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Promoting sustainable behavior: An introduction to community-based social marketing

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Abstract

Most programs to foster sustainable behavior continue to be based upon models of behavior change that psychological research has found to be limited. Although psychology has much to contribute to the design of effective programs to foster sustainable behavior, little attention has been paid to ensuring that psychological knowledge is accessible to those who design environmental programs. This article presents a process. community-based social marketing, that attempts to make psychological knowledge relevant and accessible to these individuals. Further, it provides two case studies in which program planners have utilized this approach to deliver their initiatives. Finally, it reflects on the obstacles that exist to incorporating psychological expertise into programs to promote sustainable behavior.

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... В целом такие программы требуют значительных вложений, но при этом не позволяют добиться долговременных и генерализованных изменений в поведении. Более того, как замечает канадский психолог D. McKenzie-Mohr (2000), очень часто подобные программы попросту проваливаются, не приводя к каким-либо заметным изменениям в поведении потребителей [395]. (Так, например, на одну из рекламных кампаний в Калифорнии, убеждающей в выгодах теплоизоляции домов, было затрачено столько средств, что их хватило бы на модернизацию теплоизоляции домов всей целевой аудитории.) ...
... Осуществлению таких значительных изменений препятствует ряд барьеров, для преодоления которых недостаточно одних информационных воздействий [395; 394; 466]. Как альтернативу информационно-емкому подходу McKenzie-Mohr рассматривает социальный маркетинг, ориентированный на сообщества [395]. ...
... McKenzie-Mohr подчеркивает значение личного обязательства, обращаясь в качестве примера к двум программам, реализованным в Канаде [395]. Первая программа была нацелена на распространение методов компостирования в домашних хозяйствах, вторая -на сокращение расхода воды в летний период. ...
Book
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The monograph highlights the psychological aspects of anthropogenic environmental change. The analysis of the value and worldview aspects of the anthropogenic ecological crisis is carried out. For the first time in Russian-language scientific literature, an extensive review of psychological studies of the problem of global environmental change, conducted by foreign psychologists over the past 40 years, is given. The main theoretical approaches developed by leading experts in the field of conservation psychology are considered. The results of the author's empirical research focused on the problem of meaning regulation of environmentally relevant behavior are presented. The monograph also discusses the psychological aspects of social interventions in the direction of the formation of environmentally responsible behavior, and examines the problems of social and environmental marketing and environmental education. В монографии освещаются психологические аспекты антропогенных экологических изменений. Проводится анализ ценностных и мировоззренческих аспектов антропогенного экологического кризиса. Впервые в отечественной научной литературе проводится обширный обзор психологических исследований по проблеме глобальных изменений, выполненных зарубежными психологами за последние 40 лет; рассматриваются основные теоретические подходы, разработанные ведущими специалистами в области психологии экосохранения. Приводятся результаты авторских эмпирических исследований, сосредоточенных вокруг проблемы смысловой регуляции экологически релевантного поведения. Также в монографии обсуждаются психологические аспекты социальных интервенций в направлении формирования экологически ответственного поведения, рассматриваются проблемы социально-экологического маркетинга и экологического просвещения.
... Historically, information-intensive approaches have been ineffective on long-term environmental behaviors (McKenzie-Mohr & Schultz, 2014;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011;Saurí, 2013;Syme et al., 2000;Warner et al., 2016). Practitioners and researchers agree behavior change and complex behavioral strategies are central to solving complex water issues and other environmental problems (Costanzo et al., 1986;Kneebone et al., 2018;Kotler, 2011;Lehman & Geller, 2004;McKenzie-Mohr & Schultz, 2014;Schultz, 2011). ...
... Once potential behaviors have been identified, the practitioner should identify those which warrant further consideration (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). The best candidates will be those that are highly connected to the issue being addressed, have the potential for a high impact, and have a high probability of being changed (i.e., plasticity) (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011;McKenzie-Mohr & Schultz, 2014;Schultz, 2011). Plasticity can be understood as the likelihood of adoption paired with current adoption levels, with high likelihood and low current adoption signifying greater plasticity (Schultz, 2011). ...
... Selfreported information can introduce the potential for biases such as social desirability bias, which is mitigated somewhat by the anonymous nature of the survey (Moore & Rutherfurd, 2020). However, we cannot be certain that we would have come to the same conclusions if we used observation or case study data to estimate current adoption levels and likelihood, both of which are desirable options for collecting this information (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). An additional limitation is that we potentially may not have included an exhaustive list of behaviors. ...
Article
Background This work addresses the increasing prevalence of water scarcity. Droughts are projected to worsen as a result of climate change and urbanization, increasing the need for all sectors to reduce the amount of water used. Home landscape irrigation represents an important opportunity to reduce water use in the United States. Focus of the Article This formative research study used social marketing techniques to estimate potential impact of irrigation water conservation behaviors, weight and prioritize the behaviors to guide behavior selection in the context of residential irrigation conservation. Research Objective The objectives were to estimate (1) the potential impact of, (2) current adoption levels and likelihood of adoption of, and to (3) prioritize various landscape irrigation water conservation behaviors. Program Design/Approach When addressing any issue, including water scarcity, identifying target behaviors is the first, foundational step for a successful social marketing campaign. This research focuses on formative social marketing research to inform local interventions designed to reduce the amount of water applied to residential yards across the United States. Importance to the Social Marketing Field This study outlines a process to compare and prioritize water conservation behaviors with the goal of reducing residential landscape irrigation usage. We demonstrate a technique for obtaining this type of formative research, the lack of which can serve as a barrier to change agents promoting behaviors in any context. Methods We employed a two-pronged quantitative survey research approach to collect technical experts’ impact ranking and U.S. residents’ current adoption levels and likelihood of adopting potential irrigation water conservation behaviors. The 14-member expert panel was selected using purposive and snowball sampling techniques, and the residential sample ( N = 2601) was recruited using purposive sampling. Results Mean weights ranged from −46.55 to 61.13. Singly considering impact, current adoption levels, or likelihood of adoption would result in a different behavior receiving priority for a campaign (eliminating irrigated areas in landscapes, installing smart irrigation controllers, and following local watering restrictions, respectively). However, when these values were considered together, installing drought-tolerant plants in the yard had the greatest overall weight. Limitations A possible conceptual limitation of this case study was the national scope of our research. The findings provide valuable baseline data for behavior change practitioners working across the country, and it is advisable to replicate this process at a local scale corresponding to the targeted intervention. Recommendations for Research or Practice The findings underscore the importance of including technical experts and target audience members early in social marketing program planning and reveal the importance of systematically approaching behavior change selection to thoroughly consider different components of potential behaviors. Behavior change practitioners working on water issues can use the weights reported here to prioritize behaviors for targeted interventions, and those working in all areas can follow the process to prioritize behaviors at the local level. There are exciting opportunities to decompose likelihood into behavioral antecedents for both research and application.
... In contrast, an approach known as social marketing centers a campaign around the perceived barriers, needs, wants, and other characteristics of a target audience (Lee and Kotler, 2011;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing tools to voluntarily change (i.e., "sell") public behaviors to benefit communities and the environment (Rogers, 2003;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). ...
... In contrast, an approach known as social marketing centers a campaign around the perceived barriers, needs, wants, and other characteristics of a target audience (Lee and Kotler, 2011;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing tools to voluntarily change (i.e., "sell") public behaviors to benefit communities and the environment (Rogers, 2003;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). These types of strategies are effective because they are informed heavily by formative audience research which reveals the audience's perceived barriers and motivators to making a desired behavior change (Lee and Kotler, 2011;McKenzie-Mohr and Schultz, 2014). ...
