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A Review of the uses of poultry eggshells and shell membranes

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Abstract

This study was conducted to find out the multiple uses of eggshells in nutrition and medicine. Eggshells can be utilized for various purposes that minimize their effect on environmental pollution. Eggshells present healthy, balanced calcium due to its trace amounts of other minerals and is probably the best natural source of calcium. One whole medium sized eggshell makes about one teaspoon of powder, which yields about 750-800 mgs of elemental calcium plus other micro elements. Eggshell powder has been reported to increase bone mineral density in people and animals with osteoporosis. In laying hens in the late production phase, eggshell powder has been found to increase egg production and improve the quality of shells. Discarded eggshells are often used as a plant fertilizer and are effective liming sources. This is because eggshells contain calcium that raises, or neutralizes, the pH level of overly acidic soil. Chicken eggshells can be used as an alternative soil stabilizer like lime since they have the same chemical composition. Such stabilized soil can be used as subgrade materials in road construction works. Eggshell membrane consists of collagen as a component. Collagen is a type of protein, fibrous in nature that connects and supports other bodily tissues, such as skin, bone, tendons, muscles and cartilage. Collagen has been isolated mainly from bovine and swine skins and bones Collagen used in medicine, biochemical, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. After the outbreaks of bovine spongioform encephalopathy, foot and mouth disease, autoimmune and allergic reactions, restrictions on collagen uses from these sources were enforced. Eggshell membrane collagen is very low in autoimmune and allergic reactions as well as high in bio-safety and is of similar characteristics to other mammalian collagen. Eggshells/shell membranes have multiple uses in nutrition, medicine, construction and art works.
International Journal of Poultry Science 10 (11): 908-912, 2011
ISSN 1682-8356
© Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011
908
A Review of the Uses of Poultry Eggshells and Shell Membranes
A.M. King’ori
Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, P.O. Box, 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya
Abstract: This study was conducted to find out the multiple uses of eggshells in nutrition and medicine.
Eggshells can be utilized for various purposes that minimize their effect on environmental pollution.
Eggshells present healthy, balanced calcium due to its trace amounts of other minerals and is probably the
best natural source of calcium. One whole medium sized eggshell makes about one teaspoon of powder,
which yields about 750-800 mgs of elemental calcium plus other micro elements. Eggshell powder has
been reported to increase bone mineral density in people and animals with osteoporosis. In laying hens in
the late production phase, eggshell powder has been found to increase egg production and improve the
quality of shells. Discarded eggshells are often used as a plant fertilizer and are effective liming sources.
This is because eggshells contain calcium that raises, or neutralizes, the pH level of overly acidic soil.
Chicken eggshells can be used as an alternative soil stabilizer like lime since they have the same chemical
composition. Such stabilized soil can be used as subgrade materials in road construction works. Eggshell
membrane consists of collagen as a component. Collagen is a type of protein, fibrous in nature that
connects and supports other bodily tissues, such as skin, bone, tendons, muscles and cartilage. Collagen
has been isolated mainly from bovine and swine skins and bones Collagen used in medicine, biochemical,
pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. After the outbreaks of bovine spongioform encephalopathy,
foot and mouth disease, autoimmune and allergic reactions, restrictions on collagen uses from these
sources were enforced. Eggshell membrane collagen is very low in autoimmune and allergic reactions as
well as high in bio-safety and is of similar characteristics to other mammalian collagen. Eggshells/shell
membranes have multiple uses in nutrition, medicine, construction and art works.
Key words: Poultry eggshells, shell membranes, collagen, gelatin, calcium carbonate, soil stabilization
INTRODUCTION
Eggshells are waste materials from hatcheries, homes
and fast food industries (Phil and Zhihong, 2009; Amu et
al., 2005) and can be readily collected in plenty. Eggshell
waste disposal contributes to environmental pollution.
Challenges associated with disposal of eggshells
include cost, availability of disposal sites, odour, flies
and abrasiveness (Phil and Zhihong, 2009). However,
they can be processed into saleable products like
fertilizer, used in artwork, human and animal nutrition
and building materials and to produce collagen from theUses of eggshells: Eggshells contain calcium and trace
membranes (Phil and Zhihong, 2009; Amu et al., 2005).amounts of other micro elements, i.e. magnesium,
Shell membranes consist of collagen as a component.boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, sulphur,
The collagen is extracted and has diverse uses insilicon and zinc (Bee, 2011). Eggshell calcium is
medicine, biochemical, pharmaceutical, food andprobably the best natural source of calcium and it is
cosmetics industries. These uses minimize their effectabout 90% absorbable (Bee, 2011). It is a much better
on environmental pollution. The eggshell and shellsource of calcium than limestone or coral sources. To
membranes make up 10.2% of the whole egg. Themake eggshell powder, boil eggshells in hot water for 5-
eggshell comprises of calcified shell and shell10 min to kill pathogens, then air dry them. Grind them
membranes including inner and outer membranes.into a fine powder. One whole medium sized eggshell
MacNeil (1997) developed a patent for separating eggmakes about one teaspoon of powder, which yields
shell membranes from the eggshell. The organic matterabout 750-800 mgs of elemental calcium (Bee, 2011).
