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Deer antlers- Traditional use and future perspectives

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  • Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India

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Antlers are bony skeletal protuberances of the skull, and consist mainly of the protein collagen and the mineral calcium hydroxyapatite. Antlers occur in most species of the deer family (Cervidae) and are grown and shed annually, typically only by males. Traditional medical reports and clinical observations show that antler is biologically active to cure various diseases. To make antler products acceptable as nutraceuticals and functional foods, chemical and biological properties of velvet antlers have to be clearly determined. Antlers are made of chemical components consisting of sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides as essential molecules, which become macromolecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, respectively. For their physicochemical properties, each of these macromolecules is responsible for not only antler growth and development, but also biomedical and nutraceuticals uses of antlers. Therefore, understanding chemical and molecular characteristics of antlers is crucially important to elucidate the clinical and medicinal efficacies of antlers. Hence, the review highlights information about various species of deer, its farming, antler preparation, antler composition, its traditional uses and scientific substantiation to it, dose and its future scope.
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Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge
Vol. 9 (2), April 2010, pp. 245-251
Deer antlers- Traditional use and future perspectives
Pravin S Kawtikwar, Durgacharan A Bhagwat* & Dinesh M Sakarkar
SN Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad 445 204, Dist Yavatmal, Maharashtra
E-mail: pskawtikwar@rediffmail.com
Received 30 October 2007; revised 9 May 2008
Antlers are bony skeletal protuberances of the skull, and consist mainly of the protein collagen and the mineral calcium
hydroxyapatite. Antlers occur in most species of the deer family (Cervidae) and are grown and shed annually, typically only
by males. Traditional medical reports and clinical observations show that antler is biologically active to cure various
diseases. To make antler products acceptable as nutraceuticals and functional foods, chemical and biological properties of
velvet antlers have to be clearly determined. Antlers are made of chemical components consisting of sugars, fatty acids,
amino acids, and nucleotides as essential molecules, which become macromolecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, proteins
and nucleic acids, respectively. For their physicochemical properties, each of these macromolecules is responsible for not
only antler growth and development, but also biomedical and nutraceuticals uses of antlers. Therefore, understanding
chemical and molecular characteristics of antlers is crucially important to elucidate the clinical and medicinal efficacies of
antlers. Hence, the review highlights information about various species of deer, its farming, antler preparation, antler
composition, its traditional uses and scientific substantiation to it, dose and its future scope.
Keywords: Deer antler, Velvet antler, Antler composition, Traditional knowledge, Traditional uses, Antler uses
IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P9/00, A61P9/04, A61P13/00, A61P13/02, A61P15/10
Antlers are bony skeletal protuberances of the skull,
and consist mainly of the protein collagen and the
mineral calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca5 (PO4)3OH).
Antlers occur in most species of the deer family
(Cervidae) and are grown and shed annually (Fig.1).
Evolutionarily, horn like structures developed in all 4
true ruminant families Cervidae, Giraffidae,
Antilocapridae and Bovidae. Unlike horns, antlers are
secondary sexual characteristics, typically occurring
only in males, and are functional only during the
rutting (mating) season. The reindeer is the only deer
species in which the females also sport antlers, but
these are much less impressive than those of the
males. Two species of Indian deer that do not have
antlers are the musk deer and the Indian chevrotain or
mouse deer, which belong to families other than the
Cervidae. In these antlers-less species, the canines are
very well developed and function as secondary sexual
characteristics1. Deer antlers have many uses.
Removal of antler from live deer has been a
traditional practice in some Asian cultures for
centuries. In the West however, velvet antler removal
is a new form of animal utilization, evolving only
since commercial deer farming began in the early
1970’s. Velvet antler is the growing stage of the horns
borne on the heads of male members of the deer
family. They are called velvet antlers during the phase
of rapid growth and development because of the
velvet-like covering of skin.
Velvet antler has been one of the most prized
health tonics in traditional oriental medicine for over
2,000 yrs. Today, in addition to its FDA supported
use for arthritis treatment and its' proven enhancement
of athletic performance, velvet antler's bioactivity
probably has undiscovered medical potential for
humans with regards to boosting immunity,
preventing illness, and propagating longevity2. The
use of deer antler continued at a modest level until the
12th century, when it became the subject of modern
research methods. Both the Russians and the Chinese
started subjecting deer antler to analysis by scientific
methods, though those methods were relatively crude.
