Article

Pharmacognostic and phytochemical properties of Aloe Vera Linn – an overview

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  • Hindustan University / HITS
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Abstract

Aloe vera is a perennial, drought-resisting, succulent plant belonging to the Asphodelaceae family which, historically has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes. It has a vast traditional role in indigenious system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homoeopathy. Clinical evaluations have revealed that the pharmacological active ingredients are concentrated in both the gel and rind of the aloe vera leaves. Bioactive compounds from aloe vera are very effective in various treatments, such as burns, allergic reactions, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, acid indigestion, ulcers, diabetes, skin diseases, dysentry, diarrohoea, piles and inflammatory conditions of the digestive system and other internal organs, including the stomach, small intestine, liver, kidney, and pancreas. The active ingredients have been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agent. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties.

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... This medicinal plant is cactus with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. [14] This gelatinous substance contains 96% water and 75 active properties such as vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, salicylic acids, and amino acids. It has been reported that Aloe Vera has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticarcinogenic activities. ...
... It has been reported that Aloe Vera has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticarcinogenic activities. [14,15] The aim of this study was to compare various storage media for maintaining cell viability of human periodontal ligament Cells. ...
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Aim: Aim of the study is evaluate the efficacy of HBSS, Green tea extract and Aloe Vera gel as storage media in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cell. Material and Method: Fifty- five human teeth with closed apices and with apparently normal periodontium were extracted as atraumatically as possible for orthodontic reasons were collected for study. Teeth were randomly divided into positive control group, negative control group, three experimental group. Teeth in experimental groups were dried for 30 minutes (including time taken for curetting coronal PDL cells), followed by a 45-minute immersion in one of the three storage solution groups. The teeth in positive control group after extraction was immediately treated with collagenase. The teeth in negative control group were bench- dried for 8 hours, with no follow- up storage solution time, and then placed in the collagenase. Result: HBSS is the best medium for the maintaining the viability of the PDL Cells.But easier availability and cost effectiveness, GTE and Aloe Vera Gel can be advocated as a viable storage medium. Conclusion: It can be concluded that GTE and Aloe Vera Gel can be advocated as a viable storage medium.
... The Aloe Vera extract were also loaded with many important therapeutic vitamins like vitamin (F, C, A), niacin and riboflavin [19,20] Aloe Vera also contain vitamin B12 and folic acid and were considered as a useful source for vitamins [12]. ...
... Aloe Vera plant contain a lot of minerals some of the major minerals found in aloe Vera extract are the following. Zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, chromium, and magnesium [20] Some studies also reveals that aloe Vera plantation near wastewater helps to scavenge the trace elements e.g. Pb, Cd from soil [21]. ...
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Aloe Vera gel extracted from aloe Vera plant were most commonly used in cosmetics and other beauty related products. For the determination of its efficacy in human health and identification of active compounds in aloe Vera many trials had been done. Although it also had some clinical importance like it might be very effective for genital herpes, diabetes mellitus, and many other allergic reactions. Some studies also show that oral administration of aloe Vera gel or its syrup might be useful for lowering glucose level in the blood and might be effective in diabetic patientsthat are suffering from this disorder. Beside its beneficial properties aloe Vera were also being loaded with some carcinogen that causes cancer upon oral administration. This paper will review the naturally occurring ingredients found in aloe Vera and its therapeutic uses and we will also discuss its side effects.
... Aloe vera grows in warm areas and cannot survive in freezing temperatures [17]. There are about 75 active chemical compounds in Aloe vera, including vitamins A, B and C, which have a positive effect on the immune system, as well as vitamin C has a role in wound healing, enzymes (such as Carboxy-peptidase, which helps reduce inflammation), sugars (including gluco-mannans., which accelerate the healing process of wounds), sterols: these compounds have an anti-inflammatory role (such as Lupeol, which has an antiseptic and analgesic role) [18], and anthraquinones which when present in small amount are considered strong analgesics [19]. Aloe vera has been used in many aspects within dentistry, including, oral lichen planus, periodontitis, dry socket, and root canals filling material in primary teeth [18]. ...
... During the inflammatory process, bradykinin produces pain associated with vasodilation and, therefore, its hydrolysis produces an analgesic effect. 2-Anthraquinones in small amounts these compounds possess powerful analgesic [19]. 3-Lupeol which acts as an antiseptic and analgesic agent [18]. ...
... The sterols in Aloe vera include campesterol, sitosterol and lupeol. Moreover, Aloe vera has salicylic acid and 20 of the 22 necessary amino acids required by our body and seven essential amino acids that the body cannot synthesize (Joseph and Raj 2010). ...
... Aloe vera also declines by 20% interleukin -8 produced by CaCo2 cells (Langmead et al. 2004). Furthermore, Aloe vera can hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic, wound healing, antimutagenic, immunomodulatory, or gastroprotective (Joseph and Raj 2010). ...
Book
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The history of aroma and fragrance dates back through several ages and civilizations. The sagacity of smell plays a remarkable role for human being to recognize right food. Best fruits can be judged when they are ripe and fit for consumption emitting lovely smell or aroma. The same attribute from flowers attract insects leading to cross-pollination. India has enjoyed a paramount place in the fabrication of quality perfumes and aromatics since prehistoric era. The celebrated Chinese voyager Fa-Hien described India as the land of aromatic plants. Visitors, at Nawabi banquets, were welcomed essentially with attar. Indian cities like Delhi, Agra, Kannauj, Lucknow, Jaunpur, Ghazipur, Aligarh, Bharatpur, Mysore, and Hyderabad, emerged as centers of the national and international trade in perfumery and other aromatic compounds, and were known for their quality across Asia, Europe and Africa. Aromatic plants precisely possess odorous volatile substances in root, wood, bark, stem, foliage, flower and fruit. The typical aroma is due to an assortment of composite chemical compounds. At present, information on the chemistry and properties of essential oils of only about 500 aromatic plants species is known in some detail out of a total of about 1500. Of these, about 50 species find use as commercial source of essential oils and aroma chemicals. It is realized now that perfumes are not the essentials of sumptuousness as they were in the past. It has given birth to new streams of medicinal therapy, aromatherapy, involving the use of essential oils and aromatics derived from plants to treat diseases. Essential oils are also reported to be better than antibiotics due to their safety and broad spectrum activity. Natural essential oils are also potentially safe insecticides. The essential oil obtained from Acorus calamus having ß-asarone as an active principle, produces sterility among a variety of insects of either sex. It has, therefore, been found very useful and secure for the storage of food grains. However, there is still very inadequate research for the cultivation of aromatic crops and extraction of essential oils across the globe. This book has been designed to highlight the associated issues of aromatic plants including the aspects of their classification, importance, uses and applications for human wellbeing, botany, agrotechniques, major bioactive constituents, post harvest extraction, chemistry and biochemistry of aroma compounds alongwith an informative modern global research on these plants throughout the world. Hope this book will cater the scholastic services and rewards to diverse professionals and stakeholders and serve as an informative handbook for theoretical as well as practical purposes.
... Entre as espécies vegetais com propriedade medicinal amplamente utilizadas, na região amazônica, merecem destaque: a babosa (Aloe vera) que apresenta como substâncias ativas as vitaminas A, C, D, E, o cálcio e o aminoácidos, presentes tanto no invólucro das folhas, quanto no gel existente na parte interna das folhas, sendo utilizada como anti-inflamatório e bactericida (Joseph & Justin, 2010); a erva cidreira (Melissa officinalis) que possui princípios farmacológicos que agem, principalmente, na redução do estresse, funcionando como calmante e sedativo, contribuindo para a melhora na qualidade do sono e no controle da ansiedade, devido ao aumento dos níveis do neurotransmissor inibitório GABA no sistema nervoso central, bem como pela ação farmacológica registrada como antioxidante, redutora de níveis de colesterol e na atuação do controle de demência causada pelo Alzheimer (Silva et al., 2021); a hortelã-verde (Mentha spicata)muito utilizada na medicina popular, na indústria farmacêutica e na cosméticaque tem ação terapêutica, apontada em muitos estudos devido a importância dos antioxidantes, antifúngicos e antiespasmódicos presentes nos óleos da planta (Figueiredo et al., 2016); e o pariri (Arrabidaea chica Verlot) que apresenta composição química rica e diversa contendo ácido anísico, carajurina, taninos, ferro assimilável e cianocobalamina, com aplicação no tratamento de inflamações uterinas, ovarianas, anemias, sífilis, leucemia, conjuntivite, diarreias, cólicas intestinais, psoríase, tinea corporis, feridas e úlceras; usualmente auxilia pacientes com câncer no tratamento da anemia resultante da quimioterapia e ainda funciona como excelente repelente contra insetos, quando utilizado em forma de pasta e cataplasma (Barros, 2018). ...