... The social marketing profession, which has historically relied more on qualitative methods, is advancing towards the use of more rigorous mixed-methods and quantitative research approaches (Truong, 2014). In many cases, social marketers will conduct literature reviews and qualitative research to examine the issue and establish an initial set of barriers and motivators among a limited number of participants, and then conduct survey research to quantify these factors among the larger representative target audience (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Water quality impairment linked to household septic systems presents a significant challenge for environmental management professionals given the costs and complexity of encouraging residents to convert to sewer systems. Septic-to-sewer conversion programs may be more effective if they employ innovative techniques such as social marketing to accelerate engagement, but there is a lack of the necessary formative audience research available on which to promote sanitation-related technologies and behaviors using these types of strategies. We used Diffusion of Innovations theory as a lens through which to view support for septic-to-sewer conversion programs, considering perceptions of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability as factors (i.e., barriers, motivators) in the decision to convert to sewer. We collected data from 518 septic system owners in the state of Florida, USA. Four out of ten respondents indicated there were septic-to-sewer conversion plans in place in their community, and most of these individuals reported the plans were voluntary rather than mandatory. Residents with plans in place had more favorable perceptions than those without such plans and were largely supportive of septic-to-sewer conversion programs. Ordinal regression revealed compatibility and observability were significant predictors of residents' support for septic-to-sewer conversion. When conversion project status variables were added to the final ordinal model, compatibility remained a significant predictor, and completed conversion status also predicted support. Environmental management professionals should consider using characteristics of compatibility and observability to bolster engagement in septic-to-sewer conversion programs, and consider integrating the influences of other communities with completed conversion programs.
... We found that the intention to deter wildlife from neighborhoods prevents wildlife gardening, whereas intentionally managing yards as habitat explains the adoption of wildlife-friendly practices. This finding resonates with the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and other research that demonstrates the importance of behavioral intentions as antecedents to action (e.g., McKenzie-Mohr, 2011;Lauren, Smith, Louis, & Dean, 2019;Gillis & Swim, 2020). Since social norms strongly influence yard management (Cook et al., 2012;Gillis & Swim, 2020;Larson & Brumand, 2014;Nassauer et al., 2009), local programs that promote wildlife gardening can help actualize intentions by normalizing and facilitating the adoption of wildlife yard features (Jones & Niemiec, 2020;van Heezik et al., 2012). ...
... Locally-native cultivars can also be been bred to express certain traits that facilitate ease of care and aesthetic attributes while still supporting local pollinator communities (Baisden, Tallamy, Narango, & Boyle, 2018). In general, targeted information and resources-including procedural knowledge on how to manage landscapes for wildlife-is more likely to be effective than general calls to plant native vegetation or garden for wildlife (Frisk & Larson, 2011;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). ...
Article
Research has demonstrated that residential yards can provide important habitat for urban birds, pollinators, and other wildlife. In addition, the motivations and constraints underlying decisions to manage traditional lawns, water-conserving yards, native plants, and other landscape types are well understood. Yet relatively little research has addressed people’s decisions to adopt wildlife-supporting yards. Analyzing survey data from six U.S. cities, we address three related questions: 1) to what extent do residents choose yard features that support wildlife habitat?; 2) how do yard priorities and neighborhood governance, along with socio-demographic factors, explain the adoption of wildlife-supporting features?; and 3) how do residents who have already adopted wildlife-supporting yard features differ in their motivations from those who plan to adopt such features and those who do not? We found significant potential for adding vegetation (specifically shrubs and native plants) and other wildlife-supporting features to increase yard complexity and vegetation diversity. While gardening as a hobby was a significant motivator for people who have adopted wildlife yard features, the desire for low-maintenance yards is a constraint among non-adopters. We therefore recommend promoting the planting of low-maintenance plant species or varieties that provide wildlife habitat but require little upkeep, especially among residents who would like to attract wildlife to their yards into the future. We also found that neighbourhood and homeowner associations increase the local adoption of wildlife-supporting yards. Coupled with other findings, our results underscore the importance of tailoring residential landscape features to diverse lifestyles while leveraging social institutions to expand wildlife habitat across urban and suburban neighborhoods.
... Some researchers believe that environmental education can change people's Environmental attitudes (Hsu, 2004;Short, 2009). Considering the tourism industry, environmental education provides the opportunity for stakeholders to examine environmental problems, contribute to finding solution for them, and take steps to improve the status of the nature (Cheng & Wu, 2015;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). Therefore, environmental education will present a better opportunity to gain deeper understanding of environmental issues and to acquire necessary motivation and skills to make informed and decent decisions (Kil et al., 2014;Lee & Jan, 2015;Uzun & Keles, 2012). ...
... There is a long way ahead to achieve the desired outcome; nonetheless, cooperative learning can be regarded as a viable way to alter environmental attitude and behavior in the tourism industry. To make adequate changes in people's attitude and Environmentally Responsible Behavior, education should move beyond mere provision of information or awareness (Daniels & Walker, 2001;Lai & Wang, 2013;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). In this regard, opportunities should be offered to the learners so that they can feel ownership over and be enabled through the educational program and gain a deep understanding of why it is important to preserve the environment. ...
Article
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This study sought to compare the effect of lecture and Jigsaw teaching strategies attitude and Environmentally Responsible Behavior among the tourism resorts staff members of Abr, Shahrud, Iran. The jigsaw technique, which focuses on development of peer cooperation and teamwork through division of tasks among students, takes place through each student's assuming responsibility. In this article, the quantitative analyses, a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with control group was adopted. Sixty rural resorts staff members of Abr were selected through convenient sampling. The results indicated that, in comparison with the lecture teaching strategy, The Jigsaw teaching strategy significantly enhanced the staff's attitude and Environmentally Responsible Behavior. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of attitude and Environmentally Responsible Behavior before the interventions, but after the interventions, the mean scores of attitude and Environmentally Responsible Behavior were significantly different in Jigsaw group from that of the lecture group. Analyzing the data obtained in the qualitative phase (i.e. interviews) revealed that, after 18 months of environmental training, there were differences between the control and experimental groups in terms of attitude and Environmentally Responsible Behavior.
... In these applications, different design approaches to influencing behaviour (i.e., reinforcing desirable behaviours or changing undesirable ones) have been explored. For instance, Clune [2] used the four stages of community-based social marketing [6] for design interventions aimed at behaviour change. Lilley [3] studied the approaches led by design for influencing user behaviour to lessen adverse social impacts by product use and suggested a conceptual framework to design devices for behaviour change. ...
... Darnton's Nine Principles framework provides a starting point for selecting appropriate behaviour models and developing interventions to influence behaviours [15]. It offers useful guidance based on valid and reliable theories for planning and developing interventions in a similar way to 'community-based social marketing' (emphasising direct contact with community members to identify barriers to a behaviour, develop and pilot a programme, and implement and evaluate the programme) [6] and 'Stern's principles' for intervention design aimed to change environmentally damaging behaviour (e.g., understand the actor's situation, apply theories to understand and affect human choice processes, consider conditions beyond individuals, monitor responses and continuously improve programmes accordingly) [17]. The distinctiveness in Darnton's framework, however, is that it emphasises the importance of the establishment and use of appropriate behaviour models in the process of developing interventions [15]. ...
Article
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Design practitioners and academics have increasingly recognised the potential value of design for behaviour change. On the one hand, while existing studies address product or communication design as main interventions, there is a growing interest in design as a useful tool for policy development and service innovation. On the other hand, the interplay between social research, design , and policy development in behaviour intervention is not a new concept or practice, yet studies to suggest and evaluate particular general approaches to policy and design interventions are relatively new and rare. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper adapts Darnton's Nine Principles framework as one promising generic approach, demonstrates how the adapted framework can be applied to the upcycling case study in the UK and evaluates the usefulness of the adapted framework. The study results show that the adapted framework is useful for exploring behaviour and developing interventions in small-scale, exploratory studies, and that it can be applied to other behaviour domains and contexts. The main contribution of this paper is the demonstration of the potential of Darnton's original and adapted frameworks as a promising general approach useful for policy and design interventions.