About the same time, patent medicine factories
sprung up and helped fill the growing demand for
tonics made with rare ingredients such as deer antler
and ginseng. Medicine factories now use more than
1,000 kg of deer antler each year. This increased
interest and distribution, in turn, led to rapid build-up
in the number and size of deer farms3. Species of deer
(Table 1) have been enlisted4,5.
___________
*Corresponding author
INDIAN J TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, VOL 9, NO. 2, APRIL 2010
246
Deer farming
Deer farming has become a huge enterprise outside
the Orient6. The animal meat is used as food, and the
antlers are usually exported to the Orient, though
there is a new industry in making antler-based health
products for domestic consumption in Canada and
other countries (Fig. 2). The primary material
collected at the deer farms is called velvet. The term
originally arose from the fine hairs on the antler, but
is now used specifically to indicate the antler's stage
of growth before it calcifies or ossifies (Fig. 3). In
nature, antlers will fall off after they have ossified;
thus, collecting fallen antler doesn't provide the
desired ‘velvet’. The older material is still valued; it is
boiled to yield deer antler gelatin and used for certain
applications, such as dispersing swellings. Deer velvet
is removed while the deer is under local anesthetic.
The antlers then grow back. The cut antlers are bathed
KAWTIKWAR et al: TRADITIONAL USE OF DEER ANTLERS
247
in boiling water and air dried, and then further dried
in the shade or by low temperature baking. The fine
hairs may be removed before additional processing. A
typical dried antler from the deer weighs about
150 gm.
These animals are very valuable and the welfare of
the animal is therefore paramount. The removal of the
velvet antler from the animal is carried in compliance
with a strict Velveting Code of Practice by either
veterinarians, or qualified persons under veterinary
supervision, and the effect on the animal is minimized
and minimal. It is a relatively quick and painless
procedure and the animals are immediately released to
graze. However, if the weather is inclement they are
kept inside and hand fed to avoid any risk of infection
or stress. Quite apart from removal of the antler for its
health supplement properties, it has been accepted
practice to remove it to avoid animals damaging or
injuring each other by fighting; getting caught up in
fences and injuring themselves, or perhaps causing
their own death. It is also done to avoid risk to those
farming and handling them.
Antler preparations
Traditionally, deer antler is sliced very thinly or
ground to powder7. It is not commonly boiled in
decoctions with herbs because the gelatins easily stick
to the herb dregs or cooking pot, and so the loss of
valuable material is considered too great. Therefore,
the herb powder is usually taken separately. To make
gelatin, ossified antlers (which are less expensive than
velvet) are boiled for several hours to release the
gelatin (protein components) from the hard matrix.
Then, the antler gelatin can be added to an herbal
decoction after all the boiling is done and the dregs
have been strained. Or, it can be powdered and
consumed directly. After removing the gelatin from
the antler, the residual hard antler material is dried
and powdered to make lujiaoshuang (degelatinized
deer antler), which is mostly used for topical
applications (treating boils, eczema, and skin ulcers,
serving as an astringent and aid to faster healing). It is
also considered of some limited value as a kidney
yang tonic if taken at high enough dosage (Fig.4).
Constituents
Antler is a simple extension of bone, so it has a
calcium phosphate matrix of hydroxyapatite,
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, integrated with smaller amounts of
calcium carbonate (CaCO3); its composition is
similar to that of human bones8,9. Thus, one of the
therapeutic roles of taking deer antler is as a source of
calcium to help prevent or treat osteoporosis, which is
consistent with the traditional bone strengthening
action of deer antler. An analysis of the ossified antler
showed that 73% is hydroxyapatite and related
mineral compounds, while 27% is organic materials.
If consumed as a powder (rather than a decoction), a
person taking 3 gm of deer antler will get about
800 mg of calcium. Hydroxyapatite is considered one
of the most efficiently absorbed forms of calcium
available.
Deer antler also has a substantial amount of
gelatinous components though from other source
materials; glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate
(which is a polymer of glucosamine), and collagen.