Article
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O conhecimento e o uso de plantas medicinais inseridos na Atenção Primária da Saúde proporcionam inúmeros benefícios para os indivíduos, por facilitarem o acesso a terapêutica cultural eficaz. O conteúdo curricular das escolas de medicina apresenta fragilidades no que tange a visão holística, o que determina a formação de profissionais distantes das realidades regionais centrados no tecnicismo e medicalização para todos os quadros de adoecimento. A experiência realizada promoveu a Educação Ambiental em Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental, localizada em Comunidade composta por 100% de população subnormal, situada na Capital do estado do Pará, por meio da implantação de um horto de plantas medicinais denominado de “Farmácia Viva”. Foi executada no decurso do ensino-aprendizado do Planejamento Estratégico Situacional, com a elaboração de um Projeto de Intervenção. As operações e as ações programadas permitiram iniciar discussões sobre a educação ambiental e a troca de mudas entre a comunidade escolar. A verificação da absorção dos conhecimentos foi realizada com a aplicação de teste antes e após a realização da exposição dialogada, revelando crescimento de 28,8% no conhecimento sobre o uso das plantas medicinais e crescimento de 10,6% sobre o uso de plantas medicinais pelas famílias dos alunos. O relato de caso produzido objetiva descrever o aprendizado dos discentes de medicina sobre planejamento e execução de ações de promoção da saúde, analisar a integração da Universidade Federal do Pará com a Escola de Ensino Fundamental e com a Comunidade e contribuir para produção de ações extensionistas com o Planejamento Estratégico Situacional.
... Aloe vera gel is mostly composed of cellulose, mannose-containing polysaccharides, and pectic polysaccharides. Other phytochemicals include enzymes, lectins, anthrones, polymannans, resins, sterols, acetylated acids, terpenoids, tannins, mannan compounds, and flavonoids [49][50][51][52][53][54]. In the current review, we have detailed the effects of Aloe vera as alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities and blood biochemical alternations in poultry ( Figure 2). ...
Article
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Over the past 50 years, there has been a rapid increase in the need for poultry meat on a global scale to meet the rising demand from health, ecology, safety and equity. However, there has been a significant rise in recent years in both public demand and scientific interest for organic poultry farming, particularly when using medicinal herbs due to the rising concern of antibiotic resistance in end users. Ban on the use of antibiotics in the poultry industry has resulted in the demand of herbs as alternatives to antibiotics. Various research efforts have illustrated the nutritional value of Aloe vera in improving growth performance and immune status and acting as an antibacterial and anticoccidial agent in poultry. Aloe vera has been used as a supplement in the form of gel, alcoholic extract, powder, polysaccharide and aqueous extract. Aloe vera contains more than 200 nutrients, bioactive compounds, polysaccharides and saponins. In the current review, we have detailed the effect of Aloe vera as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities and blood biochemical alternations in poultry.
... They found that propolis was significantly more effective than HBSS and milk at 3, 6, 24, 72 hours. 26 Several other media including Own serum, Contact lens solution, various culture media / Eagle's medium, and plant derivatives such as Green tea extract (GTE), 27 Aloe Vera, 28 Pomegranate Juice and Coconut water have also been used in different studies with varying degree of success in maintaining PDL viability. [30][31][32] ...
Article
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Trauma to anterior dentition has shown a steady global increase in prevalence and morbidity, being attributed to rise in societal violence as well as in the popularity of contact sports. Tooth avulsion is an extreme variant of dental injury in which there is complete ejection of tooth from its bony socket. Avulsions are the most common type of dental injury recorded for children under 15 years of age seeking treatment in hospital emergency rooms. This injury causes pain, negative aesthetics and has emotional and functional impact on children. Avulsed tooth can be replanted in its socket following trauma, and given right conditions and clinical management; may be expected to function normally for several years thereafter. A number of longitudinal studies have validated the rationale for avulsed tooth replantation, and clinical protocols for management have a degree of consensus. This article reviews present-day understanding of clinico-pathophysiology and management of traumatic tooth avulsion.
... In Rajasthan, it is mainly cultivated in Churu, Alwar, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Jalore, Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Ajmer, and Jaipur districts. Ghritkumari juice is used in skin care medicines and is also effective in treating constipation, arthritis and cough (Joseph and Raj, 2010). Ghritkumari juice is also used for treating stomach ailments, gastrointestinal problem, as antiseptic, as anti-inflammatory and as anticancer (Ali et al. 2012). ...
Article
The present study was carried out with a view to compute the cost of cultivation of Ghritkumari on basis of cost concept and measuring financial feasibility of the cultivation. Total 80 Ghritkumari cultivating farmers were selected using multistage sampling and to obtain results cost concepts were employed. The result of the study revealed that the cost A1 and cost A2 was found to be similar because the farmers cultivate Ghritkumari crop on their own land. The net present value (NPV) at 15 per cent discount rate was found to be ` 55317.16 for overall farm size. The net present value (NPV) calculated at 10 per cent and was found ` 67213.64 overall farm. The internal rate of return (IRR) was found 36 per cent on overall farm. The benefit cost ratio was found 1.17 at 15 per cent discount rate and 1.19 at 10 per cent discount rate on overall farm. Farm business income, family labor income and farm investment income was found to be ` 83143.24, ` 73909.69, ` 78589.59 highest during 3rd year of Ghritkumari cultivation, respectively. Hence more emphasis should be given to increase Ghritkumari cultivation. The government support helps in better production and marketing of Ghritkumari crop.
... 3. The inner leaf pulp, which consists of Aloe gel and containing parenchyma cells [12,13]. Although leaves are the most used part of the plant, recently some studies have reported the bioactive roots [14] and flowers [15] of the plant. ...
... Roślina posiada zaostrzone liście, które wypełnia żel, natomiast bezpośrednio pod epidermą znajduje się warstwa lateksu o charakterystycznym, żółtawym zabarwieniu (Machado-Sanchez i inni, 2017), (Rastilantie i inni, 2010). Aloes zwyczajny odgrywa ważną rolę w przemyśle kosmetycznym oraz farmaceutycznym -już w czasach biblijnych miąższ używany był w leczeniu zmian skórnych (Joseph i Raj, 2010) oraz wykorzystywano jego właściwości przeczyszczające, dlatego czasami jest nazywany rośliną leczniczą. Jest składnikiem wielu produktów o działaniu przeciwbakteryjnym, przeciwgrzybicznym (Alvarado -Morales i inni, 2019), a także nawilżającym (Grindlay i Reynolds, 1986). ...
Thesis
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Aloes zwyczajny Aloe vera L. jest rośliną o właściwościach przeciwgrzybicznych oraz przeciwbakteryjnych, przez co żel z jego liści jest szeroko używany w przemyśle farmaceutycznym i kosmetycznym. Od niedawna aloes jest także przedmiotem badań w kierunku działania przeciw nowotworom. Pojawienie się różnego rodzaju zmian (zgnilizny, plamistości) na roślinie może wskazywać na rozwijającą się infekcję. Patogeniczne grzyby wytworzyły szereg przystosowań, pozwalających na zasiedlenie roślin. Są to m.in. przekształcone strzępki, które z powodzeniem mogą penetrować tkanki gospodarza oraz wydzielane toksyny, które powodują zaburzenia w podstawowych procesach metabolicznych roślin, przez co nie są w stanie kontynuować wzrostu. Naturalnym środowiskiem dla aloesu jest klimat zwrotnikowy, jednakże do badania korzystano z prywatnych, domowych hodowli aloesu zwyczajnego w doniczkach. W niniejszej pracy izolowano grzyby z pięciu roślin. Każda z nich posiadała plamistości na liściach. Przeprowadzono analizę ilościową i jakościową izolatów wyrosłych na pożywce selektywnej, która potwierdziła obecność grzybów na aloesie. Po przeprowadzonej analizie ilościowej stwierdzono, że najwięcej grzybów zasiedlało glebę, a najmniej liść. Hipoteza badawcza zakładała, że grzyb z danej grupy nie zasiedla więcej niż jedną część aloesu – tak było w przypadku tylko jednej grupy; pozostałe grzyby zasiedlały co najmniej dwie części rośliny lub glebę. Używając metody bezpośredniego wyłożenia fragmentu rośliny na podłoże, możliwe było zaobserwowanie zależności między różnymi grzybami. Zaobserwowano, że grzyb zaliczony do morfologii typu Trichoderma zasiedlał korzenie roślin razem z innym grzybem, niezaliczonym do konkretnego typu morfologicznego. Podczas analizy jakościowej zbadano także czy liść, mimo braku plamistości, zasiedlany jest przez grzyby. Wyniki były takie same w blisko 100 % przypadków – mimo braku plamistości na roślinie bytowały grzyby. Co więcej, były to grzyby o takiej samej morfologii, co grzyby izolowane z liści z plamistościami.