... In contrast, however, a wide range of studies have found that, generally, providing information to raise awareness on the benefits of pro-environmental behaviours does not simply change behaviour (Hirst, Berry and Soderstrom, 1981;Geller 1981;McDougall, et al., 1983;Geller et al., 1983, McKenzie-Mohr, 2000, Kollmus and Agyeman, 2002Wilson et al., 2007;Owens and Driffill, 2008;Steg and Vlek, 2009;Catney et al., 2013;Sweeney et al., 2013). However, information is one important part of the package of elements required for action (Kenis and Mathijs, 2012;Owens and Driffill, 2008;Faiers et al., 2007;Darby, 2006;Salmela and Varho, 2006;Lutzenhiser, 2002;Dietz and Stern, 2002;Stern, 1999). ...
... However, the argument developed from my results is in line with several studies that found that providing information to raise awareness does not necessarily change behaviour (Hirst, Berry and Soderstrom, 1981;Geller, 1981;McDougall et al., 1983;Geller et al., 1983, McKenzie-Mohr, 2000, Kollmus and Agyeman, 2002Abrahamse et al., 2005;Wilson et al., 2007;Owens and Driffill, 2008;Steg and Vlek, 2009;Catney et al., 2013;Sweeney et al., 2013). ...
Thesis
The Green Deal was part of a strategy to tackle climate change by reducing home energy use. It operated in the UK from 2013 to 2015, but uptake of the policy was very low. Energy efficiency policies usually advantage homeowners over tenants and landlords. Therefore, it is important to analyse the differences in uptake and the reasons for low uptake across sectors. This study examines which role financial incentives, decision-making and awareness play in inequality of uptake of the Green Deal, compared between the privately rented and owner-occupier sectors and between student landlords and the young professional landlord market. The study uses qualitative interviews, a survey, and documentary research to address the research question. The conclusion is that financial reasons are very relevant for understanding why uptake of the Green Deal was lower in the privately rented sector than the owner-occupier sector, and the student rented sector than the young professional rented sector. I found that the Green Deal finance was too expensive for customers in general, but that people in the privately rented sector found it more difficult than owners to access loans under the scheme. One of the novel findings from the study was that student landlords focused on rental incomes and believed that Green Deal improvement would not increase their rental incomes, but young professional landlords focused on capital gains and understood that Green Deal improvements would slightly increase their capital growth. Decision making reasons are very important for explaining the inequality of take-up of the Green Deal across sectors. The requirement for consensus between landlord and tenant in the rented market not exist in the owner-occupier market. I found that it is more difficult to reach consensus in student rented market than in the young professional rented market because the student market is made up of more transient and larger tenant groups than the young professional rented market, which contains fewer tenants who plan to stay for longer. It is less clear how important awareness reasons are to explain the difference in uptake of the Green Deal across sectors. There were equal levels of Green Deal awareness between the privately rented sector and the owner-occupier sector, and between the students rented market and the young professional rented market. I found that tenants are not interested in energy efficiency when renting, but owners consider energy efficiency in their buying decisions. Therefore, owner-occupiers might be more willing to act on their pro-environmental attitudes than landlords and tenants. Equally, environmental attitudes of different types of landlord are potentially relevant in explaining difference in uptake of the Green Deal in the student rented market and the young professional rented market. Landlords in the young professional rented market might be more willing to act on their pro-environmental attitudes than landlords in the student rented market, as the former’s motivations to rent out their properties are based on long-term enhancement of capital value, as against the latter’s motivations based on short-term profit.
... This challenge in achieving research utilization and impact is widespread in many other applied sciences such as management and organizational science (Pfeffer and Sutton 1999;Starbuck 2006), environmental psychology (McKenzie-Mohr 2000;Sommer 2003), restoration ecology (Higgs 2005), climate science (Meadow et al. 2015), and ecosystem management (McNie 2007). Science for conservation is not alone in facing the challenges of achieving research implementation (Knight et al. 2008). ...
Chapter
Narrowing the knowledge-implementation gap is an essential step for conservation to achieve impact in an effective and timely manner. To do so requires an understanding of this “gap” and the processes, challenges, and enablers that are associated with it. For conservation science, these reflections and scholarship have only gained traction in the past ten years compared to the medical and social sciences where research in this field dates back to the 1970s. Narrowing the gap can occur at all stages from production, the mediation and the transfer of knowledge, and its output or action. These stages describe the knowledge-action framework, which encapsulates the narrative of this book. This chapter synthesizes terminologies used in the context of the knowledge-implementation gap, barriers and challenges that exacerbate it, and processes and conditions that enable bridging of the gap with reflections inspired from other disciplines. We acknowledge that a geographical bias exists toward the Western world and democracies in evaluating the knowledge-implementation gap in conservation science. This is an issue as some of the most endangered biomes/ecosystems are found in the developing world and cultures. As such, we identify the need to highlight the status of the gap including bright spots in developing regions of the globe where very different factors will affect knowledge implementation. We hope this book will provide a foundation for scholarship and reflections on the knowledge-implementation gap in nature conservation.
... However, the effectiveness of campaigns to address such challenges remains an important issue of debate (Akbar et al., 2021). Most of the studies show that providing information to the society in campaigns do not have the desired behavioral change in individuals and remain at the basic level of raising awareness (Buyucek et al., 2016;McKenzie-Mohr and Smith, 1999). ...
Article
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Purpose- The aim of the study is to draw the attention of researchers and practitioners to the benefits of using theory and models in social marketing studies, which theories or models are mostly used in social marketing health interventions in Turkey and how they are being used. Design/methodology/approach – The studies to be included in the research were determined by systematic review before the analyzes and then the application was made with the STROBE and SRQR guidelines (international evaluation norms) to ensure the validation of the studies. After the validation evaluation, the theory and model use in the relevant studies was examined. In order to ensure the objectivity of the evaluation process in the study, a statistician and the author of the study rated the relevant studies in accordance with the guidelines. Consistency between raters was demonstrated by the Blant-Altman (1986) method. Results – After the systematic review, 8 quantitative studies and 9 qualitative studies were evaluated with international conformity lists. In the evaluated norms, it has been observed that the studies on the subject comply with the international standards by more than 60%. In this case, it can be said deterministically that the suggestions to be given or compiled on the subject of the study meet both national and international norms and their scientific quality meets the expectations. Discussion – Although the connection between theory and model use in the development of social marketing studies and well-designed interventions has been revealed in the literature, it is seen in the literature review that a large number of social marketing studies in Turkey do not use theory and model or do not report theory and model use in detail. This result is also similar to the international literature. It has been seen that social marketers need to have knowledge of behavioural theory and models, as well as how to integrate them into health interventions. In addition, studies in the field of health interventions need to be supported and diversified with studies other than smoking and audience analysis.
... The use of social cues is based on the potential of norms for inducing pro-environmental and pro-social behaviors (Bergquist et al., 2019). Disseminating additional information and giving prompts, such as reminders, has been shown to be effective especially when people are already motivated to recycle and when knowledge is the main barrier to do so (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). ...
Article
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In a transdisciplinary project with the Municipality of Trelew (Argentina), we assessed barriers to households disposing of separated waste, developed supportive behavioral interventions, tested the interventions in a randomized controlled trial, and supported the Municipality in upscaling the most successful and cost-effective intervention to a total of 20,000 households. The interventions were designed to address the three main barriers to waste separation detected through a baseline study: a lack of knowledge on how separation works; the additional hassle it represents; and the self-regulation challenge it poses. The interventions consisted of envelopes containing simplifying information, empathetic messages, a magnetic calendar acting as a reminder, or a combination thereof. The interventions roughly halved the prevalence of bags containing unusable mixed waste two weeks after the intervention. This impact was still present after six months. We did not find evidence for an additional effect of empathetic messages or the reminder. Based on these results, the simplified information intervention was rolled out. The results provide evidence of the high potential of using the full range of behavioral methods to increase sustainable behaviors, particularly in the context of limited options to adapt the waste management system as such.
... nudge theory) and the role of the social world (e.g. the Social Marketing Approach [SMA]) in shaping practices have had some success in pro-health and pro-environmental interventions (e.g. BIT, no date; Burchell, 2016;Corner and Randall, 2011;McKenzie-Mohr, 2000;Peattie and Peattie, 2009). However, these approaches have been criticised for only making incremental changes, whilst not questioning the dominant paradigm of the citizen-as-consumer (Barr et al., 2011;Corner and Randall, 2011;Hargreaves, 2011), therefore making them ineffective for bringing about the kind of behavioural changes required to solve "big problems", such as climate change (Goodwin, 2012). ...