These compounds have been shown to benefit the
joints in cases of osteoarthritis by providing substrate
materials useful for regenerating the body's
connective tissues (collagens) found in joints and
sinews. In addition, they may have some
antiinflammatory action, useful for arthritis and
tendonitis. These actions of the gelatin portion
support the traditional concept that antler benefits
joints and ligaments. In a 3 gm dose of ossified deer
antler powder, one will obtain about 750 mg of these
substances, which is low compared to therapeutic
amounts taken as supplements for osteoarthritis
(about 1,500 mg/day); 3 gm of velvet antler will
provide the desired 1,500 mg. If deer antler gelatin is
Table 1— Various species of deer
Family Presence of antler
Tragulidae:
Moschiola mimenoides (Tragulus meminna): Indian chevrotain or mouse deer
No antlers; tusks in male
Moschidae:
Moschus moschiferus, Musk deer
No antlers; tusks in male
Cervidae:
Cervus elaphus hanglu, Hhangul, Rusa unicolor (Cervus unicolor), Sambhar. (Fig.1a) Recervus eldii
(Cervus eldii): Thamin or Brow antlered deer, Recervus duvaucelii (Cervus duvaucelii), Barasingha.
(Fig.1b), Axis axis, Spoted deer. (Fig.1c), Hyelaphus porcinus (Axis porcinus), Hog deer.
Antlers present in male
INDIAN J TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, VOL 9, NO. 2, APRIL 2010
248
consumed, there is an even higher proportion of these
ingredients, though some of the components may be
transformed during the prolonged boiling into less
active forms, so the dosage of gelatin to use is higher
than for antler velvet.
Recently, the traditional use of antler to nourish the
bone marrow and blood has been validated by studies
in which the active components responsible
(monoacetyldiglycerides) were identified. These are
small molecules that stimulate the marrow stem cells
that produce blood cells (Fig.5). Inhibition of
hematopoiesis (blood cell production) occurs with
several cancer drugs and with radiation therapy; some
disease processes, such as myelodysplastic syndrome
(MDS), involve progressive decline in stem cell
activity with undetermined causes. If further research
confirms the therapeutic importance of the
monoacetyldiglycerides, they can be synthesized in
large quantity. In the meantime, deer antler is the
main therapeutic source for them. Stem cells leading
to various blood lines. The basic marrow stem cell
differentiates during early fetal development into two
types of stem cells, the lymphoid (which produces
lymphocytes) and the myeloid (which produces all the
other blood cells). Platelets (thrombocytes) are not
true blood cells, but are cytoplasmic fragments of the
megakaryocytes. T-cells are lymphoid cells that
differentiate via action of the thymus gland. All the
cell lines except erythrocytes (red blood cells) and
megakaryocytes are involved with immune responses.
Thus, deer antler, when used to stimulate the stem
cells in patients with bone marrow depression, may
improve immune responses, as indicated by
laboratory animal studies10. Deer antler also has
essential fatty acids, making up about 2.5% of the
velvet antler (not enough to be clinically active) and
insulin-dependent growth factor (for which it is not
known whether there is any clinical effect). Other
organic compounds have been detected, but in
miniscule amounts. The biochemical composition of
deer antler includes lipids (omega-6 fatty acid) 2.5%;
protein 52%; ash (minerals) 32%; Moisture 1%;
Nitrogen (N) 8.4%; Calcium (Ca) 12.1%; Phosphorus
(P) 5.8%; Sulphur (S) 0.43%; Magnesium (Mg)
0.25%; Sodium (Na) 0.83%; Potassium (K) 0.42%
(Table 2)11, 12.
Traditional medicinal uses
No one knows exactly when antler velvet was first
used for medicinal purposes in Asia but Traditional
Chinese Medicine (TCM) has used as a medicinal
herb for centuries and its use in therapeutic formulas
is second only to ginseng. It is said to fortify the Yang
and to increase the natural flow of chi (vital energy)
through the kidneys thereby assisting to regulate the
function of the adrenal cortex and restore a person's
natural vitality. The first documented evidence of the
use of velvet deer antler as a medicine was found on a
silk scroll recovered from a Han tomb in the Human
Province in China. The scroll is believed to be about
2,000 yrs old and recommends medical treatments
and prescriptions for 52 different diseases using deer
antler13-15. Velvet deer antler, warm in nature and
sweet and salty in flavour, was used as supplements
for kidney, for strengthening bones, boosting the bone
marrow and for nourishing the blood. It was used for
patterns of vacuity detriment, such a kidney
deficiency and cold limbs, soreness of the limbs,
Table 2— Composition elements and its description
Composition element Description
Protein Collagen II is found in antler. The decrease of this element can lead to both osteo- and rheumatoid
arthritis.
