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How much is a clean beach worth? The impact of litter on beach users in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

Authors:
  • Anchor Environmental Consultants

Abstract and Figures

Stranded and discarded litter detracts from the aesthetic quality of beaches, and the quantities of lifter on South African beaches continue to increase. We estimate the deterrent effect this has on beach users, and the consequent effect on the regional economy. An interview survey was used to determine the importance of beach cleanliness to local and non-local beach users. Cleanliness was stated as the most important factor in influencing choice of beach, especially by foreign tourists. Almost half the respondents from the Cape Metropolitan Region are prepared to spend more than seven times the average trip cost to visit clean beaches. Furthermore, up to 97% of the value of these beaches could be lost by a drop in standards of cleanliness. Litter densities of more than 10 large items per metre of beach would deter 40% of foreign tourists, and 60% of domestic tourists interviewed, from returning to Cape Town. The impact of this on the regional economy could be a loss of billions of rands each year. A Travel Cost approach estimated the total annual recreational value of selected beaches in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, at between R3 million and R23 million. The large variation is due to a number of assumptions inherent to the Travel Cost Method, and extrapolations from the limited data available. Beach cleaning within the Cape Metropolitan Region is clearly necessary, however, expenditure during the study period (R3 million in 1994-95) is high in relation to the recreational value, and alternative methods of reducing debris at source are required to improve beach cleanliness.
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210 South African Journal of Science 96, May 2000
How
much
is
a
clean
beach
worth?
The
impact
of
litter
on
beach
users
in
the
Cape
Peninsula,
South
Africa
A.
Ballancea,
P.G. Ryanb
and
J.K.
Turpieb
Stranded and discarded litter detracts
from the aesthetic quality of beaches,
and the quantities of litter on South
African beaches continue to increase.
We
estimate the deterrent effect this has
on
beach users, and the consequent effect on
the regional economy.
An
interview survey
was used to determine the importance of
beach cleanliness to local and non-local
beach users. Cleanliness was stated as the
most important factor in influencing choice
of beach, especially by foreign tourists.
Almost half the respondents from the Cape
Metropolitan Region are prepared to spend
more than seven times the average trip cost
to
visit clean beaches. Furthermore, up to
97% of the value of these beaches could be
lost by a drop
in
standards of cleanliness.
Litter densities of more than 10 large items
per metre of beach would deter 40% of
foreign tourists, and 60% of domestic tour-
ists interviewed, from returning to Cape
Town. The impact of this on the regional
economy could be a loss of billions of rands
each year. A Travel Cost approach esti-
mated the total annual recreational value of
selected beaches
in
the Cape Peninsula,
South Africa, at between
R3
million and R23
million. The large variation
is
due to a num-
ber of assumptions inherent to the Travel
Cost Method, and extrapolations from the
limited data available. Beach cleaning
within the Cape Metropolitan Region is
clearly necessary, however, expenditure
during the study period (R3 million in
1994-95)
is high
in
relation to the recre-
ational value, and alternative methods of
reducing debris at source are required to
improve beach cleanliness.
Marine
and
beach
pollution is
an
environ-
mental
problem
worldwide,
threatening
wildlife
and
resulting
in
a loss of aesthetic
quality of
the
coastline.1-3 The recent in-
crease
in
density
of large debris items
found
on
South
African beaches is a cause
for concern.4 Plastic makes
up
90%
of all
large debris
stranded
on
South
African
beaches.5
and
is particularly troublesome
because it disperses easily
and
degrades
slowly. The costs of
marine
and
beach
de-
bris are
now
receiving more attention, to
"CSIR Division of Water, Environment and Forestry Tech-
nology, P 0 Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa. E-mail:
abalance@csir.co.za
bFitzPatrick Institute, Department of Zoology,
UniNrsity
of
Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701 f>outh Af,,,,a.
provide incentives to reduce pollution.6
Degradation
of
beaches
affects their
aesthetic value to users,
and
loss of this
attraction
may
affect the regional econ-
omy
by
deterring
visitors, particularly
tourists. This was
demonstrated
by
an
oil
spill
in
June 1994,
which
polluted some of
Cape Town's most
popular
beaches.
Tourism is extremely
important
to the
South
African economy.
In
1994, it gener-
ated
revenue
of
R12
billion
(R7
billion
from international tourism), and, directly
and
indirectly,
supported
14 million jobs7
It
is
also a sector of the economy
that
has
great potential for
growth
and
employ-
ment,
and
hence is a target for public
and
private
investment. Knowledge of
the
impact
of
beach
litter
on
the
regional
economy
is
therefore
important.
This
paper
assesses
the
value of clean beaches
to users
and
the
socioeconomic impacts of
beach
litter
on
the
region.
We
hope
this
will encourage
improved
legislation or
the
development
of alternative strategies
for
preventing
pollution
at
source, thus
reducing
the
environmental
and
aes-
thetic effect of litter.
Methods and study area
The
study
was
conducted
around
the
Cape Peninsula
(33°S,
26°E)
because of
the opportunities for estimating
beach
value
to
tourists
and
residents.