of eggshell and shell membranes contains proteins asThe composition of an eggshell is very similar to that of
major constituents with small amounts asour bones and teeth. It is recommended that people with
carbohydrates and lipids (Burley and Vadehra, 1989).osteoporosis take 400-500 mg calcium per day to
The composition of the egg shell is approximately 98.2,supplement dietary sources. The powder should be
0.9, 0.9% Calcium carbonate, Magnesium and
Phosphorous (phosphate) respectively (Romanoff et al.,
1949). Shell membranes comprises of 69.2% protein,
2.7% fat, 1.5% moisture and 27.2% ash (MacNeil, 1997).
Shell membranes protein comprises of approximately
10% collagen (Froning, 1998). Eggshell and shell
membranes are non-edible by-products with little
saleable value but they may contain biologically active
compounds (Nakano et al., 2003).
Int. J. Poult. Sci., 10 (11): 908-912, 2011
909
taken together with some added magnesium, zinc,plants to deter slugs and snails. They are also used by
vitamin D3, K1, K2, strontium and boron for efficientartists to make mosaics and to make textured paint for
utilization. Schaafsma et al. (2002) reported a highly3D effects in artwork (Phil and Zhihong, 2009).
positive effect of eggshell calcium supplementation (with The use of soil stabilizer agents like lime and bitumen
added magnesium and vitamin D) on Bone Mineralare expensive and therefore require an economic
Density (BMD). In this study, the eggshell supplemented replacement (Amu and Salami, 2010). Soil stabilization
group had measurable increases in bone density inmay be broadly defined as the alteration or preservation
their hip bones, after one year. The findings indicate that of one or more soil properties to improve the
healthy late post-menopausal women with an adequateengineering characteristics and performance. When the
Calcium intake at baseline may increase bone mineralmechanical stability of soil cannot be obtained by
density of the hip within 12 months followingcombing materials, it is advisable to stabilize it by
supplementation with the chicken eggshell powder-adding lime, cement, bituminous materials or special
enriched supplement. additives. Chicken eggshells are waste material that can
Manganese and zinc are involved in egg shell formationbe used as an alternative soil stabilizer like lime since
and enzymatic activity at uterus level where calcificationthey have the same chemical composition (Amu et al.,
begins. Zinc as organic form is associated with the2005). However, eggshell powder has not been used as
increased activity of carbonic anhydrase, improving the a stabilizing material in most parts of the world but it
quality of egg shell and the presence of manganese has could be a replacement for other types of stabilization
an activator influence on the calcification and resistance (Olarewaju et al., 2011). Most industrial activities lead to
of the egg shell (Ceylan and Scheideler, 1999).depletion of natural resources and in the process may
Extrusion technology has been used to utilize eggshellsresult in accumulation of by-products and waste
in laying rations (Froning and Bergquist, 1990). Inmaterials that may be a problem to dispose. Eggshells
laying hens feeding, organic sources of micro elementsare waste materials from hatcheries, homes and fast
are frequently used. They seem to have a higherfood industries (Phil and Zhihong, 2009; Amu et al.,
biological activity and bioavailability in the hen compared 2005) and disposal contributes to environmental
to inorganic sources. Iara et al. (2007) reported thatpollution. The composition of the egg shell is
offering an organic mineral supplement (Eggshell - 49) approximately 98.2, % Calcium carbonate, making it a
to hybrid laying hens between 49-69 weeks of age hadgood soil amendment material. Amu et al. (2005)
favorable effects on the main production indices andreported that eggshells can be an alternative to lime as
quality of egg shells. This was attributed to the role and a soil stabilizing agent while Amu and Salami (2010) in
contribution of the micro elements (manganese, zinc)the search for alternative soil stabilizing agents, reported
and macroelements (calcium, phosphorus) present inthat pulverized eggshells improved the plastic indices of
the Eggshell - 49 supplement in the formation andlateritic soil samples. Eggshell powder mixed with
improvement of the egg shell quality. Similar findingslateritic soil possesses low binding properties but can
were reported by Gomez (1998); Ceylan and Scheidelerbe mixed to significantly improve the strength of soil to
(1999). In Japan, researchers studied a combination ofbe used as a subgrade where very high performance is
vitamin D3 and eggshell powder in animals withnot necessary (Olarewaju et al., 2011). Eggshell powder
osteoporosis. The eggshell powder with vitamin D3 wascapacity as a stabilizer does not meet the minimum
able to improve bone mineral density withoutrequirement for use as base and subbase materials for
significantly increasing blood calcium levels. Any kind of road construction (Olarewaju et al., 2011). Therefore,
eggshells (chicken, goose and duck) can be used, butpulverized eggshells have potential as a soil stabilizing
it is best to use shells from birds that get balancedagent. Such stabilized soil can be used as subgrade
minerals in the diet. materials in road construction works. Pulverized
Discarded eggshells are often used as a plant fertilizer.eggshells can be used as an alternative for sand in
This is because eggshells contain calcium. Makingmaking hollow blocks because they contain Calcium
eggshell fertilizer is inexpensive and environmental-Carbonate that gives them hardness and strength
friendly, since the process reuses material to promote(Cecilia et al., 2008). To compare the effectiveness of
plant growth. Ground eggshells are effective limingpulverized eggshells and sand in making hollow blocks,
sources (John and Paul, 2006). Calcium raises, ora dry block from each mixture was dropped from a
neutralizes, the pH level of overly acidic soil. Most plants height of 2 feet. It was observed that the eggshell
prefer slightly acidic soil with a pH between 5.8 and 7.0.block got a crack while the sand block broke into
A study revealed that red clover plants fertilized withpieces (Cecilia et al., 2008). This indicates that
eggshells grew at an average of more than 10 mmeggshells are more effective than sand. Therefore, use
larger than plants without eggshells (Plantingof eggshells can be used to reduce building
Science.org, 2011). Sanitized eggshells can be used toexpenses as well as reduce environmental pollution by
increase mineral content of compost and spread around recycling them.