Free amino acids Antler contains all eight essential amino acids that must be supplied by food or supplements for normal
metabolism and growth. It also contains some 15 nonessential free amino acids
Ash Antler contains not only predominantly calcium, phosphorus and sodium, but also magnesium,
manganese, selenium and iron.
Lipid fractions
Free fatty acids, gangliosides, lecithin, phospholipids, cholesterol, steroids and prostaglandins and
others are found in antler. An important fact is that antler prostaglandins can induce vasodepression,
smooth muscle contractions and influence lipid metabolism.
Complex carbohydrates
Glycosamino-glycans (GAGs), including the most prominent chondroitin sulfate, and less-prominent
glucosamine sulfate are also present in antler. GAGs play an important metabolic role in connective
tissue and joint health.
Other components
The growing antler also contains fibro- and chondroblasts (cells from which connective tissue and
cartilages are developed, respectively); chondro- and osteocytes (cartilage and bone cells); growth
factors (GF), which include epidermal and nerve GFs, insulin like GF I and II, and transforming alpha
and beta GFs; and cytokines (an immune regulator).
KAWTIKWAR et al: TRADITIONAL USE OF DEER ANTLERS
249
dizzy head, blurred vision, seminal emission and
impotence. Ossified deer antler, salty in flavour and
warm in nature, was used as supplements for kidney
and for strengthening bones. It has similar action and
used as substitute for velvet deer antler, but it is less
effective. Deer antler gelatin, sweet in flavour and
warm in nature, was used as it warms and
supplements for the kidney, frees the blood of the
thoroughfare vessel, engenders essence and blood and
stanches flooding (excessive uterine bleeding). It was
mostly used for flooding and spotting, vaginal
discharge, deficiency bleeding, and flat-abscess
(lumps that are not red, swollen, hot, or painful).
Traditional Chinese Medicine, while having
curative functions, focuses on promoting wellness as
a medical goal in itself. In both Chinese and Korean
medicine, velvet antler can be regarded as an effective
promoter of health. This may be because the
substances that promote rapid growth and
regeneration of velvet are responsible for the tonic
actions. Western medicine lacks a formal
understanding of a tonic, but it is important for a
potential user of velvet antler to accept in the context
of seeking the benefits of velvet. In keeping with
Chinese and Korean use of velvet, these are overall
strengthening of the body, healing and improving
tissue function. View velvet antler as a powerful
restorer and strengthener but not a curative in itself.
The mechanisms for this true tonic activity are yet
only poorly understood.
Scientific substantiation
Due to its wide variety of chemical components, it
makes sense that antler has a range of traditional uses
many of which are only now being scientifically
evaluated. Antler displays no evidence of antibacterial,
antiviral or antifungal activities. Thus, it cannot cure by
destroying active pathogens. The vast majority of
research is in cells or on animals. The use of velvet
antler by Koreans during winter months led researchers
to believe it could strengthen the immune system.
Injecting pantocrin, a specialized velvet extract, into
the peritoneum at a dose of 0.52 mg/kg could stimulate
the phagocytic function of macrophages in both normal
and immune deficient mice16. High cholesterol level is
a known risk factor for heart disease.
Treatment with velvet lowered liver cholesterol from
1,610-1,311 mg/100 gm dry tissue. Spleen and brain
cholesterol were also reduced. In contrast, cholesterol
was increased in the kidneys' cortex and medulla
(1,733-1,900 and 1,880-2, 190 mg/100 gm dry tissue,
respectively). The researchers theorized that the velvet
extract caused the cholesterol to be filtered from the
blood, thereby increasing kidney levels but lowering
levels elsewhere17.
In two uncontrolled clinical trials, velvet antler
demonstrated hypotensive (blood pressure lowering)
effects. In an experiment, 32 patients with high blood
pressure caused by obesity or early-onset menopause
were treated with either 4.5 ml/day oral or 2 ml/day
injectable alcohol velvet antler extract for 20 or
30 days, respectively. They were then examined by a
physician. Out of 26 patients, eight were getting oral
treatment and 18 were getting injections had
measurably lowered blood pressure and reported an
improvement Those reporting no improvement had
diagnosed high blood pressure for 9-10 yrs18. The
effects of the same injectable extract on 13 patients
with hypertension caused by heart disorders such as
palpitations, murmurs and arrhythmia were studied.