Cape
Town attracts
49%
of international tour-
ists visiting
South
Africa as well as
20%
of
domestic
tourists/
and
many
of the
3.1
million local residents8 use
the
beaches for
recreational
purposes
(walking, swim-
ming, tanning, surfing, etc.).
The beaches of
the
Peninsula differ
in
a
number
of attributes
important
to visi-
tors, such as
water
temperature, exposure
to wind, facilities
and
ease of access. Ten
study
beaches
were
selected across the
range
of these features (Fig.
1)
to assess
attitudes towards cleanliness of a wide
range
of visitors.
All
estimates are 1996
values, to compare
with
the estimates of
income
generated
by
tourism/
and
ex-
penditure
on
beach
cleaning,
11
during
the
period 1994-96.
A questionnaire
survey
using one-to-
one interviews
gauged
attitudes
among
Research
in
Action
one
thousand
visitors
to
the
sample
beaches. The interviews
were
conducted
randomly
with
respect to age, gender,
nationality,
and
activity of
the
respon-
dent,
time of
day
and
day
of the week,
to
minimize biases towards particular user
groups,
and
to
represent
the proportion
of
both
residents
and
tourists
using
the
beaches. Tourists
were
defined as people
from outside of
the
Cape Metropolitan
Region (CMR) or those from
within
the
region
who
were
staying overnight away
from home. Attempts
were
made
to stan-
dardize
the
number
of
interviews
at
beaches
surveyed,
although
differing
weather
conditions (and hence number
of visitors)
at
the
beaches
did
not
always
permit
this. To compensate for small sam-
ple sizes,
the
responses from visitors to
Strandfontein
were
combined
with
those
from Monwabisi,
and
the responses from
visitors to Milnerton
were
combined with
those from Blouberg.
In
both
cases the
beaches
have
similar physical characteris-
tics
and
visitor profiles.
Questionnaires
were
designed to estab-
lish
the
number
of visits, to a particular
site, the cost of the trip,
and
the respon-
dents'
opinions
towards
the
standard
of
cleanliness of
the
beaches. Beach activity
and
anticipated
length
of stay
on
the
beach
were
also sought,
in
search for rela-
tionships
wlth
the
perceived
level of
cleanliness. A profile was constructed of
different
user
groups
according to their
personal
details
and
opinions
(for in-
stance, residential area,
household
in-
come,
length
of stay, activity, perceptions
of cleanliness), across all beaches.
~~(-
..
->1
'
Allantic
Ocean\
Blouber:\
Milne
rio~'\
Sea
Polnt_
1
c~
:-..I
Cam~ig~~J=----~
~-
Uandudn~...>J:
'-?
y-i.1li:.'nd~F.bll!!;
1
~-'
!(
Muizenberg
-;
/
,
~'.fish
Hoek
·
-\
\
....
~
False
Bay
:)/'-·
\~--L
i
(
...
--.(-·
1.
W
_,J;.
~
... E
T
s
a
..
.0
a ...
)6
km
~
Fig.
1.
Selected study beaches.
Research
in
Action
South African Journal of Science 96, May 2000
211
Table 1. Mean scores for relative importance of various beach attributes as perceived by beach users around the Cape Peninsula. Lower scores
indicate greater importance of attribute.
Attribute* Mean score from residents Mean score from domestic tourists Mean score from foreign tourists
Cleanliness
Facilities
Number and type of people
Proximity to home/hotel
Water temperature/surf quality
Wind direction and force
2.5
3.9
4.0
4.2
3.6
2.8
2.3
4.4
4.4
3.7
3.9
2.9
2.2
4.1
4.2
4.5
4.1
3.5
•sixty-two respondents named an additional attraction, of which safety and scenic beauty were cited most frequently (30 and 23 times, respectively).
The Travel Cost
Method
was
used
to
estimate the recreational value of sample
beaches. This
method
is
widely
used
in
the evaluation of
natural
resources
with
recreational appeal,
and
records the actual
travel cost associated
with
visiting a re-
source as a proxy for its
value
to the visi-
tor.
It
was selected for this
study
over
other
techniques as it uses actual values,
which
can
be
summed
across a
wide
range of users to
compute
a
nominal
total
recreational
demand
value, it is restricted
to direct, non-consumptive
use
valuation,
and
it is easy to administer. (For a detailed
appraisal of alternative
techniques
see
ref.
9.)
The
return
trip cost
was
estimated
for each
respondent
using
either
public
transport fares
or
the
Automobile Associa-
tion's cost of35.5 cents
per
kilometre
(1995
rates). The
annual
recreational value of all
beaches to each
respondent
was
calcu-
lated using the
number
of visits
per
year
and
the cost
per
visit. The total
annual
recreational value of each
beach
was de-
termined
using
the
mean
trip cost
per
visitor,
and
the
number
of visitors
per
year
(obtained from extrapolations from
aerial
photographs,
courtesy
of
Cape
Metropolitan Council). A full description
of
the
application
of
the
travel
cost
method
is given
in
ref.
10.