Int. J. Poult. Sci., 10 (11): 908-912, 2011
910
Uses of shell membranes: The presence ofsupplementation with 500 mg/d of natural eggshell
hydroxyproline in hydrolysates of membrane layers ofmembrane for eight weeks produced a significant
eggshell membrane has been confirmed byreduction in pain and stiffness and improvement for
biochemical and immunological tests to consist offunction. This was attributed to the effect of collagen,
collagen (Wong et al., 1984). They primarily consist ofglucosamine, chondroitin and hyaluronic acid in the
type I, V and X collagen (Wong et al., 1984; Arias et al., eggshell membrane (Ruff et al., 2009). In medicine
1992). All the three kinds of collagen can be used incollagen is commercially sold as a joint mobility
various fields. Collagen is a type of protein, fibrous insupplement.
nature that connects and supports other bodily tissues,In the food industry, most of the applications that
such as skin, bone, tendons, muscles and cartilage. Itcollagen has is because when it is partly hydrolyzed, it
also supports the internal organs and is even present inproduces gelatin, which is a highly useful especially for
teeth. There are more than 25 types of collagens thatflavoring foods (Jamie, 2009). Gelatin has been used in
naturally occur in the body (Madison, 2011). Collagen isthe food industry as a thickening, emulsifying and jelling
one of the most plentiful proteins present in the bodiesagent. Nutritionally, both collagen and gelatin are of low
of mammals, including humans. It makes about 25protein quality; although some of the collagen based
percent of the total amount of proteins in the body.dietary supplements do improve quality of skin and
Collagen possesses great tensile strength andfinger nails (Meier, 2006). Skin is made of collagen and
functions in a manner that is very different from manyas we age, collagen production drops off and skin sags
other types of proteins. Collagen can be found bothbecause it gets thinner, weaker, drier and less resilient,
inside and outside of cells and fibers are important inor pliable. This deterioration is directly linked to amino
contributing to the external structure of cells. However,acid content. Specific amino acids in the skin’s structure,
they are present on the inside of some cells also. like glycine, proline, hydroproline and alanine decrease
Advances in biotechnology have led to new and quitewith age and bad diet.
revolutionary uses of collagen in both medicine andCollagen and health benefits associated with it have led
industry (Jamie, 2009). Collagens are widely andto establishment of collagen-supplements industry.
diversely used in cosmetics, biochemical andThese collagen supplements are meant to mainly
pharmaceutical industries (Ogawa et al., 2004).improve the skin appearance of their users and today's
Collagen used has been isolated mainly from bovinebeing the image-obsessed society, anything offering this
and swine skins and bones. After the outbreaks ofparticular promise is likely to be in high demand (Jamie,
bovine spongioform encephalopathy (mad cow2009). In 2008, a study in Tokyo with 33 women between
disease), foot and mouth disease, autoimmune and40-60 years old who took 10 g of hydrolyzed collagen
allergic reactions, restrictions on collagen trade fromdaily for 2 months showed a 91% increase in skin
these sources were enforced. Therefore, safe alternative hydration and resilience. Similarly, a study in France in
sources had to be explored (Devore et al., 2004).2008 with women 35-55 years old, showed 41% less
Eggshell membrane collagen has been proven to befurrowing, less wrinkles, more resilient and more
very low in autoimmune and allergic reactions as well as hydrated skin after 12 weeks of 10g hydrolyzed collagen
high in bio-safety (Long et al., 2004). It is of similardaily. The skin smoothness and hydration, was
characteristics to other mammalian collagen (Yu-Hongmeasured using the new Corneometer and Skin Image
and Yu-Jie, 2009) and is therefore an alternative forAnalyzer technologies while Skin resilience was
commercial applications in functional foods, cosmetics,measured by the ciliary and zonules (C and Z)
biochemical and pharmaceutical industries (Yu-HongCutometer. Metabolites of hydrolyzed collagen build
and Yu-Jie, 2009). Eggshell membrane collagen isbone, skin and ligaments by attracting fibroblasts that
extracted by acid-pepsin digestion and isolated by salttrigger the synthesis of new collagen (Posstlethwaite et
precipitation (Yu-Hong and Yu-Jie, 2009). al., 1978). Hydrolyzed collagen also increases the
Collagen works hand-in-hand with elastin in supportingdiameter of collagen fibrils in the dermis by the same
the body’s tissues. Basically, it gives body tissues formmechanism of fibroblast stimulation. This in turn
and provides firmness and strength; elastin gives theincreases cohesion of the dermal collagen fibers
same body tissues much need flexibility. Thisthemselves. This action means increased thickness,
combination of collagen and elastin is very important insuppleness and resilience, as well as hydration.
