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North-South Differences in Spain in IQ, Educational Attainment, per capita Income, Literacy, Life Expectancy and Employment

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Abstract

IQs are presented for fifteen regions of Spain showing a north-south gradient with IQs highest in the north and lowest in the south. The regional differences in IQ are significantly correlated with educational attainment, per capita income, literacy, employment and life expectancy, and are associated with the percentages of Near Eastern and North African genes in the population.

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... Recently, an analysis by Kura (2013) found that northern Japanese prefectures had a higher prevalence of taller and more intelligent individuals, as well as lower crime rates, than the southern prefectures of Japan. Similar results were found with population-level data for the provinces of Italy and Spain (Lynn, 2012). ...
... PISA is an international assessment that surveys mathematic ability, science ability, and reading comprehension of 15 year old students throughout the world. The three scores were averaged to create the cognitive ability composite (see Lynn &Meisenberg, 2010 andLynn &Mikk, 2009, for explanations on the use of PISA data as a proxy for intelligence). State-level scores were obtained from Mexico's Secretaría de Educación Pública [Secretary of Public Education] (2013) website. ...
... PISA is an international assessment that surveys mathematic ability, science ability, and reading comprehension of 15 year old students throughout the world. The three scores were averaged to create the cognitive ability composite (see Lynn &Meisenberg, 2010 andLynn &Mikk, 2009, for explanations on the use of PISA data as a proxy for intelligence). State-level scores were obtained from Mexico's Secretaría de Educación Pública [Secretary of Public Education] (2013) website. ...
... From a psychological perspective, it has been proposed that, in Italy and Spain, regional differences in school achievements reflect genetic differences in the average intelligence quotient (IQ) of populations (Lynn, 2010;2012a;2012b;Piffer and Lynn, 2014). ...
... Due to lack of cognitive abilities test scores for Italian regions, Lynn (2010) used PISA 2006 scores as a proxy of mean regional IQs, concluding that in south the mean PISA-IQ is 9-10 points lower than in the north. PISA scores were also taken as a measure of mean IQs in Spanish regions by Lynn (2012b), and in Italian regions by Piffer and Lynn (2014). ...
... To corroborate his thesis, Lynn (2012a) showed how, across Italian regions, PISA 2009 regional scores were positively correlated with the percentages of the populations with blonde hair, a marker for northern European ancestry, and negatively with the frequency of the haplogroup E1b1 allele, a marker for North African ancestry, which is higher in southern regions. Analogously, in the case of Spain, Lynn (2012b) proposed that PISA scores were lower in those regions, such as Andalusia or Extremadura, with higher fractions of alleles typical of North African populations, and where the Arab domination lasted longer. ...
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The relationship between PISA 2012 maths test scores and relative poverty was tested in a sample of 35 Italian and Spanish regions, together with a larger sample that included Australian, Belgian, and Canadian regions. The correlation between mean scores in mathematics, adjusted for students' socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, and poverty rates is ‐−0.84 for the Italian and Spanish sample, and −0.68 for the complete sample. In the regressions, the effect of relative poverty on mean scores in mathematics is highly significant (p < 0.01), robust to different specifications, and independent from students' backgrounds and regional development levels. It is proposed that disparities in average scores in mathematics across regions depend on the shares of low-performing students which, in turn, depend on the degree of relative poverty within regions. The implications for the thesis according to which, in Italy and Spain, regional disparities in educational achievements reflect genetic differences in the IQ of populations are discussed.
... For two studiesde Baca and Figueredo (2014) and León and León (2014) authors did not report correlation coefficients in their papers but provided them in personal communications. Some studies provided correlations for cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes for multiple years (e.g., Lynn, 2012b). In this case the coefficients for the most recent and contemporary years were used. ...
... A frequent finding that authors attempted to account for was a positive bivariate association between absolute latitude and IQ. Mirroring international results, this was found for 12 of 15 countries in which correlations between latitude and IQ were noted by the original authors: Argentina (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016a,b); Brazil ; Chile (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016b); Colombia (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016b); Italy (Lynn, 2010a); Japan (Kura, 2013); Mexico (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016b); Peru (León & Avilés, 2016), Russia (Lynn, Cheng, & Grigoriev, 2017); Spain (Lynn, 2012b); Turkey ; and the USA (various). A positive association, however, was not found for Germany (Roivainen, 2012), India (Lynn & Yadav, 2015) or the UK (Carl, 2016a). ...
... In the second study, Lynn (2012b) reported IQs for 15 regions of Spain assessed by PISA reading, math, and science 2006 and 2009 scores. This study was novel in that measure invariance was tested and found to hold on the regional level. ...
Article
Differences in intelligence have previously been found to be related to a wide range of inter-individual and international social outcomes. There is evidence indicating that intelligence differences are also related to different regional outcomes within nations. A quantitative and narrative review is provided for twenty-two countries (number of regions in parentheses): Argentina (24 to 437), Brazil (27 to 31), British Isles (12 to 392), to 79), Spain (15 to 48), Switzerland (47), Turkey (12), the USA (30 to 3100), and Vietnam (61). Between regions, intelligence is significantly associated with a wide range of economic, social, and demographic phenomena, including income (r unweighted = .56), educational attainment (r unweighted = .59), health (r unweighted = .49), general socioeconomic status (r unweighted = .55), and negatively with fertility (r unweighted = −.51) and crime (r unweighted = −.20). Proposed causal models for these differences are noted. It is concluded that regional differences in intelligence within nations warrant further focus; methodological concerns that need to be addressed in future research are detailed.
... The most commonly reported of these have been positive associations with per capita income, educational attainment, life expectancy and stature, and negative associations with infant mortality and fertility. These associations have been reported for the regions of the British Isles (Lynn, 1979), France (Lynn, 1980), the United States (Shatz, 2009), Italy (Lynn, 2010;Piffer & Lynn, 2014), Portugal (Almeida, Lemos, & Lynn, 2011), Spain (Lynn, 2012), China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), Japan (Kura, 2013), Finland (Dutton & Lynn, 2014), India (Lynn & Yadav, 2015) and Turkey (Lynn, Sakar, & Cheng, 2015). ...
... This is justified on the grounds that a high correlation between literacy rates and intelligence have been reported in a number of studies. For example, a correlation of .861 between literacy rates for Italian regions in 1880 and early twenty-first century IQs has been reported by Lynn (2010); a correlation of .83 between literacy rates for Spanish regions in the early twenty-first century has been reported by Lynn (2010); (Lynn, 2012); and a correlation of 0.56 between literacy rates and IQs for the states and union territories of India in 2011 has been reported by Lynn and Yadav (2015). There is additional support for using literacy in the nineteenth century as a proxy for intelligence in the results of a study by Grigoriev, Lapteva and Ushakov (Григорьев, Лаптева, Ушаков, 2015) showing a correlation of .58 between literacy rates of the peasant populations of the districts (uezds) of the Moscow province in 1883 and the results of the Unified State Exam and State Certification on Russian Language in the districts of the contemporary Moscow oblast. ...
... (Lynn, 2010) and Spain (r = .81) (Lynn, 2012). Data for the rates of infant mortality (deaths of infants in the first year per 1000 live births) for the 50 European provinces were taken from the book by Adolf Rashin (Рашин, 1956). ...
Article
Regional differences are presented for literacy adopted as a proxy for intelligence, infant mortality, fertility, stature and geographical location for 50 provinces in European Russia in the late nineteenth century. All variables were significantly inter-correlated. Intelligence was significantly higher in the north and west than in the south and east.