The Travel Cost
Method
estimates the
total value of beaches to users,
but
says
nothing
about
the
value of
individual
beach
attributes, such as cleanliness.
To
establish
the
relative
importance
of
selected attributes, visitors
were
asked to
rank
them
from 1 to
5,
with
1
being
the
most
important. The absolute importance
of beach cleanliness was
determined
by
questioning residents
how
far
they
would
be
prepared
to travel for different levels of
cleanliness,
and
by
asking tourists
how
covered
in
debris
the
beaches
would
have
to
be
for
them
to stop visiting. Three levels
of
beach
cleanliness
were
used,
based
on
the results of a survey of 84 beaches across
the country.4 The levels
were
more
than
10
large items of litter
per
square
metre
of
beach,
between
two
and
10 items
per
metre,
and
less
than
two items
per
square
metre. Photographs of each of these levels
were
shown
to elicit the reaction sought.
The
proportion
of tourists
who
stated
they
would
not
visit Cape Town accord-
ing
to the extent of
beach
litter was
used
to
estimate the tourism
revenue
potentially
lost
by
not
maintaining levels of cleanli-
ness of beaches
in
the Cape Peninsula.
Expenditure
on
cleaning
beaches
was
obtained from local authorities.U·
12
What the survey revealed
Most
respondents
were
residents of
the
Cape Metropolitan Region
(65%
).
Twenty-
one
per
cent of the
people
surveyed
were
domestic tourists,
and
14%
were
foreign
tourists. Perceived standards of cleanli-
ness of Cape beaches
were
high, particu-
larly
among
tourists. Tourists also
spent
significantly longer
on
beaches they con-
sidered to be 'clean' or 'acceptable'
than
on
those
they
saw
as
'too
dirty'
(ANOVA
F
2350
= 5.876, P <
0.005;
'clean' >
'too
dirty'
and
'acceptable'; Newman-Keuls
test).
Cleanliness was
most
frequently
ranked
as the most
important
of the beach attrib-
utes
investigated,
and
foreign tourists
ranked
cleanliness as relatively more im-
portant
than
either domestic tourists or
residents (Table
1).
Furthermore,
44%
of
residents
claimed
they
would
travel
50
km
or more to visit a clean beach. The
average trip distance for residents was
14
km
(cost approximately R4.90)
and
for
tourists
12
km
(nominal cost R4.20), prob-
ably because
many
of the
popular
tourist
hotels are located close to
the
beaches.
Residents
made
approximately
70
trips to
the
beach
each
year
on
average (annual
travel cost R348), whereas tourists
made
10 trips (annual cost
R42).
A trip of
50
km
to visit a clean beach
has
a
minimum
trip
cost of R35.50, more
than
seven
times
greater
than
the cost of a trip for residents
interviewed. However, beach users de-
rive value from a variety of
beach
attrib-
utes,
and
often these features mutually
influence the decision of
which
beach
to
visit.
The extrapolations from the
summer
1
and
winter
beach
attendance
data
gave a
total of 1
871
000
visitors
per
year. Because
these are extrapolations,
and
given the
large variation
in
the
data
available for
determining
beach
attendance,
figures
have
been
rounded
to
the
nearest thou-
sand
visitors. Extrapolation of
the
mean
trip cost across
the
total
number
of
beach
visitors yielded
an
estimated combined
annual
recreational value for the sample
beaches of
R8
million,
although
there was
considerable variation
between
values for
individual beaches (Table
2).
Assuming
similar
mean
trip costs,
and
similar com-
bined
number
of visitors
per
year for all
other
beaches in
the
Cape Peninsula,
the
annual
recreational
use
value
of
all
beaches
in
the region was estimated
at
R18
million.
The figures
should
be
treated as
under-
estimates of
the
actual value. Several esti-
mations
were
made,
as
not
all required
data
were
available
or
accurate,
and
there
are several assumptions
inherent
to the
Travel Cost Method.
13
A sensitivity analysis,
which
estimated
the
cumulative impact
of these variations,
showed
that
the
total
annual
recreational
value
for
sample
beaches was R3-23 million.10 Using
the
same estimation criteria,
the
value for all
the
beaches
in
the
Cape
Peninsula is likely
to lie
between
R9-50 million
per
year.
The
survey
indicated
that
85%
of
both
tourists
and
residents
would
not
visit
beaches if
they
had
more
than
two items
of debris
per
metre. This
would
reduce
the average
annual
recreational value of
the sample beaches from
R1
million to
R150
000.
The total
annual
expenditure
on
travel to sample beaches
would
be
re-
duced
from
R8
million to
R1
million. The
annual
expenditure
on
travel
for all
beaches
in
the
Cape Peninsula
would
be
reduced
from
R18
million to
R15
million.
The
survey
also
showed
that
if
the
beaches
had
more
than
ten large items of
debris
per
metre,
97%
of all visitors
would
not
visit them,
which
would
reduce
the
total recreational value to R300
000
per
year. Such
reduced
annual
expenditure
on
travel represents a
reduction
in
the
regional economy of
R8
million.
Given
the
importance
of
tourism
to
the national
and
regional economy,
the
212 South African Journal of Science
96,
May 2000
Table
2.