Thesis
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The environmental impacts of the UK's domestic sector must be lowered if they are to meet UK government greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) reduction targets. However, government initiatives to lower domestic GHGs have had little success, and progress has been too slow. Given this lack of top-down impetus, it is worth investigating alternative housing solutions. Previous research has shown that shared living - in which residents share spaces, resources, and social time - tends to have lower environmental impacts than the average household. However, this issue has not yet been explored within the UK. There is also research which shows that social networks can be effective in encouraging practice transitions and maintenance. This has not yet been thoroughly investigated within the context of shared living and environmental sustainability. This research aimed to explore the practices and infrastructures which enable pro-environmental outcomes within shared living. This aim was achieved through in-depth research in six shared living case studies. The research mainly adopted an ethnographic approach, complemented by quantitative measurement of GHGs. This research shows that the shared living case studies have significantly lower GHGs than the average UK household. This builds upon previous quantitative environmental evaluations of shared living. In studying practices, infrastructures and social networks within shared living, this research identifies four types of sharing that are significant to pro-environmental outcomes: shared ideals, shared governance, shared materials and spaces, and shared endeavour. For each type of sharing, the findings describe and analyse how processes of negotiation enable and constrain pro-environmental practices and outcomes. By exploring these processes, this research generates new knowledge on how and why shared living can produce lower-than-average domestic environmental impacts. Thus, the research demonstrates the potential and the mechanisms by which shared living may offer environmentally sustainable housing solutions for the UK.
... However, the same effect is difficult to achieve with individual consumers. In this regard, incentive programs have become particularly instrumental, serving as a potent means for persuading individual households and consumer communities to adopt pro-environmental behaviors and technologies [4][5][6][7][8][9]. For example, utilities and governmental agencies have used monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage private landowners to install green infrastructure as a measure to reduce the risk of flooding, decrease the occurrence of sewer overflow, and control runoff [10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
This paper presents a systematic review of the research literature that applies quantitative techniques to inform incentive programs and policies promoting pro-environmental behavior and technology adoption among individual consumers. The paper points out that, while the number of active incentive programs is large, there is a dire need for scientific advances that could increase their impact in calculated ways. The expertise of the operations research and management science community, as well as industrial, systems, civil, and environmental engineering experience, appears to be particularly well suited to support such effort. The review covers the research work performed in three areas of practical importance: efficient energy consumption, waste management, and stormwater management. The types of analytical models and data analysis techniques developed to support policy-making in each area are summarized, highlighting the imbalance between the descriptive versus prescriptive contributions made to date.
... The daily actions of people form the natural and social environment in which they reside according to their needs and their consumption of resources (water, food, and energy), the waste they produce and the way in which they treat it, and the government policies they approve. Numerous studies have shown that the direct influence on the actions of individuals is derived from information and awareness [26][27][28]. Furthermore, the measures to mitigate climate change cannot be implemented without public encouragement and engagement. ...
Article
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This study was aimed at investigating the determinants of environmental sustainability in 86 countries from 2007 to 2018. The natural gradient boosting (NGBoost) algorithm was implemented along with five machine learning models to forecast the trends of CO2 emissions. In addition, the SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) technique was used to interpret the findings and analyze the contribution of the individual factors. The empirical results indicated that the predictions obtained using NGBoost were more accurate than those obtained using other models. The SHAP value exhibited a positive correlation among the amount of CO2 emissions, economic growth, and opportunity entrepreneurship. A negative correlation was observed among the governance, personnel freedom, education, and pollution.
... Los estudios de intervención para el cambio de comportamientos han adoptado una serie de técnicas del campo del análisis de la conducta para la gestión de problemas ambientales (Cone y Hayes, 1980); entre ellas se cuentan el uso de la persuasión y estrategias publicitarias o de sensibilización (Mckenzie-Mohr, 2000;Mosler et al., 2008), establecimiento de compromiso (Katzev y Pardini, 1988), recompensas o incentivos (Ibáñez et al., 2007), modelado (Schultz y Zelezny, 1999) y retroalimentación (Schultz y Zelezny, 1999;Dixon et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
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La principal aportación de esta investigación se encuentra en la preferencia por productos ecológicos versus los contaminantes después de presentar su precio para tomar una decisión al momento de comprar, que es el punto central de este estudio. La evidencia encontrada demuestra que, ante una elección que incluye beneficios al medio ambiente, las personas en su primera elección durante sus compras (que podrían ser las que efectúan cotidianamente cada que compran), no necesariamente se deciden por los beneficios ambientales; al contrario, optan por productos que tienen consecuencias al medio ambiente. Sin embargo, la sensibilidad al precio y el umbral de comparación de precios bajos frente a precios altos, incide directamente en el cambio en su preferencia por productos ecológicos, con un menor precio y por consiguiente un bajo costo en sus finanzas personales.
... Working with a community of stakeholders would be critical to creating an effective social marketing campaign. [40][41][42] Second, regarding the development of message strategies, it is critical to develop messages that address and reduce fears. Thus, the use of hope, pride, or warmth may be options worth exploring. ...
Article
Background Despite multiple efforts, African American women continue to be inadequately represented in clinical research while being overrepresented in disease, producing research results with limited generalizability to this specific population. Our understanding of the barriers to participation in clinical trials among racial/ethnic minority patients in general has evolved, but few studies have examined the reasoning behind African American women's decision to not participate in clinical trials. Objective The primary aim was to conduct a systematic review to identify the barriers reported by African American women regarding participation in clinical research to help explain the low levels of enrollment. We also suggest strategies that can be implemented by the research community to lessen the effect of those barriers. Methods Searches were conducted through MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Following a set of eligibility criteria, a total of 18 peer-reviewed journal articles were selected and analyzed to render categories and themes. Results Across studies aimed at examining their unique perspective, the reasons mentioned by African American women for not participating in clinical research were grouped in three broad categories: 1) weak relationship with the medical and research community, 2) high cost to participation, and 3) personal and “out-of-reach” circumstances. Reasons pertaining to participants’ relationship with physicians/researchers were most salient. Discussion A targeted and comprehensive understanding of the barriers impacting African American women's decision to participate in clinical research informs population-specific recruitment and research strategies for future studies. Additional studies assessing barriers to clinical trial research participation that intentionally report on disaggregated data by not only race/ethnicity but also sex are essential to improving the risk/benefit profile for a wide range of prevention and treatment efforts. This improved understanding of the differences between subgroups within minority populations has implications for bolstering culturally sensitive messages to enhance the engagement of minority communities in clinical trial research.
... In the social marketing literature, there are major theoretical and empirical gaps in our knowledge of cigarette butts littering behaviour (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). There are few studies that look into the relationship between consumer self-concept (fearful self) and environmental consciousness. ...
Article
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Although litter prevention has environmental, social and economic benefits, cigarette butts are the most littered item on earth. While there has been vast research into the relationship between different factors affecting consumer behaviour, further research is needed to examine the antecedents of consumer sustainable behaviour. The aim of this study is to test the impact of feared self and landfill awareness on the sustainable behaviour of consumers using a structural equation modelling approach. Primary data of consumers are used to validate the hypothesised model. The findings highlight that feared self has a positive impact on the sustainable behaviour of consumers, while feared-self congruency and landfill awareness do not affect consumer sustainable behaviour. As for the implications, the results can support academics and strategic managers in the design process of sustainable consumer awareness programs to achieve environmental, social and economic benefits in the era of circular economy.
... Antle et al. (2011) focused their research on children between the ages of 7 to 10 (concrete operational stage). This was influenced by the research of environmental psychologist McKenzie-Mohr who suggested that this age was the best time to help build ''ecologically sustainable behaviour'' in children (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). Xiao et al. (2016) also focus on children between 7 and 13, as it was mentioned based on Piaget's observation that children between the ages of a toddler and up to 12 years old have not fully developed their abstract symbolic thinking. ...