... Cold Winters theory works best for regions where the Neolithic transition started in the South and spread northward: Near East-Europe (Lynn & Meisenberg, 2010;Lynn & Vanhanen, 2012), Italy (Lynn, 2010), Spain (Lynn, 2012), Russia Grigoriev, Lapteva & Lynn, 2016), Japan (Kura, 2013). For regions where the Neolithic transition started in the North and spread southward, the distribution of IQ does not conform with predictions of Cold Winters Theory: India (Lynn & Yadav, 2015), China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), South-East Asia (Lynn & Meisenberg, 2010;Lynn & Vanhanen, 2012). ...
... . Relationship between genomic ancestry and cognitive ability in European countries. IQ is calculated as average of IQ and school performance, with values for Italian regions extrapolated from the PISA 2009 average score (Lynn, 2012, ...
Article
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When comparing the current IQ maps of Europe and the Near/Middle East with the maps showing the proportion of DNA inherited from Neolithic farmers, we notice that IQ is increasingly lower as Neolithic genetic inheritance is greater. This suggests that the transition from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic might have led to a decline of intelligence, as Robert Klark Graham (1970) claimed, and that human intelligence had reached its peak with the Cro-Magnons. Comparing the same IQ maps with the geographic advance of the Neolithic and of complex post-Neolithic civilizations, we notice that the average IQ today is lower in regions that had an earlier entrance into the Neolithic and into complex civilization, suggesting that genotypic intelligence declined during or after the Neolithic, as maintained by Elmer Pendell (1977), and as demonstrated for modern Western civilization by Richard Lynn (1996) and confirmed recently by molecular evidence (Beauchamp, 2016; Conley et al., 2016). Studies of ancient DNA can test this theory of intelligence decline in the near future. Key Words: Genotypic intelligence; Natural selection; IQ maps; Neolithic revolution; Civilizations; Polygenic scores; Allele frequency; DUF1220.
... This is related to conscientiousness (e.g., Clark, 2007) and IQ (e.g., Herrnstein & Murray, 1994), which have been argued to relate to life history (Rushton, 1985). 5. Latitude. This is positively associated with IQ in Spain (Lynn, 2012a), generally inversely related to parasite load (e.g., Eppig, Fincher, & Thornhill, 2010), and therefore potentially associated with slow life history. 6. ...
... The large SD-IE and CD-IE effects (compared to previous studies) that we encountered amongst the regions of Spain and Italy may be explained by the somewhat varied ethnic-historic composition of each of these two countries, as it has been argued and demonstrated that the genetic structure of these countries still largely reflects the varied ethnic stratification of pre-Roman times (Payne, 1973;Piazza, Cappello, Olivetti, & Rendine, 1988) and migration waves thoughout ancient and early medieval times (Lynn, 2012a). Different regions of the Iberian peninsula have been occupied by many populations of disparate origins and genetic constitution throughout the centuries (Payne, 1973), additionally the defeat of the Muslims at the hand of the Spanish Christians resulted in the conversion of many Jews and some Muslims to Christianity, as an alternative to expulsion (MacDonald, 1998). ...
Article
SD–IE is a strategic differentiation effect present amongst indices of life history (LH), such that persons and populations of slow LH are more differentiated compared to those of fast LH. We found that this phenomenon is present amongst provinces in Italy and Spain, similarly to demonstrations among US states and Japanese prefectures. The average effect size of SD–IE was found to be bigger in Spain and Italy. We also tested cognitive differentiation as a function of life history speed and IQ (high-K and high-IQ provinces having higher cognitive differentiation), and found that these effects are also present in the Italian and Spanish regions. Most cognitive differentiation effects were statistically significant in spite of the small number of provinces, but all trended in the predicted direction. We discuss the findings from a bio-historical perspective, taking into account the ethnic variability present in Spain and Italy.
... I attributed the lower IQs in the south to the immigrants with lower IQs from North Africa and the Near East. The second was for Spain and reported similarly the highest IQ in the north and associated economic and social correlates and likewise attributed the lower IQs in the south to the immigrants with lower IQs from North Africa and the Near East (Lynn, 2012) [43]. ...
... I attributed the lower IQs in the south to the immigrants with lower IQs from North Africa and the Near East. The second was for Spain and reported similarly the highest IQ in the north and associated economic and social correlates and likewise attributed the lower IQs in the south to the immigrants with lower IQs from North Africa and the Near East (Lynn, 2012) [43]. ...
Article
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I first encountered the question of race and intelligence sixty-eight years ago[...]
... Complex cognitive ability (CCA)a variable measured by intelligence tests and/or student assessments in reading, math, and/or science (Rindermann, 2007) increases with absolute latitude among nations (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2012) as well as within Italy (Lynn, 2010), Japan (Kura, 2013), Peru (León & Burga León, 2014), Spain (Lynn, 2012), and the United States (Pesta & Posnanski, 2014). Evolutionary cold theory (Lynn, 1991;Nyborg, 2013;Rushton, 1995) cannot explain the latitude-CCA correlations in the United States and Peru, where current populations present levels of CCA associated with gradients of latitude despite that their millenary ancestors were not necessarily exposed to gradients of cold. ...
Article
According to a novel theory, latitude influences complex cognitive ability through hormonal and dopaminergic effects of UVB radiation on family size and study habits. Since human exposure to UVB radiation increases from East to West in the United States, longitude can be expected to influence White children's math and, especially, reading scores. Analyses of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) State data showed greater effects of longitude on Reading than Math and a decay of influence from 4th to 8th grades; latitude's influence was analogous on Math and Reading and increased across grades. The findings are consistent with the theory that, in the United States, longitude influences cognitive abilities through parents' sexual hormones, family size and early in life; they also suggest that latitude exerts influence mainly through dopamine deficiency and study habits and cumulatively.
... The most commonly reported of these have been positive associations with per capita income, educational attainment, life expectancy and stature, and negative associations with infant mortality and fertility. These associations have been reported for the regions of the British Isles (Lynn, 1979), France (Lynn, 1980), the United States (McDaniel, 2006;Shatz, 2009), Italy (Lynn, 2010;Piffer & Lynn, 2014), Portugal (Almeida, Lemos, & Lynn, 2011), Spain (Lynn, 2012), China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), Japan (Kura, 2013), Finland (Dutton & Lynn, 2014), India (Lynn & Yadav, 2015) Turkey (Lynn, Sakar, & Cheng, 2015) and European Russia in the late nineteenth century (Grigoriev, Lapteva, & Lynn, in press). ...
Article
Data are reported for educational attainments as a measure of intelligence, a number of socio-economic variables, and latitude and longitude for 79 provinces of the Russian Federation. The average intelligence of the provinces was significantly positively correlated with urbanization (r = 0.43), the percentage of ethnic Russians (r = 0.39), net migration (r = 0.54) and latitude (r = 0.35), such that intelligence was higher in the north, and significantly negatively correlated with infant mortality (r = − 0.43), fertility (r = − 0.39) and longitude (r = − 0.36), such that intelligence was higher in the west.
... The positive associations between regional differences in IQs within countries and per capita incomes have been reported in a number of studies of other countries including for 13 regions of the British Isles (r = 0.73) (Lynn, 1979), 90 regions of France (r = 0.61) (Lynn, 1980), 12 regions of Italy (r = 0.94) (Lynn, 2010), 19 regions of Italy (r = 0.98) (Templer, 2012), 18 regions of Spain (r = 0.42) (Lynn, 2012), 16 regions of Germany (r = 0.79) (Roivainen, 2012) and 12 regions of the United Kingdom (general factor of economic development: r = 0.72; weekly earnings: r = 0.42) (Carl, 2016). ...
Article
This study reports the associations between the intelligence of children aged 8–10 years across thirty-one provinces and municipalities of the People's Republic of China and their economic and social correlates. It was found that regional IQs were significantly correlated at the p < 0.001 significant level with the percentage of Han in the population (r = 0.75), GDP per capita (r = 0.73), and years of education (r = 0.76). Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that regional IQs were the only significant predictor of regional differences in the GDP per capita accounting for 56% of the variance.