... "Alloeh" is an Arabic word that means "shining bitter stuff," and "vera" is a Latin word that means "truth." Aloe vera is a plant of the Liliaceae family, barbadensis Mill [18]. In addition to treating wounds and burns, aloe vera is used to treat lung cancer and digestive difficulties, boost HDL cholesterol while lowering bad cholesterol, reduce blood sugar in diabetics, battle AIDS and allergies, and strengthen the immune system [19][20][21][22]. ...
Article
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This paper investigates the use of A. vera extract as a natural capping agent for TiO2 nanoparticles as well as a reducing agent for TiO2 nanoparticles. XRD, ultraviolet diffuse reflectance (UV-DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) were used to characterize the material. In their X-ray diffraction patterns, the titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found to have a high degree of crystallinity, indicating that they were synthesized. Infrared (FT-IR) spectra were used to determine the chemical composition of the plant extract. The DRS spectra in the UV-visible range reveal a high absorption peak at 356 nm, which indicates the existence of TiO2 nanoparticles in the sample. Shape of nanoparticles was revealed by SEM and TEM morphological investigations, which revealed their irregular and somewhat spherical nature. Only titanium and oxygen compounds were found in the EDX spectrum, indicating that they were present. This demonstrates that the NPs that were produced are devoid of contaminants. Using the produced nanoparticles as catalyst, we presented a photocatalytic degradation method for the dye methylene blue in this paper. The findings showed that 94 percent of the damage occurred within 120 minutes of being exposed to UV radiation.
... Many studies have illustrated that Aloe Vera has superlative properties, such as antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and even antioxidant activities. [12,13] The egg white was selected due to its nutritious constituents. The pH of egg white is 9.89. ...
Article
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Aim: To evaluate and compare the viability of periodontal ligament cells of avulsed teeth in five different storage media followed by simulated avulsion injury. Settings and Design: Seventy-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally ivided into five groups based on storage media used [A: HBSS (control), B: Milk (experimental), C: Aloe Vera (experimental), D: Egg white (experimental), E: Coconut water (experimental)].Methods and Material: Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the five different storage media for 60 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL were collected in Falcon tubes which already contained collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of Phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated and centrifuged. Then acquired PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue dye and were counted under an optical microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA test and Post Hoc Tukey test. p-value < 0.05 is considered to be significant. Results: HBSS showed the highest percentage of viable cells (80.14%), followed by Egg white (74.01%) and Aloe Vera (73.68%). Milk and Coconut water showed the least percent of viable cells 63.20%, 63.58% respectively.
... Anthraquinones are naturally occurring aromatic compound that are found in plants that are applicable in the field of medicine and the dye industry . (56) . Aloe vera provides 12 Anthraquinones, including aloe emodin, aloetic acid, aloin, anthracine, anthranon, barbaloin, chrysophanic acid, emodin, ethereal oil, ester of cinnemonic acid, isobarbaloin, and resistannol. ...
Article
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Aim of study: to investigate the effects of different concentrations of aloe vera , aglycon part (monoanathron) against candida albicance adhere to two types of heat cure acrylic resin denture base (conventional and Hi-impact) on two periods of time (30 minutes and 8 hours). Materials & methods: A total of 120 specimens were prepared, sixty specimens of each hot cure denture base acrylic resin material, each sixty specimens were farther divided into two subgroups of 30 specimens according to the time of immersion, each 30 specimens were farther subdivided into three 10 specimen groups according to the concentration of aleo vera used, isolation of free aglycon (Monoianthron) from anthroquinon glycoside of aloe vera plant; Candida albicans isolation and identification and preparation of candida albicans suspension; autoclaved specimens of each subgroup for both heat cure acrylic resins were placed into the tubes containing brain heart infusion plus inoculum and remained for 12 hours at 37 0 C in order to favor an initial colonization of the acrylic resin surfaces, the disinfection step was performed over two periods, colony formation was then counted after incubation. Results: The two concentration of aloe Vera studied in the present investigation exhibited varying degree of inhibitory effect against candida albicans adherent to different type of heat cure denture base acrylic resins. The degree of inhibition varied depending on the concentration of the extract while the period of immersion has no significant effect on the number colony. Conclusion: with the limitation of this study it can be concluded that 100% and 75% concentrations of monoanthron aglycon part of anthroquinon isolated from aloe vera have anticandidal effect, 100%concentration has higher effect than75%. Immertion period has no effect on the anticandidal activity of the solutions.
... In recent times, drug discovery techniques have been applied to the standardization of herbal medicines, to elucidate analytical marker compounds. 25 Currently, about 25 drugs derived from plants are in high demand worldwide. 26 Sorghum is once such medicinally/nutritionally important ancient grain which stores large quantities of macro-and micronutrients. ...
Article
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Introduction: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the progression of diabetes, arthritis, cancer, eryptosis, cardiovascular disease, and thrombosis. Currently, antioxidants from natural sources are in high demand due to their beneficial role in the management of said diseases. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of sorghum protein buffer extract (SBE) on sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress and thrombosis. Materials and methods: Protein characterization of SBE was done using SDS-PAGE. Oxidative stress in RBC was induced using sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) and the key stress markers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and the level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) were measured. The anticoagulant effect of SBE was identified by employing in-vitro plasma recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and in-vivo mouse tail bleeding time. SBE antiplatelet activity was examined using agonist adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Non-toxic property of SBE was identified using in - vitro direct haemolytic, haemorrhagic, and edema forming activities using experimental mice. Results: SBE revealed similar protein banding pattern under both reduced and non-reduced conditions on SDS-PAGE. Interestingly, SBE normalized the level of LPO, PCC, SOD, and CAT in stress-induced RBCs. Furthermore, SBE showed anticoagulant effect in platelet rich plasma by enhancing the clotting time from the control 250 s to 610 s and bleeding time from the control 200 s to more than 500 s ( p <0.01) in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SBE prolonged the clot formation process of only APTT but not PT. SBE inhibited the agonists ADP and epinephrine induced platelet aggregation. SBE did not hydrolyze RBC cells, devoid of edema and haemorrhage properties. Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time the anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and antioxidant properties of SBE. Thus, the observed results validate consumption of sorghum as good for health and well-being.
... It has been shown that re-activation of the notch1 signaling seems to be involved in the dysfunction of β-cells in diabetes (Darville & Eizirik, 2006). Natural products are known to contribute to the development of pharmaceutical biology (Joseph & Raj, 2010). The alternative therapeutic system by using natural products from medicinal plants and their isolated active ingredients has aroused considerable interest in medicine (Joseph & Jini, 2011). ...
Article
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Given the impact of notch signaling in the modulation of metabolic diseases and normal tissue homeostasis, this study aimed to evaluate whether notch signaling has a role in anti-diabetic and islet regenerative effects of the isolated polysaccharide from Momordica charantia in diabetic rats. The polysaccharide was isolated from M. charantia (MCP) and was characterized by using FTIR and LC-MS/MS. The diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin in male Wistar rats and grouped into control, diabetic, metformin (500 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹), and treatment (10 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) groups. The levels of Hes1, Notch 1, DLL4, Jagged1, Pdx1, CD34, CD31, and VEGF were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Structural analyses have revealed the polysaccharide structure of the isolated fraction. High blood glucose was normalized by MCP treatment in diabetic rats. MCP scaled up the mRNA levels of Ins1, jagged1, Pdx1, and Hes1 while it scaled down the levels of Notch1, Dll4, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry staining levels of hes1, cyclin d1, and VEGF proteins were increased in the pancreas of MCP-treated diabetic rats compared to the diabetic group. These findings provide insights into the anti-diabetic potential of MCP through modulation of islets’ regeneration and suggest that modulation of notch and angiogenesis pathways may play a pivotal role in the restoration of the islets to relieve diabetes. Practical applications Polysaccharides extracted from Momordica charantia could normalize the level of blood glucose in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through modulation of notch and angiogenesis singling pathways. Given that this effect was associated with the increased expression of Pdx-1 and Insulin in the pancreas, the isolated polysaccharide is expected to be introduced as a convenient medicine in the treatment of diabetes through modulation of β-cell regeneration.