Pantocrin extract counteracted the effect of previously
administered adrenaline. Velvet acted in a manner
similar to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which
causes cardiac inhibition and vasodilation19.
Velvet antler has a use in TCM as an anti-aging
preparation. Using mice genetically selected to die of
natural causes at an early age v/s normal controlled
mice, Chinese researchers found that in selected mice,
an alcohol velvet antler extract increased plasma
testosterone, decreased oxidative activity in the liver and
brain, increased liver protein content and liver
superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and increased
RNA production. Basically, the extract significantly
altered the metabolism of the selected but not of
controlled mice, concluding the best evidence of a
measurable restorative function for velvet antler20.
Investigating velvet antler benefits for sports
performance is ongoing, and it is likely that the extract
type and dose will be linked to a particular sport. In the
late 1960s, pantocrin was observed to increase the
endurance of laboratory animals21. This led researchers
to compare the effects of pantocrin, rantarin (reindeer
antler) and placebo on healthy athletes riding an exercise
bike. Participants given pantocrin exhibited 740 Nm
(Newton meters, a unit of work), while those given
rantarin displayed 1,030 Nm and the controls only 150
Nm. No explanations were given for the better
performance of rantarin21. Several studies since have
failed to demonstrate statistical significance and show
only a positive trend toward increasing athletic strength.
INDIAN J TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, VOL 9, NO. 2, APRIL 2010
250
It is difficult to give a dosage for antler because
little is known about relating illness to type of antler
preparation and individual requirements22. In Russia,
1.25-2.0 ml alcohol velvet extract is taken two times
per day 30 minutes before each meal. In Korea, a
typical dose is 1,200 mg of dried velvet slices each
day. In China, a recommended dose is
900-1,200 mg/day of velvet powder with
3,000-4,500 mg/day of the ground powder boiled in
water. Typically, doses greater than 1.2 gm/day of
either extract or powder appear to be therapeutic,
while lower doses are prophylactic. Russian scientists
determined the median lethal dose (LD50) of alcohol
velvet antler extract as 4.5 ml/kg, equating to a
1,059 ml dose for 72.72 kg per person. The
contraindications listed in Russian literature were;
serious atherosclerosis, heart or kidney disease, or a
high stroke risk. The one known side effect is
diarrhoea.
In a new millennium of supplement trends and
designer foods fads, another brand new, next best and
must have nutraceuticals may justly receive some
skepticism. Perhaps there is some validity to a
2,000 yrs old brand new, next best, must have
completely natural, prized health tonics of traditional
oriental medicine. Seemingly, velvet antler acts as an
adaptogen in the body; it adapts to the bodies
deficiencies to provide the raw material for the body
to attain optimum health: a nontoxic, non-habit
forming nutrient. Research so far supports a
therapeutic role for velvet antler in a number of
conditions. The FDA has supported velvet antler use
for arthritis treatment. Numerous experiments have
shown that it enhances athlete’s performance and
research suggests significant clinical implications to
the entire system including the immune system, the
cardiovascular system, and the nervous system.
However, more scientific understanding is necessary
to define that nature of velvet antler's bioactive
components and their independent and synergistic
effects in animal systems. The research, though
considerably complex, is likely to be very rewarding:
velvet antler's rejuvenative and tonic actions may
benefit athletes, the elderly and disease patients alike.
If it is true that time will tell, velvet antler speaks
volumes from the past that echo into the future.
Conclusion
Traditional medical reports and clinical
observations show that antler is biologically active to
cure various diseases. To make antler products
acceptable as nutraceuticals and functional foods,
chemical and biological properties of velvet antlers
have to be clearly determined. Antlers are made of
chemical components consisting of sugars, fatty acids,
amino acids, and nucleotides as essential molecules.
For their physicochemical properties, each of these
macromolecules is responsible for not only antler
growth and development, but also biomedical and
nutraceutical uses of antlers. Therefore, understanding
chemical and molecular characteristics of antlers is
crucially important to elucidate the clinical and
medicinal efficacies of antlers.
Acknowledgement
Authors are thankful to Mr Arun B. Bhagwat,
traditional healer for providing some valuable
information about traditional use of deer antlers.