... However, the picture is not uniform. The northern regions of Italy and Spain have results similar to those of other Western countries(OECD, 2007;Lynn, 2010Lynn, , 2012.Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org ...
Article
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Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions).
... Geography influences complex cognitive ability (CCA), a variable measured by intelligence tests and/or student assessments in reading, math, and/or science (Rindermann, 2007): CCA increases with absolute latitude (AL) among nations (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2012) as well as within Italy (Lynn, 2010), Japan (Kura, 2013), Peru (León & Burga León, 2014), Spain (Lynn, 2012), and the United States (Pesta & Posnanski, 2014). In addition, two evolutionary theories predict variation of intelligence alongside longitude. ...
... Many recent studies have examined within-country regional correlates of (general) cognitive ability (also known as (general) intelligence, general mental ability, g),. This has been done for the British Isles (Lynn, 1979;Kirkegaard, 2015g), France (Lynn, 1980), Italy (Lynn, 2010;Kirkegaard, 2015e), Spain (Lynn, 2012), Portugal (Almeida, Lemos, & Lynn, 2011), India (Kirkegaard, 2015d;Lynn & Yadav, 2015), China (Kirkegaard, 2015f;Lynn & Cheng, 2013), Japan (Kura, 2013), the US (Kirkegaard, 2015b;McDaniel, 2006;Templer & Rushton, 2011), Mexico (Kirkegaard, 2015a) and Turkey (Lynn, Sakar, & Cheng, 2015). This paper examines data for Brazil. ...
Article
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Sizeable S factors were found across 3 different datasets (from years 1991, 2000 and 2010), which explained 56 to 71% of the variance. Correlations of extracted S factors with cognitive ability were strong ranging from .69 to .81 depending on which year, analysis and dataset is chosen. Method of correlated vectors supported the interpretation that the latent S factor was primarily responsible for the association (r’s .71 to .81).
... Further studies reporting associations of intelligence with per capita income and related economic measures at the level of sub-national administrative units have been conducted in other countries (Table 1). They include 13 regions of the British Isles (Lynn, 1979), 90 regions of France (Lynn, 1980;Montmollin, 1958), 12 regions of Italy (Lynn, 2010), 19 regions of Italy (Piffer & Lynn, 2014;Templer, 2012), 18 regions of Spain (Lynn, 2012), 16 regions of Germany (Roivainen, 2012), 47 prefectures of Japan (Kura, 2013), 12 regions of Turkey (Lynn, Sakar & Cheng, 2015), 31 regions of the People's Republic of China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), and 12 regions of the United Kingdom (Carl, 2016). Many of these studies also reported significant correlations between regional differences in intelligence and a variety of social phenomena including health, fertility and crime. ...
Article
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In a number of countries, earlier studies have reported significant associations between regional differences in intelligence within countries and economic and social phenomena. Using scores on the Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) tests as indicator of intelligence, we find statistically significant correlations for the 27 states of Brazil between intelligence and nine indicators of socioeconomic development. Spatial analysis indicates that relationships are present both at the level of differences between adjacent states and over long-distance clines. Most of the relationships observed after initial analysis persisted after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Among the socioeconomic variables, those that describe the standard of living of the less affluent sections of the population tend to correlate most with PISA scores.
... Whatever the name, it is a field that has received renewed attention recently. Richard Lynn and co-authors reported data on Italy (Lynn, 2010a(Lynn, , 2010b(Lynn, , 2012aPiffer & Lynn, 2014; see also papers by critics), Spain (Lynn, 2012b), China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013) and India (Lynn & Yadav, 2015). Two of his older studies cover the British Isles and France (Lynn, 1979(Lynn, , 1980. ...
Article
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I reanalyze data reported by Richard Lynn in a 1979 paper concerning IQ and socioeconomic variables in 12 regions of the United Kingdom as well as Ireland. I find a substantial S factor across regions (66% of variance with MinRes extraction). I produce a new best estimate of the G scores of regions. The correlation of this with the S scores is .79. The MCV with reversal correlation is .47.
... Lynn's findings on Italy (2010aItaly ( , 2010bItaly ( , 2012a are consistent with those presented by the same author for Spain. In the case of Spain, in fact, Lynn (2012b) found a North-South gradient in PISA-derived IQs and significant correlations between these IQs and socio-economic variables, so concluding that, as in Italy, regional IQ differences are related to the percentage of Near Eastern and North African ancestry in the population. ...
... This hypothesis has been supported by Templer (2012), who showed that there are significant genetic differences between north and south Italy with higher percentages of the population with black hair and eyes in the south indicating greater admixture of North African and Middle Eastern genes. This hypothesis has been further supported by Lynn (2012b) in a study showing that north-south differences in intelligence are also present in Spain with the north having higher IQs, educational attainment, per capita income, literacy, life expectancy and employment and lower frequencies of alleles of the Near East and North Africa. ...
Article
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The north–south difference in Italy in PISA 2006 scores in reading comprehension, mathematical and science abilities of 15-year-olds has been attributed by Lynn (2010a) to a difference of approximately 10 IQ points in intelligence and by critics to differences in educational resources. New evidence for differences between north and south Italy in the PISA 2012 Creative Problem Solving test as a measure of fluid intelligence shows a 9.2 IQ point between the north–west and the south and confirms Lynn's theory. New data are presented for genetic differences between the populations of north and south Italy.
... While these differences in intelligence and behavioral traits were reported mainly with respect to racial categories in the twentieth century (Herrnstein & Murray, 1994;Rushton, 1994), even finer gradients of these personality traits from all over the world have been reported in the twenty-first century (Lynn, 2006(Lynn, , 2010(Lynn, , 2012Lynn & Vanhanen, 2002McDaniel, 2006). ...
Article
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Regional differences in IQ are estimated for 47 prefectures of Japan. IQ scores obtained from official achievement tests show a gradient from north to south. Latitudes correlate with height, IQ, and skin color at r = 0.70, 0.44, 0.47, respectively. IQ also correlates with height (0.52), skin color (0.42), income (0.51) after correction, less homicide rate (− 0.60), and less divorce (− 0.69) but not with fertility infant mortali'ty. The lower IQ in southern Japanese islands could be attributable to warmer climates with less cognitive demand for more than fifteen hundred years.
... Concerning the second effect, the presence of better socioeconomic indicators in the northern areas of the USA is well-documented, sometimes referred to as Moynihan's law of proximity to the Canadian border (Moynihan, 1993), likely due to historical and cultural effects leading to a generally higher level of social development in the North. While some work suggests similar effects even with possibly genetic reasons in other countries (Daniele, 2015;Kura, 2013;Lynn, 2010Lynn, , 2012, our findings are more in line with cultural-geographic explanations. In the UK and Australia, where the major economic and population centers are located in the south, higher cognitive ability is associated with more southern latitudes (which in the latter case also corresponds to greater distance from the equator, like in the USA), and in Canada where most of the population is concentrated in a thin latitudinal strip there is no appreciable relationship. ...