... 27 Furthermore, this plant shows other pharmacologic activities such as hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, scaring, immunomodulating, antifungal and hepatoprotective. 28 Flax or linseed (L. usitatissimum) has been used used to reduce cholesterol's blood plasma concentrations, as well as to reduce the risk of heart disease. ...
Article
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Introduction: This bibliographic review gathers information regarding mucilages, their characteristics, extraction methods for various plant species, and their uses at a pharmaceutical level and for other industries. Methods: This bibliographic review compiles documents printed before December 2020, were searched using Elsevier and Google Scholar databases. Studies that examined mucilages that were not derived from plants were excluded from this review. Results: Mucilages have properties that allow them to be used as excipients in pharmaceutical preparations. They also have pharmacological activities, and have applications in the cosmetics and food industries. Conclusion: The use of mucilages provides numerous benefits, particularly to the pharmaceutical industry. Key words: Cosmetics, Extraction, Food industry, Mucilages, Pharmacy.
... Chronic bronchial asthma can be effectively treated with these compounds. Several types of cancer are non-resistant to the chemo-preventive power of aloe vera due to its glycoproteins and polysaccharides [24]. These agents stimulate the immune system to fight cancer [22]. ...
Chapter
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The traditional and herbal medicines play significant role in the treatment of several diseases. These medicines are the outcome of extensive research on therapeutic and preventive activity of various plant species and their specific parts. Administration of various plant parts, vegetables, fruits and other herbal constituents have significant impact on reduction of clinical, carcinogenic and genotoxic effects of various environmental toxicants. Various parts of plant such as wood, bark, stem, leaf and pod are rich in antioxidants which are known for their free radical scavenging activity. Currently, the treatment options rely significantly using natural anti-oxidants which are extracted from plant products because these are largely available, cost effective and non-toxic as compared to the synthetic drugs. Some potent natural anti-oxidants include tocopherol, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, quercetin, carotene, cinnamic acid, peptides and phenolic compounds which are extensively available in various herbal extracts. The present chapter will focus upon availability of various antioxidants in vegetables and other medicinal plants and their potential activities against xenobiotics.
... It is highly effective in the treatment of gum diseases including periodontitis and gingivitis 43,45 . The plant is also used for the treatment of piles, jaundice, cough, dyspnea and asthma 46 . Significant decrease of plaque and gingivitis has been reported by the use of mouth wash containing Aloe vera products 43,47 . ...
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Background: Aloe vera belongs to the family Liliaceae and genus Aloe with a survival rate of up to 50 years under satisfactory conditions. It has been used since >5000 years to cure many kinds of human diseases. This plant is also used for ornamental purposes as an indoor potted plant. Aloe vera finds applications in allopathic and homeopathic medicine.
... Natural products play an important role in the discovery of many therapeutic agents. According to the World Health Organization, traditional medicine is used by 80% of the world's population (Joseph and Raj 2010). In Egypt, many plants have been reported as natural anti-inflammatory agents due to their rich with phenolic compounds (Makris et al. 2008). ...
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Context: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease characterized by aggressive and systematic polyarthritis. Objective: The present study aimed to isolate and identify the phenolic constituents in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) seeds methanolic extract and evaluates its effect against rheumatoid arthritis in rats referring to the new therapy; interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Materiald and Methods: The GC/MS profiling of the plant was determined. Arthritis induction was done using complete Freund's adjuvant. Arthritis severity was assessed by percentage of edema and arthritis index. IL-1 receptor type I gene expression, IL-1β, oxidative stress markers, protein content, inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), genetic abnormalities and the histopathological features of ankle joint were evaluated. Results: For the first time twelve phenolic compounds had been isolated from the seeds extract. Treatment with extract and IL-1RA improved the tested parameters by variable degrees. Conclusions: RA is an irreversible disease, where its severity increase with the time of induction. Brassica oleracea L. seeds extract is considered as a promising anti-arthritis agent. IL-1 RA may be consider as an unusual therapeutic agent for RA disease. More studies are needed to consider the seeds extract as a nutraceutical agent and to recommend IL-1RA as a new RA drug.
... 29 10 Kumari It contains vitamin A B C E, Calcium, amino acids and enzymes. 30 In vitro study data shows that it directly acts on enzymes 3βHSD modulating the flux towards estradiol formation. Hence for regularization of menstruation in cases with polycystis ovarian syndrome. ...
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Introduction: Dysmenorrhoea is one of the gynaecological pathogenesis commonly observed in the socie-ty in young and adolescent girls. It is associated with painful cramps during menstruation of uterine origin with association of nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhoea. Various methods are practiced relieving pain and such symptoms but the search for herbal nutritive formulations to cure this is in search. Methodology: The present clinical study was randomized open labelled clinical trial amongst 150 unmar-ried girls suffering from painful menstruation between age group of 13 to 25. Performa was prepared to analyse data and pain before and after treatment. The population samples were randomly divided into three group with Rajapravartini Vati as control group, another two groups were administered herbal soup and herbal cookies. Results: Percentage relief in pain was 84.9% in cookies, 63.64% in soup group and 45.83% in Ra-japravartni group. 51.35% girls showed complete relief in dysmenorrhoea in cookies group, 40.54% in soup group and 32.43% in Rajapravartini group. Conclusion: Palatability and acceptability of herbal soup and cookies along with effectiveness in relieving painful menstruation was significant.
... [ [11][12][13][14] 2. Antioxidant/ detoxifying properties An excellent example of a functional food that protects the body from oxidative stress is Aloe vera. The juice cleanses the body system and provides it with an amazingly rich cocktail of vitamins, minerals and trace elements, which helps to deal with the stresses and strains arising from daily environmental pollution and the junk foods we eat. ...
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Aims: This study aims to review the diverse uses of Aloe vera (true aloe) as well as the conservation measures and conventional cultivation techniques. Study Design: Best evidence review. Place and Duration of Study: Biomedicinal Research Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. Methodology: Search inputs such as Aloe vera, Aloe barbadensis in conjunction with the following terms: ‘uses’, ‘overexploitation’, ‘conservation’, ‘policy’, ‘cultivation’, ‘yield’, and ‘agronomic practices’ were queried on several scientific databases. Search engines, were also queried for publications covering exploitation, conservation approaches, and cultivation requirements on Aloe vera. Other databases such as ScienceDirect and SciFinder were accessed for relevant papers and supplement acquired information after articles (outside the defined scope of the review) were excluded. Results: Aloe vera (true aloe) has been engaged particularly for medicinal and cosmetic purposes for thousands of years, and its utilization remains popular till date. Aloe vera is popularly valued for its natural products, including nutritional benefits in food, source of nectar for honey bees and nectarivorous birds and horticulture. In this study, several studies demonstrating the botanical characteristics and ecological adaptation of A. vera were discussed; agronomic techniques involving the requirements for land preparation, propagation and harvesting were also considered as well as the growth yield of the plant due to different soil types and nutrient applications. Conclusion: For the multifarous uses of Aloe vera, adequate policy should be appropriated to regions where this plant is put to industrial uses, over-exploited and threatened. Calcareous and non-calcareous soil have maximum yield on true aloe. Azotobacter chroococcum of strain 12 has turned out to be a good growth stimulant bacterium when treated with A. vera. Aloe rust and anthracnose disease are known fungal infections, while Aloe vera aphid (Aloephagus myersi) is an identified pest of the plant.
... Anthraquinones are naturally occurring aromatic compound that are found in plants that are applicable in the field of medicine and the dye industry . (56) . Aloe vera provides 12 Anthraquinones, including aloe emodin, aloetic acid, aloin, anthracine, anthranon, barbaloin, chrysophanic acid, emodin, ethereal oil, ester of cinnemonic acid, isobarbaloin, and resistannol. ...
... Over centuries, medicinal plants have been used to treat various infections by different societies worldwide (Itokawa et al., 2008;Mapiye, 2019). Traditional medicines are defined by WHO as knowledge, skills, practices based on beliefs, theoretical aspects, and indigenous experiences, which differ among different cultures in the prevention or curing of physical or mental illness (Mansoor and Sanmugarajah, 2018 (Joseph and Raj, 2010;Komolafe, 2014). ...
... It also inhibit cyclooxygenase, resulted decrease production of prostaglandin, leading to decrease inflammation.glucomannan is an emollient polysaccharide that is a good moisturizer and acemannan is water soluble long chain mannose polymer that accelerate wound healing. [48] ImmunomodulatoryActivity Mice, when administered with Aloe veraextract (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) respectively for 5 days there was asignificant increase in the total white blood cell count andmacrophages with the engulfed SRBC with increase inconcentration. This shows the immunomodulatoryproperty of the extract. ...