Article
Embodied cognition is a concept that has been extensively explored by scholars within the Child-Computer Interaction community. However, there is a lack of a synthesis of this research to clarify the field’s benefits and drawbacks. This paper presents a survey of articles published between 2010 and 2020 in the Interaction Design and Children (IDC) conference and the International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction (IJCCI). We retrieved 158 papers using the keyword ”embodied cognition” and its derivatives. Further screening narrowed these down to 43. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current landscape of’embodied’ research by reporting the most common subject areas of application, forms, and modes of embodiment, and the role of children and adults. Our contribution is twofold: we highlight the main trends around these themes within the field, and we provide eight critical areas of future research. By illustrating new challenges and opportunities, we aim to support the growth of this area of research within the CCI community.
... The next two steps-assessing penetration and probability-are critical to ensure the behaviour is not already widely practiced (and thus any efforts to increase the target behaviour would have little net benefit due to ceiling effects) and that people are willing to engage in the behaviour. To rank the behaviours, a total weighted impact score is calculated for each target behaviour by multiplying the effectiveness score by inversed penetration by the probability score, where inversed penetration is the maximum possible penetration minus observed penetration (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). ...
Article
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Livestock production systems are associated with climate change, land degradation, and animal welfare concerns, while overconsumption of animal-sourced foods is a major driver of human disease. Thus, shifting towards plant-rich diets is expected to deliver benefits for human health, the environment, and animal welfare. Nevertheless, diets high in animal products are flourishing, especially in high-income countries. Here, we take a novel inter-disciplinary approach to evaluating sustainability of diets by assessing five common plant-rich diets (Mediterranean, flexitarian/semi-vegetarian, vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian) on two metrics. First, we established each diet's environmental, human health, and animal welfare impacts, using quantitative data sourced from a review of the literature, including life cycle assessments. Second, we evaluated the human factor by surveying current consumer dietary preferences (i.e., which diet participants had followed over the past week) and the likelihood of adopting each plant-rich diet in the future, among a sample of Australian adults (n = 253). Combining the results from the review and the survey in a Behaviour Prioritization Matrix (BPM), the Mediterranean diet was shown to have the greatest projected positive impact, followed by the vegetarian diet. This study is the first to combine assessments of sustainable diets on the three dimensions of environment, human health, and animal welfare with probability of adoption. Our findings highlight the necessity of assessing plant-rich diets through a holistic lens when identifying target diets to promote, in order to support sustainable food systems in high-income countries.
... Our findings highlight the potential value of interventions that are delivered at the community level and that emphasize psychoeducation about approach coping strategies as well as explore lessons learned from the bushfires to foster posttraumatic growth. Future studies should examine whether community-level interventions such as community-based social marketing (CBSM) approaches can improve coping among community members (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). CBSM was initially developed in the context of promoting proenvironmental behaviors but has since been applied to physical health (for example, reducing the spread of COVID-19; Lee, 2020; recruitment for, attendance at, and retention of a community-based physical activity program, Withall et al., 2012; and, more recently, to promote comorbid physical and mental health in rural Australia; Mehmet et al., 2020). ...
Article
Objective: We investigated how Australian community members (N = 318) indirectly and/or directly exposed to Australia's 2019/20 bushfire season differed in terms of psychological distress, posttraumatic growth, coping, physical health, and COVID-19 anxiety. Method: This was a cross-sectional study with a nonequivalent groups design. Participants were over 18 years old, English proficient, and Australian permanent residents or citizens living in Australia at some point between June 2019 and February 2020. Participants completed a 10-minute anonymous online survey 5 to 8 weeks following the bushfires. Results: A descriptive discriminant analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between bushfire exposure groups when considering our dependent variables of interest simultaneously and adjusting for prior mental health assistance and prior exposure to natural disasters: F(10, 624) = 2.83, p = .002; V = .087, partial η² = .043. The group centroid for the indirect-only exposure group (-.374) was substantially lower than that for the other 2 groups (direct only: .137; direct + indirect: .224), indicating that the indirect-only exposure group could be differentiated by the fact that they more frequently reported avoidant coping strategies and endorsed lower posttraumatic growth scores than the direct-only and direct + indirect exposure groups. The variance accounted for by these discriminant variables was 8.4%, indicating a very small effect. Conclusion: Our results point to a need to tailor and/or expand disaster preparedness, response, and recovery efforts such that they might benefit community members both directly and indirectly exposed to bushfire events in Australia. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Likewise, although some of the results from the intergroup comparisons carried out on the relationship between label credibility and environmental sustainability, quality and price inferences were in line with expectations, no statistical support was obtained for the research hypotheses suggesting the information to the consumer as an effective tool to correct the biased perception of certified sustainability labels [55,77,78]. In line with these results, some authors argue that providing information has rather short-lived effects on pro-environmental behavior and sustainable consumption in the medium and long term [106][107][108][109], so a combination of the information with other complementary tactics is necessary [110][111][112][113]. In this sense, given that the time that elapsed between the reception of the information by the participants in the study and the experimental phase when they had to interpret the attributes of the product was only two weeks, it can be said that the intervention did not allow the stimulation of any type of rational thinking oriented to an adequate interpretation of the labels, so being ineffective in neutralizing biased heuristic thinking. ...
Article
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Despite the growing awareness of the need to promote the consumption of organic food, consumers have difficulties in correctly identifying it in the market, making frequent cognitive mistakes in the evaluation of products identified by sustainability labels and claims. This work analyzes the halo effect and the source credibility bias in the interpretation of product attributes based on third-party certified labels. It is hypothesized that, regardless of their specific meaning, official labels lead consumers to infer higher environmental sustainability, quality and price of the product, due to the credibility attributed to the certifying entity. It also examines the extent to which providing the consumer with accurate labeling information helps prevent biased heuristic thinking. An experimental between-subject study was performed with a sample of 412 Spanish business students and data were analyzed using partial least squares. Findings revealed that consumers tend to infer environmental superiority and, consequently, higher quality in products identified by both organic and non-organic certified labels, due to their credibility. Label credibility was also associated with price inferences, to a greater extent than the meaning attributed to the label. Interestingly, providing accurate information did not avoid biased heuristic thinking in product evaluation.
... According to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) we have a tendency to be loss averse -we prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains of the same value. Therefore, messages that emphasise the losses that occur as a result of inaction are likely to be more effective than those that emphasise the benefits of action (Davis, 1995;McKenzie-Mohr & Smith, 1999). ...
Article
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This review was commissioned by the Behavioural Insights Research Centre for English and Maths (BIRCEM) in order to provide an overview of the research that has been conducted in the areas of adult literacy and numeracy (ALN) and behavioural sciences that can provide answers to the following research questions: 1. How can adults lacking in basic skills be encouraged on to literacy and numeracy courses? 2. How can adults on literacy and numeracy courses be encourage to persist and complete these courses? The aims of this review were to identify, describe and appraise literature relevant to these two research questions in order to both give an overview of the research findings to date and provide ideas for future research. This review was conducted rapidly over the period of two months (June and July 2014) and focusses on breadth rather than depth with the intention of providing an introduction to many different relevant areas that could be used as a basis for the development of ideas for future research.
... Los estudios de intervención para el cambio de comportamientos han adoptado una serie de técnicas del campo del análisis de la conducta para la gestión de problemas ambientales (Cone y Hayes, 1980); entre ellas se cuentan el uso de la persuasión y estrategias publicitarias o de sensibilización (Mckenzie-Mohr, 2000;Mosler et al., 2008), establecimiento de compromiso (Katzev y Pardini, 1988), recompensas o incentivos (Ibáñez et al., 2007), modelado (Schultz y Zelezny, 1999) y retroalimentación (Schultz y Zelezny, 1999;Dixon et al., 2015). ...
... The resulting "down-to-earth approach" is partly characterized by taking advantage of some of the good old educational tricks of influencing people. There is now a rich toolbox available for the design and execution of effective environmental or health programs (see table 6.2) (Kotler & Zaltman, 1971;Geller, 1989;McKenzie-Mohr & Smith, 1999;Bator & Cialdini, 2000). ...