Article
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Chronotype and cognitive ability are two human phenotypes with an uneven geographic distribution due to both selective migration and causal environmental effects. In our study, we aimed to examine the relationship between geographic variables, cognitive ability and chronotype. We used a large anonymized sample (n = 25,700, mostly from the USA, UK, Canada and Australia) of dating site users to estimate chronotype and cognitive ability from questionnaire responses using item response theory. We matched each user to geographic coordinates and city size using the reported locations and geographic databases. In line with previous research we found that male sex, younger age, residence in a more populous locale, higher cognitive ability and more westward position within the same time zone were associated with later chronotype. Male sex, younger age, residence in a more populous locale, later chronotype and higher latitude were associated with higher cognitive ability, but the effect of population on chronotype and latitude on cognitive ability was only present in the USA. The relationship between age and chronotype was stronger in males, and the relationship between chronotype and cognitive ability was stronger in males and in older participants. Population density had an independent association with cognitive ability, but not chronotype. Our results confirm the uneven geographic distribution of chronotype and cognitive ability. These findings generalize across countries, but they are moderated by age and sex, suggesting both biological and cultural effects.
... Carl, 2015;Lynn, 1979), France (Lynn, 1980), Italy (e.g. Lynn, 2010), Spain (Lynn, 2012), Portugal (Almeida et al., 2011), Germany (Roivainen, 2012), Finland (Dutton & Lynn, 2014), China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), Japan (Kura, 2013), the USA (e.g. Pesta et al., 2010), Turkey , Brazil (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016), Mexico (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016), Sudan (Bakhiet & Lynn, 2014), and Russia (Grigoriev et al., 2016). ...
... Cultural and ethnic variation exists among the different regions in these countries, and their genetic structure still largely reflects the ethnic stratification of pre-Roman periods (Payne, 1973;Piazza et al., 1988) and migration waves that occurred throughout ancient and early medieval times (Lynn, 2012a(Lynn, , 2012b. As a result, these countries still contain considerably diverse populations which have remained largely unchanged throughout the recent centuries. ...
... Jensen (1980Jensen ( , 1998 showed large differences between Blacks and Whites, and te Nijenhuis et al. (2004) showed large differences between Dutch and non-Western immigrants. Generally, Whites are the highest scoring race in these comparison studies, but when non-Jewish Whites are being compared with East Asians or Jews it is the non-Jewish White group that have the lower IQ scores (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2002;Lynn, 2011). ...
Article
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Spearman’s hypothesis tested at the subtest level of an IQ battery states that differences between races on the subtests of an IQ battery are a function of the g loadings of these subtests, such that there are small differences between races on subtests with low g loadings and large differences between races on subtests with high g loadings. Jensen (1998) stated that Spearman’s hypothesis is a law-like phenomenon. It has also been confirmed many times at the level of items of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices. This study hypothesizes that with concern to Spearman’s hypothesis, subtests and items function in fundamentally the same way, and tested whether Spearman’s hypothesis is confirmed at the item level for White–East Asian comparisons. A group of Korean young adults ( N =205) was compared with other groups of young adults from Canada, the US, Russia, Peru and South Africa (total N =4770) who took the Advanced Progressive Matrices. Spearman’s hypothesis was strongly confirmed with a sample-size-weighted r with a value of 0.63. Computing the g loadings of the items of the Raven with either the Raven- g or the Wechsler- g led to the same conclusions. Tests of Spearman’s hypothesis yielded less-strong outcomes when the 36-item Advanced Progressive Matrices were used than when the 60-item Standard Progressive Matrices were used. There is a substantial correlation between sample size and the outcome of Spearman’s hypothesis. So, all four hypotheses were confirmed, showing that a part of the subtest-level nomological net replicates at the item level, strengthening the position that, with concern to Spearman’s hypothesis, subtests and items function fundamentally the same. It is concluded that Spearman’s hypothesis is still a law-like phenomenon. Detailed suggestions for follow-up research are made.
... I do not agree. First, a north-south gradient of intelligence has been demonstrated in Spain (Lynn, 2012). Daniele's results only reflect the fact that the poorest regions of Spain (Extremadura, Andalucía, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia) as a whole are to the west of the richest regions (Madrid, País Vasco, Navarra, Catalunia) as a whole which, in turn, are to the west of Brussels. ...
... Concerning the second effect, the presence of widely better socioeconomic indicators in the Northern areas of the United States is well-documented, sometimes referred to as Moynihan's law of proximity to the Canadian border [62], likely due to historical and cultural effects leading to a generally higher level of social development in the North. While some work suggests similar effects even with possibly genetic reasons in other countries [63][64][65][66], our findings are more in line with cultural-geographic explanations. In the UK and, where the major economic and population centers are located in the south, higher cognitive ability is associated with more southern latitudes (which in the 14 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 latter case also corresponds to greater distance from the equator, like in the US), and in Canada where most of the population is concentrated in a thin latitudinal strip there is no appreciable relationship. ...
Preprint
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Chronotype and cognitive ability are two psychological phenotypes with an uneven geographical distribution due to both selective migration and causal environmental effects. In our study we aimed to unravel the relationship between geographical variables, cognitive ability and chronotype. We used a large anonymized sample (N=25700) of dating site users to estimate chronotype and cognitive ability from questionnaire responses using item response theory. We matched each user to geographical coordinates and city size using the reported locations and geographical databases. In line with previous research we found that male sex (β=0.029), younger age (β=-0.178), residence in a more populous locale (β=0.02), higher cognitive ability (β=0.05) and more westward position within the same time zone (β=-0.04) was associated with later chronotype. Male sex (β=0.065), younger age (β=-0.04), residence in a more populous locale (β=0.149), later chronotype (β=0.051) and higher latitude (β=0.03) was associated with higher cognitive ability, but the effect of population on chronotype and latitude on cognitive ability was only present in the United States. The relationship between age and chronotype was stronger in males, and the relationship between chronotype and cognitive ability was stronger in males and in older participants. Population density had an independent association with cognitive ability, but not chronotype. Our results confirm the uneven geographical distribution of chronotype and cognitive ability. Country-wise analyses distinguish universal cultural/biological and country-specific effects. The moderating effect of age on the cognitive ability-chronotype relationship suggests that cultural rather than biological effects underlie this relationship.
... The focus of our study is on the effect of economic conditions on student achievement, while existing publications emphasize the associative space of genetically determined abilities, and suggest that measures like the PISA and TIMSS are merely alternative operationalizations of "the IQ of nations", as mentioned above (Lynn, 2008(Lynn, , 2012Rindermann, 2007). Using these studies as a starting point, we want to put the hypothesis of economic effects on student achievement at regional level to a stronger test than existing, cross-sectional studies based on comparing data from different countries, which mainly utilize correlations and therefore prevent causal inferences between economic effects and student achievement. ...
Article
In this study, we investigated the differential effect of regional economic prosperity on mean student cognitive achievement by analysing data from a “natural experiment” in Palestine. Its main regions, Gaza and the West Bank, inhabited by a population sharing history, culture and gene pool, were only recently separated, yet distinctively affected by geopolitical events. The “experimental group”, living in Gaza, suffered from an enduring politico-economic crisis treatment, while the “control group”, inhabitants of the West Bank, was exposed to a much shorter and milder crisis. As a manipulation check, we used economic data reported by Etkes and Zimring (2015), who uncovered a severe and lasting decrease in household welfare and labour productivity in Gaza. As dependent variables, we used achievement scores of TIMSS maths and science students, which displayed only negligible pro-West Bank, pre-crisis differences (maths: Cohen's d = −0.04; t = −0.56; science: d = 0.11; t = 1.48). This margin grew during the crisis (maths: d = 0.17; t = 2.65; science: d = 0.26; t = 4.25) and even more so in the post-crisis phase (maths: d = 0.38; t = 5.09; science: d = 0.46; t = 6.76). Our results corroborate correlational evidence for economic effects on cognitive achievement (cf. Hunt, 2012). Relying on a natural experiment, we were able to rule out genetic effects and highlight the impact of the environment on students' academic achievements. Limitations of the design and implications for further studies on regional differences in cognitive achievement are discussed.