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To study the antioxidant and immune protection activity of velvet antler (VA) in cyclophosphamide-induced immunocompromised mice, BALB/c mice were intragastrically administered 100, 300, or 500 mg/(kg·d) VA for 30 days, and were intraabdominally injected with cyclophosphamide to create a hypoimmune murine model. Cellular immunity, macrophage phagocytic activity, natural killer (NK) cell activity, white blood cell count, splenic lymphocyte subsets and the mRNA expression levels of serum cytokines were analysed. We found that the IC50 for removing 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), OH, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals of VA were 0.476, 4.33, and 37.92 mg/mL, respectively. VA could enhance innate and adaptive immunity of mice by improving cellular immunity, macrophage phagocytic ability, and NK cell activity; promoting the production of IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α and other cytokines; increasing the content and ratio of lymphocyte subsets. These results indicate that VA has good antioxidant activity and can improve the immune function of cyclophosphamide-induced immunodeficient mice.
... Antlers are widely used in traditional oriental medicine and are reportedly beneficial for humans in boosting immunity and propagating longevity. Numerous studies have demonstrated the pharmacological potentials of antlers for boosting immunity, propagating longevity, and preventing diseases (Kawtikwar et al., 2010). Other medical values including anti-fatigue, antiosteoporosis, anti-bacterial, anti-stress, and anti-oxidation effects have also been investigated for research and commercial uses (Wu et al., 2013). ...
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Three-dimensional imaging demonstrates advantages over traditional methods and has already proven feasible for measuring antler growth. However, antlers' velvet-covered surface and irregular structure pose challenges in efficiently obtaining high-quality antler data. Animal data capture using optical imaging devices and point cloud segmentation still require tedious manual work. To obtain 3D data of irregular biological targets like antlers, this paper proposes an automated workflow of high-quality 3D antler point cloud generation using low-cost range cameras. An imaging system of range cameras and one RGB camera is developed for automatic camera triggering and data collection without motion artifacts. The imaging system enables motion detection to ensure data collection occurs without any appreciable animal movement. The antler data are extracted automatically based on a fast k-d tree neighbor search to remove the irrelevant data. Antler point clouds from different cameras captured with various poses are aligned using target-based registration and the normal distribution transformation (NDT). The two-step registration demonstrates precisions of the overall RMSE of 4.8mm for the target-based method and Euclidean fitness score of 10.5mm for the NDT. Complete antler point clouds are generated with a higher density than that of individual frames and improved quality with outliers removed.
... Under the negdel, the number of reindeer per herder family grew significantly. The purpose of reindeer husbandry shifted to the growing and harvesting of soft antlers (also called velvet antlers) for use in traditional Asian medicine (Kawtikwar et al. 2010). ...
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Mongolia’s reindeer herders and their taiga homeland are today facing unprecedented challenges from unregulated mining, forest logging, loss of access to natural resources, tourism, and climate change. The Dukha herders and their ancestors have lived for centuries in this fragile transition region on the edge of the steppes, practising an ancient and unique form of reindeer husbandry and helping to conserve the region’s unique biodiversity. Yet this system of reindeer husbandry, with its close relationship between man and reindeer, is under threat. This publication addresses the current state of reindeer husbandry of northern Mongolia and presents recommendations from the Mongolian reindeer herders for improving the sustainability of reindeer herding and the management of pastures and their homeland.
... This protecting consequence is related to the anti-inflammatory activities of CS by increasing the synthesis of hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans, and decreasing the production of proteolytic enzymes and nitric oxide 57 . Deer horn extract has been considered as a noteworthy health restorative in traditional medicine amongst several Asian countries 67 . Oily DBE and CPC were recently revealed to have anti-inflammatory properties and reduce the morphological deviations related with osteoarthritic cartilage damage in animal models of OA 68,69 . ...