... The Aloe gel is made up of 96% of water, rest of the 4% includes vitamins, amino acids, calcium and enzymes. Beneath the green rind of the leaf, it produces a bitter yellow exudate [3], [4] . Aloe vera is being cultivated from many years in huge quantity because of its high demand in Pharmacy, Industries, Cosmetics sectors. ...
Article
The current research was aimed to evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity of crude extract prepared from leaves of Aloe vera plant. The extract of Aloe vera was prepared in Methanol. Two extracts were prepared, one from whole leaf powder and the other from fresh Aloe vera gel. To determine the antibacterial efficacy of the given plant, Kirby-bauer disk diffusion method was performed. The standard antibiotic used was Gentamicin. Gentamicin showed significant antimicrobial efficacy against E.coli and Bacillus subtilis forming a zone of inhibition of 34mm in both. This research provides information about antibacterial susceptibility of aloe vera leaves (leaf powder and fresh gel) against two different bacteria: E.coli which is a gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus subtilis which is a gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial susceptibility test showed that the extract of leaf and the gel of Aloe vera inhibited the growth of both microorganisms during test. Growth of E,coli strain were inhibited more as compared to Bacillus subtilis because gram negative bacteria do not have lipopolysaccharide layer in their cell wall. Also the fresh gel Extract was more effective as compared to Aloe vera leaf powder.
... Natural products are known to contribute in development of pharmaceutical biology [14]. The alternative therapeutic system by using medicinal plants and their isolated active ingredients has aroused considerable interest in medicine [15]. ...
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Given the impact of notch signaling in the modulation of metabolic diseases and normal tissue homeostasis, this study aimed to evaluate whether notch signaling has a role in anti-diabetic and islet regenerative effects of isolated polysaccharide from Memordica charantia in diabetic rats. The polysaccharide was isolated from Memordica charantia (MCP) and characterized using FTIR and LC-MS/MS. Diabetic model was established by intrapritoneal administration of STZ in male Wistar rats. The levels of Hes1, Notch 1, DLL4, Jagged1, Pdx1, CD34, CD31 and VEGF were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Structural analyses have revealed the carbohydrate structure of fraction. Blood glucose was halted by treatment with fraction. MCP scaled up the mRNA levels of Ins1, jagged1, Pdx1 and Hes1 while scaled down the levels of Notch1, Dll4 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry staining of hes1, cyclin d1 and VEGF proteins was increased in the pancreas of MCP-treated diabetic rats compared to the diabetic group. These findings provide insights into the anti-diabetic potential of MCP through modulation of islets regeneration and suggest that modulation of notch and angiogenesis pathways may play the pivotal role in the restoration of islets to relieve diabetes.
... It has been used in folk medicines for more than 2000 years. It remains an essential component in traditional and contemporary culture as a medicine and cosmetic commodity in many countries such as China, India, West Indies, and Japan (Hamman, 2008;Hassan et al., 2013;Joseph and Raj, 2010;Radha and Laxmipriya, 2015). Aloe vera has been used traditionally for its strongly laxative effect, and fresh leaf gel is used in different cosmetic preparation and formulation (Wani et al., 2010). ...
Article
Aloe vera [Aloe barbadensis (Miller)] is an important medicinal plant that belongs to the family Asphodelaceae (Liliaceae) with versatile properties. Aloe vera cultivation has accomplished economic significance because of its ever-increasing demand in the cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Many researchers have done notable research work on its pharmaceutical and other properties. Still, suitable agricultural practices for getting high yield at a low cost of cultivation in the subtropical region are meager. Field experiments were performed at the research farm of CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, in two consecutive years, 2016-2018. A study was conducted to optimize the irrigation regimes (rainfed, 20 ± 5% available soil moisture (ASM), and 40 ± 5% available soil moisture), planting methods (flat, ridge, and raised bed planting), and age of offsets (30, 60, and 90 days old) under subtropical region of north India for enhancing the yield of aloe vera leaves and marketable produces for sustainable agriculture and better resource use efficiency. The results revealed that maximum fresh leaves (60.6 t ha − 1), gel (25.8 t ha − 1), and juice yield (22.7 t ha − 1) were obtained when the crop was irrigated at 20 % available soil moisture in raised bed planting method and 60 days old offsets were used for planting. However, maximum water productivity (21.5 g L − 1) was recorded in rainfed conditions under the ridge bed planting method, which is statistically at par with the water productivity under raised bed planting method in the same irrigation regime, i.e., rainfed condition with for 60 days old aloe offsets. Best monitory returns, i.e., maximum gross ($2452.5 ha − 1) and net return ($1952.0 ha − 1), were also computed in the treatment combination of raised bed planting method, 20 % available soil moisture and 60 days old offsets. Thus, planting of 60 days old offsets on the raised beds by providing irrigation at 20 % available soil moisture throughout the cropping period is a suitable treatment combination for getting higher yield, water productivity and monetary returns for aloe vera cultivation.
... The name Aloe Vera comes from the Arabic "Alloeh" or the Hebrew language "Halal," which means that it is a shiny bitter substance [9]. Aloe vera in Indonesia, known as "lidah buaya" is a plant that belongs to the Liliaceae group [10]. ...
... Among them vicine (glycoalkaloid with pyrimidine nucleoside), polypeptide p-insulin (plant insulin), and charantin (stigmastadienol glucosides and sitosterol) are the most important that enhance sugar levels in blood by glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake in the liver, facilitate insulin release from beta cells of pancreas, and promote repair and growth of insulin-secreting beta cells, muscles, and adipocytes. These have also been found effective in treating diabetic patients suffering from glycoconjugate and heparin sulfate-related kidney problems (Alam et al. 2015;Chaturvedi 2012;Joseph and Raj 2010;Joseph and Jini 2013;Janmajoy et al. 2019;Pahlavani et al. 2019;Raman and Lau 1996;Tan et al. 2008). ...
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The pharmacological treatments of diabetes are costly and therefore necessitate the mutual usage of alternate medications. Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera) is a medicinal plant which has got varied beneficial applications. Even though some researchers have claimed that the polysaccharides in the leaf gel are the sole constituents and regulators for most of the metabolic activities of this plant, it appears a discouraging task to associate the distinct polysaccharides to particular healing activities. The antidiabetic and hypoglycemic properties of Aloe vera are partially mediated via its strong antioxidant effect. Aloe vera treatment is known to lower the blood glucose level through its capability of enhancing the sensitivity towards insulin. Accordingly, there is an increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose, combined with reduction in the amount of hepatic glucose produced. Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) is also a hypoglycemic plant which is typically used by diabetic patients and healthy people as well. Ample medical examinations have been recognized in the hypoglycemic properties of Momordica charantia by means of numerous proposed pathways. There is an abundant data on the biochemical and animal model experiments envisioning the antidiabetic properties of M. charantia. Momordica charantia along with its other extracts and components is thought to possess hypoglycemic properties through diverse biological, pharmacological, as well as biochemical means, like peripheral muscular glucose utilization, checking glucose absorption in intestinal cells, gluconeogenic enzyme inactivation, activation of pentose phosphate pathway, and safeguarding the pancreatic β cells.
... Among them vicine (glycoalkaloid with pyrimidine nucleoside), polypeptide p-insulin (plant insulin), and charantin (stigmastadienol glucosides and sitosterol) are the most important that enhance sugar levels in blood by glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake in the liver, facilitate insulin release from beta cells of pancreas, and promote repair and growth of insulin-secreting beta cells, muscles, and adipocytes. These have also been found effective in treating diabetic patients suffering from glycoconjugate and heparin sulfate-related kidney problems (Alam et al. 2015;Chaturvedi 2012;Joseph and Raj 2010;Joseph and Jini 2013;Janmajoy et al. 2019;Pahlavani et al. 2019;Raman and Lau 1996;Tan et al. 2008). ...
... Several plant species are considered potential sources of bioactive molecules such as atropine from Belladonna leaves, cocaine from coca leaves, vincristine from Vinca plant, and many others which still play an important role in modern medicine [15,16]. ...