... Rushton and Čvorović (2009) further suggest that lower than average IQ of the Balkans is attributable to the intermixing of Balkan and Ottoman populations during the Ottoman occupation of the Balkans. Similarly, in Spain, regional differences in intelligence and socio-economic development (SED) are associated with the number of years the regions were occupied by North African Muslims (Lynn, 2012), an association mirrored by patterns of genetic differentiation in the Iberian Peninsula (Bycroft et al., 2019). Lynn (2010) also attributes the lower average IQ and SED of southern Italy partly to it being occupied by Arabs during the seventh and ninth centuries and the consequent genetic footprint left by North African populations. ...
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That human ancestry predicts average IQ and socioeconomic outcomes is amongst the most thoroughly replicated findings of the social sciences. Since human ethnic and cultural descent is usually represented on national flags, it was hypothesized herein that national flag symbolism and colors would be predictive of a nation's average IQ and socioeconomic development. In order to test this hypothesis, national flag symbols and colors were coded, quantified, and correlated with country IQ and Human Development Index (HDI). Both country-level IQ and HDI are positively associated with Christian symbolism, and negatively associated with symbols representing celestial bodies. The color green predicts lower IQ and HDI, while the color white predicts higher IQ and HDI. The color red predicts higher IQ, but not higher HDI, and the color yellow predicts lower HDI, but not lower IQ. The correlations are generally higher for HDI than IQ. With the exception of the color yellow, the correlations with HDI are significant even when controlling for the correlation between HDI and IQ. The present study suggests national flag symbolism and colors as yet another correlate of average group intelligence.
... Cognitive ability declines with proximity to the equator between countries [53,63] and within such countries as Italy [58] , Japan [35] , Peru [44,51] , Russia [28] , Spain [59] , Sudan [3] , the United States [20,45,46,74,86] , and Vietnam (Kirkegaard & Pesta, 2018), although not in Turkey [60] nor India [64] . The exceptions may be accounted for by the greater longitudinal than latitudinal extension of Turkey and the fact that Mus-lims, whose IQ is lower than the IQ of followers of other faiths [57,92] , are more concentrated in the northern regions of India (Basant & Shariff, 2010). ...
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Few explanations of geography’s influence on economic and cognitive development have been proposed. This study was purported to test three development models based on absolute latitude (AL) and additionally addressed altitude above sea level and the particular case of the Amazonía in Peru. Information on 1468 Peruvian districts was obtained from Peru’s Ministry of Education and United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Report. The data were best fitted by ad hoc path models which combined AL with altitude and took different forms in the Amazonía and remainder of Peru. AL + altitude explained education + health, and income, through cognitive ability in the Amazonía. In the remainder of Peru, AL – altitude explained income and cognitive ability through education + health, with an additional, weak but significant, direct AL → cognitive ability path. The findings add to evidence suggesting the mediation of UV radiation in the relationship between latitude and development.
... Rushton and Čvorović (2009) further suggest that lower than average IQ of the Balkans is attributable to the intermixing of Balkan and Ottoman populations during the Ottoman occupation of the Balkans. Similarly, in Spain, regional differences in intelligence and socio-economic development (SED) are associated with the number of years the regions were occupied by North African Muslims (Lynn, 2012), an association mirrored by patterns of genetic differentiation in the Iberian Peninsula (Bycroft et al., 2019). Lynn (2010) also attributes the lower average IQ and SED of southern Italy partly to it being occupied by Arabs during the seventh and ninth centuries and the consequent genetic footprint left by North African populations. ...
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That human ancestry predicts average IQ and socioeconomic outcomes is amongst the most thoroughly replicated findings of the social sciences. Since human ethnic and cultural descent is usually represented on national flags, it was hypothesized herein that national flag symbolism and colors would be predictive of a nation's average IQ and socioeconomic development. In order to test this hypothesis, national flag symbols and colors were coded, quantified, and correlated with country IQ and Human Development Index (HDI). Both country-level IQ and HDI are positively associated with Christian symbolism, and negatively associated with symbols representing celestial bodies. The color green predicts lower IQ and HDI, while the color white predicts higher IQ and HDI. The color red predicts higher IQ, but not higher HDI, and the color yellow predicts lower HDI, but not lower IQ. The correlations are generally higher for HDI than IQ. With the exception of the color yellow, the correlations with HDI are significant even when controlling for the correlation between HDI and IQ. The present study suggests national flag symbolism and colors as yet another correlate of average group intelligence.
... This has been established in regions of the UK (e.g., Carl, 2016b;Lynn, 1979), France (Lynn, 1980), Italy (e.g. Lynn, 2010), Spain (Lynn, 2012), Portugal (Almeida, Lemos, & Lynn, 2011), Germany (Roivainen, 2012), Finland (Dutton & Lynn, 2014), China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), Japan (Kura, 2013), the USA (e.g. Pesta, McDaniel, & Betsch, 2010), Turkey (Lynn, Sakar, & Cheng, 2015), Brazil (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016), Mexico (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016), Egypt , Sudan (Bakhiet & Lynn, 2014), and Russia (Grigoriev, Lapteva, & Lynn, 2016). ...
Article
We administered the SPM to a sample of 1614 pupils aged between 9 and 18 in 2018 in the Dhofar region of Oman. Our results were compared to a previous administration of the SPM to 5139 pupils aged 9 to 18 in the capital region of Muscat which took place in 2001. We found that the IQ of Muscat in 2001 is substantially higher than the IQ of Dhofar is 17 years later. As there are only a small number of studies on the mean IQ in Oman, we did not apply a Flynn-effect correction. It is found that these regional IQ differences are paralleled by regional differences on many correlates of IQ such as life expectancy and years spent in schooling. We suggest three key factors as likely explaining the difference in IQ: poorer conditions in Dhofar, the association between intelligence and urban migration, and the effects of the Dhofar Rebellion. Other possible explanations are also examined.
... Kura reported mean IQ scores for the different regions of Japan and showed a large difference between the highest-scoring region and the lowest-scoring region [37]. Similarly, regional differences in IQ, often correlating in the expected direction with measures such as wealth and educational level, have been reported between, for example, the different regions of the UK [38,39], Spain [40], Germany [41], Turkey [42], and between northern and southern Egypt [43], though they do not test Spearman's hypothesis. ...
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Many groups differ in their mean intelligence score. Spearman’s hypothesis states that the differences are a function of cognitive complexity. There tend to be large differences on subtests of high cognitive complexity and small differences on subtests of low cognitive complexity. Spearman’s hypothesis has been supported by a large number of studies. Can Spearman’s hypothesis be generalized to regions of a country, where these regions differ in mean intelligence? We utilized data from 86 different cognitive tests from all 47 Japanese prefectures and correlated the g loadings of 86 subtests with standardized differences on the same subtests. Spearman’s hypothesis was clearly supported: the biggest differences between the regions were on the tests that were of the greatest complexity, meaning that Spearman’s hypothesis may be generalizable from groups to regions. In Japan, g loadings offer a better explanation of group differences in intelligence than cultural differences. Future research should explore whether Spearman’s hypothesis is also supported for differences between regions of other countries.
... Lynn, 1979;Carl, 2016b), France (Lynn, 1980), Italy (e.g. Lynn, 2010), Spain (Lynn, 2012), Portugal (Almeida et al., 2011), Germany (Roivainen, 2012), Finland (Dutton & Lynn, 2014), China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), Japan (Kura, 2013), the USA (e.g. Pesta et al., 2010), Turkey , Brazil (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016), Mexico (Fuerst & Kirkegaard, 2016), Sudan (Bakhiet & Lynn, 2014a) and Russia (Grigoriev et al., 2016). ...