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This study designed to evaluate the effect of nutraceutical supplementation on pain intensity and physical function in patients with knee/hip OA. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Science direct, and ProQuest in addition to SID, Magiran, and Iranmedex were searched up to March 2020. Records (n = 465) were screened via the PICOS criteria: participants were patients with hip or knee OA; intervention was different nutritional supplements; comparator was any comparator; the outcome was pain intensity (Visual analogue scale [VAS]) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis [WOMAC] index); study type was randomized controlled trials. The random effects model was used to pool the calculated effect sizes. The standardized mean difference (SMD) of the outcome changes was considered as the effect size. The random effects model was used to combine the effect sizes. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by Cochran's (Q) and I2 statistics. A total of 42 RCTs were involved in the meta-analysis. Nutritional supplementation were found to improve total WOMAC index (SMD = − 0.23, 95% CI − 0.37 to − 0.08), WOMAC pain (SMD = − 0.36, 95% CI − 0.62 to − 0.10) and WOMAC stiffness (SMD = − 0.47, 95% CI − 0.71 to − 0.23) subscales and VAS (SMD = − 0.79, 95% CI − 1.05 to − 0.05). Results of subgroup analysis according to the supplementation duration showed that the pooled effect size in studies with < 10 months, 10–20 months and > 20 months supplementation duration were 0.05, 0.27, and 0.36, respectively for WOMAC total score, 0.14, 0.55 and 0.05, respectively for WOAMC pain subscale, 0.59, 0.47 and 0.41, respectively for WOMAC stiffness subscale, 0.05, 0.57 and 0.53, respectively for WOMAC physical function subscale and 0.65, 0.99 and 0.12, respectively for VAS pain. The result suggested that nutraceutical supplementation of patients with knee/hip OA may lead to an improvement in pain intensity and physical function.
... Several researchers have reported the bioactivity impacts of deer bones and antlers from various nations, but there is no information on the pharmacological activity of deer antlers originating from Indonesia (R. unicolor). 7,[22][23][24] Cytotoxic test samples (Et-TL and A-TL extracts) at different concentrations were incubated with RAW 264.7 macrophages for 1 day and were evaluated using the MTT method. Then the data were represented as the average cell viability. ...
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Objectives: Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by skeletal degradation of osseous tissue resulting in an escalated chance of broken bones. Traditionally, Rusa unicolor horn from East Kalimantan is used to treat many diseases, including conditions associated with bone turnover. The aim of the present research was to analyze the effects of 70% ethanol and aqueous extracts of R. unicolor antler's horn from East Kalimantan on nitric oxide inhibition, osteoblast differentiation, and mineralization related to bone turnover. Materials and methods: Nitric oxide inhibition of the extracts in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was evaluated by Griess reagent, while the effects of extracts on osteoblast differentiations were measured by alkaline phosphatase in p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Their effects on mineralization was determined using alizarin red staining. Results: The 70% ethanol and aqueous extracts inhibited cell inflammation (40% and 80%, respectively) and stimulated osteoblast differentiation (65% and 52%, respectively). In the mineralization test, the aqueous extract showed an effect two times higher than that of 70% ethanol extract. Conclusion: The extracts can effectively degrade inflammatory marker expression and preserve osteoblast functions.
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The purpose of the current study was to characterize the structural and functional properties of the hydrolysate of velvet antler heated at different temperatures (90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃) for 15 min. After heat treatment, the surface hydrophobicity of the velvet antler hydrolysates increased from 663.12 to 839.63 (at 100 ℃), indicating the maximum unfolding of velvet antler polypeptides. Although heating decreased the solubility of velvet antler polypeptides, the foaming and emulsifying properties of the antler peptides increased from 63.1% and 22.21 m2/g (unheated) to 68.1% and 35.3 m2/g (heated at 120 ℃), respectively. Results showed that high‐temperature (120 ℃) treatment can not only sterilize and prolong shelf life, but also improve the foaming and emulsifying properties of the product, which is an effective processing technology to improve its functional properties. These findings provide a theoretical basis for selecting the correct sterilization temperature in food processing.
Objectives: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (dexamethasone) is a primary cause of secondary osteoporosis by the decreasing formation and increasing resorption activities. Previously, the in vitro study showed that 70% ethanol and aqueous extract of deer antler have increased alkaline phosphatase in osteoblast cell that known as marker of bone formation. The mind of this study is to analyze the effect of deer antlers in increasing the bone trabecular density of osteoporosis-induced male mice. Methods: This study used a post-test control group design. A total of 54 healthy male mice were randomly divided to nine groups, i.e., healthy control, osteoporotic, positive control, 70% ethanol (4, 8, and 12 mg/kg BW), and aqueous extracts (4, 8, and 12 mg/kg BW) of deer antler groups. All of the interventions were given 1 mL of test sample for 4 weeks orally. The bone densities were determined using histomorphometry by Image J and Adobe Photoshop. The statistical data were performed using SPSS 23 and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that alendronate group, 70% ethanol, and aqueous extract groups increased bone density and calcium levels in serum (p<0.05) compared to osteoporotic group in dose dependent manner. It indicated that 70% ethanol and aqueous extract of deer antler stimulating bone turnover and aqueous extract showed the highest. Conclusions: Dexamethasone induction for 4 weeks caused osteoporotic mice and the administration of 70% ethanol and aqueous extracts of deer antler from East Kalimantan increased trabecular bone density and calcium levels in dose dependent manner.
