.54 ±0.03d65.94
C0.62 ±0.02b3.00±0.20ab 22.00±0.12b 1.98±0.02a6.08 ±0.03c66.32
D0.67 ±0.01b2.47±0.20a22.77±0.15c2.06±0.03ab 5.86 ±0.04b66.17
E0.67 ±0.01b2.43±0.22a23.17±0.20c2.06±0.04ab 5.60 ±0.06a66.07
A = Control; B= 10% BWF; C= 20%BWF; D=30%BWF; E=40%BWF
The values are mean ± S.D of three independent determinations. The value with different superscripts in a column differ signicantly
(p≤ 0.05).
*Values calculated by difference method.
Table 4. Physical properties of biscuits
Biscuit
Samples
Diameter
(cm)
Thickness
(cm)
Spread ratio Weight
(g) % spread
Fracture
strength
(g)
A6.34±1.20c0.79±0.33a8.02±0.67c10.70±0.23a100.0 3144.1
B6.31±1.45c0.79±0.33a7.99±0.25bc 10.73±0.34a99.62 3108.6
C6.21±1.45b0.81±0.67a7.67±0.67b10.82±0.08a95.63 2318.0
D6.13±0.33b0.86±1.00b7.13±0.31a11.27±0.20b88.90 2074.5
E6.02±1.00a0.86±0.58b7.00±0.05a12.00±0.22c87.28 2066.6
A = Control; B= 10% BWF; C= 20%BWF; D=30%BWF; E=40%BWF
The values are mean ± S.D of three independent determinations except fracture strength values. The values with different superscripts
in a column differ signicantly (p ≤ 0.05).
Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat our for biscuit making 1073
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076
Figure 1. Fracture strength prole of biscuits as measured by texture analyzer
Figure 2. Sensory characteristics of biscuits as affected by incorporation of buckwheat our (The bars in a
group for a particular sensory attribute represent control, 10%BWF, 20% BWF, 30% BWF and 40% BWF
biscuits from left to right)
1074 Baljeet, S.Y, Ritika, B.Y. and Roshan, L.Y.
International Food Research Journal 17: 1067-1076
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The fracture strength of 40% BWF biscuits (2066.6
g) was observed to be lowest. This may be due to the
decreasing gluten content in the buckwheat ours,
as the biscuits became soft with increasing BWF
content.
Sensory characteristics of biscuits
Figure 2 depicts the effects of BWF incorporation
on the sensory characteristics of biscuits. With the
increase in the level of BWF in the formulation,
the sensory scores for color, texture, appearance
and avor of biscuits decreased. The acceptability
of biscuits color was best for control sample. The
acceptability of color decreased with the addition
of BWF because the BWF had lower lightness and
higher yellowness and redness value than control
sample (Duarte et al., 1996). The score of appearance
reduced to 5.28 at 40% concentration of BWF. This
was because of cracks formed with the addition of
gluten free BWF. The use of no-glutenous composite
ours in cookie preparation reduces the textural
strength of cookies where such strength is dependent
upon approximate levels of gluten development. This
is because in contrast to bread, the gluten network in
cookies is to be only slightly cohesive without being
too elastic (Schober et al., 2003). The score of taste
reduced signicantly to 5.71 at higher concentrations,
possibly due to presence of avonoid compound
(rutin) having bitter taste in BWF. The biscuits
formed with addition of 20 and 30% BWF got overall
acceptability score of 6.71 and 6.20, respectively.
Conclusion
BWF addition into biscuit formulation
had considerable effects on physicochemical
and sensory properties of biscuits. It may be
concluded from the present study that buckwheat
our can be successfully incorporated in rened
WF biscuits up to a level of 20% to yield biscuits
of enhanced nutritional quality with acceptable
sensory attributes. Hence, development and
utilization of such functional foods will not only
improve the nutritional status of the population
but also helps those suffering from degenerative
diseases. More studies should be conducted to
investigate the possibility of using BWF as an
ingredient in other food products in order to
increase applications of such value-added food
ingredient.
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