Estimated total annual recreational use value of sample beaches on the Cape Peninsula.
Beach Number of residents Mean trip cost for Number of tourists
visiting per year residents (rands) visiting per year
Blouberg and Milnerton 93 000 4.2 54 000
Sea Point 113 000 3.6
51
000
Clifton 73 000 6.7 80 000
Camps Bay 129 000 5.5 86 000
Llandudno 24 000 6.3 32 000
Fish Hoek 115 000
3.1
28 000
Muizenberg 175 000 5.5 109 000
Monwabisi and Strandfontein 667 000 4.5 42 000
Total 1389 000 4.9 482 000
*The total annual value of RB.6 million is not the same as the sum of the values
in
that column due to rounding errors.
potential loss
in
number
of tourists
due
to
a
drop
in
standards
of beach cleanliness
that
this
study
reports
(up
to
40% of
foreign
and
60%
of domestic tourists) is
significant (up to
52%
of the
revenue
from
tourism).
Coastal areas are
important
in
terms of
economic, scientific, recreational, ecologi-
cal
and
educational services.
14
.t5 Reliable
estimates of
beach
value are therefore
important
for
planning
facilities, deter-
mining
access
and
transport
capacity,
estimating potential for
new
business de-
velopment,
and
for coastline protection
and
pollution
controP
6
The
estimated
value of beaches
and
beach
cleanliness
should
be
reflected
in
an
appropriate
budget
for cleansing. Furthermore, esti-
mation of
the
impact of environmental
quality
on
tourism potential is far from
trivial. The relative
and
absolute impor-
tance of cleanliness to
beach
users
shown
in
this
study
provides a
strong
incentive
for pollution control.
Expenditure
on
beach cleansing
in
the
Cape
Metropolitan
area
was
approxi-
mately R3.5 million
in
1994-95;
and
beach
cleaning efforts
have
increased
during
the last five years.12 Given that Cape Town
attracts a significant
proportion
of the
tourist market, it is reasonable to assume
that
the increased expenditure (relative to
the rest of
the
country) is,
at
least partially,
a result of greater importance placed
on
the
aesthetic
quality
of
beaches.
This
study
estimates that
the
regional econ-
omy
could suffer a potential loss of over
. half the tourism
revenue
from a
reduction
in
beach
cleanliness. Keeping
beaches
clean is therefore necessary.
As
only
44%
of
people
surveyed
perceived the beach
they
were
on
as 'clean',
current
methods
of clearing debris
appear
to be insufficient
to tackle the problem.
A
survey
of pollution
on
South
African
beaches
in
1994
showed
four of the
ten
dirtiest
beaches
are
within
the
Cape
Metropolitan Region.4 However, thP Cape
Town
Municipality
Cleansing
Dep<vt-
ment
reported
a
37%
decrease
in
the
volume of litter
generated
on
beaches
under
its control
between
1994-95
and
1995-96.
17
This
may
be
attributable to
more efficient cleaning operations, or re-
duced
amounts
of
litter
entering
the
marine environment.
As
clean-up opera-
tions are expensive
in
relation to
the
value
of
the
beaches,
it
is necessary to consider
alternative
methods
of
reducing
beach
debris. Legislation,
improved
efficiency
of cleansing services, recycling,
reduction
at
source,
and
education
are possible
options.
Most beach debris is generated
by
beach
users or is
washed
or
blown
onto beaches
from the land.5'
18
Plastics, especially pack-
aging materials, constitute over
90%
of
all
beach
debris.5 These items are
very
durable,
which
increases
the
risk
of
entanglement
or
ingestion
by
marine
wildlife. Lack of
waste
collection
and
disposal services
in
many
urban
coastal
settlements contributes to
the
accumula-
tion of waste
on
beaches, as it
is
blown
or
washed
away
from unprotected, informal
waste dumps. Furthermore, the increas-
ing
population
and
influx of people to
coastal
urban
centres intensifies
the
pres-
sure of waste generation
on
the
beach
resources.14
Much
attention
has
been
focused re-
cently
on
methods
of
reducing
plastic
packaging.
One
suggestion is to
produce
less durable plastics,
which
break
down
faster
by
means
of biological, chemical,
photochemical or physical actions.
19
An-
other
option
is to
promote
recycling,
which
requires the creation of markets for
recycled material. Further efforts to re-
duce
plastic packaging have centred
on
charging for packaging.
20
Perhaps the biggest
hurdle
to overcome
is
the
mindset
of
today's
'throw-away'
society. Education of the public to
the
problem
of
litter
in
the
environment
would
go a long
way
to increase levels of
responsibility,
and
thus
to
reduce
the
volume of litter
in
the environment.
Research
in
Action
Mean trip cost for iourists Total annual value
(rands)
(R
million)
4.8 0.6
1.2 0.4
5.3 0.9
4.2 1.0
4.3 0.2
4.0 0.4
6.8 1.7
2.6
3.1
4.2 8.6*
We
thank
P.
Mpande,
B.
Magazi,
and
K-E.