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The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity, chemical composition, flavor and bioactive compounds between Korean and imported velvet antlers (VAs)-derived extracts. The Korean (KVA), Russian (RVA) and New Zealand (NZVA) VAs (n=24 each, dry form) purchased from a local supplier were used in the investigation. After extracting with water (750 g VA with 6,000 mL water) for 20 h at 95°C, the VA extracts (VAE) were then used for analysis of antioxidant activity, amino acids (AAs), flavor and bioactive compounds. Compared to the RVA and NZVA, the KVA extract showed significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals scavenging activities (p<0.05). Significantly higher Fe content was found in the KVA while, higher Mn, Zn and Ca contents were found in the RVA (p<0.05). Twenty AAs were detected in all three VAEs and some of them (e.g., glycine and alanine) were higher in the KVA (p<0.05). A higher diversity (quality and quantity) of flavor compounds was found in the KVA extract compared to the imported VAs-derived extracts. Over six hundred metabolic compounds were identified in the VAEs. Among them, 412 compounds were commonly found in all the VAE types while, 109, 107, and 84 biomarker compounds were only found in the KVA, NZVA, and RVA extracts, respectively. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be concluded that the country of origin partly affected the antioxidant activity, chemical composition, flavor and bioactive compounds of the VAEs.
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Several biochemical parameters related to aging were evaluated after a hot-water extract prepared from unossified pilose antler of Cervus nippon TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe (Rokujo) had been administered orally for 8 successive days to senescence-accelerated mice (SAM), a novel murine model of spontaneously promoted aging. It was found that the repeated oral administration of Rokujo had significant restoring effects on the physiological degenerations which were associated with the development of senile symptoms. These effects included (1) an increase in the plasma testosterone level in male mice; (2) a decrease in the contents of malondialdehyde in the liver and brain; (3) an increase in the liver protein contents; (4) an increase in the liver superoxide dismutase activity; and (5) a decrease in the activity of monoamine oxidase B in the liver and brain membranes. Most of these effects were selectively observed in the senile-prone strain of SAM (SAM-P) as compared to the normal, resistant strain (SAM-R). The present data suggest that Rokujo may exert an anti-aging action in male senile animals.
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A mixture of monoacetyldiglycerides was newly isolated from the chloroform extract of antlers of Cervus nippon, guided by the hematopoietic stimulation of stem cells. The structures of monoacetyldiglycerides were determined by various spectroscopic methods: FAB MS, CID tandem MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. A mixture of at least nine inseparable sn-3-monoacetyldiglycerides was identified: 1 [C(39)H(72)O(6) (C16 : 0/C18 : 1)], 2 [C(39)H(72)O(6) (C18 : 1/C16 : 0)], 3 [C(39)H(70)O(6) (C16 : 0/C18 : 2)], 4 [C(39)H(70)O(6) (C18 : 2/C16 : 0)], 5 [C(41)H(74)O(6) (C18 : 0/C18 : 2), 6 [C(41)H(74)O(6) (C18 : 2/C18 : 0)], 7 [C(41)H(74)O(6) (C18 : 1/C18 : 1)], 8 [C(43)H(74)O(6) (C18 : 0/C20 : 4)], and 9 [C(43)H(74)O(6) (C20 : 4/C18 : 0)]. Among these nine monoacetyldiglycerides in deer antlers, compound 3 was one of the major compounds and was efficiently synthesized from glycerol. Spectral data of synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride 3 were compared with the corresponding data for the mixture of natural monoacetyldiglycerides. The mixture of natural monoacetyldiglycerides from deer antlers showed potent activity on the hematopoiesis (stimulation index=1.40+/-0.05, p<0.02 at 1 microg/ml), and synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride 3 showed even better activity (stimulation index=1.54+/-0.12, p<0.001, at 1 microg/ml).
Ten Lectures on the Use of Medicinals from the Personal Experience of Jiao Shude 15 State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Advanced Textbook on Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology-2
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Advances in the research of the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical application of pilose antler People's Republic of China Influence of extract of the pantui of Transbuikal wapiti on certain characteristics of lipid protein metabolism in the tissue of guinea pigs in normal conditions
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