Thesis
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The first part of this PhD presents a novel computational model for simulating the formation and change of individual political attitude strength. The second part is an application of the model in the domain of optimizing the temporal allocation of a predefined campaign budget. During the last two decades, the concept of attitude strength has become a focal issue in the fields of attitude psychology and theories of public opinion. Since there is no direct definition of attitude strength in the literature, the notion has to be defined indirectly. In terms of measurable components of attitude strength, strong attitudes of an individual can be defined as attitudes which are extreme, consistent (non-ambivalent), and important to the holder (held with a high level of involvement). In contrast, weak attitudes are tempered, ambivalent, and unimportant to the holder (held with a low level of involvement). In terms of the consequences of attitude strength, the most important characteristic of strong attitudes is that they are considerably more predictive of behavior than weak attitudes. The research on attitude strength was initiated in the late 1980s and invigorated in the 1990s after empirical studies had almost unanimously pointed out the difficulty of explaining and predicting behavior from the traditional concept of attitudes, just comprising the measurement of valence and extremity. As a complement to empirical studies on attitude strength, this thesis is the first attempt to present a computational simulation model of the mental structures and processes underlying the formation and change of the components of attitude strength. The simulation model is called the Political Attitude Strength Simulation model (the PASS model, from here on). With respect to the components of attitude strength defined above, the PASS model simulates the individual time traces of the attitude extremity, the attitude ambivalence and the attitudinal involvement of 100 individual artificial citizens over one year before voting day. Integrating these components, the resulting level of the attitude strength is used to distinguish voters from non-voters at the simulated voting day. Furthermore, the combined level of the attitude extremity and the attitude ambivalence (ignoring the level of involvement) is used to distinguish between certain and uncertain citizens. Whereas certain citizens argue either pro or contra a certain political issue, uncertain citizens argue both pro and contra. The benefit of this - 4 - certainty-based differentiation is the differentiation between citizens that increase the certainty of their communication partner and citizens that decrease the certainty of their communication partners. The citizens are embedded in a virtual social network. Previous to each model run, a newly constructed algorithm generates a natural data-based citizen network. The data required for the algorithm are the frequency distribution of ego-network sizes and the heterogeneity of the network in regard to the attribute of the citizen’s party identification. The target of the attitude formation and change process in the PASS model are two political parties. Starting from an individual initial attitude towards the parties, during the model run every simulated citizen changes her attitude in response to the coverage from the mass media, the activities of the parties, and the content of the interpersonal communication. The PASS model is applied to compare the effectiveness of six different strategies of allocating campaign activities towards voting day. The strategies were evaluated in terms of their relative competitiveness represented by the probability of winning the election if the party uses a particular degree of accumulation. The probability estimates (including the corresponding confidence intervals) were derived by running a series of Monte Carlo Experiments using the PASS model. The variation ranges of the input parameters used in the experiments were estimated based on data available from the German General Elections. The results from the Monte Carlo Experiments are partly coherent with the current practice of accumulating campaign activities towards voting day in Germany. Yet, the remaining deviation of the model results from the current practice suggests that parties may be generally inclined to mistrust the effectiveness of more continuous campaign strategies and often employ a “Final Burst” strategy. The structures and processes implemented in the PASS model might be used as a dynamic explanatory device for demonstrating the proclaimed effect of “permanent campaigning”.
... There are diverse theories and models of behavior change, but in order to significantly influence and change residents' behavior in the field of waste reduction, the literature review brings considerable evidence that it is wise to use social marketing (Cole & Fieselman, 2013;Hodgkins et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2020;McKenzie-Mohr, 2011;Pearson & Perera, 2018). The goal of social marketing is to change harmful or useless behavior. ...
Article
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Research purpose. The purpose is to study the household attitudes toward waste separation and prevention and present an innovative model of efficient and sustainable waste management. Design / Methodology / Approach. In the empirical part, an online survey was implemented to research residents’ attitudes and intentions regarding handling household waste. It resulted in 228 valid responses, used for a quantitative analysis to answer the set hypotheses. Findings. Regardless of the good results of waste separation in the municipality, the research showed that households do not know how to classify certain waste according to the type properly. It was confirmed that the use of penalty programs does not contribute to a higher level of waste separation. The already high awareness of the importance of separating waste could further be strengthened through the tools of social marketing as a factor for social change. Originality / Value / Practical implications. It has been proven that residents’ motivation is an important factor that indirectly influences households to separate, prevent and reduce the generation of new amounts of waste. Changing people’s attitudes, mindsets, and behavior to be environmentally friendly is the best way to prevent further encroachment on the natural environment.
... Also, since the early days of social marketing, campaigns have addressed environmental issues, for example by promoting involvement in behaviors such as recycling (Zikmund and Stanton, 1971), or promoting ecoliteracy (Taylor and Muller, 1992). McKenzie-Mohr and Smith (1999) moved the debate forward with an emphasis on community-based social marketing campaigns for sustainability. The approach they outline represents a toolkit with the potential to promote almost any form of sustainability-oriented behavior within communities. ...
Article
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Purpose This research seeks to understand if transformational marketing can be used as a tool that helps destinations to create products that can be individually, or group tailored to result in an enjoyable way to gain self-awareness, spiritual experience and an expansion of consciousness. Design/methodology/approach This article is exploratory and with it, one intended to raise questions and hypotheses aiming to broaden the discussion scope on transformational marketing as a tool to create products that can not only conquer transformational travelers, but that also helps creating the conditions to expand this niche. Findings One suggests that destinations' that adopt transformational marketing as a tool will gain not only an advantage over their competitors, but will also, create the conditions for a more sustainable and responsible tourism development. Therefore, destinations that implement transformational marketing-based strategies will see tourism become a catalyst for environmental, social, cultural and economic regeneration. Originality/value This paper contributes to research on transformational tourism and transformational marketing pointing out some possible paths to be explored. More broadly, this research provides some valuable insights into the future of tourism destinations' marketing and development dimensions.
... Defining the behaviour of interest and investigating associated attitudes, norms, motivations, and incentives is key (McKenzie-Mohr, 2011;Olmedo et al., 2017). This requires pre-intervention research, which can also establish baselines against which to compare post-intervention data for evaluation (Ferraro and Pattanayak, 2006). ...
Technical Report
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This Problem Analysis is a review of the efficacy and opportunities for using social norm and behaviour change (SNBC) approaches to combat illegal wildlife trade (IWT) and other natural resource-related corruption. Behavioural science is a rich and expansive field that has received prominent coverage in recent years for the promise it offers as a foundational yet underutilised approach to achieving biodiversity conservation. Extensive literature shows how SNBC initiatives can help combat diverse corruption problems, although for those related to natural resource management the evidence for doing so is sparse. This report synthesises the available information and suggests the next steps to redress this current lack of evidence. It seeks to: Understand what SNBC approaches might or might not work in fighting corruption. Identify entry points for designing SNBC interventions that can effectively reduce corruption related to IWT. Available here: https://www.traffic.org/publications/reports/behavioural-drivers-of-corruption-facilitating-illegal-wildlife-trade-problem-analysis-and-state-of-the-field/
... In general, joining the ENERGE Committee is an instrument of behaviour change in itself [10], as in accordance with self-perception theory, our attitudes, including pro-environmental, are formed when we observe our own overt behaviours and the circumstances in which these behaviours occur [11]. To this extent, the ENERGE Committee membership can be regarded as a commitment to community-based behaviour change [12]. In addition, the linking of the ENERGE Committees from different countries brings a crosscountry element to the learning community and creates transnational cooperation between students when sharing ideas and experiences. ...