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Background Rumex rothschildianus is the sole member of a unique section of the genus Rumex, in the family Polygonaceae. This species is a very rare small dioecious annual, endemic to Palestine that is traditionally used as food and for the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, the current investigation aimed to screen the chemical constituents, antioxidants, anti-α-amylase, anti-α-glucosidase, antilipase, and cytotoxic effects of four solvents fractions of R. rothschildianus leaves. Methods Dried powder of R. rothschildianus leaves was extracted in four solvents with different polarities. Several qualitative and quantitative phytochemical tests were performed to determine the components of the extracts. The colorimetric analysis was used for the quantitative determination of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins. In-vitro assays were performed to evaluate the extracts for antioxidant, anti-α-amylase, anti-α-glucosidase, and antilipase inhibitory activities, as well as cytotoxicity by MTS assay against cervical carcinoma cells line (HeLa) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results The acetone fraction of R. rothschildianus leaves showed the most significant antioxidant activity, due to having the highest content of flavonoids and phenolics, with an IC50 value of 6.3 ± 0.4 μg/ml, compared to 3.1 ± 0.9 μg/ml for Trolox, and regarding lipase inhibition activity the acetone fraction showed the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 26.3 ± 0.6 μg/ml, in comparison with orlistat positive control IC50 12.3 μg/ml. The same extract was the most potent inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with IC50 values of 19.1 ± 0.7 μg/ml and 54.9 ± 0.3 μg/ml, respectively, compared to 28.8, 37.1 ± 0.3 μg/ml of acarbose, respectively. The hexane fraction showed 99.9% inhibition of HeLa cells and 97.4% inhibition for MCF7 cells. Conclusion The acetone fraction of R. rothschildianus leaves might provide a source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of oxidative stress. Similarly, the hexane fraction indicates the promising antitumor potential of R. rothschildianus. Clearly, these initial indications need further purification of potentially active compounds, and ultimately, in-vivo studies to determine their effectiveness.
... Historical findings regarding A. vera date back to hundreds of years B.C. in old Egypt and Mesopotamia (Manvitha and Bidya 2014). Old Egyptians, Arabs, Romans and Indians also recognized the heal-ing properties of this plant, especially that related to skin and hair treatment (Joseph and Raj 2010). A. barbadensis Miller, commonly referred to as A. vera, is one of few hundred species of Aloe belonging to family Liliaceae that is native to Arabian peninsula but have been found also in dry tropical and subtropical areas . ...
Chapter
The main goal of this chapter is to discuss the multiple usage of plants, one of which is its usage for medicinal and pharmaceutical applications besides their potential role in improving the environment. The chapter will be focusing on a few plants which have medicinal properties and potential pharmaceutical/industry applications. Generally, medicinal plants used for traditional medicine play a significant role in the healthcare of the majority of people in many developing countries. At the same time, those plants can play a bigger role in solving many environmental issues like the gradual conversion of habitable land used for agriculture into a desert and reduce the carbon footprint. In this chapter, we will be discussing and reviewing the major role of multiple usage of shrubs growing or potentially can be grown in arid and semi-arid areas such as jojoba, Aloe vera, Moringa and Acacia.
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Chitosan films are commonly used for wound dressing, provided that this polymer has healing, mucoadhesiveness and antimicrobial properties. These properties can be further reinforced by the combination of chitosan with polysaccharides and glycoproteins present in aloe vera, together with copaiba oleoresin's pharmacological activity attributed to sesquiterpenes. In this work, we developed chitosan films containing either aloe vera, copaiba oil or both, by casting technique, and evaluated their microbial permeation, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and in vivo healing potential in female adult rats. None of the developed chitosan films promoted microbial permeation, while the cytotoxicity in Balb/c 3T3 clone A31 cell line revealed no toxicity of films produced with 2% of chitosan and up to 1% of aloe vera and copaiba oleoresin. Films obtained with either 0.5% chitosan or 0.5% copaiba oleoresin induced cell proliferation which anticipate their potential for closure of wound and for the healing process. The in vivo results confirmed that tested films (0.5% copaiba-loaded chitosan film and 0.5% aloe vera-loaded chitosan film) were superior to a commercial dressing film. For all tested groups, a fully formed epithelium was seen, while neoformation of vessels seemed to be greater in formulations-treated groups than those treated with the control. Our work confirms the added value of combining chitosan with aloe vera and copaiba oil in the healing process of wounds.
Article
Among the most prevalent diseases caused by protozoan parasites, the parasites of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria. Malaria is transmitted to humans by the infected female anopheles mosquito. Malaria is a vector-borne disease and it continues to have devastating effects on people’s lives, especially in developing countries. To control malaria, many popular practices exist to avoid the nuisance of mosquito bites such as fumigation, burning green leaves on the hut’s threshold, mosquito coils, insecticide sprays, and repellents. Due to the vast metabolic diversity of plants, natural products may offer relatively cheaper and an easy alternative treatment opportunity to treat malaria. The genus Aloe is one of the top medicinal plants that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. Aloe in one form or another is a common domestic medicine and is the basis of most pharmaceutical preparations. Various components present in the Aloe species have been found effective against many diseases, including malaria. Although most of the antimalarial activities were based on in vivo tests, in vitrotests were also analyzed by certain researchers. The leaf latex in all Aloespecies and the isolated compounds displayed antimalarial activity in a dose-independent manner. Considering that natural molecules have acted as natural templates in the development of antimalarial agents, it is encouraged to investigate further analyses into Aloe constituents and their values against malaria. It should be followed with phytochemical and pharmacological analyses to give scientific ground to medicinal knowledge and future potential utilization.
Article
Background Dandruff is a scalp malady affecting predominantly the male populace. Topical agents and synthetic drugs used for dandruff treatment have specific side effects including burning at the application site, depression, dizziness, headache, itching or skin rash, nausea, stomach pain, vision change, vomiting, discoloration of hair, dryness or oiliness of the scalp and increased loss of hair. Thus, essential oils and extracts from plants could be valuable in the treatment and prevention of dandruff. Aim & Objective This review aims to highlight current findings in dandruff occurrence, its etiology, promising plant essential oils/extracts, and novel treatment strategies. The main emphasis has been given on the anti-dandruff effect of essential oils and plant extracts to disrupt microbial growth. The proposed mechanism (s) of action, novel approaches used to perk up its biopharmaceutical properties, and topical application have been discussed. Results The literature survey was done, bibliographic sources and research papers were retrieved from different search engines and databases, including SciFinder, PubMed, NCBI, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The selection of papers was accomplished based on exclusion and inclusion criteria. The scalp of diverse populations revealed an association of dandruff with microbial symbiosis, including Staphylococcus, Propionibacterium, Malassezia, and Candida as the pathogens responsible for the cause of dandruff. Topical antifungals are considered as the first line of treatment for dandruff including azoles, with clotrimazole (1%), ketoconazole (2%), and miconazole (2%). Other commonly used therapies integrate benzoyl peroxide, coal tar, glycerin, zinc pyrithione, lithium succinate/gluconate, salicylic acid, selenium disulfide/sulfide, sodium sulfacetamide, etc. However, these medicaments and chemicals are known to cause specific side effects. Alternative therapies, including tea tree oil, thyme, Aloe vera, Mentha have been reported to demonstrate anti-dandruff activity by disrupting the microbial growth associated with dandruff formation. Conclusion Overall, this review explains the occurrence of dandruff, its etiology, and the potential applicability of promising plant essential oils/extracts, and their novel treatment strategies. Further studies based on pre-clinical and clinical research are essential before making any conclusion about its efficacy in humans.
Article
At present food, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceutical industries desperately searching for new natural compounds with interesting therapeutic potentials from numerous sources. However, there are lots of plants having pharmaceutical benefits but Aloe vera is probably the most applied medicinal plant worldwide since biblical times. Aloe vera is a perennial succulent plant known as the “miracle plant” belonging to the family Liliaceae, commonly known as ghee kwar. It is the most extensively used variety in commercial products because of its therapeutic properties. Aloe vera informed to be contained as much as 75 nutrients, with 200 active components including lignin, anthraquinones, sugar, minerals, saponins, enzymes, vitamins, amino acids, and salicylic acid. Biologically active compounds extracted from aloe vera had been reported to possess several pharmacologic characteristics, specifically to promote healing of the wound, burn, and frostbite, along with antioxidant, laxative, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, hypoglycemic, gastroprotective antitumor properties. However, on the other side isolated bioactive components such as anthraquinones, phytosterols and saponins are extensively using in nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical products to cure many health ailments. Antioxidant activity is possessed by anthraquinones that are involved in free radical scavenging activity during the inflammatory response and prevent cell necrosis.