Kiistlin for
help
with
questionnaires;
A.
Pliis for
technical
assistance;
L.
Kruger
and
the
Cape
Metropolitan
Council for
beach
attendance
data;
Cape
Town City
Council Cleansing
Department
for
beach
litter data,
and
M.
de
Wit
and
C.
Shackleton for valuable discus-
sion
and
comments
on
earlier drafts
of
the
manu-
script.
Financial
support
was
received
from
the
Foundation
for Research Development,
through
the
South
African
Network
for Coastal
and
Oceanic
Research
and
the
Desmond
Tutu
Fund.
1. Caulton
E.
and
Mocogini M. (1987). Preliminary
studies of
man-made
litter
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2. Corbin
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3.
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92,163-165. 0
Widening
access
to
tertiary
science
study:
the 'augmented'
model
J.
Parkinson*
T
he
four-year B.Sc. degree course
at
the
University
of
Natal,
Durban,
is
unusual
in
providing
access to tertiary science
through
'augmentation'
rather
than
the more
usual
foundation
course.
The
augmentation
involves
students
registering for a
reduced
load
of
ordinary
first-year courses,
which
are
supplemented
by
extra tutorials
and
practi-
cals.
This
article describes the
augmented
approach
to science study.
It
examines the de-
velopment
of
the
B.Sc.-4
curriculum
during
the
10
years
it
has
been
operating
and
de-
scribes
some
of
its
successes
and
failures
during
this
period.
The
present
under~representation
of
black
students
in
tertiary
education,
particularly science
and
applied
science,
is well
documented
1 as are the roots of this
under-representation
in
apartheid
policy.
Only
19%
of mathematics teachPrs
and
16%
of science teachers
in
the
country
have
completed
one
or
more
years of
the
subject
at
university level.2 This
has
led
to
the
current
situation
where
few
black
students
match
the
criteria
for
direct
entry
into
tertiary science studies.
During
the 1990s, less
than
10%
of admissions
into
the
Science Faculty
at
the University
of
Natal
in
Durban
(UND)
have
been
black
students
who
meet
the
entrance
requirements. The four-year
B.Sc.
curric-
ulum
described
below
has
allowed
the
faculty
to
more
than
double its intake of
black
students
during
this
period,
by
enabling
admission of
students
who
do
not
meet
the
usual
entrance
require-
ments.
To
increase
enrolment
and
graduation
rates of black students, historically
white
universities have,
in
the
last 15 years,
introduced
four-year science curricula of
*Faculty of Science, University of Natal, Durban,
4041
South Africa.
E-mail: parkinson@scifs1.und.ac.za
a variety
of
types. Some
add
an
initial
foundation
3 year, after
which
students
embark
on
first year.4'5
Others
have
an
initial two-year
programme
combining
foundation
and
first-level courses.67 Since
1991,
UND
has
had
a four-year
B.Sc.
cur-
riculum
in
which
students
are
admitted
directly
into
first-year courses.
These
differ from
the
usual
first-year courses
in
having
an
almost double
load
of tutorials,
lectures
and
practicals. This
model
of
academic
development
has
been
rejected
by
many
institutions8 because
the
pool
of black
students
who
can
cope
with
a
curriculum
where
students
start
first-
level courses
immediately
is relatively
small.
Foundation
programmes
are able
to
draw
on
a larger, less-prepared
group
of
students
because
more
time
can
be
spent
on
pre-first
year
material.
Structure
of
the
B.Sc.-4
Students
who
enter
the
four-year
B.Sc.
curriculum
at
UND
take two double-load
'augmented'
level 1 courses
in
their first
year. For example,
in
physics
they
have
nine
contact periods
per
week
for lectures
and
tutorials
and
two
practical sessions,
instead of
the
five periods for lectures
and
tutorials
and
single practical session of
the
regular
first-year
physics
course.
Typically, courses taken are mathematics
and
either
computer
science, physics
or
chemistry, or, for a biology
student,
chem-
istry
and
biology.
Students
also take
an
accredited science
writing
course.
Six of
the
level 1 courses
in
the
faculty
are offered as double-load
'augmented'
courses: cell biology, chemistry,
computer
science,
environmental
biology,
mathe-
matics,
and
physics. some of these double-
load
courses (cell biology,
environmental
biology,
computer
science
and
mathemat-
ics) are
'augmented'
in
that
the
students
213
attend
the
usual
lectures
and
practical
plus
an
additional load of tutorials
and
practicals
in
groups
of
about
30
students.
In
these additional tutorials, tutors
can
address
problems
with
the
lecture mate-
rial as well as
dealing
with
some pre-first
year
material.
Other
level
1
courses
(physics
and
chemistry),
although
covering
the
same
content
as
the
usual
first-year courses, are
entirely separate from it. This enables
the
lecturer to go
more
slowly
and
integrate
pre-first
year
material
into
the
course.
Some of
the
contact time is lecture
mode
but, given
the
small
group
size
(30
stu-
dents
or
fewer),
there
is
opportunity
for
questions
and
other
interactions
with
stu-
dents.