Conference Paper
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Schools are learning communities where multiple stakeholders can collaborate to learn about energy efficiency, including via formal curricula, non-formal learning and day-to-day practices. Furthermore, by improving energy literacy among building occupants, the energy efficiency of schools can be improved. However, turning schools into learning communities rather than learning organizations is still problematic. This article details a case study realised in the form of the ENERGE project, which integrates technological, educational and practical activities in 13 post-primary schools from 6 European countries. Owing to an extensive collaboration of diverse stakeholders, the ENERGE project resulted in the origination of a learning community around energy efficiency in the schools. The outcomes of building a learning community within the ENERGE project included: capacity building (in the form of the ENERGE Committees and Teacher Network), the introduction of digital education (via the ENERGE digital platform), development of curriculum-based modules to raise energy literacy, and the establishment of a viable model for expanding ENERGE experience to other schools. The article concludes by explaining the benefits of the ENERGE approach for stakeholders.
... Their understanding was informed by the belief that social marketing did not reflect on issues such as community participation or community involvement. However, since the publication of their article, a significant body of knowledge has been developed that can be broadly defined as community-based social marketing (see, for example, McKenzie-Mohr, 2011). The concept of community-based social marketing provides an opportunity for social marketers to consider the importance of community in facilitating empowerment. ...
Article
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This paper analyses how social marketing scholarship engages with the concept of empowerment and reflects critically on its usage and conceptualisations. Based on a systematic literature review, the paper discusses the importance of empowerment theory for increasing the emancipatory potential of social marketing in pursuit of community betterment and social change. The paper offers a definition of empowerment for the social marketing discipline, constructs a conceptual framework of empowerment for social marketers, and clarifies the main aspects and principles of empow-erment theory relevant for the development of critical social marketing , thereby providing sources for future research, continuing critical reflections and critique.
... Also, Tan, Ooi and Goh [45] found that moral norm, which refers to the "perceived moral obligation or responsibility to perform or not to perform certain behaviour" ( [45], p.15), affects purchase intention of energy-efficient household appliances, such as energy-efficient freezers, air-conditioners, domestic fans, and televisions. Although there are mixed results about the effect of providing information and price signals [46], a study by Li et al. [47] found that environmental concern and environmental knowledge have a positive effect on attitudes and indirectly affect people's willingness to purchase energyefficient appliances. Taghikhah, Voinov and Shukla [48] explained that if consumers do not understand the benefits of low-carbon products they may be reluctant to buy them due to their tendency to be more expensive than regular products. ...
Conference Paper
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The debate on citizen participation in the energy transition is closely connected to a recently established notion of citizenship: energy citizenship. By conducting an integrative literature review, we formulate a holistic definition of energy citizenship and explore the heterogenous behaviours of energy citizens as well as their emergence within the energy system. Based on that, six different types of energy citizens are defined, which are both individuals (i.e., consumers, prosumers and prosumagers, participants in protests and movements, and policymakers) and collective entities (i.e., energy communities and business entities). The results suggest that transformative policy-making could benefit from taking into account behavioural dimension to induce actions in all types of energy citizens that support a just energy transition. In practice this implies that the design of policy measures and intervention instruments must consider the heterogeneity of barriers, drivers and ultimately behaviours of a myriad of stakeholders participating in a given innovation (eco)system supporting a fair, inclusive and just energy transition.
Article
Interest is an important precursor to engaging the public in environmental and science learning. We used focus groups to explore ocean learning interests of inland residents of a coastal U.S. state, reasons for those interests, and differences between adults and children. We found adults and children generally had similar interests including categories like physical phenomena, sea life, and human impact on and from the ocean which could be a starting point for designers to gather specific local interests and context. Reasons for interest included knowledge for future decision-making which could be leveraged to encourage behavior change for ocean conservation and stewardship.
Article
The tourism sector has always been a target of criticism due to the adverse environmental effects of travel and activities at tourist destinations. It is thus imperative for researchers and managers to seek tourism solutions that make business sense without raising sustainability-related issues. Particularly in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual reality tourism (VRT), a form of digitally-driven albeit unconventional ex-situ touristic travel, has attracted the attention of multiple stakeholders in the sector. However, consumers’ perceptions of and motivations to use VRT as a sustainable solution for touristic activities are yet not fully understood. We address this deficiency in the literature by drawing upon expectancy theory to propose goal difficulty and reduction in the environmental impact of tourism (REI) as expectancy-related motivations, accomplishment as an instrumentality-related motivation and willingness to sacrifice as a valence-related motivation; we anticipate these motivations, in turn, to drive two outcomes: low- and high-effort pro-environmental behaviours. Analysing data collected from 350 individuals residing in the United States, we found support for all positive associations except for that of goal difficulty with high-effort pro-environmental behaviours and REI with both pro-environmental behaviours. We also tested and confirmed the moderating effects of the number of children in a household and daily green behaviours on some of the proposed associations. Our findings offer useful insights for future research and practice in the area.
Article
Background Entanglement of marine species, particularly endangered sea turtles and cetaceans, in abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear is a major conservation concern. Focus of the Article This case study applies Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) to reduce marine wildlife net entanglement in the waters surrounding Masirah Island, a marine biodiversity hotspot in Oman. Importance to the Social Marketing Field The study demonstrates the use of social marketing tools in biodiversity conservation, bringing new knowledge to the cross-application of these two fields. Methods The CBSM methodology was applied to select behaviours, identify barriers and benefits, develop strategies and design a pilot study. The responsible disposal of derelict nets in skip bins was selected as the target behaviour, and a mix of behavioural change tools was applied to achieve change: convenience (installation of three skip bins), education (installation of informative signs, distribution of awareness posters, one-to-one engagement with fishers on the beaches), prompts (installation of signs and posters on vessels) and social norms (one-to-one engagement with key influencers and decision makers). The monitoring of behaviour change took place through structured observations over 23 weeks, focussing on the number of nets disposed of in the allocated skip bins. Results Results showed a low level of behaviour adoption rate by skiff and launch vessel fisheries, respectively, 5.36% and 2.58%. Positive results were observed for a short time but did not reach the estimated target value throughout the study period. Recommendations for Research Our pilot study did not lead to broad-scale implementation and we recommend further awareness and engagement with the target audience, trials of various behaviour change tools and increase field monitoring time. We further recommend the application and funding of behaviour change methods applied to fishers with the incorporation of conventional financial, conservation and regulatory tools to support resource management. Limitations Our results show that focussing on specific behaviours with appropriate measurement is both resource and time demanding to solve pressing conservation problems, particularly ones generated by complex industries such as fishing. Various lessons, useful for other social marketers, have been drawn from our evaluation of the overall study.
Article
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AbstractThe study aimed to identify the impact of higher education efficiency through three dimensions, (learning outcomes, institutional support and community support) As an explanatory variable, in sustainable behavior as a response variable, and the field of study was in some colleges of the University of Kufa (Administration and Economics, Arts and Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics).The research community consisted of professors and workers in the aforementioned colleges, either the research sample was a random sample, the electronic questionnaire was distributed, and (217) statistical questionnaires were retrieved for statistical analysis. The research included two main hypotheses for the test of the correlation and impact relationship between the research variables.The results were extracted using the statistical program (SPSS). The study reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which was adopting the efficiency of higher education in order to achieve clear differentiation, help in finding new processes and services, support the university’s reputation and achieve benefits for society. The research came out with a set of recommendations, the most important of which was working on developing approaches concerned with sustainable behavior and following procedures to confront these problems to understand understanding pro-environment behavior.Key words: Efficiency of higher education, sustainable behavior, University of Kufa.
Conference Paper
RESUMEN El presente trabajo en curso tiene como objetivo analizar la efectividad de mensajes de comunicación que fomentan comportamientos pro-medioambientales en el contexto doméstico. Concretamente, se utiliza por primera vez una técnica de neuroimagen, la resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI), con el propósito de identificar diferencias neuronales durante la evaluación de mensajes hedónicos, normativos y de ganancia. Además, se pretende evaluar la capacidad predictiva de dichas regiones cerebrales sobre cambios en comportamientos pro-medioambientales. Los resultados permitirán identificar el origen neuropsicológico de cambios en los comportamientos responsables por parte de la ciudadanía. ABSTRACT The current research aims to analyse the effectiveness of communication messages that encourage pro-environmental behaviours in the domestic context. Specifically, a neuroimaging technique, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is used for the first time in order to identify neural differences during the evaluation of hedonic, normative and gain messages. In addition, the aim is to evaluate the predictive capacity of these brain regions for changes in pro-environmental behaviour. The results will allow us to identify the neuropsychological origin of changes in responsible behaviour on the part of citizens.