Article
Two administrations of the Coloured Progressive Matrices in Egypt were compared. The first was administered to a large, representative national sample between 2011 and 2013. The second was administered to primary school pupils in villages in Menoufia in northern Egypt in 2017. Adjusting for the Flynn Effect, the IQ of the rural northern Egyptians was shown to be statistically significantly higher than the national average. It is demonstrated that this is consistent with regional socioeconomic differences in Egypt, which strongly imply that northern Egypt has a higher average IQ than southern Egypt.
... Kura reported mean IQ scores for the different regions of Japan and showed a large difference between the highest-scoring region and the lowest-scoring region [37]. Similarly, regional differences in IQ, often correlating in the expected direction with measures such as wealth and educational level, have been reported between, for example, the different regions of the UK [38,39], Spain [40], Germany [41], Turkey [42], and between northern and southern Egypt [43], though they do not test Spearman's hypothesis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many groups differ in their mean intelligence score. Spearman’s hypothesis states that the differences are a function of cognitive complexity. There tend to be large differences on subtests of high cognitive complexity and small differences on subtests of low cognitive complexity. Spearman’s hypothesis has been supported by a large number of studies. Can Spearman’s hypothesis be generalized to regions of a country, where these regions differ in mean intelligence? We utilized data from 86 different cognitive tests from all 47 Japanese prefectures and correlated the g loadings of 86 subtests with standardized differences on the same subtests. Spearman’s hypothesis was clearly supported: the biggest differences between the regions were on the tests that were of the greatest complexity, meaning that Spearman’s hypothesis may be generalizable from groups to regions. In Japan, g loadings offer a better explanation of group differences in intelligence than cultural differences. Future research should explore whether Spearman’s hypothesis is also supported for differences between regions of other countries.
... Further studies reporting associations of intelligence with per capita income and related economic measures at the level of sub-national administrative units have been conducted in other countries (Table 1). They include 13 regions of the British Isles (Lynn, 1979), 90 regions of France (Lynn, 1980;Montmollin, 1958), 12 regions of Italy (Lynn, 2010), 19 regions of Italy (Piffer & Lynn, 2014;Templer, 2012), 18 regions of Spain (Lynn, 2012), 16 regions of Germany (Roivainen, 2012), 47 prefectures of Japan (Kura, 2013), 12 regions of Turkey (Lynn, Sakar & Cheng, 2015), 31 regions of the People's Republic of China (Lynn & Cheng, 2013), and 12 regions of the United Kingdom (Carl, 2016). Many of these studies also reported significant correlations between regional differences in intelligence and a variety of social phenomena including health, fertility and crime. ...
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In a number of countries, earlier studies have reported significant associations between regional differences in intelligence within countries and economic and social phenomena. Using scores on the Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) tests as indicator of intelligence, we find statistically significant correlations for the 27 states of Brazil between intelligence and nine indicators of socioeconomic development. Spatial analysis indicates that relationships are present both at the level of differences between adjacent states and over long-distance clines. Most of the relationships observed after initial analysis persisted after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Among the socioeconomic variables, those that describe the standard of living of the less affluent sections of the population tend to correlate most with PISA scores.
... For two of the countries (Italy and Spain) there exist evolutionary hypotheses for intelligence differences between the North and South (Lynn, 2010(Lynn, , 2012, but not for Germany. Within Germany in the 20th century there were large migrations due to annexations, expulsions and political suppression resulting in a new mixing of haplogroups at the level of regions. ...
Article
Previous studies have shown that the mean IQ in the Republic of Ireland is 93 in relation to 100 for Britain and the rest of central and northern Europe. New evidence is presented giving an IQ of 88.3 in Ireland and therefore confirming this estimate. It is proposed that the causes of this lower IQ lies principally in the selective emigration of those with higher IQs over the course of several generations, with a smaller contribution from the dysgenic effect of Roman Catholicism.
Article
Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated ( r =0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores ( r =0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r =0.72.
Article
Temperature, geo-residential pattern of subpopulations, prevalence of infectious diseases, and UV radiation have been proposed to explain the declining cognitive ability observed with proximity to the equator in the USA. This study tested the cognitive effects of the four variables. The results reveal that the latitudinal decline of cognitive ability is strongly correlated with the UV Index rather than with the other variables among White children. The decline in measured cognitive ability from north to south is absent among African American and Hispanic children, plausibly because the high levels of skin melanin among these ethnic groups, by absorbing and dissipating light, prevent the occurrence of radiation’s cognitive effects among these populations at USA latitudes. The possible physiological mediators (oxidative stress, folate degradation, sexual hormones) suggest diet, family planning, and educational methods as mitigating strategies; however, specific studies measuring the mediating variables are needed to confirm their role and further strengthen UV radiation as an explanatory concept.
Article
Regional differences in IQ are reported for Finland showing that average IQs are highest in the south, containing the capital city of Helsinki. It is proposed that the selective migration of those with higher IQs to Helsinki has been the major factor responsible for the higher average IQ in the south. Regional IQs are positively correlated with the percentage of the population with tertiary education, mean income, and average male and female life expectancy; and negatively with the percentage of the population with average income less than 60% of the national median, the percentage of unemployment, and the rate of infant mortality.
Article
Data are presented for intelligence in twelve regions in Turkey showing that intelligence is highest in the west and lowest in the east. The west–east intelligence gradient is significantly correlated with regional differences in educational attainment and per capita income and negatively correlated with fertility, infant mortality and the percentage of Kurds.
Article
This study reports the differences in intelligence across thirty-one regions of the People's Republic of China. It was found that regional IQs were significantly associated with the percentage of Han in the population (r = .59), GDP per capita (r = .42), the percentage of those with higher education (r = 38, p<.05), and non-significantly with years of education (r = .32). The results of the multiple regression showed that both the percentage of Han in the region and the GDP per capita were significant predictors of regional IQs, accounting for 39% of the total variance.
Article
Regional differences in cognitive ability are presented for 33 states and union territories of India. Ability was positively correlated with GDP per capita, literacy and life expectancy and negatively correlated with infant and child mortality, fertility and the percentage of Muslims. Ability was higher in the south than in the north and in states with a coast line than with those that were landlocked.
Article
Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socio-economic development have been reported for many different countries. This paper analyses data on average IQ and a range of socio-economic variables at the local authority level in the UK. Local authorities are administrative bodies in local government; there are over 400 in the UK, and they contain anywhere from tens of thousands to more than a million people. The paper finds that local authority IQ is positively related to indicators of health, socio-economic status and tertiary industrial activity; and is negatively related to indicators of disability, unemployment and single parenthood. A general socio-economic factor is correlated with local authority IQ at r = .56. This correlation increases to r = .65 when correcting for measurement error in the estimates of IQ.
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Both generalized trust and intelligence are correlated with economic development. However, recent research has shown that trust and intelligence are themselves correlated, both across countries and among individuals. Theory suggests that causality runs from intelligence to trust at the individual level, which raises the possibility that the association between trust and development is explained by intelligence. Indeed, intelligence may cause both trust and development. Alternatively, development may lead to higher intelligence, which in turn gives rise to greater trust. Note that intelligence may cause trust not only because individuals with higher intelligence tend to report greater trust, but also because such individuals tend to be more trustworthy. This study analyzes data on trust, intelligence and economic development for 15 Spanish regions, 20 Italian regions, 50 US states, and 107 countries. In all four domains, there is a statistically significant positive relationship between trust and intelligence (r = .74, r = .74, r = .72 and r = .50, respectively). Moreover, partial correlations suggest that intelligence accounts for some or all of the association between trust and development in at least two out of the four domains.