many parts of the body, including, but not limited to, theHydration, or water content of skin tissue, is proven to be
lungs, bones and tendons (Madison, 2011). Even thedirectly related to overall smoothness and decreased
blood vessels rely on both collagen and elastin. Pilotfurrowing and wrinkling (Sumida and Hirota, 2004).
clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the safetyAnother area that is increasing worldwide demand for
and efficacy of natural eggshell membrane as ahydrolyzed collagen is the field of sports nutrition.
treatment for pain and inflexibility associated with jointCollagen can quickly boost lean muscle gain, decrease
and connective tissue disorders. It was reported thatrecovery time, rebuild damaged joint structures without
Int. J. Poult. Sci., 10 (11): 908-912, 2011
911
surgery and improve cardiovascular performance onConclusion: Eggshells/shell membranes have multiple
athletes. This is accomplished by collagen’s promotion
of natural creatine, an essential amino acid in new
muscle growth following workouts. Arginine within the
hydrolyzed collagen also promotes increased muscle
mass. Therefore, performing athletes and bodybuilders
find hydrolyzed collagen a clean source of collagen
protein for lean muscle gain, tendon and ligament
repair, fast recovery time and optimum performance.
In cancer patients, as cancer progresses, it often
destroys muscle tissue in a very aggressive fashion.
The muscles of the arms and legs seem to turn to limp
string, a condition referred to as cachexia. When cancer
patients use hydrolyzed collagen, a wide range of clinical
gains are demonstrated. First chronic arthritis
conditions, especially of shoulders and knees that had
been weak and painful, they become normal. For many
patients the skin thickens and tightens, soon after daily
supplementation begins and hair commonly thickens as
well. There is dramatic improvement in liver problems,
prostate problems, lung deficits and heart problems,
especially blood pressure with daily collagen doses.
When the physiology of these conditions is considered,
the body is being provided with the building blocks of its
own new collagen and therefore it prioritizes where the
collagen is needed most.
The oldest glue ever used, dated some 8000 years back
was collagen. Collagen is applied to hold utensils and
is also very useful for musical instruments like the violin
and guitars which have to be opened frequently for
repairs. Collagen on reheating can be softened easily
unlike the synthetic plastic adhesives which are
permanent. Collagen is used for cosmetic and burns
surgery (Meier, 2006; Jamie, 2009). Collagen is good for
construction of artificial skin substitutes for skin burns
and may be used with a mixture of fibroblasts, growth
factors, silicone and glycosaminoglycans. Before this
particular application of collagen became possible, it
was impossible to restore cosmetic appeal of fire
victims. They had to live the rest of their lives with the
absolute disfigurement a fire accident can cause and
the social disadvantage such disfigurement can mean
(Jamie, 2009). They would live with emotional pain from
the fire, long after the physical pain from the same had
healed. Through the use of collagen, it is possible to
produce quite impressive results with reconstructive
plastic surgery on former fire accident victims.
Sometimes the results make it impossible to know that
the victims had ever been involved in such an incident
(Jamie, 2009). Collagen is a good medical aid in
orthopedics and dentistry, where it is widely used as a
treatment aid, making possible procedures that were
absolutely impossible or even unthinkable before thethe internet on 30/09/2011.
advent of its use (Jamie, 2009). Collagen is also used
in the manufacture photography aids (especially the
variety that dominated before the advent of digital
photography).
uses as:
CA fertilizer supplying calcium and an amendment for
acidic soils.
CA remedy for osteoporosis and joint motility
ailments.
CA soil stabilizer for use as construction materials.
CA calcium supplement for hybrid layers in the late
production phase that increases egg production
and improves shell quality.
CIn artwork for production of mosaics and as glue in
musical instruments.
CIn cosmetics and burn surgery where it improves
skin appearance (plastic surgery).
CIn orthopedics and dentistry as a treatment aid.
CIn the treatment of cancer patients to boost muscle
gain and hair thickening
CIn sports nutrition to increase performance on
athletes
CIn food industry as a food flavour.
CIn photography for production of photography aids.
Implications: Eggshells from the hatcheries, fast food
industries and homes should not be disposed in a way
that pollutes the environment. In developing countries,
the communities should be sensitized on the many
uses of eggshells/shell membranes. Research should
be carried out to customize their utilization based on
locally developed technologies. Where the quantities
generated are not economical, the communities should
be encouraged to deliver them at collection points for
onward delivery to a central point where they can be
processed into the various products. This will create
employment, increase returns from poultry production,
make the products locally available presumably at lower
cost and minimize environmental pollution.