Article
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Social marketing is currently involved in pursuing several important theoretical and methodological goals pertaining to wide-scale behavior change. The lack of complex system understanding via highly participatory processes and feedback loops is a major impediment for systemic behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to show how the implementation of participatory modelling to explore networks of feedback loops can empower social marketing in capturing system complexity. As a case study, a group of system stakeholders qualitatively modelled a cycling system in a city setting to uncover the system's core behavioral dynamics. This participatory modelling process revealed that the interactions within and between three feedback loops were mainly responsible for the cycling system issues. These feedback loops were: (a) output-based and autocratic decision-making, (b) an abundance of conflicted interests and (c) the reinforcement of a car-dominant paradigm in people's minds. The paper contributes to understanding the potential of participatory modelling for multi-level behavior change.
Article
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Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Lebanon have limited technical, economic, and social infrastructures to manage municipal solid waste properly. Understanding what motivates citizens to sort waste at home is paramount to designing effective, efficient, and equitable waste management interventions. Within the solid waste management project “RES-Q” in Southern Lebanon, we investigated the socio-cognitive predictors of waste sorting in a sample of 767 households from the targeted area using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Perceived behavioural control (β = 0.96, p < 0.001), perceived norms (β = −0.30, p < 0.001), and current behaviour (β = 0.06, p < 0.001) were the strongest predictors of intention; attitude toward separating waste was not a significant predictor (β = 0.04, p = 0.3881). Consequently, future behavioural interventions should build capability and opportunity to perform the behaviour before normalising it. For example, citizens should receive bins and bags to separate waste and be shown how to perform the behaviour and how easy and convenient it is to increase their behavioural control. In parallel, waste collection and treatment infrastructures must be in place so that citizens can see that sorting waste is a social norm. These actions will ensure the success of future behavioural interventions within the RES-Q project and beyond.
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Дисертацію присвячено теоретико-методологічному та емпіричному обґрунтуванню синергетичної концепції смислової регуляції екологічно релевантної поведінки. Емпірично вивчена роль екологічної позиції особистості як керуючого параметра системи смислової регуляції екологічно релевантної поведінки, що заданий співвідношенням біосферних та грошово-утилітаристських смислів. Смислове підґрунтя екозберігаючої поведінки становить екологічна стурбованість – властива біосферній екологічній позиції система смислових утворень, яка інтегрує афективний, когнітивний і екзистенціальний компоненти ставлення до екологічного оточення та визначає особистісну орієнтацію на екозбереження. Емпірично вивчені трансформації смислів екологічно релевантних дій залежно від екологічної ризик-рефлексії та зміни у осмисленні екологічної проблематики під впливом економічної кризи. The dissertation is devoted to the theoretical and empirical substantiation of the concept of meaning regulation of ecologically relevant behavior. The role of the ecological position of person as an operating parameter of the system of meaning regulation of ecologically relevant behavior that opened through parity of biospheric and economic orientation is investigated. The meaning basis of pro-ecological behavior is ecological concern – a system of meaning structures that is peculiar to biospheric ecological position and integrates affective, cognitive, and existential components of the relation to an environment, influencing subject orientation to conservation. Transformations of the meaning of ecologically relevant actions caused by ecological risk-refleсion and changes in the meaning of ecological issues under the influence of economic crisis are empirically investigated. Диссертация посвящена теоретико-методологическому и эмпирическому обоснованию концепции смысловой регуляции экологически релевантного поведения. На основе анализа социогенеза экологического дискурса разработана структурно-динамическая модель психологической регуляции процессов жизнеобеспечения в современном обществе. Экоразрушительная активность людей поддерживается доминирующей социальной парадигмой (ДСП), ключевыми параметрами которой являются антропоцентризм и вера в прогресс как непрерывный рост материального потребления. Осознание антропогенных глобальных угроз связано с формированием и развитием новой экологической парадигмы (НЭП). Оценка экологических изменений с позиций ДСП определяет более интенсивное экопотребление, в то время как осмысление с позиций НЭП ориентирует на экосохранение. Основное различие между ДСП и НЭП проявляется как оппозиция «финансово-экономическая ориентация – экологическая ориентация». Реализован синергетический подход к анализу смысловой регуляции субъектной активности. Вводится понятие экологической позиции личности как управляющего параметра системы смысловой регуляции экологически релевантного поведения, определяемой соотношением биосферной и денежно-утилитаристской ориентации и проявляющейся через смысловые образования разных уровней: личностные ценности, смысловые диспозиции, смысловые конструкты и установки. На эмпирическом материале c привлечением методов моделирования структурными уравнениями выявлены паттерны осмысления проблемы глобальных экологических изменений, характерные для субъектов с разными типами экологической позиции. Осмысление экологически релевантных действий опосредовано категориальной структурой, функционирующей как динамическая система смысловых конструктов. Содержание таких смысловых конструктов раскрывается через соотношение категориальных установок, упорядочивающих представления субъекта о возможных мотивах экологически релевантных действиях человека. На основе игрового моделирования изучены трансформации смыслов экологически релевантных действий, обусловленных экологической риск-рефлексией и проявляющихся в усилении экологического содержания смыслового конструкта беспокойства о будущем и переоценке действующих социальных норм. Смысловую основу экосберегающего поведения составляет экологическая озабоченность – система сложно скоординированных смысловых и ценностных диспозиций, релевантная экологическим угрозам и определяющая личностную ориентацию на экосохранение. Такая динамическая смысловая система, характеризующая биосферную экологическую позицию, интегрирует аффективный, когнитивный и экзистенциальный компоненты отношения к экологическому окружению. Осмысление глобальных экологических изменений связано с ценностными приоритетами субъекта. Биосферная ориентация обеспечивает непосредственный эмоциональный отклик на экоразрушительные процессы, спровоцированные активностью людей. При приоритете ценностей самовозвышения внимание субъекта направляется на текущие выгоды экоразрушительных способов действия, а их экоразрушительные последствия отрицаются. Ориентация на социальную гармонию обостряет внимание к потенциальным угрозам человеческому сообществу, однако эта ориентация может сочетаться с установками на неограниченный материальный прогресс и рост человеческой популяции. Выявлены неоднозначные сдвиги в осмыслении проблемы глобальных экологических изменений под влиянием макроэкономической ситуации: в условиях экономического кризиса усиливается субъективная значимость экологической безопасности при снижении субъективной значимости экологических проблем в целом, антропогенное влияние на экологическое окружение становится более отрефлексированным, но менее актуальным для субъекта. При обострении экономической ситуации актуализуются иррациональные смыслы экологических проблем как заслуженного возмездия со стороны природы. Важную роль в социальном продвижении проэкологического поведения играют социально-экологические сообщения, особенности осмысления которых обусловливают формирование готовности к экосберегающему поведению. В сообщениях о социально-экологических мероприятиях и программах следует делать акцент на актуальности конкретной экологической проблемы и доступных для осуществления в реальной жизни способах ее решения.
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Developing and enhancing societal capacity to understand, debate elements of, and take actionable steps toward a sustainable future at a scale beyond the individual are critical when addressing sustainability challenges such as climate change, resource scarcity, biodiversity loss, and zoonotic disease. Although mounting evidence exists for how to facilitate individual action to address sustainability challenges, there is less understanding of how to foster collective action in this realm. To support research and practice promoting collective action to address sustainability issues, we define the term “collective environmental literacy” by delineating four key potent aspects: scale, dynamic processes, shared resources, and synergy. Building on existing collective constructs and thought, we highlight areas where researchers, practitioners, and policymakers can support individuals and communities as they come together to identify, develop, and implement solutions to wicked problems. We close by discussing limitations of this work and future directions in studying collective environmental literacy.
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