Article
Economic development and national intelligence decline with proximity to the equator. Absolute latitude associates with both, income and IQ, but the nature of their relationship is ambiguous. This study applied structural equation modeling using secondary data pertaining to the 48 contiguous states of the United States of America to test the hypothesis that UV (ultraviolet) radiation associates with income through complex cognitive ability vis-a-vis the hypothesis that UV radiation associates with complex cognitive ability through income. The resulting evidence was consistent with the ability ? income pathway and unsupportive of the income ? ability model. The findings uphold the cognitive capitalism perspective and may throw light on the evolvement of regional differences in the USA.
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Fuerst and Kirkegaard (this issue) showed in various American countries that European ancestry positively determines cognitive ability and socioeconomic outcomes regardless of the effects of infectious diseases and other variables. In this paper I show that this is not the case in the United States of America when saturated path analysis models which minimize multicollinearity are applied to state data. It is latitude which positively determines cognitive ability and this in turn positively determines income per capita regardless of race and infectious disease rate. U.S. Census self-classification as White has non-significant effects on cognitive ability and has negative effects on income per capita among U.S. states once relevant variables are controlled. Similar results are obtained when the Eugenomic variable of Fuerst and Kirkegaard is targeted in the path analyses. Thus, the evidence does not uphold their conclusion that European ancestry explains differences in cognitive ability among U.S. states.
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a b s t r a c t Previous studies have found the mean IQs for countries in the Balkans such as Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey range from 89 to 94. This is lower than the mean IQ of 100 for other European countries. To examine this issue further, we tested 608 17–65-year-olds (418 males; 190 females) from four different communities in the Republic of Serbia over a two-year period using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Analyses showed that an average of 48 of the 60 matrices was solved (SD = 10), which is at the 31st percentile on the 1993 American standardization, equivalent to an IQ of 93. If an adjustment is made for the increase in American norms of two IQ points a decade from the 1993 standardization to the date of the study (2007 = 14 years), the Serbian IQ is reduced to 90. If a further reduction is made of two IQ points because the American IQ is 98 due to the inclusion of African Americans with a mean IQ of 85, the final best estimate of the Serbian IQ is 88. There were no significant differences between Muslims and Christians or males and females.
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Working with data from the PISA study (OECD, 2007), Lynn (2010) has argued that individuals from South Italy average an IQ approximately 10 points lower than individuals from North Italy, and has gone on to put forward a series of conclusions on the relationship between average IQ, latitude, average stature, income, etc. The present paper criticizes these conclusions and the robustness of the data from which Lynn (2010) derived the IQ scores. In particular, on the basis of recent Italian studies and our databank, we observe that : 1) school measures should be used for deriving IQ indices only in cases where contextual variables are not crucial: there is evidence that partialling out the role of contextual variables may lead to reduction or even elimination of PISA differences; in particular, schooling effects are shown through different sets of data obtained for younger grades; 2) in the case of South Italy, the PISA data may have exaggerated the differences, since data obtained with tasks similar to the PISA tasks (MT-advanced) show smaller differences; 3) national official data, obtained by INVALSI (2009a) on large numbers of primary school children, support these conclusions, suggesting that schooling may have a critical role; 4) purer measures of IQ obtained during the standardisation of Raven's Progressive Coloured Matrices also show no significant differences in IQ between children from South and North Italy.
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An association between childhood cognitive ability measured by IQ tests and mortality has been reported recently. It is not clear from those studies to what extent the increased relative risk associated with lower IQ scores may be attenuated by adjustment for other risk factors. This study aims to investigate the association between cognitive ability measured at age 18-20 years and mortality among middle-aged men adjusting for risk factors for mortality over the life course. Data on cognitive ability, and other risk factors for premature mortality (indicators of mental health and social adjustment and behavioural factors), were collected among 49 321 men, born in 1949-51, at conscription for compulsory military training in 1969-70. Information on socioeconomic factors in childhood and adulthood, as well as information on mortality, was collected through national registers. Cognitive ability showed an inverse and graded association with mortality between 40 and 53 years of age (1297 cases, crude hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18, for one-point decrease on the nine-point IQ scale). Adjustment for indicators of social misbehaviour, mental health problems and behavioural risk factors, measured in late adolescence, and adult social circumstances strongly attenuated the increased risks of mortality, and it was no longer significantly increased (adjusted HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.06, for one-point decrease on the nine-point IQ scale). The association between IQ and mortality among men below 54 years of age was almost completely attenuated by adjustment for risk factors captured by our measures of achieved social positions.
Article
Jencks' (1972) classical study Inequality reported a correlation of 0.310 between IQ and income for men in the United States. The present study examines whether this result can be replicated in Britain. Data are reported for a national sample whose intelligence was obtained at the age of 8 years and whose income was obtained at the age 43 years. The correlations between IQ and income were 0.368 for men (n=1280) and 0.317 for women (n=1085).
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Beraldo (2010) and Cornoldi, Belacchi, Giofre, Martini, and Tressoldi (2010) (CBGMT) have eight criticisms of my paper (Lynn, 2010) claiming that the large north–south differences in per capita income in Italy are attributable to differences in the average levels of intelligence in the populations. CBGMT give results for seven data sets for IQs in the north and south of Italy. All of these show that IQs are higher than in the north than in the south, although the differences are not as great as those I calculated. Other criticisms to the effect that the PISA tests are not measures of intelligence are refuted. The results of two further studies are given that confirm that IQs in the north of Italy are approximately 10 IQ points higher than in south.
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The state means of the A-12 V-12 examination, given to over 300,000 young men in April, 1943 may give a rough indication of the educational level of the various states. The intercorrelations of these means and twelve variables reflecting sociological, economic and educational data, for the states, were found. These variables included items such as per capita income (1945), value of school property, auto registrations, and lynchings (1882-1944)/100,000. Factor analysis revealed four factors, economic status, predominantly urban population, location in north rather than south, and a factor which the writers cannot describe apart from the first three. It was found that the multiple correlation between the A-12 V-12 criterion and four specific variables is .962, showing that from these variables the relative position of the state means could be predicted with little error. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Data are presented to show that there are differences in mean population IQ in different regions of the British Isles. Mean population IQ is highest in London and South-East England and tends to drop with distance from this region. Mean population IQs are highly correlated with measures of intellectual achievement, per capita income, unemployment, infant mortality and urbanization. The regional differences in mean population IQ appear to be due to historical differences which are measured back to 1751 and to selective migration from the provinces into the London area.
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Data are presented for the 90 Departements of France for mean population IQs, earnings, unemployment, intellectual achievement and infant mortality. Most of the variables are significantly associated. Mean population IQs are also significantly correlated with migration since 1801 and it is suggested that internal migration has been an important factor leading to contemporary differences in intelligence.
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The literature on inequality among economies has focused mainly on analysing the dispersion of indicators such as current income per capita. In this paper we adopt a different approach from the usual one. In order to analyse inequality and convergence among Spanish regions, we propose to use a measure of permanent income that takes into account the entire life cycle dimension. On the basis of this approach, we make various simulations to determine the influence on inequality and convergence in permanent income of variables, such as survival rates and the existence or non-existence of convergence in current income. The results indicate that inequality in permanent income is clearly lower than that observed when the full life cycle of individuals is not taken into account.
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The results of the 2006 PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) study of reading comprehension, mathematical ability, and science understanding administered to 15 year olds in 56 countries [OECD (2007). PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World. Paris: OECD.] are examined to assess the predictive validity of the national IQs presented by Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger., Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Books.], and to assess the contributions of national differences in IQ and educational variables to national differences in educational attainment. It was found that national scores in reading comprehension, mathematical ability, and science understanding are correlated with Lynn & Vanhanen (L & V) national IQs at 0.84; corrected for attenuation, 0.935. This establishes the high validity of Lynn & Vanhanen national IQs. The contribution of national differences in IQ and education variables to national differences in educational attainment obtained in the 2006 PISA 56 nation study showed that the predictive validity of IQ alone was 0.84, and that national IQs together with one economic and two education variables had the validity 0.90 in predicting PISA 2006 results.