Other
contact time is
devoted
to
small
group
work,
and
problem
solving,
depending
on
the
demands
of the material.
Individual
departments
design courses
and
decide
whether
their
double-load
courses
are
separate
from
the
usual
lecture course
or
'augmented'
with
addi-
tional tutorials
and
practicals, Different
subjects
lend
themselves
to
different
models. Initial
poor
student
performance,
both
in
first-level
and
later level chemis-
try
courses,
led
to
a
change
from
the
lec-
tures
plus
extra tutorials
model
to
the
separate course model.
It
is
not
clear
why
the
lectures
plus
tutorials
model
works (in
terms of
student
performance)
in
some
disciplines
but
not
others. A factor to
be
considered
is
the
extent
to
which
the
first-year course
in
each
discipline as-
sumes
and
builds
on
prior
knowledge.
In
disciplines
where
a
good
deal of
prior
knowledge
is
assumed
such
as
in
chemis-
try, mathematics
and
physics, (but far less
in
biology
and
computer
science),
it
makes educationally
better
sense to
build
teaching of
the
prior
knowledge
into a
separately
taught
level1
course.
In
math-
ematics, however,
student
results
have
been
good
using
the
lectures
plus
tutori-
als model,
and
the
course
has
proved
more
successful
in
dealing
with
the
prior
knowledge
in
tutorials before the lectures
than
was
the case
in
chemistry.
An
element
of
difference
between
mathematics
on
the
one
hand
and
physics
and
chemistry
on
the
other, is
the
diffi-
culty
that
B.Sc.-4
students
had
with
the
lecture
mode
in
chemistry
and
physics,
especially
in
the
first semester.
In
most
disciplines it seems to
be
the
case that sitting
through
lectures
in
which
material
is
presented
rapidly
and
in
a possibly unfa-
miliar
accent
is
not
an
ideal
learning
environment
for
students
entering
the
four-year degree. This
appears
to
be
par-
ticularly
true
in
chemistry
and
physics,
where
students
report
great
difficulty
in
... Presence of marine debris leads to degradation of the aesthetic quality of beaches and shallow areas. Marine debris can deter visitors, as cleanliness is the most important characteristic for most beachgoers (Ballance et al., 2000). For example, after a heavy rainfall event that resulted in a significant increase in coastal debris loads in South Korea, revenue losses from tourism were estimated at $29-37 M USD (Jang et al., 2014). ...
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Marine debris, directly and indirectly, threatens marine habitat and biota. Fishing activity is generally recognised as a contributor to marine debris, but the relative input from recreational fishing remains unassessed. Here we provide the first comprehensive literature review of recreational fishing marine debris (RFMD) on a global scale. A systematic literature review identified 70 studies related to RFMD, and plastic and metal respectively were the dominant debris materials found. Nearshore coastal areas and reefs, acted as both sources and sinks of RFMD and a diverse suite of potential impacts such as ghost fishing and entanglement were identified at local scales. Overall, research of RFMD is lacking globally, however, its role in marine debris input is likely underestimated. We recommend more research on the volumes and risks, using a standardised classification approach. Where intervention is required, we suggest cooperative approaches between the sector and authorities.
... of beach detritus for coastal tourism is obvious [Balance et al., 2000, Malm et al., 2004. As a result, it is a severe problem for the local authorities of seaside resorts, where the economy is based mainly on the tourism industry. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This report No 5.1 is one of the main outputs of the Project CONTRA (2019–2021), which was fulfilled within the Program Interreg Baltic Sea Region. The report was prepared within the Work Package 5 “Innovative technologies for beach wrack handling and toolkit” by experts from CONTRA Project Partners. It represents the results obtained in the six case studies in the countries with different management systems: Germany (Islands of Rügen and Poel), Denmark (Køge Municipality), Russia (Curonian and Vistula spits) Sweden (Kalmar municipality and Öland) and Poland (Gulf of Gdansk). Each case study is presented in separate chapters, which focuses are indicated in the chapter titles (see Table of contents). Technological aspects of different stages of the beach wrack collection, processing and usage (see Figure below), as well as the management and legislative issues are presented. The last chapter is devoted to Estonian experience.
... Moreover, marine litter can have adverse social and economic impacts especially on coastal areas as their economy relies on marine resources and tourism. Indeed, currents and waves associated with storms may deposit large amounts of plastic materials on beaches together with natural wrack (i.e., terrestrial plants, seagrasses, and algae) affecting negatively environmental aesthetics (Ballance et al., 2000;Krelling et al., 2017;Robbe et al., 2021). To maintain tourist attractiveness, coastal municipalities are forced to undertake specific actions to remove litter from beaches and ensure its proper disposal (Cruz et al., 2020;Chubarenko et al., 2021). ...