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a lifestyle disorder is occurred by due to hyperandrogenism in women. In this, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) level decreases whereas testosterone level increases simultaneously. There are many reasons for which PCOS occurs. Etiology and pathophysiology are briefly discussed in present article. Aloevera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) is a renowned medicinal herb among the whole world for it's pharmacological activities like 'anti-diabetogenic', 'anti-microbial', 'anti-inflammatory', 'anti-obesity' and clinical activities including PCOS management and wound healing, skin protection etc. The present paper objects to summarize the impact of aloevera in PCOS management and other PCOS-induced disorders. It inhibits the genes which induce PCOS and aloevera also regulates insulin's activity. Several bioactive phytochemicals, present in aloevera like barbaloin, aloe-emodin-9-anthrone, lsobarbaloin, Anthrone-C-glycosides and chromones, phytosterols, aloin, anthrone, aloe emodin, aloetinic acid, choline and choline salicylate etc. which are responsible for its efficacy in PCOS and PCOS-induced disorder management.
Article
Background Fissure in ano is a common benign anorectal disorder occurs exclusively in midline, predominantly posterior midline. They generally arise with local trauma caused by hard stool and hypertonic anal sphincter. It affects more than 10% of patients attending proctology clinics. Its incidence is growing high day by day. Objective To evaluate the effect of Aelwa (Aloe barbadensis mill.) in fissure in ano. Material & Methods A prospective study carried out at National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru. The Patients of anal fissure in the age group of 18 to 60 years, were included in the study. The test drug was given to patient in the form of fine powder packed in small sterilized container and asked to sprinkle the powder over the fissure two times a day. Assessment was carried on weekly basis for 3 weeks (7th, 14th and 21st day) on the basis of subjective and objective parameters. Post treatment follow- up carried out at 1 week after completion of trial (on 28th day). Results The mean age at presentation was 32.03 years. The male to female ratio was 16:14. The typical presentation was painful defecation and bleeding per rectum. Fissure in Ano frequently lies in the posterior midline position and associated with a sentinel pile. Pain scores significantly reduced on 7th, 14th and 28th days with this treatment (p<0.001). Healing of fissure, control of bleeding and reduction in anal spasm were seen in all patients with p-value <0.001. Hepatic and renal functions were unaltered in all patients. One patient in our study was HbsAg positive. Conclusion Topical application of Aelwa (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) is effective, safe and less expensive in the management of anal fissures. There was no adverse effect of drug and also the drug was not associated with any complications.
Article
Indeed, there are great market potential of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (Ghrit-kumari) due to their medicinal and cosmetic values. However, the serious problems faced by farmers related to supply of harvested leaves materials after cultivation for industrial extraction and production of juice under a short and specific time of transportation to avoid spoil of materials and protect from decayed condition of leaves. Hence, the cultivation practices of the plant are not being popular although the utilization of leaves by pharmaceutical companies is gradually increasing. To solve the above problems, an analysis on extraction of pulp from leaves and preparation of juice in a small scale level has been carried out useful for the farmers and medicinal plant growers for processing of leaves at plantation site. It has been observed that after harvesting of leaves the boil or warm water is useful to process the leaves for pulp extraction in cold season. The standard percentage of activated charcoal observed in processing of pulp for removal of pigments varies from 12-15 gm/ kg according to pulp. The processing in homogenization, filtration and better preservation and stability of juice different ratio have been analyzed for keeping in good condition up to 180 days and above and the requirement of EDTA is 0.9-1.2gm/kg of pulp. The citric acid required 1.1-1.3 gm/kg for better and good condition of juice. The maintenances of PH of processed material various composition of different preservatives have been assessed. Effects of natural preservatives like lemon and honey to protect juice up to 30 days has been studied and found at least 10:5 ml/100ml respectively in closed container under good storage condition.
Article
In vitro culture of ovarian tissue containing primordial follicles is an important tool to study the initiation of follicular populations and to develop efficient culture systems to support in vitro follicle growth. Considering that in vitro culture favours oxidative stress, it is very important to supplement culture medium with antioxidant substances such as Aloe vera extract. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the distribution of collagen fibres in the extracellular matrix, follicular activation, development and survival in bovine ovarian cortical tissues cultured in vitro , as well as on expression of mRNAs for antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1)]. To this end, ovarian cortical tissues were cultured for 6 days in α-MEM alone or supplemented with different concentrations of Aloe vera extract (1.0, 5.0, 10.0 or 50.0%). After culture, fragments were fixed and processed histologically to evaluate follicular morphology and activation, as well as the extracellular matrix by staining with picrosirius red. The levels of mRNA for SOD , CAT , PRDX6 and GPX1 in cultured ovarian tissues were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ovarian tissues cultured with 10.0 or 50.0% Aloe vera had higher percentages of collagen fibres than tissues cultured in control medium. A significant increase in developing follicles was observed in ovarian tissues cultured in α-MEM alone or supplemented with 10% Aloe vera when compared with fresh control or tissues cultured with 1.0% Aloe vera . Presence of Aloe vera did not influence the percentage of morphologically normal follicles when compared with control medium. Ovarian tissues cultured with 50.0% Aloe vera had higher percentages of morphologically normal follicles than those cultured with 10.0% Aloe vera . Furthermore, 10% Aloe vera significantly increased mRNA levels for PRDX6 . In conclusion, 10.0% Aloe vera improves extracellular matrix distribution in cultured tissues and increases the expression of mRNA for PRDX6 after 6 days in vitro .
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional knowledge is a particular form of practice or skill set that was developed in ancient times and was sustained through generations via the passing of knowledge, essentially confined within a specific tribe, local people, or family lineages. Ethnodermatological use of medicinal plants in India is still a subject to conduct more studies to see if there is chemical, microbiological, and/or clinical evidence, from a scientific perspective, of their effectiveness for those skin disorders. Thus, this review can be the basis for further studies and may provide targets for drug development. Aim of the study We compile and emphasize the most important part of ethnodermatology, namely, traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and their applications for several skin diseases in India. We also include a brief review and explanation on dermatology in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. We review the pharmacological activity of extracts derived from some of the most cited plants against problem skin diseases as well. Materials and methods Different kinds of key phrases such as “Indian traditional ethnodermatology”, “ethnodermatology”, “ethnobotany”, “skin diseases”, “Ayurveda dermatology”, “pharmacological activity” were searched in online search servers/databases such as Google Scholar (https://scholar.google.com/), ResearchGate (https://www.researchgate.net/), PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) (http://nopr.niscair.res.in/). Based upon the analyses of data obtained from 178 articles, we formulated several important findings which are a summary shown in Tables. Tables. A total of 119 records of plants’ uses have been found across India against 39 skin diseases. These are depicted with their localities of report, parts used, and preparation and administration methods against particular skin diseases. Results The knowledge and utilisation of herbal medicine in the Indian subcontinent has great potential to treat different kinds of human skin disorders. The administration of extracts from most of the plant species used is topical and few only are administrated orally. We also investigated the pharmacological activity of the extracts of the most cited plants against mice, bacterial and fungal pathogens, and human cells. Conclusions Complementary therapy for dermatological problems and treatment remains the main option for millions of people in the Indian subcontinent. This review on the practices of ethnobotanical dermatology in India confirms the belief that their analysis will accelerate the discovery of new, effective therapeutic agents for skin diseases. However, more studies and clinical evidence are still required to determine if the identified species may contribute to skin condition treatment, particularly in atopic eczema. Today, ethnodermatology is a well-accepted international discipline and many new practices have been initiated in numerous countries. We hope this article will further accelerate the development of this area to identify a new generation of natural human skin treatments that will help meet the growing consumer demand for safe, sustainable, and natural treatments. In this context, research on plants utilised in ethnodermatology in India and elsewhere should be intensified.
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This book reviews the applications of polyphenols in cancer treatment. The initial chapter of the book classifies different polyphenols and discusses their biological and chemical properties. The subsequent chapters then explore the diverse role of polyphenols in modulating signal transduction pathways in cancer including, cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This book highlights the usefulness of polyphenol enriched seafood in modulating the anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ. The book also presents nanoformulation of polyphenol as a promising strategy for their enhanced bioavailability and targeted delivery. Lastly, the book examines the toxicity and safety evaluations of polyphenols as anticancer agents.
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Рhytосhemiсаls аs biоасtive соmроnents of plants shows promising results in curing many diseases. Therefore, the demand for these natural medicines increases day by day. Phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids seem to act in various ways to protect health. Protection of cells can be done through different types of means such as change of reactive oxygen species to non-radicle type by breaking sequencing of auto oxidative reactions commenced by reactive oxygen species and by lowering the oxygen saturation of diseased area. Many phytochemicals balance antioxidants and free radicals in our bodies. Some recent studies have shown that intake of synthetic antioxidants for a long duration may cause many health problems, like allergies, digestive problems, and according to few studies may also increase the chances of cancer.