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In his article “In Italy, North–South differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy,” Richard Lynn claims to have found the reason causing the divergence between the Northern and the Southern regions of Italy. This article identifies the four main hypotheses formulated in his paper and presents significant evidence against each one of them. We claim that the evidence presented by the author is not sufficient to say that the IQ of Southern Italians is lower than the one of Northern Italians; that his analysis does not prove that there is any causal link between what he defines as IQ and any of the variables mentioned; that there is no evidence that the alleged differences in IQ are persistent in time and, therefore, attributable to genetic factors.
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This study is concerned with the degree to which youth unemployment in N. Ireland can be predicted from a number of antecedent variables. It was found that home background, IQ, personality, school type and educational attainments all had significant effects on unemployment. The magnitude of the effects and the causal mechanisms through which they operate were analysed by path analysis in terms of the Duncan-Jencks path-analysis model. The results show that the model holds well for N. Ireland; the major difference is that school type (grammar vs secondary modern) plays a greater role in N. Ireland than school differences in the U.S.A. The data are considered from the point of view of the intergenerational cycle of deprivation hypothesis. It was found that using the criteria of father-son and father-daughter correlation for unemployment, the cycle is quite weak in N. Ireland.
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The Scottish Mental Survey of 1932 (SMS1932) provides a record of intelligence test scores for almost a complete year-of-birth group of children born in 1921. By linking UK Army personnel records, the Scottish National War Memorial data, and the SMS1932 dataset it was possible to examine the effect of childhood intelligence scores on wartime military service mortality in males. There were 491 matches between World War II (WWII) Scottish Army fatalities and the SMS1932 database; 470 (96%) had an age 11 mental ability score recorded. The mean (S.D.) age 11 IQ score of those who died on active service in WWII was 100.78 (15.56), compared with 97.42 (14.87) for male Army survivors (p < 0.0001; Cohen's d = 0.22). Men who took part in the SMS1932 and who were not found in the Army database had a higher mean score (100.45, S.D. =14.97) than those men who had been in the Army, regardless of whether they died or survived (mean IQ = 97.66, S.D. = 14.94; p < 0.0001; Cohen's d = 0.19). Male soldiers with a higher childhood IQ had a slightly increased risk of dying during active service in WWII. Men who did not join the Army had a higher IQ than men who did. Further research in this area should consider naval and air force personnel records in order to examine more fully the complex relationship between IQ and survival expectancy during active service in WWII.
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There are many experimentally untested economic theories on causes of chronic or recurrent “involuntary” unemployment of the able-bodied. The Keynes-inspired theory positing completely impersonal factors such as aggregate demand and the interest rate is usually cited. No one has thus far, systematically tested individual psychological characteristics of chronically underemployed persons to assess possible causes. The WAIS and 4 other tests selected for measuring psychopathic tendencies, rather than clinical psychological illness, were given 50 able-bodied chronically underemployed men. Tests were given orally to avoid illiteracy problems. All tests, except one which was inconclusive, showed statistically significant differences between the underemployed group and a control group of 50 steadily employed men of similar age, with limited, though somewhat higher educational levels. Greater incidence of aberrant test scores among the underemployed persisted after interaction of uncontrolled variables of race and education were statistically excluded. Underemployed showed lower IQs and more socially maladaptive personality characteristics, suggesting early developing, if not lifelong psychological handicap. The findings indicate need of consideration of such factors as sources of underemployment in theoretical and practical approaches to the problem.
Article
To analyse the geographical patterns and the magnitude of the association between deprivation and mortality in Spain. To estimate the excess of mortality in more deprived areas of the country by region. Cross sectional ecological study using 1991 census variables and mortality data for 1987-1992. 2220 small areas in Spain. A geographical gradient from north east to south west was shown by both mortality and deprivation levels in Spain. Two dimensions of deprivation (that is, Index 1 and Index 2) obtained by exploratory factor analysis using four census indicators were found to predict mortality: mortality over 65 years of age was more associated with Index 1, while mortality under 65 years of age was more associated with Index 2. Excess mortality in the most deprived areas accounted for about 35,000 deaths. Two indices of deprivation strongly predict mortality in two age groups. Excess number of deaths in the most deprived geographical areas account for 10% of total number of deaths annually. In Spain there is great potential for reducing mortality if the excess risk in more deprived areas fell to the level of the most affluent areas.
Article
The analysis of the hypervariable regions I and II of mitochondrial DNA in Portugal showed that this Iberian population presents a higher level of diversity than some neighbouring populations. The classification of the different sequences into haplogroups revealed the presence of all the most important European haplogroups, including those that expanded through Europe in the Palaeolithic, and those whose expansion has occurred during the Neolithic. Additionally a rather distinct African influence was detected in this Portuguese survey, as signalled by the distributions of haplogroups U6 and L, present at higher frequencies than those usually reported in Iberian populations. The geographical distributions of both haplogroups were quite different, with U6 being restricted to North Portugal whereas L was widespread all over the country. This seems to point to different population movements as the main contributors for the two haplogroup introductions. We hypothesise that the recent Black African slave trade could have been the mediator of most of the L sequence inputs, while the population movement associated with the Muslim rule of Iberia has predominantly introduced U6 lineages.
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Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Atlantic European samples has detected significant latitudinal clines for several clusters with Paleolithic (H) and Neolithic (J, U4, U5a1, and U5a1a) coalescence ages in Europe. These gradients may be explained as the result of Neolithic influence on a rather homogeneous Paleolithic background. There is also evidence that some Neolithic clusters reached this border by a continental route (J, J1, J1a, U5a1, and U5a1a), whereas others (J2) did so through the Mediterranean coast. An important gene flow from Africa was detected in the Atlantic Iberia. Specific sub-Saharan lineages appeared mainly restricted to southern Portugal, and could be attributed to historic Black slave trade in the area and to a probable Saharan Neolithic influence. In fact, U6 haplotypes of specific North African origin have only been detected in the Iberian peninsula northwards from central Portugal. Based on this peculiar distribution and the high diversity pi value (0.014 +/- 0.001) in this area compared to North Africa (0.006 +/- 0.001), we reject the proposal that only historic events such as the Moslem occupation are the main cause of this gene flow, and instead propose a pre-Neolithic origin for it.
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The Mediterranean region has been characterised by a number of pre-historical and historical demographic events whose legacy on the current genetic landscape is still a matter of debate. In order to investigate the degree of population structure across the Mediterranean, we have investigated Y chromosome variation in a large dataset of Mediterranean populations, 11 of which are first described here. Our analyses identify four main clusters in the Mediterranean that can be labelled as North Africa, Arab, Central-East and West Mediterranean. In particular, Near Eastern samples tend to separate according to the presence of Arab Y chromosome lineages, suggesting that the Arab expansion played a major role in shaping the current genetic structuring within the Fertile Crescent.
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The Italian peninsula, given its geographical location in the middle of the Mediterranean basin, was involved in the process of the peopling of Europe since the very beginning, with first settlements dating to the Upper Paleolithic. Later on, the Neolithic revolution left clear evidence in the archeological record, with findings going back to 7000 B.C. We have investigated the demographic consequences of the agriculture revolution in this area by genotyping Y chromosome markers for almost 700 individuals from 12 different regions. Data analysis showed a non-random distribution of the observed genetic variation, with more than 70% of the Y chromosome diversity distributed along a North-South axis. While the Greek colonisation during classical time appears to have left no significant contribution, the results support a male demic diffusion model, even if population replacement was not complete and the degree of Neolithic admixture with Mesolithic inhabitants was different in different areas of Italy.