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th
... Eggshell waste is also sourced from hatcheries. Hence, eggshells are a large and major polluting element (Kingori 2011). This waste is generally dumped in landfills and most landfills are already at full capacity. ...
... Considerable scientific evidence exists in articles which findings complement the various patents described for the extraction of eggshells (Kingori 2011). Bone mineral density in post-menopausal Dutch women responds positively to the effects of calcium supplementation extracted from eggshells when enhanced with vitamin D and magnesium (Kingori 2011;Schaafsma et al. 2002). ...
... Considerable scientific evidence exists in articles which findings complement the various patents described for the extraction of eggshells (Kingori 2011). Bone mineral density in post-menopausal Dutch women responds positively to the effects of calcium supplementation extracted from eggshells when enhanced with vitamin D and magnesium (Kingori 2011;Schaafsma et al. 2002). Schaafsma et al. 2002 drew this conclusion in the study conducted where the bone density in the hip had a considerable increase for the group supplemented with the calcium extracted from eggshells. ...
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... The use of eggshell has been used in various biomedical applications like tissue engineering (Sah & Rath, 2016), osteoarthritis (Ruff et al., 2009), antiinflammation (DeVore et al., 2007, hypertension (JP2008007419A.Pdf, n.d.), gastrointestinal disorders, wound dressing and healing (Ahmed, Suso, et al., 2019;Li et al., 2016), therapeutics (Long et al., 2008), nutraceuticals (Ahmed, Kulshreshtha, et al., 2019), and cosmetics (Marimuthu et al., 2020) along with several industrial applications (King'ori, 2011) at the lab scale . But the methods used for separation are not universal and not available for the common man (small, medium, and large-scale hatchery and confectionary industry) as a waste management tool. ...
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Eggshell is the most abundant agricultural (hatchery) and industrial (confectionary) natural waste approximately reaching up to 50000 tons per year and is a threat to the environment and the public. Eggshell membrane and shell waste can be used for biomedical and industrial applications as value-added products. Hence, a scoping review was planned to understand the present scenario and knowledge gap; it also explored eggshell membrane separation methods available commercially for the routine utility to understand the knowledge gap. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest databases using Eggshell/Eggshells/Egg shell, Membrane, Separation/separator as keywords with and/or as Boolean operators within the field of title, abstract, keywords. The search was done from the period of inception (as per the database) till 4th October 2021 and a total of seven full-text articles were included in the review. The methods mentioned in the literature were Microwave treatment, Acid Dissolution, Dissolved Air Floatation, using proteolytic enzymes, and grinding followed by mechanical agitation. This research concludes that no equipment is commercially available. Hence there is a need for technology development as the majority of publications mentioned manual peeling, Microwave treatment, acid dissolution, dissolved air floatation, grinding, and mechanical stirring as the methods at laboratory scale.
... The eggshell powder can also be added to bread, fried chicken, spaghetti, and pizza without altering the texture and flavor of foods. Consuming eggshell powder also plays a pivotal role in enhancing bone density in postmenopausal women while consumed for a year, also prevent osteoporosis in animals without affecting blood calcium levels, and can also be used as a biofertilizer and soil stabilizer [8,9]. Solid tannery wastes are converted into protein concentrate and are used as poultry and fish feed in Bangladesh which is responsible for the higher amount of Cr in the meat and eggs. ...
Article
Background: Despite playing an essential role as micronutrients, when exposed to an excess level, heavy metals can augment the risk of potential health diseases among humans and animals. Due to environmental degradation and food adulteration, many people are becoming the victims of those diseases by ingesting heavy metals from those food sources. Eggs are one of the principal sources of proteinaceous food and eggshells are also a good source of calcium, therefore, it is necessary to estimate the frequency of heavy metals as the poultry feeds, nowadays, are contaminated with heavy metals. Materials and Methods: Five types of egg samples were collected from the Jahangirnagar University area including indigenous, white and brown layer chicken eggs, duck eggs, and quail eggs. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn was estimated both for egg contents and eggshells (10 samples) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry compared with the standard curve. Estimated daily intake (EDI), Target hazard quotient (THQ), and Hazard Index (HI) were also calculated to observe whether egg intake possesses any health hazards or not. Results: Among all the trace elements estimated, the highest concentration was 35.36±0.4 (Zn) in white layer chicken eggs, and for eggshells, the highest concentration was 0.69875±0.082 mg/kg (Fe) in Quail eggshell. Except for Fe, Pb was relatively higher compared to other elements in eggs, the amount of Pb was the highest in Quail eggs (0.486±0.09 mg/kg). All the six elements were also within the acceptable range in eggshells where the amount of Pb was the highest in Brown layer eggshells, and Cu and Zn were the highest in indigenous eggshells. Cd and Cr were below the detection limit for all types of eggshells. Estimated daily intake (EDI), Target hazard quotient (THQ) and Hazard Index (HI) values indicated that intake of eggs does not possess any health risk. Conclusion: Interestingly, the heavy metal concentration of our samples belongs within the PTDI and USEPA limit. Therefore, based on our study, all egg samples were safe considering the average egg ingestion in our country. If the average egg consumption rises, people might be at risk for higher Pb consumption through egg intake.