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Despite the concerted efforts in pursuit of developing effective therapy, the human race has merely succeeded in its fight against cancer. The limited success in this battle against cancer may be attributed to the development of resistance to the available therapeutic regimens, frequent recurrence, metastasis, tumor heterogeneity, and immune evasion. The sub-populated cancer stem cells (CSCs) are often held responsible for cancer relapse, therapy resistance, and metastasis. The stemness and tumorigenicity of CSCs are regulated by various pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog, PI3K-AKT, JAK-STAT, TGF-β, and notch signaling. Various therapeutic agents targeting CSCs are now being considered for the treatment of various malignancies. However, conventional therapies are associated with various side effects. Therefore, current therapeutic approaches are witnessing a paradigm shift towards natural compounds. To this end, dietary polyphenols are considered promising drug candidates for their both preventive as well as therapeutic properties. In this chapter, the non-flavonoid polyphenols are discussed in the context of their ability to target CSCs and their role in attenuation of fundamental pathways involved in the maintenance of CSCs such as Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog, notch, and induction of programmed cell death pathways has been explored. The overview of this chapter will help the oncologist to devise more efficacious combinatorial therapies, utilizing naturally occurring non-flavonoid polyphenols and their derivatives along with chemotherapeutic drugs, which will offer the advantage of eliminating both the CSCs and other malignant cells in the heterogeneous tumor mass as a multipronged approach. The traditional knowledge of phytomedicines along with the current advancements of molecular and precision medicine and suitable delivery system hold a great promise to combat cancer and exterminate it from the root.
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h1>Abstrak Radikal bebas adalah atom atau molekul yang mempunyai satu atau lebih elektron tetapi tidak mempunyai pasangan, agar mempunyai pasangan radikal bebas akan berikatan dengan elektron yang ada di sekitar dengan cara menyerang elektron tersebut. Antioksidan adalah suatu zat yang dapat menetralisir atau menyerap radikal bebas. Antioksidan berdasarkan sumbernya terbagi menjadi dua yaitu antioksidan alami dan antioksidan sintesis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan pada kombinasi ekstrak etanol lidah buaya ( Aloe vera L.) dan ganggang hijau ( Ulva lactuca L.) dan nilai IC<sub>50</sub> pada kombinasi ekstrak etanol lidah buaya ( Aloe vera L.) dan ganggang hijau ( Ulva lactuca L.) Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan pada ekstrak tunggal dan kombinasi ekstrak lidah buaya ( Aloe vera L.) dan ganggang hijau ( Ulva lactuca L.) dengan perbandingan 1:1; 1:2 dan 2:1 dengan menggunakan metode DPPH. Hasil Pengujian aktivitas antioksidan dengan metode DPPH menunjukkan bahwa kontrol positif, ekstrak etanol lidah buaya tunggal, ganggang hijau tunggal berserta kombinasi dengan perbandingan 1:1; 1:2 dan 2:1 memiliki aktivitas antioksidan kuat sampai sangat kuat. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah kombinasi ekstrak etanol lidah buaya dan ganggang hijau 1:2 memiliki potensi antioksidan tertinggi dengan nilai IC<sub>50</sub> sebesar 16,51 µg/ml. Kata kunci: Aloe vera ; Antioksidan; DPPH ; Ulva lactuca Abstract Free radicals are atoms or molecules that have one or more electrons but do not have a pair, so that they have a pair of free radicals that will bind to the electrons around them by attacking the electrons. Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize or absorb free radicals. Antioxidants based on the source are divided into two, namely natural antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants. This research aims to determine the antioxidant activity of the combination of aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) ethanol extract and green algae (Ulva lactuca L.) and the IC<sub>50</sub> value in the combination of aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) ethanol extract and green algae (Ulva lactuca L.) extract. This type of research is experimental to determine the antioxidant activity of single and combined extracts of aloe vera (Aloe vera L.) and green algae (Ulva lactuca L.) with a ratio of 1:1; 1:2 and 2:1 using the DPPH method. The results of the antioxidant activity test using the DPPH method showed that the positive control, ethanol extract of single aloe vera, single green algae and their combination 1:1; 1:2; 2:1 had strong to very strong antioxidant activity. The combination of ethanol extract of aloe vera and green algae 1:2 has the highest antioxidant potential with an IC<sub>50 </sub>value of 16.51 µg/ml. Key words: Aloe vera ; Antioxidants ; DPPH ; Ulva lactuca </p
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Background Delayed cesarean section (CS) healing causes stress, recurrent infections, and mental distress to the mother after parturition. In this study, an attempt was made to increase the speed of wound healing with alginate-aloe vera/ZnO NPs film plus mupirocin. Methods 800 pregnant women in two groups of control (normal cream+mupirocin) and film-treated (alginate-aloe vera/ZnO NPs film+mupirocin) underwent CS in the second affiliated hospital of Xi'an Medical School. After 12 and 24 days, the wound healing process was assessed using the REEDA wound scale. ZnO NPs and films were prepared through chemically and solvent-casted ways, respectively. The physicochemical properties of NPs and films were also investigated by SEM, FTIR and in vitro degradation. Results The outputs showed that the NPs were successfully loaded onto the prepared film and the film was easily digested in SBF solution. The results also showed no difference in demographic characteristics such as age, BMI, education and economic levels between the two groups. But the film-treated group had lower values of redness, ecchymosis, edema and CS approximation compared to the control. Finally, the recovery process of patients with alginate-aloe vera/ZnO NPs film plus mupirocin was faster than that of the control and almost none of the patients experienced an allergic reaction. Conclusion Overall, the use of alginate-aloe vera/ZnO NPs film plus mupirocin can be considered as a new treatment to reduce the complication of CS approximation by accelerating the healing process and less nursing care.
Article
Feline leukemia is a disease induced by an oncornavirus infection that inevitably causes clinically affected cats to die. It has been estimated that 40% of cats are dead within 4 weeks and 70% within 8 weeks of the onset of clinical symptoms. Acemannan is a complex carbohydrate with both immunostimulatory and direct antiviral properties. Administration of acemannan for 6 weeks intraperitoneally to clinically symptomatic cats significantly improved both the quality of life and the survival rate. Twelve weeks after initiation of treatment, 71% of treated cats were alive and in good health.
Article
Acemannan (ACE-M), a beta-(1,4)-linked acetylated mannan, was evaluated for in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Castanospermine (CAS), deoxymannojirimycin (DMN), swainsonine (SWS), azidothymidine (AZT), and dideoxythymidine (DDC) were tested in parallel as control compounds. In vitro antiviral efficacy of ACE-M was evaluated in a variety of cell lines including human peripheral mononuclear, CEM-SS1 and MT-2(2) cells. The virus strain, number of infectious units per cell, and target cell line were important factors in determining the degree of inhibition of viral cytopathic effect in the presence of ACE-M and other control compounds tested. Maximum inhibitory effect was observed in CEM-SS cells infected with the RFII strain of HIV-1. This inhibitory effect was determined to be concentration-dependent. Assay design included primary screening to measure cell viabilities of infected target cells in the presence and absence of test compounds. When tested on HIV-1/RFII-infected CEM-SS cells, the 50% inhibitory effect of CAS (IC50 = 28), an inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase I, was determined to be similar to that observed for ACE-M (IC50 = 45). However, DMN and SWS, inhibitors of mannosidase I and II, tested in parallel to CAS and ACE-M, exhibited no IC50 values. Antiviral potential of ACE-M as an inhibitor of syncytia formation was also explored using CEM-SS cells. Suppression of syncytia formation was observed at an ACE-M concentration of 31.25 micrograms/ml, and complete inhibition was observed at 62.5 micrograms/ml. In addition, HIV-1 RNA levels were studied to establish the antiviral potential of ACE-M in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Eight dogs and five cats with histopathologically confirmed fibrosarcomas were treated with Acemannan Immunostimulanta in combination with surgery and radiation therapy. These animals had recurring disease that had failed previous treatment, a poor prognosis for survival, or both. Following four to seven weekly acemannan treatments, tumor shrinkage occurred in four (greater than 50%; n = 2) of 12 animals, with tumors accessible to measurement. A notable increase in necrosis and inflammation was observed. Complete surgical excision was performed on all animals between the fourth and seventh week following initiation of acemannan therapy. Radiation therapy was instituted immediately after surgery. Acemannan treatments were continued monthly for one year. Seven of the 13 animals remain alive and tumor-free (range, 440+ to 603+ days) with a median survival time of 372 days. The data suggests that Acemannan Immunostimulant may be an effective adjunct to surgery and radiation therapy in the treatment of canine and feline fibrosarcomas.
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Freeze-dried juice obtained from Aloe vera and heated for 15 minutes at 80° inhibited several test microorganisms.