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Beach litter can affect public health and economic activities worldwide forcing local authorities to expensive beach cleaning. Understanding the key mechanisms affecting the accumulation of this waste on beaches, such as sea state and proximity to entry points, is critical to plan effective management strategies. In this one-year study, we estimated the impact of storm events and waterways runoff on litter abundance and local economy using as a model a managed, peri-urban beach facing a north-western sector of the Mediterranean Sea. We also investigated the relationship between litter composition/density and beach proximity to major/closest harbors/rivers at regional scale by combining our data with those on litter density available in literature. Autumn/winter storms caused larger litter depositions than spring/summer ones in the peri-urban beach. No preferential accumulation occurred near to waterway mouths. Litter mainly consisted of plastic, and its composition in terms of micro-categories varied over seasons. In total, 367,070 items were deposited along 4.7 km of beach over one year, and the cost for the removal of this waste amounted to approximately 27,600 euros per km/year. At regional scale, beach litter density was positively correlated to the proximity of major harbors while its composition was related to the proximity to both major harbors and rivers. Results indicate that autumn/winter storms are important drivers of marine litter deposition. They also suggest that beaches in front of the convergence zone of littoral currents and close to major harbors can be particularly subjected to this kind of pollutant. To increase their effectiveness, litter mitigation/cleaning activities should be planned based on predictions of major storm events and performed at spatial scales encompassing at least coastal regional sectors.
... International organizations, such as United Nations Environmental Program, recommend precautionary action [37,47]. And indeed, with respect to coastal tourism, for instance, studies by Ballance et al. [48], Botero et al. [49], Corraini et al. [50] highlight the link between the decline of aesthetic value, notably cleanliness, at tourism beaches, and a likely decline especially in foreign tourism revenues. Likewise, Wyles et al. [51] link marine litter to perceived restorative qualities, concluding that the presence of litter can undermine the psychological benefits of clean coasts, elicit negative emotions and considerably reduce restorative quality [51]. ...
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Vietnam is at the heart of the marine plastic pollution challenge, as a worldwide hotspot for post-consumption plastics leaking into the oceans. Plenty of global recommendations on how to combat land-based sources of plastic pollution exist, but how local actors experience, understand and respond to local actors has been studied surprisingly little. Taking Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam’s tourism magnet, as a vivid case in point, this paper explores ‘whose problem is plastic pollution and why’ by grounding it on qualitative data, using a risk perception approach and research into waste governance as an analytical frame. The paper shows how high visibility, haptic experiences and greater knowledge of plastic impacts make plastic waste-associated risks increasingly tangible. By this, the overall increasing visible everyday waste pollution and the ill-equipped waste governance come into focus. Interviews reveal a linkage between the observation of ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ disposal practices with distinct perceptions of island places and waste pollution responsibilities. That, in turn, shapes both response strategies to combat plastic pollution and to improve the island’s overall waste governance. This research points to the complexity of waste governance, especially when convenience and ignorance clash with attempts to protect the environment. Action repertoires range from beach clean-ups, awareness-raising, and usage of eco-friendly reusable materials to managerial waste infrastructure improvements. Yet, hierarchies, budget constraints, the absence of an environmentally sound waste collection and treatment system and inadequate environmental knowledge limit perceived agency, genuine commitment and ultimately an effective waste governance.
... Marine debris can also generate negative socio-economic consequences and reduce economic development and recreational opportunities (Mouat et al., 2010;Newman et al., 2015), through losses to tourism, fisheries, aquaculture, coastal agriculture and shipping (Ballance et al., 2000;Sheavly and Register, 2007;Macfadyen et al., 2009;McIlgorm et al., 2011). Furthermore, marine debris presents public safety concerns and risks to human health Galloway, 2015). ...
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... The coastal environment is a hotspot for the accumulation of litter because it is subject to a plethora of both land-based and marine sources of waste (Moore et al., 2001;Schulz et al., 2015;Nelms et al., 2020). The foreshores and backshores of sandy beaches in particular have been the focus of many scientific surveys, temporal and spatial monitoring programmes and clean-up operations, largely because of the adverse aesthetic and economic impacts of plastic litter on tourism and recreation (Ballance et al., 2000;Krelling et al., 2017;Arabi and Nahman, 2020), but additionally, and for sanitary or medical waste, direct risks to human health (Galgani et al., 2010). ...
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Plastic food packaging and containers (n = 263) have been retrieved from the scarped foredunes at Perran Beach, SW England, following a storm surge. Samples displayed evidence of cracking, scratching, discolouration, staining and hydroxyl and carbonyl stretching, but legible text indicating their origin, dates of manufacture/expiration, packaging codes and logos, coupled with online product searches, allowed 25 food packets and 87 containers to be aged. Estimates of food packaging age spanned a 43-year period (1975–2018), with a median age of 25 years, while estimates for containers spanned 57 years (1962–2019), with a median age of 19 years. Plastic derived from local littering and offshore sources appears to be trapped within the foredunes for years to decades and subsequently released as “fresh” beach litter following surges sufficient to effect scarping. Dunal systems may act as significant reservoirs of historical plastics and play a critical role in their recycling and retention in the coastal zone.
... Litter is cited as a key reason visitors spend less time on beaches or avoid some sites altogether if they anticipate they will find litter there (Ballance et al. 2000;Tudor and Williams 2003;Kiessling et al. 2017;Hartley et al. 2018a). Not visiting beaches and shorelines can have health implications if it means there is a lack of opportunity to enjoy benefits such as physical activity, social interaction (e.g. ...