... The eggshell powder can also be added to bread, fried chicken, spaghetti, and pizza without altering the texture and flavor of foods. Consuming eggshell powder also plays a pivotal role in enhancing bone density in postmenopausal women while consumed for a year, also prevent osteoporosis in animals without affecting blood calcium levels, and can also be used as a biofertilizer and soil stabilizer [8,9]. Solid tannery wastes are converted into protein concentrate and are used as poultry and fish feed in Bangladesh which is responsible for the higher amount of Cr in the meat and eggs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite playing an essential role as micronutrients, when exposed to an excess level, heavy metals can augment the risk of potential health diseases among humans and animals. Due to environmental degradation and food adulteration, many people are becoming the victims of those diseases by ingesting heavy metals from those food sources. Eggs are one of the principal sources of proteinaceous food and eggshells are also a good source of calcium, therefore, it is necessary to estimate the frequency of heavy metals as the poultry feeds, nowadays, are contaminated with heavy metals. Materials and Methods: Five types of egg samples were collected from the Jahangirnagar University area including indigenous, white and brown layer chicken eggs, duck eggs, and quail eggs. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn was estimated both for egg contents and eggshells (10 samples) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry compared with the standard curve. Estimated daily intake (EDI), Target hazard quotient (THQ), and Hazard Index (HI) were also calculated to observe whether egg intake possesses any health hazards or not. Results: Among all the trace elements estimated, the highest concentration was 35.36±0.4 (Zn) in white layer chicken eggs, and for eggshells, the highest concentration was 0.69875±0.082 mg/kg (Fe) in Quail eggshell. Except for Fe, Pb was relatively higher compared to other elements in eggs, the amount of Pb was the highest in Quail eggs (0.486±0.09 mg/kg). All the six elements were also within the acceptable range in eggshells where the amount of Pb was the highest in Brown layer eggshells, and Cu and Zn were the highest in indigenous eggshells. Cd and Cr were below the detection limit for all types of eggshells. Estimated daily intake (EDI), Target hazard quotient (THQ) and Hazard Index (HI) values indicated that intake of eggs does not possess any health risk. Conclusion: Interestingly, the heavy metal concentration of our samples belongs within the PTDI and USEPA limit. Therefore, based on our study, all egg samples were safe considering the average egg ingestion in our country. If the average egg consumption rises, people might be at risk for higher Pb consumption through egg intake.
... Each eggshell is estimated to contain between 7000 and 17000 pores (Pramanpol and Nitayapat, 2006 size eggshells makes about one tea spoon of powder, which yields about 750-800mgs of elemental calcium (Peter, 2005;King'ori, 2011;Maxwell et al, 2012 ).The porous nature of eggshells makes it an attractive material to be used as an adsorbent, (Gary and Richard, 2015) and due to its calcium carbonate content which is responsible for metal adsorption. The method does not produce chemical sludge, hence no secondary pollution and it is easier to apply and operate compared to other methods. ...
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The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and microbiological efficiency of Fluoride, Xylitol and combined Fluoride-Xylitol toothpastes on some salivary parameters in children by measuring salivary pH, salivary flow rate, salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus counts. Toothpastes were prepared by mortar and pestle technique. They were then evaluated for physicochemical properties like pH, cleanability, physical appearance, spreadability, abrasiveness, foaming power, homogeneity, content of moisture and volatile substances, and drug content. Twenty one normal apparently healthy children were selected from the Outpatient Dental Clinic of Pedodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University. Children were randomly divided into three groups: children who brushed their teeth with fluoride toothpaste, children who brushed their teeth with xylitol toothpaste and children who brushed their teeth with combined fluoride xylitol toothpaste. Salivary samples were obtained from all groups and examined for salivary parameter changes (flow rate, pH) and microbiological assessment for (S. mutans and Lactobacilli) was done. All data were collected, tabled and statistically analyzed. Statistical significance was measured using p value. Xylitol was superior in increasing salivary flow rate and decreasing mean of S. mutans when compared to fluoride while Fluoride was superior in decreasing mean of Lactobacilli when compared to xylitol. Both had the same effect on increasing salivary pH.
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Since copper and lead are the most well-known heavy metals, eggshells were used to remove them from the aqueous solution. In this study, it was used two species; Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and Greylag Goose (Anser anser) and three forms (pure, powdered and calcined forms) of eggshells. Using coupled plasma optical emission spectros-copy (ICP-OES), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) methods, it was investigated whether copper and lead were adsorbed on eggshells; in different species and different forms. According to ICP-OES results, it was observed that calcined eggshells re-tained more amount of Cu and Pb than uncalcined eggshells. By analyzing the FTIR results, even if the eggshells were in different forms, the characteristic bands of the eggshells were almost seen in samples. After the adsorption process, new bands arose in addition to the characteristic eggshell bands. These new bands are thought to be related to the Cu and Pb loading in the eggshell. With SEM images, it was observed that metal loaded accumulated on the outer surface of the eggshell. This result is also in good agreement with the EDS results.