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Marine litter, including plastics and microplastics, is accumulating in the world’s oceans at an unprecedented rate. The volume of plastics currently in the oceans has been estimated at between 75 million and 199 million tons1. Found in sea floor sediments and on beaches, among many other locations globally, plastics are are becoming part of the Earth’s fossil record. Plastic pollution is one of the characteristics of the present geological era, the Anthropocene. A new marine microbial habitat has been designated the “plastisphere”. This publication aims to provide a global assessment of marine litter and plastic pollution. The key findings include: Marine litter, including plastics and microplastics, has grown drastically and is projected to more than double by 2030 Marine litter and plastics are a grave threat to all marine life and are influencing the climate Human health and well-being are also at risk The hidden costs of plastics for the global economy Marine litter and plastics are threat multipliers Half of marine litter and plastics comes from uncontrolled waste streams on land Movement and accumulation of litter and plastics occurs over decades Advances in technologies and growing citizen science activities are improving detection, but consistency of measurements remains a challenge Plastic recycling rates are less than 10 per cent and plastics-related greenhouse gas emissions are significant but solutions are emerging Progress is being made at all levels, with a potential global instrument in sight
... It brings forth many negative impacts on marine environment and results in the death of millions of marine species each year. Many studies have been conducted to investigate this problem in the past decades, examples include but not limited to entanglement and ingestion impacts (Allen et al., 2012;Laist, 1997;Pham et al., 2014), chemicals transportation (Lithner et al., 2011;Browne et al., 2013), habitat destruction (Hallier and Gaertner, 2008;Hammer et al., 2012), alien species dissemination (Barnes and Fraser, 2003;Zettler et al., 2013), socioeconomic impacts (Mouat et al., 2010), coastal tourism impacts on beach communities (Swanson et al., 1991;Ballance et al., 2000;Stickel et al., 2013), commercial fishing (Macfadyen and Allison, 2009;Bilkovic et al., 2014). ...
... In vielen Fällen aus ästhetischen Gründen, führen die Plastikabfälle auch zu politischen, sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Folgen, z. B. wenn die Gefahr besteht, dass durch verschmutzte Strände Tourismuseinnahmen verloren gehen (Ballance et al. 2000;Jang et al. 2014) oder Fischer Einkommensverluste durch Plastikmüll erleiden (Nash 1992). Ausgelöst durch mediale Berichterstattungen über umstrittene Studien (Der Spiegel 2013;NDR 2014), wird Mikroplastik in der öffentlichen Debatte auch als Risiko für die Lebensmittelversorgung wahrgenommen (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR) 2016). ...
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Dieses Open Access Buch befasst sich mit Nachhaltiger Entwicklung unter Bedingungen eines rasanten globalen Wandels. Noch nie waren Menschen global so vernetzt und Informationen wurden so schnell um den Globus ausgetauscht wie heute, und trotzdem bestehen massive Ungleichheiten bei der gerechten Verteilung von Ressourcen, dem Schutz von Menschenrechten, dem Schutz der Natur und den gewährten Hilfestellungen bei der Anpassung an den Klimawandel. Wir greifen so stark in das Erdsystem ein, dass man zunehmend von einem durch den Menschen geprägten Erdzeitalter spricht, dem „Anthropozän“. Um die für eine Begrenzung des Klimawandels und den Erhalt unserer natürlichen Lebensgrundlagen unabdingbaren gesellschaftlichen und wirtschaftlichen Transformationen durchzusetzen, müssen wir es wagen, eine andere Welt zu denken und die Schranken in unseren Köpfen hinterfragen. Eine interdisziplinäre Nachhaltigkeitsforschung kann hierzu wichtige Beiträge liefern. Die Herausgebenden Prof.*in Dr. Birgit Blättel-Mink lehrt Soziologie an der Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main. Prof. Dr. Thomas Hickler arbeitet am Senckenberg Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (SBiK-F) in Frankfurt am Main und lehrt Biogeographie an der Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main. Dr. Sybille Küster und Dr. Henrike Becker arbeiten bei GRADE - Goethe Research Academy for Early Career Researchers – an der Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main.
Chapter
Hazards of plastic pollution in the oceans threaten human, animal, and vegetation life. Sources of plastic pollutants include marine transport activity, shore-to-shore movement by waves and currents, and waste transported from land to sea by rivers. Industries in several countries in the Mediterranean region, which generate waste dispose it in rivers or into municipal networks. The justify their activities as drivers of local economies, while a closer look shows the opposite. A case study is presented about Lebanon, a country on the Mediterranean easternmost boundary serving as a maritime transit gate to the rest of the Middle East. Private sector companies could play a major role in curbing plastic pollution through innovation to migrate toward green products and substitutes to plastics. Both remedial and preventive strategies in the private sector would be better realized through support from public sector entities. Therefore, public-private partnerships are recommended to alleviate current pressures exerted on local communities willing to fight plastic pollution and help them operate within known and supported norms. As such, we recommend incentive-based public policies.
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