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Eggshell contains 98.2%calcium carbonate and can be transformed into hydroxyapatite which is an environment friendly process and can be used as bone regenerative grafts which not only reduces the treatment cost but also high in biosafety.
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This paper studied the effect of common salt on the compaction and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) properties of eggshell stabilized lateritic soils with a view of obtaining a good compliment for eggshell as a useful stabilizer for road works. Classification and consistency tests were performed on the soil samples which were also subjected to compaction and CBR tests. Stabilization was performed at optimum eggshell and with 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% of common salt. The addition of common salt reduced the Plastic Indices (PI) of the samples. The values reduced from 14.82, 11.11 and 7.99% to 8.03, 1.25 and 1.23% in samples A, B and C respectively. Maximum Dry Density (MDD) increased from 1995 to 2140 kg/m3 and 2000 to 2110 kg/m3 in samples B and C respectively. The unsoaked CBR values also increased from 34.78 to 50.99 kN/m2, 15.64 to 28.89 kN/m2 and 27.31 to 34.20 kN/m2 at optimum stabilization in samples A, B and C respectively. The result showed that the addition of common salt improved the compaction and CBR characteristics of eggshell stabilized soils. © 2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) is a novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. Two single center, open-label human clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NEM as a treatment for pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue disorders. Eleven (single-arm trial) and 28 (double-arm trial) patients received oral NEM 500 mg once daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the change in general pain associated with the treatment joints/areas (both studies). In the single-arm trial, range of motion (ROM) and related ROM-associated pain was also evaluated. The primary treatment response endpoints were at seven and 30 days. Both clinical assessments were performed on the intent-to-treat (ITT) population within each study. Single-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM produced a significant treatment response at seven days for flexibility (27.8% increase; P = 0.038) and at 30 days for general pain (72.5% reduction; P = 0.007), flexibility (43.7% increase; P = 0.006), and ROM-associated pain (75.9% reduction; P = 0.021). Double-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM produced a significant treatment response for pain at seven days for both treatment arms (X: 18.4% reduction; P = 0.021. Y: 31.3% reduction; P = 0.014). There was no clinically meaningful difference between treatment arms at seven days, so the Y arm crossed over to the X formulation for the remainder of the study. The significant treatment response continued through 30 days for pain (30.2% reduction; P = 0.0001). There were no adverse events reported during either study and the treatment was reported to be well tolerated by study participants. Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) is a possible new effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue (JCT) disorders. Supplementation with NEM, 500 mg taken once daily, significantly reduced pain, both rapidly (seven days) and continuously (30 days). It also showed clinically meaningful results from a brief responder analysis, demonstrating that significant proportions of treated patients may be helped considerably from NEM supplementation. The Clinical Trial Registration numbers for these trials are: NCT00750230 and NCT00750854.
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Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked at biochemical markers of bone and Ca metabolism. Both Ca sources were provided in combination with minerals and vitamins including Mg, cholecalciferol and phylloquinone. We designed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to take place over 12 months. Healthy Caucasian women (n 85), selected by age (> or =50 and <70 years), from the databases of general practitioners were recruited by telephone calls. They had to be at least 5 years post-menopausal, with lumbar spine T-score being > - 2.5. At baseline, their mean habitual daily Ca intake was adequate. The women were randomly allocated to: eggshell powder-enriched (group A; n 24), purified CaCO3-enriched (group B; n 22), or a placebo product (group C; n 27). BMD was measured at baseline and then after 6 and 12 months of supplementation as were the biochemical markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, amino-terminal propeptide extension of type I collagen, deoxypyridinoline, calcitonin, intact parathyroid hormone, calcidiol, and urinary Ca. After 12 months of supplementation, only mean BMD of the femoral neck in group A was significantly increased (P=0.014) by 1.75% (95% CI 0.18, 3.32) compared with a decrease of -0.60% (95% CI -1.92, 0.72) in group C. This increase coincided with significant decreases in markers of bone resorption and formation. No significant changes were seen in BMD at other sites, including lumbar spine, nor in groups B and C. No differences were found between groups A and B, or B and C. The present study indicates that healthy late post-menopausal women with an adequate Ca intake at baseline may increase BMD of the hip within 12 months following supplementation with the chicken eggshell powder-enriched supplement.
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Eggshell powder has not been used as a stabilizing material in most parts of the world. However, it could be a replacement for other types of stabilization. This study is aimed at determining the geotechnical properties of eggshell stabilized lateritic soil with a view to determining its suitability as stabilizing agent for lateritic soil. Laboratory tests were carried out on eggshell stabilized lateritic soil and Cement stabilized lateritic soil in line with BS 1377 (1990). Cement stabilized lateritic soil served as control experiment. The results of Atterberg limits, California Bearing Ratio and compaction tests indicate that eggshell-stabilized lateritic soil at 8% have similar engineering properties with Cement-stabilized lateritic soil at 2%. Though from this study, eggshell powder mixed with lateritic soil has been found to possess low binding properties, it can be used to significantly improve the strength of soil to be used as a subgrade where very high performance is not necessary. It could serve as a fair replacement for use as stabilizers for subgrade but not for base and subbase. The capacity as a stabilizer does not meet the minimum requirement for use as base and subbase materials for road construction.
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There is evidence to suggest that extracellular matrix molecules, such as proteoglycans, are involved in the regulation of mineral deposition in calcifying tissues. One mineralizing system which is characterized by extremely rapid mineralization is the hen eggshell. This eggshell consists of a pair of nonmineralized eggshell membranes subjacent to the calcified eggshell proper; the eggshell proper is organized into palisades (columns) of mineralized matrix separated by pores. Between the membranes and the shell proper are compacted foci of tissue called mammillary knobs, which are thought to be sites where mineralization is initiated. Previous work from this laboratory has shown the presence of types I, V, and X collagen in the shell membranes. To address the question of the possible role of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in mineralization of the eggshell, two approaches were used. First, immunohistochemistry was performed with monoclonal antibodies to various proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan epitopes. This analysis indicates that different glycosaminoglycans are localized to discrete regions within the eggshell. Dermatan sulfate is present within the matrix of the shell proper and, to a lesser extent, the mammillary knobs and the outer portion of the shell membranes. In contrast, keratan sulfate is found in the shell membranes and prominently in the mammillary knobs. Interestingly, different keratan sulfate antibodies immunostain distinct regions of the eggshell, which suggests that various types of keratan sulfate are distributed differently. The second approach utilized was to extract the eggshell membranes and recover anionic molecules by anion-exchange chromatography. This resulted in the extraction of material which was recognized by antibodies to keratan sulfate, but not to chondroitin sulfate. This material was very large, as evidenced by its elution in the void volume of a Sepharose CL-2B column. The large size may be due to the extensive cross-links known to occur in the eggshell. If eggshell membranes are extracted at elevated temperature, the material recovered is of much smaller size. These results indicate that molecules recognized by antibodies to glycosaminoglycans are present in the eggshell, and their localized distribution relative to the calcified matrix suggests that they may be involved in the regulation of mineral deposition.
Article
This research was meant to study the effect of Eggshell Powder (ESP) on the stabilizing potential of lime on an expansive clay soil. Tests were carried out to determine the optimal quantity of lime and the optimal percentage of lime-ESP combination; the optimal quantity of lime was gradually replaced with suitable amount of eggshell powder. The lime stabilized and lime-ESP stabilized mixtures were subjected to engineering tests. The optimal percentage of lime-ESP combination was attained at a 4% ESP + 3% lime, which served as a control. Results of the Maximum Dry Density (MDD), California Bearing Ratio (CBR), unconfined compression test and Undrained triaxial shear strength test all indicated that lime stabilization at 7% is better than the combination of 4% ESP + 3% lime.
Article
Collagen was extracted by acid-pepsin digestion and isolated by salt precipitation from eggshell membrane. The characteristics of eggshell membrane collagen were investigated with amino acid analysis, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The amino acid composition of the eggshell membrane collagen is rich in glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis revealed two different α (α<sub>1</sub> and α<sub>2</sub>) chains. FTIR showed regions of amides A, B, I, II and III were 3325, 2926, 1653, 1550 and 1240 cm<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry revealed that thermal denaturation temperature of eggshell membrane collagen was 55.10°C and collagen of eggshell membrane retains intermolecular crosslinks after extraction process. Collagen of eggshell membrane was typical type I collagen and may be applicable to variety of usage including functional food, cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Collagen-like proteins have been found in the egg shell membranes of the hen. Materials similar to types I and V collagens were detected in each of the two layers of this membrane, the thick outer membrane and the thin inner membrane. Collagen was extracted by acid-pepsin digestion and isolated by differential salt precipitation. Identification of type-specific collagen-like material was established by coelectrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels using known collagen standards. These bands were susceptible to digestion by bacterial collagenase. From differential staining of the gels it was estimated that the ratio of collagen types I:V was approximately 100:1. Further confirmation of these biochemical results was obtained with immunofluorescence microscopy using type-specific antisera against chicken types I and V collagen with the indirect sandwich technique. Both the inner and outer shell membranes contained the two types of collagen. Within each membrane, the large, coarse 2.5-micron fibers contained predominantly type I collagen-like material, while type V collagen was mainly associated with the delicate narrower fibers of approximately 0.6-micron diameter. These tended to be concentrated in the inner membrane. At the electron microscopic level, both types of fibers were coated with glycoproteins that stained positively with ruthenium red. The deposition of these collagen-like substances by the hen oviduct on to the surface of the developing egg is an additional example of interstitial-type collagen synthesis and secretion by epithelial rather than by mesenchymal cells.